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UNIT IV
INORGANIC MATERIALS
CEMENT MANUFACTURE
MANUFACTURE
It involves the following steps
1. Mixing of raw material
2. Burning
3. Grinding
4. Storage and packaging
1. Mixing of raw material
Mixing can be done by any one of
the following two processes
(a) Dry process
(b) Wet process
a) Dry Process

Block diagram of manufacturing process

Manufacturing of Cement by Dry Process


Lime stone or chalk and clay are crushed into gyratory crusher to get 2-5 cm size pieces.
Crushed material is ground to get fine particle into ball mill or tube mill.
Each material after screening stored in a separate hopper. The powder is mixed in
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require proportions to get dry raw mix which is stored in silos (storage tank) and kept
ready to be fed into the rotary kiln. Raw materials are mixed in required proportions
so that average composition of the final product is maintained properly.
b) Wet process
Block diagram of manufacturing process
Diagram with process equipment

Raw materials are crushed, powdered and stored in silos. The clay is washed with water in
wash mills to remove adhering organic matter. The washed clay is stored separately.
Powdered lime stone and wet clay are allowed to flow in channel and transfer to grinding
mills where they are intimately mixed and paste is formed known as slurry. Grinding may be
done either in ball mill or tube mill or both. Then slurry is led to correcting basin where
chemical composition may be adjusted. The slurry contains 38-40% water stored in storage
tank and kept ready for feeding to a rotary kiln.
Comparison of dry process and wet process

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2. Burning
Burning is carried out in rotary kiln which rotating at 1-2 rpm at its longitudinal axis. Rotary
kiln is steel tubes having diameter in between 2.5-3.0meter and length varies from 90120meter. The inner side of kiln is lined with refractory bricks. The kiln is rested on roller
bearing and supported columns of masonry or concrete in slightly inclined position at
gradient of 1 in 25 to 1 in 30. The raw mix or corrected slurry is injected into the kiln from its
upper end. Burning fuel like powdered coal or oil or hot gases are forced through the lower
end of the kiln so long hot flame is produced. Due to inclined position and slow rotation of
the kiln, the material charged from upper end is moving towards lower end (hottest zone) at a
speed of 15meter/hour. As gradually descends the temperature is rises. In the upper part,
water or moisture in the material is evaporated at 4000C temperature, so it is known
as drying zone. In the central part (calcination zone), temperature is around 10000C, where
decomposition of lime stone takes place. After escapes of CO2, the remaining
material in the forms small lumps called nodules.
CaCO3 CaO + CO2
The lower part (clinkering zone) have temperature in between 1500-17000C
where lime and clay are reacts to yielding calcium aluminates and calcium silicates.
This aluminates and silicates of calcium fuse to gather to form small and hard stones
are known as clinkers. The size of the clinker is varies from 5-10mm.
2CaO + SiO2 Ca2SiO4 (dicalcium silicate (C2S))
3CaO + SiO2 Ca3SiO5 (tricalcium silicate (C3S))
3CaO + Al2O3 Ca3Al2O6 (dicalcium aluminate (C2A))
4CaO + Al2O3 + Fe2O3 Ca4Al2Fe2O10 (tetracalcium aluminoferrite(C4AF))
As clinkers are coming from burning zone, they are very hot. The clinkers are cooled down
by air admitting counter current direction at the base of rotary kiln. Resulting hot air is used
for burning powdered coal or oil and cooled clinkers are collected in small trolleys or in small
rotary kiln.
3. Grinding
Cooled clinkers are ground to fine powder in ball mill or tube mill. 2-3% powdered gypsum
is added as retarding agent during final grinding. So that, resulting cement does not settle
quickly, when comes in contact with water. After initial set, cement - water paste becomes
stiff, but gypsum retards the dissolution of tri-calcium aluminates by forming tricalcium
sulfoaluminate which is insoluble and prevents too early further reactions of setting and
hardening.
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3CaO.Al2O3 + xCaSO4.7H2O 3CaO.Al2O3.xCaSO4.7H2O


4. Storage and packaging
The ground cement is stored in silos, from which it is marketed either in
container load or 50kg bags.
Pretreatments to raw material
Wet process
Cement manufacture by wet process used either chalk or lime stone as one of the raw
material. Following treatment should be given to them before its use. The remaining
procedure after the treatment is same for both.
Chock should be finely broken up and dispersed in water in a wash mill. The clay is also
broken up and mixed with water in wash mill. The two mixtures are now pumped so as to
mix in predetermined proportions and pass through a series of screens. The resulting cement
slurry flows into storage tanks.
Limestone should be blasted, then crushed, usually in two progressively smaller crushers
(initial and secondary crushers), and then fed into a ball mill with the clay dispersed in water.
The resultant slurry is pumped into storage tanks.
Impurity profile of raw materials
The amount of different components in Portland cement as oxides is tabulated in table:
1which shows that CaO and SiO2 by far constitute the major part of the final product.
About one-third of the raw meal mass can be attributed to Loss on Ignition (LOI), which is
almost exclusively due to the calcination of the CaCO3 used as a precursor for forming CaO.
This corresponds to the fact that the raw meal contains about 75 wt% of CaCO3.
The mass loss in the calcination process corresponds to a raw meal to cement clinker ratio of
about 1.5, if the raw meal is dry when fed into the kiln system. The raw meal composition
stated in table: 1 is usually obtained by blending limestone and clay (clay being rich in Si, Fe
and Al oxides). If needed, correctives like sand and iron ore can be added to the raw meal in
order to achieve the correct composition.
In order to ensure the proper quality of the final product, the amount of certain minor
components is limited. Column 4 in table: 1 shows some general upper limits for certain
elements, but the exact amount that can be allowed depends on a wide range of factors such
as what the cement will be used for, the amount of other impurities, production facilities and
so on, which is why the acceptable amount must be determined from case to case. The limits
stated in table: 1 cannot be exceeded significantly, and in many cases it is actually desirable
to be well below these limits.
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If the raw materials used in this process contain sulfide, can lead to emissions of SO2 from
the preheater tower. SO2 emissions are most often caused by the oxidation of pyritic sulfide,
which occurs between 300 and 6000C. Of the formed SO2, around 50% is often said to be
emitted from the preheater. However, large variations in this number have been observed,
with the circulation of CaO from the calciner given as the main reason for this phenomenon.
Also, the chlorine level in raw material should be below 0.1% , if it will exceed then free
chlorine will accumulate in rotary kiln.
K2O and Na2O, known as the alkalis have been found to react with the reactive silica found
in some aggregates, the products of the reaction causing increase in volume leading to
disintegration of the concrete. The increase in the alkalis percentage has been observed to
affect the setting time and the rate of the gain of strength of cement.
SO3 form low percentage of cement weight. SO3 comes from the gypsum added (2-6% by
weight) during grinding of the clinker, and from the impurities in the raw materials, also from
the fuel used through firing process.
MgO, present in the cement by 1-4%, which comes from the magnesia compounds present in
the raw materials. MgO by 5%, to control the expansion resulted from the hydration of this
compound in the hardened concrete. When the magnesia is in amorphous form, it has no
harmful effect on the concrete. Other minor compounds such as TiO2, Mn2O3, P2O5
represent < 1%, and they have little importance.
Engineering aspects
Cyclone preheater
The raw materials are preheated or calcined in preheater or series of cyclones before entering
to the rotary kiln. A preheater, also called as suspension preheater is a heat exchanger in
which the moving crushed powder is dispersed in a stream of hot gas coming from the rotary
kiln. Common arrangement of series of cyclones is shown in figure.
The heat transfer of hot kiln gases to raw meal is takes place in co-current. The raw materials
are heated upto 8000C within a less than a minutes. About 40% of the calcite is decarbonated
during the heat transfer.
The quality and quantity of fuel used in the kiln can be reduced by introducing a proportion
of the fuel into preheater. 50 65 % of the total amount of fuel is introduced into preheater or
precalciner which is often carried out by hot air ducted from cooler.
The fuel in the precalciner is burnt at relatively low temperature, there so heat transfer to the
raw meal is very efficient. The material has residence time in the hottest zone of a few

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seconds and its exit temperature is about 9000C, 90 95% of calcite is decomposed. Ash
from the fuel burn in the precalciner is effectively incorporated into mix.
Advantages of precalination

f material passes to the kiln.

refractory lining
with some
designs NOx formed in the kiln may be reduced to nitrogen.
Rotary Kiln
Rotary kiln is a tube, sloping at 3 4 % from the horizontal and rotating at 1 4
revolution/minute into which material enters at the upper end and then slides, rolls and flows
counter to the hot gas produced by a flame at the lower or front end.
The kiln is lined with refractory bricks. The type and size of the bricks may vary depending
up on the length of rotary kiln and the maximum temperature employed. Further, arranging
the bricks in a ring requires perfect closing of the ring which is difficult, time consuming and
expensive. Two types of the joints, the radial and axial joints are used for bricks. The redial
joints are between the brick in each ring and axial joints are between the successive rings.
The bricks are coated with thin layer of clinker for extending the life as well as insulation.
The rotary kiln used which precalciner is 50 100 meter long having length to diameter
(L/D) ratio between 10 to 15. The kiln having very small L/D ratio ensures rapid clinker
formation and quick reaction run without recrystallization phenomena.
Due to this higher hydraulic activity of cement is achieved
Conveyors
The following types of conveyors are used during the cement manufacturing
process.

ew conveyor

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Belt conveyor
Belt conveyor is used for transportation of raw material form storage to the initial crushing
devises mostly jaw crusher. Belt conveyor consists of two or more pulleys, with a continuous
loop of material or the conveyor belt which rotates about them. Either one or both of the
pulleys are powered, moving the belt and the material on the belt forward. The powered
pulley is called the drive pulley while the unpowered pulley is called the idler.
Bucket conveyor
Bucket conveyor are used for transportation of crushed material and clay to mixing zone in
cement industries. A bucket conveyor, also called a grain leg, is a mechanism for carrying the
bulk materials vertically. It consists of buckets to contain the material, a belt to carry the
buckets and transmit the pull, means to drive the belt and accessories for loading the buckets
or picking up the material, for receiving the discharged material, for maintaining the belt
tension and for enclosing and protecting the elevator.
Screw conveyor
A screw conveyor or auger conveyor is a mechanism that uses a rotating helical screw blade,
called a "flighting", usually within a tube, to move liquid or granular materials. Screw
conveyors are often used horizontally or at a slight incline as an efficient way to move semisolid materials. Screw conveyor are used for transportation of material for storage to
homogeneous siloes.
Roller conveyor
Roller conveyors are line restricted device and consist of rollers mounted between two side
members. Bearings are usually incorporated in the idlers to cut down the mechanical losses.
An unpowered gravity roller conveyor is set at an appropriate incline and goods move down
it by gravity. In power unit normally an electric motor drive the rollers via chains or belt,
providing controlled movement of goods. They are generally used for transportation of
packed material.
PROPERTIES
-modification improves the properties of certain silt clay soils that are unsuitable
for use in subgrade construction. The objectives may be to decrease the soils cohesiveness
(plasticity), to decrease the volume change characteristics of expansive clay, to increase the
bearing strength of a weak soil, or to transform a wet, soft subgrade into a surface that will
support construction equipment.

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Tricalcium Silicate (C3S): Hardens rapidly and is largely responsible for initial set and
early strength. In general, the early strength of Portland cement concrete is higher with
increased percentages of C3S.
Dicalcium Silicate (C2S): Hardens slowly and contributes largely to strength increases at
ages beyond 7 days.
Tricalcium Aluminate (C3A): Liberates a large amount of heat during the first few days
of hardening and together with C3S and C2S may somewhat increase the early strength of the
hardening cement. It affects setting time.
Tetracalcium Aluminoferrite (C4AF): Contributes very slightly to strength gain.
However, acts as a flux during manufacturing. Contributes to the colour effects that makes
cement gray.
CLASSIFICATION
Based on source of cement
1. Natural cement
2. Artificial cement
1. Natural cement
Natural cement is obtained by burning and crushing of 20-40% clay, carbonate of lime and
small amount of magnesium carbonate. It is brown in colour and best variety known as
Roman cement. The natural cement resembles very costly element hydraulic lime and sets
very quickly and strongly as compare to artificial cement. It finds very limited application.
It is prepared from naturally occurring lime stone by heating it to a high temperature and
subsequently pulverizing it. During heating both siliceous and calcareous material are
oxidized and combined to give calcium silicates and calcium aluminates.

2. Artificial cement
Artificial cement is obtained by burning of calcareous mixture at very high temperature.
Mixture of ingredients should be intimate and they should be in correct proportion. Calcined
product is known as Clinker. A small quantity of gypsum added to clinker and pulverized to
fine powder is known as cement or ordinary cement or normal setting cement. After setting,
this cement closely a variety of sandstone which is found in abundance in Portland in UK.
Therefore, it is also known as Portland cement.

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Portland cement
It is refine powder of calcined product of clay and lime stone. It has controlled composition
and therefore setting property. It is named after the paste of cement with water which
resembled in colour and hardness to the Portland stone.
Coloured cement
It can be obtained by intimately mixing mineral pigments of desired colour with ordinary
cement. The amount of colouring material may vary from 5 to 10 %. If it exceeds 10 %, the
strength of cement is affected. Chromium oxide gives green colour, while cobalt imparts blue
colour. Iron oxide in different proportions gives brown, red or yellow colour. Manganese
dioxide is used to produce black or brown coloured cement.
Coloured cements are widely used for finishing of floors external surfaces, artificial marble,
window sill slabs, textured panel faces, stair treads etc.
White cement
It is a variety of ordinary cement having white colour. It is prepared from colourless oxides of
iron, manganese or chromium. For burning of this cement, oil fuel is used instead of coal. It
should not set earlier than 30 minutes. It should be carefully transported and stored in closed
containers only. It is more costly than ordinary cement because of specific requirements
imposed upon the raw materials and the manufacturing process.
It is used for floor finish, plaster work ornamental work etc.
Rapid hardening cement
The cement is slightly costly than ordinary cement. Initial and final setting times of it are the
same as those of ordinary cement. But it attains high strength in early days due to following
facts

Advantage

the frequency of use of formwork of concrete, due to possible earlier removal

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he end of one day is about


115 kg/cm2 and after 3 days is about 210 kg/cm2. Similarly tensile strength at the end of one
day is about 20 kg/cm2 and that after 3 days is about 30 kg/cm2

esign. It therefore results in economic design.


High alumina cement
It is produced by grinding clinkers formed by calcining bauxite (ore of Aluminium) and lime.
It is specified that total alumina content should not less than 32% and the ratio by weight of
alumina to lime should be between 0.85 and 1.30.
Advantage
ithstand high temperatures

allows more time for mixing and placing operations

action of acids in a better way

after 3 days is about 500 kg/cm2

grind it to fine powder


Disadvantage

or ordinary cement.

Puzzolana cement
Puzzolana is a volcanic powder. It is found in Italy near Vesuvius. It resembles surkhi which
is prepared by burning bricks made from ordinary soils. It can also be processed from shales
and certain types of clays. Puzzolana material should be used in between10 to 30%.
Advantage

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Disadvantages

n
This cement is used to prepare mass concrete of lean mix and for marine structures. It is also
used in sewage works and for laying concrete under water.
Expanding cement
It is produced by adding an expanding medium like sulfoaluminate and establishing agent to
ordinary cement. Hence this cement expands whereas other cements shrink.
It is used for the construction of water retaining structures and for repairing the damaged
concrete surfaces.
Low heat cement
Considerable heat is produced during the setting action of cement. It contains lower
percentage of tricalcium aluminate (C3A) and higher percentage of dicalcium silicate (C2S)
which reduce the amount of heat produced.
This type of cement possesses less compressive strength. Initial setting time is about one hour
and usual setting time is about 10 hours. It is mainly used for mass concrete work.
Quick setting cement
It is produced by adding a small percentage of aluminium sulfates and by finely grinding the
cement. Percentage of gypsum or retarder for setting action is also greatly reduced. Addition
of aluminium sulfate and fineness of grinding accelerate the setting of cement. The setting
action of cement starts within five minutes addition of water and it becomes hard like stone in
less than 30 minutes. Mixing and placing of concrete should be completed within very short
period. This cement is used lay concrete under static water or running water.

Sulfate resisting cement


In this cement percentage of tricalcium aluminate is kept below 5 to 6% which increase in
resisting power against sulphates.
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This cement is used for structures which are likely to be damaged by severe alkaline
conditions such as canal linings, culverts, syphons etc.
The prestress in a structure is influenced by either of the two processes:
Pre-tensioning, and
Post-tensioning
Pre-tensioning can be further classified into two categories:
Linear pre-tensioning
Circular pre-tensioning
PRE-TENSIONING
Pre-tensioning is accomplished by stressing wires or strands, called tendons, to
predetermined amount by stretching them between two anchorages prior to placing concrete
as shown in fig.1. the concrete is then placed and tendons become bounded to concrete
throughout their length. After concrete has hardened, the tendons are released by cutting them
at the anchorages. The tendons tend to regain their original length by shortening and in this
process transfer through bond a compressive stress to the concrete. The tendons are usually
stressed by the use of hydraulic jacks. The stress in tendons is maintained during the placing
and curing of concrete by anchoring the ends of the tendons to abutments that may be as
much as 200m apart. The abutments and other formwork used in this procedure are called
prestressing bench or bed.
Most of the pre-tensioning construction techniques are patented although the basic principle
used in all of them is common and is well known.
POST-TENSIONING
The alternative to pre-tensioning is post-tensioning. In a post-tensioned beam, the tendons are
stressed and each end is anchored to the concrete section after the concrete has been cast and
has attained sufficient strength to safely withstand the prestressing force as shown in fig.2. in
post-tensioning method, tendons are coated with grease or a bituminous material to prevent
them from becoming bonded to concrete. Another method used in preventing the tendons
from bonding to the concrete during placing and curing of concrete is to encase the tendon in
a flexible metal hose before placing it in the forms. The metal hose is referred to as sheath or
duct and remains in the structure.

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Prestressed concrete has the following merits:


Since the technique of prestressing eliminates cracking of concrete under all stage of loading,
the entire section of the structures takes part in resisting the external load. In contrast to this,
in the reinforced concrete, only portion of the concrete above neutral axis is effective.
Since concrete does not crack, the possibility of steel to rust and concrete to deteriorate is
minimized.
Absence of cracks results in higher capacity of the structure to bear reversal of stresses,
impact, vibration and shock.
In prestressed concrete beams, dead loads are practically neutralized. The reactions required
are therefore much smaller than required in reinforced concrete. The reduced dead load
weight of the structure results in saving in the cost of foundations. The neutralization of dead
load is of importance in large bridges.
The use of curved tendons and the pre-compression of concrete helps to resist shear.
The quantity of steel required for prestressing about 1/3 of that required for reinforced
concrete, though the steel for the former should have high tensile strength.
In prestressed concrete, precast blocks and elements can be assumed and used as one unit.
This saves in the cost of shuttering and centering for large structures.
With the advent of prestressed concrete, it has been possible now to construct large size
liquid retaining structures not economical to build otherwise. Such structures have low cost
and are preferably safe against cracking and consequent leakage.
Prestressed concrete can be used with advantage in all those structures where tension
develops, such as tie and suspender of a bow string girder, railway sleepers, electric poles,
upstream face of gravity dam etc.
Prestressed concrete beams have usually low deflection.
Prestressed concrete construction has following demerits:
It requires high quality dense concrete of high strength. Perfect quality concrete in
production, placement and compaction is required.
It requires high tensile steel, which is 2.5 to 3.5 times costlier than mild steel.
It requires complicated tensioning equipment and anchoring devices, which are usually
covered under patented rights.
Construction requires perfect supervision at all stages of construction.

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Concrete:
Concrete is a stone like substance obtained by permitting a carefully proportioned mixture of
cement, sand and gravel or other aggregate and water to harden in forms of the shape and of
dimensions of the desired structure.
Reinforced cement concrete:
Since concrete is a brittle material and is strong in compression. It is weak in tension, so steel
is used inside concrete for strengthening and reinforcing the tensile strength of concrete. The
steel must have appropriate deformations to provide strong bonds and interlocking of both
materials. When completely surrounded by the hardened concrete mass it forms an integral
part of the two materials, known as "Reinforced Concrete".
Reinforced concrete is a combination of traditional cement concrete with reinforcements
(steel bar). This combination is made to utilize the compressive strength of concrete and
tensile strength of steel simultaneously.
In reinforced concrete, the components works together to resist many types of loading.
Concrete resists compression and steel reinforcement resists tension forces.
Reinforced concrete, as a economic building material, is very popular now-a-days. It is
widely used in many types building around the world. Along with many advantages
reinforced concrete also poses some disadvantages also.
Advantages of Reinforced Concrete
1. Reinforced concrete has a high compressive strength compared to other building
materials.
2. Due to the provided reinforcement, reinforced concrete can also withstand a good
amount tensile stress.
3. Fire and weather resistance of reinforced concrete is fair.
4. The reinforced concrete building system is more durable than any other building
system.
5. Reinforced concrete, as a fluid material in the beginning, can be economically molded
into a nearly limitless range of shapes.
6. The maintenance cost of reinforced concrete is very low.
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7. In structure like footings, dams, piers etc. reinforced concrete is the most economical
construction material.
8. It acts like a rigid member with minimum deflection.
9. As reinforced concrete can be molded to any shape required, it is widely used in
precast structural components. It yields rigid members with minimum apparent
deflection.
10. Compared to the use of steel in structure, reinforced concrete requires less skilled
labor for the erection of structure.
Disadvantages of Reinforced Concrete
1. The tensile strength of reinforced concrete is about one-tenth of its compressive
strength.
2. The main steps of using reinforced concrete are mixing, casting, and curing. All of
this affect the final strength.
3. The cost of the forms used for casting RC is relatively higher.
4. For multi-storied building the RCC column section for is larger than steel section as
the compressive strength is lower in the case of RCC.
5. Shrinkage causes crack development and strength loss.
TYPES OF CONCRETE
The most common types of concrete are:

High Strength Concrete: the most basic and important property of concrete is its
compressive strength. Concrete with a compressive strength of 40Mpa (5,800 psi) is called
high strength concrete.

High Performance Concrete: is a new term for some concretes being developed today. It is
a fairly broad term that describes concretes that outperform "normal", everyday concrete in
one or more characteristics such as lifespan, lifespan in corrosive environments, permeability,
density, ease of placement, or many other parameters.

Lightweight Concrete: is made by using small, lightweight aggregates, such as small balls
of styrofoam (thermocole) or by adding foaming agents to the mix of concrete. Lightweight
concretes have low structural strength, and are used mostly in non-structural elements. The
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best is example is aerated autoclaved concrete (AAC) blocks used for making walls. Also
called cellular concrete or aerated concrete.

Self Consolidating Concrete, also called Self Compacting Concrete:

Sprayed Concrete or Shotcrete: you can actually spray concrete onto a surface to form a
thick, uneven coating. This process is different from other concreting methods in that the
concrete is not poured into a form or mould. It is sprayed directly onto a surface, and is used
in infrastructure projects and to repair old, cracked concrete surfaces. Shotcreting is also
called guniting.

Water-resistant Concrete: normal concretes are permeable to water; that is, they allow
water to pass through. Water resistant concretes are engineered to have fine particle cement
replacements that do not allow water to pass through. These are very useful for construction
below ground, like basements, as well as water retaining structures like water tanks and
dams, and of course marine structures like jetties and bridges.

Micro reinforced concretes: are a new generation of high-tech concretes. They contain
small steel, fibreglass or plastic fibres that dramatically alter the properties of concrete.

Curing of concrete is done to maintain the Optimum moisture content (OMC) i.e. to prevent
the loss of water which is required for the hydration of cement, to avoid shrinkage cracks
and premature stressing or disturbance in concrete.
Concrete that has been specified, batched, mixed, placed, and finished letter-perfect can
still be a failure if improperly or inadequately cured. Curing is usually the last step in a
concrete project and, unfortunately, is often neglected even by professionals. Curing has a
major influence on the properties of hardened concrete such as durability, strength, watertightness, wear resistance, volume stability, and resistance to freezing and thawing. Proper
concrete curing for agricultural and residential applications involves keeping newly placed
concrete moist and avoiding temperature extremes (above 90F or below 50F) for at least
three days.
Two general methods of curing can be used:
Keep water on the concrete during the curing period.
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These include
ponding or immersion,
spraying or fogging, and
saturated wet coverings.
Such methods provide some cooling through evaporation, which is beneficial in hot weather.
Prevent the loss of the mixing water from concrete by sealing the surface.
Can be done by:
covering the concrete with impervious paper or plastic sheets, applying membrane-forming
curing compounds.
The best curing method depends on:
cost,
application equipment required,
materials available,
Size and shape of the concrete surface.
Begin the curing as soon as the concrete has hardened sufficiently to avoid erosion or other
damage to the freshly finished surface.
This is usually within one to two hours after placement and finishing.
Another "old rule of thumb" for mixing concrete is 1 cement : 2 sand : 3 gravel by
volume. Mix the dry ingredients and slowly add water until the concrete is workable.
This mixture may need to be modified depending on the aggregate used to provide
a concrete of the right workability.
Gypsum concrete is a building material used as a floor underlayment used in wood-frame
and concrete construction for fire ratings, sound reduction, radiant heating, and floor
leveling. It is a mixture of gypsum plaster, Portland cement, and sand.
Gypsum plays a very important role in controlling the rate of hardening of thecement.
During the cement manufacturing process, upon the cooling of clinker, a small amount
of gypsum is introduced during the final grinding process.Gypsum is added to control the
setting of cement
Gypsum is a rock like mineral commonly found in the earths crust, extracted, processed and
used by Man in construction or decoration in the form of plaster and alabaster since 9000
B.C.. Plaster was discovered in Catal-Huyuk in Asia in an underground fresco, and in Israel
Gypsum floor screeds were found from 7000 B.C. During the time of the Pharaohs, Gypsum
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was used as mortar in the construction of the Cheops Pyramid (3000 B.C.). In the Middle
Ages and the Renaissance, decorations and artistic creations were made of plaster. Since then,
the range of construction-related uses have continued to multiply.
Gypsum can also:

Be added to some bread and dough mixes as a Calcium source and baking aid.

Be used as a filler and fire retardant in plastic products.

Be used in Portland cement and special cement products for set and expansion
control.

Be a source of Calcium and Sulphate Sulphur for plant growth.

Be used as a modelling material for tooth restorations.

Be an ingredient in many patching compounds.

Be used with glass to fabricate large, lightweight architectural decorations.

Be used as a mould material to fabricate custom body parts for trucks and
automobiles.

Be an aid in juice extraction of some fruits and vegetables

Gypsum is a sedimentary mineral. It is found in layers that were formed under salt water
millions of years ago. The water evaporated and left the mineral. Gypsum is composed of
calcium sulfate (CaSO4) and water (H2O), i.e. Calcium Sulphate Dihydrate (CaSO4.2H2O).
In Europe, the principal Gypsum quarries are located in Germany, UK, France, Spain, Italy,
Poland, Russia and the Ukraine.
The main chemical substitute to natural Gypsum is FGD Gypsum(Flue Gas Desulphurisation
Gypsum). It is generated by coal-fired power plants. FGD Gypsum is the end product of a
wet purification procedure with natural lime that is generated according to the same laws as
natural Gypsum but in a speeded-up process taking only a few hours.
Gypsum is also an indefinitely recyclable raw material. You can always reuse Gypsum
because the chemical composition of the raw material in the products remains unchanged.
Gypsum products can furthermore be counted amongst the very few construction materials
where closed-loop recycling is possible, i.e. where the waste is used to make the same
product again
Department of Chemical Engineering

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PAAVAI ENGINEERING COLLEGE


(Autonomous)

Gypsum is a mineral and is hydrated calcium sulfate in chemical form. Gypsum plays a very
important role in controlling the rate of hardening of the cement. During the cement
manufacturing process, upon the cooling of clinker, a small amount of gypsum is introduced
during the final grinding process.
Gypsum is added to control the setting of cement. If not added, the cement will set
immediately after mixing of water leaving no time for concrete placing.

Department of Chemical Engineering

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