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Spring constant is the proportionality of a

particular spring.
Proportionality limit is an extent upto which
extension is proportional to force applied. Beyond
this point Hookes law is no longer obeyed as
materials are elasticaly deformed.
(Note: they still dont show any plastic
deformation beyond proportionality limit).
Elastic limit is the limit beyond which materials
start to show plastic deformation and may be
permanently deformed if stretched any further. Up to
this limit, materials can regain their original shape
when the load is removed. Brittle materials tend to
break shortly past their elastic limit, while ductile and
malleable materials plastically deform beyond their
elastic limit.
Yield point is the point where materials show a
large increase in strain for a small increase in stress
and start to show permanent deformation.
Necking is when a material under stress begins to
narrow at one point.
Stiffness is the ability of a material to resist tensile
force. The stiffer a material, the greater its young
Strength or breaking stress of a material is the
ability to withstand stress, whether it is tensile,
compressive or shear strength.
Brittle and tough materials:
Brittle materials are those which break or crack with
little or no deformation.
Some examples of brittle materials are Glass and
(note: brittle materials doesnt mean they are
weak as ceramics are brittle but they have a
greater tensile strength than most metals).
Tough materials are those which can overcome large
impact forces without breaking and shows a small
plastic deformation. Some examples of tough
materials are living wood like bamboo tree and

Ductile materials are those which show plastic
deformation and can be drawn into wires. Metals
usually behave in this way e.g. copper.
Malleable materials are those which shows large
plastic deformation before cracking or breaking and
can be hammered into shapes. E.g. Gold.
Hard materials are those which resist plastic
deformation by denting or scratching. E.g. Diamond.
(doesnt get a dent or a scratch).

Note: tensile strength is also called breaking stress.

Tensile stress: to measure tensile stress we might

consider tensile force per unit area and extension
per unit length. SI unit of tensile stress is N/m^2 or
pascal Pa.
Tensile stress () = tenslie force/ area of crosssection.
Tensile stain: to measure tensile strain extension
per unit length of a string and the original length of a
string should be taken into account.
Tensile strain () = extention/original length
Youngs modulus (E) = stress / strain
SI unit for youngs modulus (E) is N/m^2 or pascal