Synchronous Machines
A synchronous machines is an ac machine in which
Alternating current flows in the armature windings
DC excitation is supplied to the field winding
Synchronous Machines
Synchronous Generator
Synchronous Machines
99+ % of all power are generated by the synchronous generators
Synchronous machines can operate as generators or motors
Synchronous Machines
RoundRotor Generator
Synchronous Machines
Stator with
laminated iron core
Slots with
phase
winding
CA+
B
B+
N

Rotor with
dc winding
A
C+
C
Synchronous Machines
Generator
Exciter
View of a twopole round rotor generator and exciter.
Synchronous Machines
Synchronous Machines
Synchronous Machines
Stator with
laminated iron core
B+
CN

A+
Rotor with
dc winding
+
+
+
+
+
A
S
B
C+
Slots with
phase
winding
Synchronous Machines
A
B+
C+
C
N

+
+
+
+
A+
B
S
S

+
+
B
A+
+
+
C
N
C+
A
B+
Synchronous Machines
Synchronous Machines
Synchronous Machines
Slip
rings
Pole
Fan
DC excitation
winding
Synchronous Machines
a
b
Rotor
Stator
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Washington
Synchronous Machines
a
b
f
X
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Washington
Synchronous Machines
The synchronous speed is related to:
1 The frequency of the stator currents.
2 The number of poles of the rotor. The relationship expressed
as:
Where :
Ns = synchronous speed
P = number of poles.
f= frequency, f = 60 Hz or 50 Hz;
For 60Hz systems, typical rotor speeds are 3600 rpm for 2poles, 1800 rpm for 4 poles and 450 rpm for 16 poles.
Synchronous Machines
The Internal Generated Voltage of a Synchronous Generator
The induced voltage is proportional to the rotor flux for a given rotor
angular frequency in electrical Radians per second.
Since the rotor flux depends on the field current IF, the induced voltage EA
is related to the field current as shown below. This is generator
magnetization curve or the opencircuit characteristics of the machine.
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Synchronous Machines
Equivalent Circuit of a RoundRotor Machine.
In general, at Noload , Ia = 0 Et = Ea
The rotor magnetic field BR induces the internal voltage Ea
Synchronous Machines
The armature reaction voltage is directly proportional to the amount of the
stator current flowing. Its 90 behind the stator current Ia.
E ar jX
ar
Ia
E t E a jX ar I a
Synchronous Machines
In an actual physical synchronous generator, the net magnetic field
present in the air gap is realistically not linked completely by the stator
windings. The portion of the magnetic flux that does not link the winding
is referred to as the leakage flux l. This leakage flux leads to a voltage
drop across what is called leakage reactance Xal. The stator windings are
inherently contain resistance. Thus, the overall equivalent circuit of the
synchronous generator is:
Synchronous Machines
Equivalent Circuit
V t E a (Ra jX s )I a
In the circuit,
Ra = Armature Resistance
Xs = Synchronous Reactance
Ia = Armature Current
Vt = Terminal Voltage
Ea = Armature induced EMF given in equation
Synchronous Machines
The phasor diagram with lagging power factor illustrating the relationships
among the different phasors is shown as:
E A V I A (RA + jX S )
Synchronous Machines
Example
Synchronous Machines
Synchronous Machines
Example
Synchronous Machines
Synchronous Machines
Power and Torque in Synchronous Generators
Figure 415
The powerflow diagram of a synchronous generator
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Synchronous Machines
Powerangle Characteristics
The generator armature current can be calculated as:
S = complex power delivered by the synchronous generator to the external system is:
Synchronous Machines
Pmax
3  V  E A 
Pmax
l
90o
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Xs
sin
3  V  E A 
Xs
Synchronous Machines
POUT 3V I ACos( )
QOUT 3V I ASin( )
Qt 3 V I A sin
If EA cos > V ;
3 V
Xs
cos V
If EA cos = V ;
Synchronous Machines
Shown here is the powerangle characteristics of a synchronous generator.
The maximum Torque that can be
applied to the shaft without stepping
out of synchronism ( Pullout torque) is
related to the maximum power by
Synchronous Machines
Effect of Excitation
P
Ef2
Ef1
Pm
Ef2 > Ef1
1
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Synchronous Machines
Modes of Operation
There are three modes of operation of synchronous generator.
Synchronous Machines
Synchronous Machines
Synchronous Machines
Increase transmission
Capacity
Pm
Xs
Vt
Xl
Vo
G
Terminal bus
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Washington
Infinite bus
Synchronous Machines
Xs
Pm
Vt
Vo
Xl
G
Xl1
Xs
Xl2
Ia
Ef
Vt
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Washington
Vo
39
Synchronous Machines
Power equation
P
3 Vo E f
X
Ef
sin
Ia
X X s 0.5 X l
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Washington
Vo
Ia X
Synchronous Machines
Synchronous Machines
Example
A 120MW synchronous generator is
connected to an infinite bus through two
parallel 3  transmission lines each having a
reactance of 6 W including transformers. The
synchronous reactance of the generator is 9
W. The infinitebus voltage is 110 kV. Assume
that the power factor at the infinite bus is unity
Determine the equivalent excitation voltage to
deliver 120 MW to the infinite bus.
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Washington
Synchronous Machines
Solution
P 3 Vo I a cos
120 3 110 I a
I a 630 A
E f Vo2 I a ( X s 0.5 X l
110
2
( 0.63 * 12 ) 64 kV
3
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Washington
per phase
Synchronous Machines
Measuring Synchronous Generator Parameters
Opencircuit and shortcircuit tests to obtain magnetization characteristics
and synchronous reactance of the generator.
o Opencircuit test: With loads disconnected, generator is driven at
rated speed. The terminal voltage is measured as field current varied.
o Shortcircuit test: Armature terminals shorted, generator is driven at
rated speed and the armature current is measured as field current
varied.
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Synchronous Machines
Resistance Test
This test is conducted to measure the armaturewinding resistance of a
synchronous generator when it is at rest and the field winding is open. The
resistance is measured between two lines at a time and the average of the three
resistance readings is taken to be the measured value of the resistance, RL, from
line to line. The resistance is calculated according to the connection type:
Synchronous Machines
OpenCircuit Test
The open circuit (noload) test is applied to get the relation between the field current
(If) and the generated EMF at noload (Ea).
Synchronous Machines
ShortCircuit Test
The shortcircuit test provides information about the current capabilities of
synchronous generator.
Synchronous Machines
Synchronous Reactance
Synchronous Machines
The OCC and SCC shown in the figure are used to determine the synchronous
impedance in this way:
Find the resistance from the resistance test as in equations (1) and (2) shown
previously under Resistance Test
Find the value of the field current (If) that gives the rated perphase voltage from
the OCC
Find the value of the shortcircuit current (Isc) from the SCC for the same field
current (If )
The magnitude of the synchronous impedance is equal to the opencircuit voltage
divided by the shortcircuit current given below:
Synchronous Machines
Saturated and Unsaturated Synchronous Reactance
Two types of reactances can be calculated from the data recorded, namely;
saturated and unsaturated synchronous reactance
By using the recorded OCC, the calculated reactance is called the saturated
reactance,
but if the air gap line is used instead of the recorded OCC the calculated
reactance is called unsaturated reactance.
Synchronous Machines
Synchronous Machines
Synchronous Machines
Synchronous Machines
Voltage Regulation
Just as in transformers and DC machines, a measure of the performance of a
synchronous generator is its voltage regulation, which is defined as
Where:
Vnl = voltage at opencircuit, or noload condition
Vfl = voltage at rated, or fullload, condition
The fullload voltage Vfl is the same as the terminal voltage Vt, and Vnl is equal to the
corresponding generated voltage Ea. Thus, voltage regulation may also be expressed
as:
Synchronous Machines
Voltage Regulation
Synchronous Machines
Example
Synchronous Machines
Synchronous Machines
Synchronous Machines
Parallel Operation of Synchronous Generators
Requirements:
1. Must have the same voltage magnitude.
2. The phase angles of the two phases must be the same.
3. The generators must have the same phase sequences.
4. The frequency of the oncoming generator must be slightly higher
than the frequency of the running generator.
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Synchronous Machines
Synchronous Motor
Synchronous Machines
The Equivalent Circuit of a Synchronous Motor
Same equivalent circuit as a synchronous generator,
except that power flows in the opposite direction.
E A = V  RA + jX S I A
Figure 52
The perphase equivalent circuit of a synchronous motor.
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Synchronous Machines
Modes of Operation
The modes of operation of synchronous motor are similar to that of a generator. Three
modes of operation are there based on the excitation level and the output load. The
three modes of operation are:
UnderExcited
NormalExcited
OverExcited
Synchronous Machines
Ia
E f cos Vt
3 Vt
Q
Xs
Ef
cos Vt 0
Ef
Vt
Ia X s
Synchronous Machines
E f cos Vt
Ia
3 Vt
Q
Xs
Ia Lags Vt
Ef
Vt
Ia X s
Ef
cos Vt 0
Synchronous Machines
Exact Excitation
Adjust If until
E f cos Vt
3 Vt
Q
Xs
Ef
Vt
Ia
Ef
Ia X s
cos Vt 0
Main conclusions of exact excitation machines
NO reactive power at the motors terminals
Ia in phase with Vt
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Washington
Synchronous Machines
The Effect of Field Current under Constant Load: V Curves
Figure 59
Synchronous motor V curves
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Synchronous Machines
Power Flow of Synchronous Motor
The power flow diagram for a synchronous motor is shown here.
Team Problem
Example
Synchronous Machines
Synchronous Machines
Example
Synchronous Machines
Synchronous Machines
Synchronous Motor Efficiency
When the machine losses are neglected, the expression for the real power delivered
by the motor is
Synchronous Machines
Example
Synchronous Machines
Synchronous Machines
Team Problem
Example
Synchronous Machines
Synchronous Machines
Example
Synchronous Machines
Synchronous Machines
Copyright The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Synchronous Machines
Copyright The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Synchronous Machines
Copyright The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Synchronous Machines
Online resources:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=07uXnc1C5CA