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EE 360

Electric Energy Engineering


Synchronous Machines

Dr. Mohammad Al-Muhaini

Where these course notes come from


On-Line EE360 Notes
Electrical Machinery Fundamentals,
Stephen J. Chapman, 2012, 5th edition
Electromechanical Energy Devices and
Power Systems, by Zia A. Yamayee, Juan L.
Bala. Jr., 1994.
Prof. M. A. El-Sharkawis notes, university of
Washington,USA.

Synchronous Machines
A synchronous machines is an ac machine in which
Alternating current flows in the armature windings
DC excitation is supplied to the field winding

The armature winding at the stator is designed to carry large


currents at large voltages.
The field winding at the rotor is excited by smaller current at a
lower voltage.

Synchronous Machines

Synchronous Generator

Synchronous Machines
99+ % of all power are generated by the synchronous generators
Synchronous machines can operate as generators or motors

Types and Construction

Round, or Cylindrical Rotors: high speed synchronous machines


1800 or 3600 rpm (2-4 poles).
Salient Rotors: low speed synchronous machines like those in
hydro electric power plants have several pairs of poles

Synchronous Machines

Round-Rotor Generator

Synchronous Machines
Stator with
laminated iron core

Slots with
phase
winding

CA+

B-

B+

N
-

Rotor with
dc winding

A-

C+
C

Major components of a round rotor two-pole generator

The main features of a Round Rotor Machine are:

The stator is a ring shaped laminated iron-core with slots


Three phase windings are placed in the slots
There is a round solid iron rotor with slots
A single winding is placed in the slots. DC current is supplied through slip rings

Synchronous Machines

Generator

Exciter
View of a two-pole round rotor generator and exciter.

Synchronous Machines

Cross-section of a large turbo generator. (Courtesy Westinghouse)

Synchronous Machines

Salient Pole Generator

Synchronous Machines

Stator with
laminated iron core

B+

CN
-

A+
Rotor with
dc winding

+
+
+
+
+

A-

S
B-

C+

Two-pole salient pole generator concept.

Slots with
phase
winding

Synchronous Machines
A-

B+

C+
C-

N
-

+
+
+
+

A+

B-

S
S
-

+
+

B-

A+

+
+

C-

N
C+
A-

B+

Four-pole salient pole generator concept.


The main features of a Salient Rotor Machine are:
The stator has a laminated iron-core with slots and three phase windings placed in
the slots
The rotor has salient poles excited by dc current
DC current is supplied to the rotor through slip-rings and brushes
The number of poles varies between 2 - 128

Synchronous Machines

Stator of a large salient pole hydro generator; inset shows the


insulated conductors and spacers.

Synchronous Machines

Large hydro generator rotor with view of the vertical poles.

Synchronous Machines
Slip
rings

Pole

Fan

DC excitation
winding

Rotor of a four-pole salient pole generator.

Synchronous Machines

a
b

Rotor

Stator
El-Sharkawi@University of
Washington

Synchronous Machines

a
b

f
X

Vaa Vbb Vcc


Time

El-Sharkawi@University of
Washington

Synchronous Machines
The synchronous speed is related to:
1- The frequency of the stator currents.
2- The number of poles of the rotor. The relationship expressed
as:

Where :

Ns = synchronous speed
P = number of poles.
f= frequency, f = 60 Hz or 50 Hz;

For 60-Hz systems, typical rotor speeds are 3600 rpm for 2poles, 1800 rpm for 4 poles and 450 rpm for 16 poles.

Synchronous Machines
The Internal Generated Voltage of a Synchronous Generator
The induced voltage is proportional to the rotor flux for a given rotor
angular frequency in electrical Radians per second.
Since the rotor flux depends on the field current IF, the induced voltage EA
is related to the field current as shown below. This is generator
magnetization curve or the open-circuit characteristics of the machine.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Synchronous Machines
Equivalent Circuit of a Round-Rotor Machine.
In general, at No-load , Ia = 0 Et = Ea
The rotor magnetic field BR induces the internal voltage Ea

consider lagging power factor load connected to the generator


terminals. Ia will flow thought the stator. This current produces a
synchronously rotating field at the same angular speed as the rotor
magnetic field

Synchronous Machines
The armature reaction voltage is directly proportional to the amount of the
stator current flowing. Its 90 behind the stator current Ia.

E ar jX

ar

Ia

Where Xar is a proportionality constant ( armature reaction reactance ).

E t E a jX ar I a

Synchronous Machines
In an actual physical synchronous generator, the net magnetic field
present in the air gap is realistically not linked completely by the stator
windings. The portion of the magnetic flux that does not link the winding
is referred to as the leakage flux l. This leakage flux leads to a voltage
drop across what is called leakage reactance Xal. The stator windings are
inherently contain resistance. Thus, the overall equivalent circuit of the
synchronous generator is:

This equivalent circuit is on a per-phase basis.


X s X ar X al synchronous reactance

Synchronous Machines
Equivalent Circuit

V t E a (Ra jX s )I a
In the circuit,
Ra = Armature Resistance
Xs = Synchronous Reactance
Ia = Armature Current
Vt = Terminal Voltage
Ea = Armature induced EMF given in equation

Synchronous Machines
The phasor diagram with lagging power factor illustrating the relationships
among the different phasors is shown as:

E A V I A (RA + jX S )

Phasor diagram for a round-rotor synchronous


generator with lagging power factor

Synchronous Machines
Example

Synchronous Machines

Synchronous Machines
Example

Synchronous Machines

Synchronous Machines
Power and Torque in Synchronous Generators

Figure 4-15
The power-flow diagram of a synchronous generator

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Synchronous Machines
Power-angle Characteristics
The generator armature current can be calculated as:

S = complex power delivered by the synchronous generator to the external system is:

Synchronous Machines

Power Characteristics of Generator


P

Pmax

3 | V || E A |

Pmax
l

90o

El-Sharkawi@University of Washington

Xs

sin

3 | V || E A |
Xs

Synchronous Machines
POUT 3V I ACos( )
QOUT 3V I ASin( )

Qt 3 V I A sin
If EA cos > V ;

3 V
Xs

cos V

Qt is positive (produced by generator) ,


Current is lagging

If EA cos < V ; Qt is negative (consumed by generator) ,


Current is leading

If EA cos = V ;

Qt is zero, Current is in phase

Remember: EA can always be controlled by adjusting IF


El-Sharkawi@University of Washington

Synchronous Machines
Shown here is the power-angle characteristics of a synchronous generator.
The maximum Torque that can be
applied to the shaft without stepping
out of synchronism ( Pull-out torque) is
related to the maximum power by

Also Pmax is determined from the MVA


rating, which specifies the maximum
power that the generator can deliver
to electrical load at certain p.f.
Power-angle characteristics of synchronous
generator

Synchronous Machines

Effect of Excitation
P

Ef2
Ef1

Pm
Ef2 > Ef1

1
El-Sharkawi@University of Washington

Synchronous Machines
Modes of Operation
There are three modes of operation of synchronous generator.

Synchronous Machines

Synchronous Machines

Synchronous Machines

Increase transmission
Capacity

Pm

Xs

Vt

Xl

Vo

G
Terminal bus

El-Sharkawi@University of
Washington

Infinite bus

Synchronous Machines

Xs

Pm

Vt

Vo

Xl

G
Xl1
Xs

Xl2

Ia

Ef

Vt

El-Sharkawi@University of
Washington

Vo

39

Synchronous Machines

Power equation
P

3 Vo E f
X

Ef

sin

Ia

X X s 0.5 X l
El-Sharkawi@University of
Washington

Vo

Ia X

Synchronous Machines

Synchronous Machines

Example
A 120-MW synchronous generator is
connected to an infinite bus through two
parallel 3 - transmission lines each having a
reactance of 6 W including transformers. The
synchronous reactance of the generator is 9
W. The infinite-bus voltage is 110 kV. Assume
that the power factor at the infinite bus is unity
Determine the equivalent excitation voltage to
deliver 120 MW to the infinite bus.

El-Sharkawi@University of
Washington

Synchronous Machines

Solution
P 3 Vo I a cos
120 3 110 I a
I a 630 A
E f Vo2 I a ( X s 0.5 X l

110
2

( 0.63 * 12 ) 64 kV
3
El-Sharkawi@University of
Washington

per phase

Synchronous Machines
Measuring Synchronous Generator Parameters
Open-circuit and short-circuit tests to obtain magnetization characteristics
and synchronous reactance of the generator.
o Open-circuit test: With loads disconnected, generator is driven at
rated speed. The terminal voltage is measured as field current varied.
o Short-circuit test: Armature terminals shorted, generator is driven at
rated speed and the armature current is measured as field current
varied.

DC voltage test to obtain the armature resistance.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Synchronous Machines
Resistance Test
This test is conducted to measure the armature-winding resistance of a
synchronous generator when it is at rest and the field winding is open. The
resistance is measured between two lines at a time and the average of the three
resistance readings is taken to be the measured value of the resistance, RL, from
line to line. The resistance is calculated according to the connection type:

If the generator is Y-connected, the per-phase resistance is

However, for a -connected generator, the per-phase resistance is

Synchronous Machines
Open-Circuit Test
The open circuit (no-load) test is applied to get the relation between the field current
(If) and the generated EMF at no-load (Ea).

The steps to perform open circuit test are:


1. The generator is driven at its rated speed while the armature winding is left open
2. The field current is varied in suitable steps
3. The corresponding values of the open-circuit voltage between any two pairs of
terminals of the armature windings are recorded as depicted in the figure

Synchronous Machines
Short-Circuit Test
The short-circuit test provides information about the current capabilities of
synchronous generator.

The steps to perform the short-circuit test are:


1. The generator is driven at its rated speed while the terminals of the armature winding are
shorted as shown in the figure for Y-connected generator.
2. An ammeter is placed in series with one of the three shorted lines to measure the armature
current per phase (Ia)
3. The field current (If) is gradually increased and the corresponding value of Ia is recorded
4. The maximum armature current under short circuit shouldn't exceed twice the rated current
of the generator
5. The per-phase shortcircuit current (Ia) is plotted against the field current (If). The graph is
called short-circuit characteristic (SCC) of a generator

Synchronous Machines
Synchronous Reactance

The open circuit characteristics (OCC)


represents the relationship between Ea
versus If.
The tangent of OCC represents the airgap line where the saturation in
magnetic circuit is neglected.

The short circuit characteristics (SCC)


represents the relationship between Ia
versus If which is approximately a
straight line.
Open-circuit and Short-circuit characteristics of
a synchronous generator

Synchronous Machines
The OCC and SCC shown in the figure are used to determine the synchronous
impedance in this way:
Find the resistance from the resistance test as in equations (1) and (2) shown
previously under Resistance Test
Find the value of the field current (If) that gives the rated per-phase voltage from
the OCC
Find the value of the short-circuit current (Isc) from the SCC for the same field
current (If )
The magnitude of the synchronous impedance is equal to the open-circuit voltage
divided by the short-circuit current given below:

Synchronous Machines
Saturated and Unsaturated Synchronous Reactance

Two types of reactances can be calculated from the data recorded, namely;
saturated and unsaturated synchronous reactance
By using the recorded OCC, the calculated reactance is called the saturated
reactance,
but if the air gap line is used instead of the recorded OCC the calculated
reactance is called unsaturated reactance.

Synchronous Machines

Synchronous Machines

Synchronous Machines

Synchronous Machines
Voltage Regulation
Just as in transformers and DC machines, a measure of the performance of a
synchronous generator is its voltage regulation, which is defined as

Where:
Vnl = voltage at open-circuit, or no-load condition
Vfl = voltage at rated, or full-load, condition
The full-load voltage Vfl is the same as the terminal voltage Vt, and Vnl is equal to the
corresponding generated voltage Ea. Thus, voltage regulation may also be expressed
as:

Synchronous Machines
Voltage Regulation

Lagging power factor leads to high (+ve) voltage regulation.


Unity power facoror leads to low (+ve) VR.
Leading power factor leads to (-ve) VR.

Synchronous Machines
Example

Synchronous Machines

Synchronous Machines

Synchronous Machines
Parallel Operation of Synchronous Generators
Requirements:
1. Must have the same voltage magnitude.
2. The phase angles of the two phases must be the same.
3. The generators must have the same phase sequences.
4. The frequency of the oncoming generator must be slightly higher
than the frequency of the running generator.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Synchronous Machines

Synchronous Motor

Synchronous Machines
The Equivalent Circuit of a Synchronous Motor
Same equivalent circuit as a synchronous generator,
except that power flows in the opposite direction.
E A = V - RA + jX S I A

Figure 5-2
The per-phase equivalent circuit of a synchronous motor.
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Synchronous Machines
Modes of Operation
The modes of operation of synchronous motor are similar to that of a generator. Three
modes of operation are there based on the excitation level and the output load. The
three modes of operation are:
Under-Excited
Normal-Excited
Over-Excited

Synchronous Machines

Over Excited Motor


Adjust If until

Ia

E f cos Vt
3 Vt
Q
Xs

Ef

cos Vt 0

Ef

Vt
Ia X s

Main conclusions of over excited machines


Ia Leads Vt

SM delivers reactive power to source


El-Sharkawi@University of
Washington

Synchronous Machines

Under Excited Motor


Adjust If until

E f cos Vt

Ia
3 Vt
Q
Xs
Ia Lags Vt

Ef

Vt

Ia X s

Ef

cos Vt 0

Main conclusions of under excited machines


SM receives reactive power from source
El-Sharkawi@University of
Washington

Synchronous Machines

Exact Excitation
Adjust If until
E f cos Vt
3 Vt
Q
Xs

Ef

Vt

Ia

Ef

Ia X s

cos Vt 0
Main conclusions of exact excitation machines
NO reactive power at the motors terminals

Ia in phase with Vt

El-Sharkawi@University of
Washington

Synchronous Machines
The Effect of Field Current under Constant Load: V Curves

Figure 5-9
Synchronous motor V curves

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Synchronous Machines
Power Flow of Synchronous Motor
The power flow diagram for a synchronous motor is shown here.

Power flow diagram of synchronous motor

Team Problem
Example

Synchronous Machines

Synchronous Machines
Example

Synchronous Machines

Synchronous Machines
Synchronous Motor Efficiency
When the machine losses are neglected, the expression for the real power delivered
by the motor is

Alternatively, the real power may be expressed as

Ea sin and Ia cos must be constant

Synchronous Machines
Example

Synchronous Machines

Synchronous Machines

Team Problem
Example

Synchronous Machines

Synchronous Machines
Example

Synchronous Machines

Synchronous Machines

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Synchronous Machines

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Synchronous Machines

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Synchronous Machines

On-line resources:

AC MOTORS AND GENERATORS

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=07uXnc1C5CA