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CPD Course on Solar Design, Operation and

Maintenance of Solar PV system


RESOURCE PERSON: ENGR. FAIZ M BHUTTA
June 02, 2016
at Quetta
faiz.bhutta@gmail.com

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF MY GERMAN TEACHERS AND MASTER TRAINERS


Stephan Bruckner
Raphael Lechner
Bruno Wilhelm
Frank Jackson

PROGRAM
MODULE

TOPIC

MODULE - 01

INTRODCUTION TO SOLAR PV
TECHNOLOGY

MODULE - 02

SOLAR PV SYSTEM
COMPONENTS

MODULE - 03

SOLAR SYSTEM DESIGNS


CONSIDERATIONS

MODULE - 04

INSTALLATION OPERATIONMAINTENANCE

MODULE 1
INTRODUCTION TO SOLAR PV
TECHNOLOGY

PRENAC

Solar Insolation pattern


Varying sun radiations

PRENAC

Pakistan Irradiation data

Average solar irradiation varies from 3.5 to 7 kWh/m per day in Pakistan
Solar energy
potential is high
in all parts of
the country.
Compare Germany:
2.53.2 kWh/m per day
With Pakistan
3.5 to 7 Kwhr/m2/day
STC 1000W/m2/day
At 25 Degree C

Pakistan
1800-2000 KWHr/m2/year

Cost trends
Module prices and system cost are decreasing.

Form $6 per watt to $0.55 per watt

PRENAC

SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS (PV)

CONVERSION OF SOLAR
RADIATIONS INTO ELECTRICAL
ENERGY
PRENAC 8 .

Off-Grid System
Types of PV Systems
Inverter
AC Load
Solar Panel

Charge Controller

Battery

PRENAC

DC AND AC OFF-GRID SOLAR PV SYSTEM

PRENAC10 .

On-Grid System
Types of PV Systems
Energy Meter

Solar Panel

AC Load

Inverter
National Grid

PRENAC

NET METERING ARRANGEMNET

Net Meter

The system shut down when the WAPDA Supply is Out.

PRENAC
12 .

Hybrid System
Types of PV Systems

Solar Panel

Hybrid
Inverter

National Grid

Battery

AC Load

PRENAC

COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

Stand Alone/Off-grid solar System in rural Areas upto 500 W


Solar Power Plants from 10 KW to 200 MW
Solar Parks upto 200 MW
Solar UPS
Solar Traffic Signals Lights
Power for Remote Security and Surveillance Systems
Remote data acquisition and equipment monitoring
Power for Telecommunication Towers and Networks
Building Integrated Photovoltaic System
Military signaling applications
Cathodic Protection of Pipelines
Solar water Pumping
Commercial Solar Lighting for roads, motorways and parks, Bus stops
Solar Lighting for Buildings and Industries
PRENAC14 .

MODULE 2
SOLAR PV SYSTEM
COMPONENTS

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CELLS MODUELS - ARRAYS

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Cell-Module- Array

PV systems

PV cell
PV array

Panel Quality

PV modules

A GRADE
B GRADE
C GRADE

Watt = Volt x Current

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Basic Terms
Conversion efficiency of a PV cell

Proportion of sunlight energy that the cell converts into electricity (in %)

Todays solar cell efficiency: 7 17 % (depending on cell type)

Module peak power

Wp (Watt peak) or kWp (Kilowatt peak)

Measure for the peak output of a PV system under Standard Test Conditions (STC).
Standard Test Conditions (STC):
Solar irradiation of 1000 W/m, module temperature 25C

Maximum output of a PV module (under ideal conditions)


kWp * number of peak sun hours = kWh

Number of peak sun hours (1 kWh/m) per year, for example


Germany
Pakistan

~1,000 1,400
~1,900 2,000
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Basic Terms

Performance ratio

Real energy yield / theoretical energy yield (in %)

Depends very much on systems design, cabling, location, direction,


inclination, shading and temperature of modules and other on-site
conditions.
Practical experience:
Performance ratio of existing grid-tied systems:
Performance ratios of existing off-grid systems:

75 80 %
60 70 %

Real output of a PV module

kWp * number of peak sun hours * performance ratio = kWh

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Photovoltaic effect
It starts with sand which is processed into highly purified silicon.

Monocrystalline wafers

Silicon blocks

Silica sand

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Cell types
Cells can be manufactured from different types of materials.
The most significant is crystalline silicon.
Two main types of commercially available cells are:
Silicon wafers
Monocrystalline silicon cells
Polycrystalline silicon cells

Thin film:
Amorphous silicon (-Si)
Copper-indium-diselenide (CIS)
Cadmium-telluride (CdTe)

~ 93% of the market

~ 4,2 % of the market


~ 0.7 % of the market
~ 1.0 % of the market

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Cell types
Monocrystalline silicon cells
A crystal of silicon is grown from highly
pure molten silicon.
The single crystal cylindrical ingot is
cut into thin slices (200 300 m).
The edges are cut off to give a
hexagonal shape in order to make
optimum use of available module
surface.
Most efficient type of cell
(15-16 % efficiency).
Energy- and time-consuming
production

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Cell types
Polycrystalline silicon cells
Silicon is heated to high temperature
and cooled under controlled
conditions in a mould (casting
process).
As the molten silicon sets, an irregular
poly- or multi-crystal is formed.
This is visible in the shimmering fishscale like appearance of the wafers.
The square silicon block is then cut
into thin slices (~300 m).
The blue colour is due to the
application of an anti-reflection layer.
Less efficient than mono-crystalline
cells (efficiency 14-16%).
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Cell types
Thin film
Silicon, CIS or CdTe is deposited as gas on a
glass, aluminium or plastic surface.
Layer (thin film) of semiconductor material is
only 0.5-2.0 m thick.
Less semiconductor raw material is used.
Less sensitive to the effects of shade and high
temperatures.
Better suitable for locations with large share of
diffuse irradiation (e.g. in areas with high air
pollution).
Production cost today similar to silicon wafers.
Lower efficiency than silicon wafers
(e.g. CIS efficiency 6 - 8%).
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PRENAC

Electrical characteristics of PV cells


Principal electrical properties of a PV cell are its current and voltage.
Power (P) = Current (I) * Voltage (V)

Current:

Voltage:

Current produced by a cell is


depending on:
Quantity of light falling on the cell
Size of cell surface area
Operating voltage

Maximum current:
Short circuit current (Isc)

Impedance
Current
Voltage
Power

R=0
ISC = max.
V=0
P=0

Output voltage is depending


on the cell material (largely
independent of the level of solar
radiation falling on the cell).
Silicon cells: 0.5-0.6 VDC

Maximum voltage:
Open circuit voltage (Voc)

Impedance
Current
Voltage
Power

R=
I =0
VOC = max.
P=0

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Electrical characteristics of PV cells

PRENAC

The Maximum Power Point (MPP) is defined by the I-V curve of a PV cell
Maximum Power (PMAX) = Current at MPP (IMP) * Voltage at MPP (VMP)

In crystalline silicon PV cells:

(MPP)

VOC = ~ 0.6 V To 0.75V


VMP = ~ 80% of VOC
IMP = ~ 95% of ISC
ISC is depending on the cell surface.

Sample
specification:

CELL
Dimension: 156mmx156mm5%
Wafer Thickness: 200 20 m
Efficiency: 18.2%
Grade: A
Pmax: 4.43W
Vmp : 0.534W
Imp: 8.306A
VOC: 0.633V
ISC : 8.772A

JINKO

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PV module Structure
Module structure
has to protect the cells
and to ensure functionality
over 25 years lifetime of the module.

Ethylene Venyle Acetate

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CELL PRODUCTION PROCESS


LOAD
WAFER

PECVD

TEXTURE

CLEANING

PRINTING

EFFICIENCY
TEST

PRENAC

DIFFUSION

ASPECT
CONTROL
EFF TEST

ETCHING

PACKAGE

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MOULE PRODUCTION PROCESS


CELL
SOLDERING

EL Test

Lay up

Framing &
Assembling
J-box

Primary
Inspection
(Visual)

Hi-Pot Test
(Insulation)

PRENAC

EL Test

I-V Test
(Power)

Lamination

Final
Inspection
& Packing

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MOULE ELECTRICAL Characteristics


JKM305P

JINKO

PRENAC

Electrical Characteristics at STC


Maximum Power (Pmax) 305W
Type: Polycrystalline
Power Tolerance: + 3W
Module Efficiency = 15.72%
Maximum Power Current (Imp)= 8.16 A
Maximum Power Voltage (Vmp) = 37.4V
Open Circuit Voltage = Voc = 45.6V
Short circuit Current (Isc) = 9.05A
Temperature Coefficient Pmax = 0.40%C
( Above Values are at STC 1000W/m2, AM 1.5
and Cell Temperature of 25 Degree C)
Electrical Characteristics at NOCT
Maximum Power (Pmax) 224W
Maximum Power Current (Imp)= 6.57 A
Maximum Power Voltage (Vmp) = 34.1V
Short circuit Current (Isc) = 7. 29 A
Open Circuit Voltage = Voc = 41.8V
( Above Values are at Normal Operating Cell
Temperature 800W/m2, AM 1.5, Ambient 20
Degree C, Wind Speed 1m/s)
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Ambient influences on cells and modules


Electrical output and the current produced
are directly proportional to the level of solar irradiation.

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Ambient influences on cells and modules


Increasing module temperature leads to decreasing power output.
Example:
Silicon cell

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Ambient influences on cells and modules


In regions with little rainfall or with long
dry seasons, dust may accumulate on the
modules and reduce efficiency by 10-25%.

Module efficiency may drop


by more than 50% if 3% of
module surface are covered
with dirt.

Example:
PV modules after 2 months without rain in the area of Los Angeles.
Efficiency dropped at approx. 10% (estimated by the owner).

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Ambient influences on cells and modules


Shading must be avoided !!!
Shading from distant trees, roofs, chimneys
etc. creates soft or diffuse shadow
which reduces irradiation and reduces
power output of the whole module.
When cells are connected in series,
overall output is adjusted to the output
of the weakest cell.

Examples of partial cell shading that can reduce


PV module power reduced by half

Hard shadow from blankets, bird drops


etc., which prevents light from reaching
individual cells or groups
of cells may bring power output
down to zero.

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Ambient influences on cells and modules


Azimuth and tilt angle are influencing module efficiency
Azimuth =
Orientation to the sun
Optimum is South.
Tilt angle =
Inclination of the
PV module/array.

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Production failure of PV module


Production failures and damages
of the module structure are spoiling
efficiency and reducing lifetime
of the module.
Visual inspection and performance
tests are recommended before
delivery.
Defect:
Gap due to
poor sealing

Defect:
Excessive
glue mark

Defect:
Scratch on glass

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Production failures of modules


Production failures and damages
of the module structure spoil
efficiency and reduce lifetime
of the module.
Defect:
Delamination PV cell encapsulation
(EVA foil)

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PV cell interconnection and module design


PV cells may be interconnected in parallel or in series.
Serial interconnection of cells of
the same type leads to a
multiplication of voltage.

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PV cell interconnection and module design


PV cells may be interconnected in parallel or in series.
Parallel interconnection of cells of the same type leads to a multiplication of current.

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Module interconnection and array design


Modules can be connected in series or in parallel
Modules behave in principle
like the cells they are
composed of.

It is urgently requested
to use always the same type
of modules in an array !

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PV Module certifications
Quality standards and certificates for PV modules.
Quality standards:
International Electronical Commission (IEC):
IEC 61215
IEC 61646

Crystalline silicon PV modules


design qualification and type approval
Thin-film PV modules
design qualification and type approval

IEC 61215 and IEC 61646 are covering external conditions to


which modules are exposed, for example mechanical stress,
climatic conditions, aging.
IEC 61730

PV modules safety qualification


Part 1: Requirements for production
Part 2: Requirements for testing

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PV module certifications
Quality standards and certificates
Check validity of certificate

Confirm Lab accreditation from ILAC www.ilac.org

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System Guarantee and Product Certificate

SYSTEM CERTIFICATE AND PRODUCT CERTIFICATES

System Certificate

Product Certificate

MCS
ISO 9001
Customer Orient

ISO 14001
Environment

TUV

UL

OHSAS 18001
Occupational Health

CQC

JET

SOLAR BATTERIES

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TYPES OF SOLAR BATTERIES


SOLAR AGM
SOLAR GEL
SOLAR DEEP CYCLE AGM
SOLAR DEEP CYCLE GEL
SOLAR TUBULAR BATTERIES

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Batteries
Energy storage is required in most off-grid PV applicatons
(except solar pumping)

Rechargeable lead-acid batteries


are the most common type of
batteries used for PV systems.

Grid-plate battery

Storage capacities in the range of


0.1 kWh to 100 kWh.
Batteries are built from 2 V cells
(e.g. 6 cells for a 12 V block).

Charging voltage is higher


than battery voltage

( e.g. up to 14.5 V charging power for a 12V battery).

Battery types:
Grid-plate battery (solar batteries). Solar gel battery
Gel batteries.
Tubular plate batteries.

Battery design

Bloc batteries.
Individual cells (tubular plate).

Tubular plate
solar batteries
(cell design)
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Batteries
ATTENTION: Vehicle starter batteries must not be used in PV systems !
Vehicle starter battery

Solar battery
Grid-plate batteries
with thicker plates,
hardened grids and
low acid content:

Grid-plate batteries with a


large number of
thin plates:
Large active surface area.
High starting current to be
provided over a few seconds.
Only very small discharge per
cycle in normal operation.
Very low cycle resilience.

Extremely short life time of


car batteries when used for
solar systems!

Increased cycle resilience.


Reduced corrosion.
longer service life.

Exide battery

Lifetime (in cycles) depends on the discharge per cycle.


For example:

100 % discharge = reducing battery lifetime.


70 % discharge ~ 200 cycles.
50 % discharge ~ 400 cycles
20 % discharge ~ 1000 cycles

Cycle resilience and deep discharge protection are


improved in so-called deep cycle batteries.
Proper charge control saves battery lifetime and cost!
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Batteries
From single batteries to battery banks
Parallel connection of batteries
The
The

terminal is connected with the


terminal is connected with the

terminal of the next battery.


terminal of the next battery.

The battery bank has the same voltage as a single battery.


Capacity of the battery bank is rating equal to the sum of the individual batteries
capacities.

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Batteries
From single batteries to battery banks
Series connection of batteries
The terminal is connected with the
terminal of the next battery.
In serial connection, a battery bank has the same capacity as a single battery.
Overall voltage is rating equal to the sum of the individual batteries voltages.

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Batteries
From single batteries to battery banks
Series-Parallel connection of batteries
Series and parallel connection are use in combination.
Capacity (Ah) and voltage are increasing.
This is done to make a battery bank with large capacity
and larger voltage out of several smaller, lower voltage batteries.

24 V battery bank

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SOLAR BATTERY STANDARDS


IEC 60896 - Stationary Lead Acid Batteries
Valve Regulated Batteries
IEC 61427 For Renewable Energy Applications

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CHARGE CONTROLLERS

PRENAC

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charge controllers
Matching voltage of the PV array and the systems to that of the battery.
Charge voltage must be higher than
battery voltage:
Standard example:
Battery nominal voltage: 12V
Charge voltage:
up to 14.5 V
PV nominal voltage:
15-18 V
(e.g. NOCT = 45C)

Discharge voltage is decreasing while


the battery is discharging (discharge
current stays almost constant).

During times of high irradiance & low


temperature (e.g. 0C), MPP of the PV array
may increase up to ~21 V, MOC up to ~25V.
Therefore, the battery must be protected
against overcharging.
During times of low / no irradiance, PV voltage
breaks down and the battery starts to discharge
via the PV array.
Protection against self-discharging via the PV
array, increases overall efficiency of the system.

Deep discharge is reducing battery lifetime


dramatically.
Therefore a specific discharge cut-off voltage is
to be respected in order to save battery life.
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charge controllers
Series controller
When the charge cut-off voltage is reached, a series controller interrupts the
module power using S1 and switches it back on after a defined voltage drop.
This creates an oscillating state of constant switching operations around the charge
cut-off voltage, as well as permanent forward losses.
S2 is used to interrupt battery power when the battery voltage drops below a
defined discharge cut-off limit.

Series solar charge controller

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charge controllers
MPP charge controllers
An MPP tracker essentially consists of a regulated DC/DC converter.
MPP power is determined every few minutes.
The DC/DC converter is the set so that it takes the optimum power from the PV
array and adjusts it to the charge voltage of the battery.
In this way, optimum use is made of the available solar energy.
MPP charge controllers are useful in combination with larger PV arrays or when
using high voltage modules/arrays

MPP Tracking Solar Charge Controller 10 Amp 12/24V

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charge controllers
Sample
Specifications

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SOLAR INVERTERS

PRENAC

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TYPES
OFF-GRID INVERTERS
ON-GRID INVERTERS
HYBRID INVERTERS

PRENAC

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Inverters
OFF- GRID Sine-wave inverters

Power rating
Efficiency
Surge rating
DC Voltage Input
Standby power
Over Voltage and
over current, Short
circuit, Reverse
polarity protection
Over temperature
protection.
Output waveform
Communication

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Inverters
ON- GRID Sine-wave inverters
A Grid-Tie Inverter takes the electricity generated by
the renewable energy system and sends it to the
power distribution panel in your home or office. From
there the power may be used by loads within your
home or if not needed it will redirected to the utility
grid.
Specification parameters
Power Rating
DC voltage input
Efficiency
Data logging
Protections
Communication
MPPT inputs
Software capability
Display
programmable
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Inverters
HYBDIRD INVERTERS
TYPICAL Features
Cascading Capability
Continuous Power Rating
AC Output Voltage
AC Output frequency
DC Input Voltage Range
Idle or Standby Power
Efficiency
Output Voltage Regulation
Maximum Output Current
AC overload capability
Grid Interactive Voltage Range
Grid Interactive Frequency Range
AC Input Current Maximum
DC input voltage range
Warranty
Temperature Range
Relative Humidity Rating
Certification compliance of IEC 62109 -1

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CABLES AND WIRING

PRENAC

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Cables and wiring


For DC systems, cable diameters are very important
The bigger the load (W)
and the longer the distance (m),
the bigger is the required
cable diameter (mm).

General rule:

DC requires bigger cable diameters than AC.


12 VDC requires bigger cable diameters
than 24, 36 or 48 VDC.

(for the transmission of the same power over the same distance)

Losses in Voltage are increasing:


if the cable is too long or
if the diameter is too small.
Losses must be limited in order
to ensure proper functionality of
the system.

Formula for the calculation of the required cable


diameter A in mm:
length[m] power [W ]
A[mm ] =
m
insert here
voltage 2 [V ] losses Cu

mm
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for copper cables
(38 for aluminium)

If the calculated diameter is not exactly fitting to


available standard cables,
choose the next bigger standard cable.
Standard cables: 0.5 0.75 1.0 1.5 2.5 4.0 6.0 10 16 25 35 50 -70 95 ... mm.
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Module interconnection and array design


Specific solar cables increase safety and efficiency
In order to ensure earth fault and shortcircuit proof cable laying,
+ and poles must not be laid together in
the same cable.
Standard cables are normally approved up
to 60C temperature. Outdoor module
cables may reach higher temperatures.
Solar cables are double-insulated and
approved for up to 125C.
Connectors must be touch-proof and
sealed.

Connectors
Sealing caps

Proper connections are necessary to avoid


excessive losses.
Poor contacts can lead to the occurrence
of arcing and increase fire risk.

Fasteners
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MOUNTING SYSTEMS

PRENAC

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Mounting Systems
Panel must be stable,
even in strong wind.

Roof integrity must be maintained.


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MODULE-3
SOLAR SYSTEM DESIGNS
CONSIDERATIONS

PRENAC

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Planning and design guidelines


Recommended
planning procedure

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STEP-1 ( LOAD PROFILE)


APPLIANCE WATTS
Ceiling fan

QTY

TOTAL
WATTS

HRS/DAY

TOTAL
WATT-HRS

115

02

230

20

4600

Energy
Saver

24

02

48

06

308

TOTAL

139

04

278

26

4908

Total Watts = 300W


TOTAL WATT-HRS= 5 KWHRS PER DAY = 5 units per day

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Proposal Comparison Tool for off-grid and Hybrid Solutions


Variable

Company A

Company B

Company C

Total solar system price


Total Wp of solar panel
Rupees /Wp of system
Designed Load (KW)
Inverter Size (KW)
Battery Size ( AH)
Back up when no sun and no Grid
KWh production/day
Module Performance warranty
Module replacement warranty
Inverter warranty
Battery warranty
Years of free Service
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Proposal Comparison Tool for On-Grid Solutions


Variable

Company A

Company B

Company C

Total solar system price


Total Wp of solar panel
Rupees /Wp of system
Designed Load (KW)
Inverter Size (KW)
KWh production/day
Module Performance warranty
Connectivity with Diesel Generator when
there is No Grid
Module replacement warranty
Inverter warranty
Battery warranty
Years of free Service
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MODULE 4
INSTALLATIONCOMMISSIONING- OPERATION

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Installation and commissioning

Make survey before Installation


Make sure that the enough space is available for solar panels
Make sure that South facing is available
Check there is no shading from sunrise to 3 p.m
Make sure that the roof will bear the load of solar panels
Solar Panel work should be stopped during Rain or Lightening
In case of High Voltage configuration of solar panels, hand gloves should be
used to avoid any shock.
Components should be connected and disconnected in correct sequence
National codes must be followed
System should be tested and inspected before start up
Grounding and Earthing should be done as per national Codes
Lightening protection and surge protection should be done as per need.

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Installation and commissioning


Battery must be placed in ventilated environment and below temperature of
40 Degree C
While working on batteries, remove metal Jewellry such as rings, watches,
chains.
Batteries should never be charged without a charge controller.
Tools should be insulated and placed on the floor, when not in use.
Battery temperatures should not exceed 40 C and batteries should not be
exposed to direct sunlight.
Used batteries are toxic waste and need to be recycled or disposed of
correctly.
Battery Terminals ( Positive and Negative) should never be shorted as it will
cause huge explosion.

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Operation & Maintenance


1. Wise operation: Means the operation within designed limits.
2. Power management for maximum energy gain
3. Weekly or fortnightly cleaning of panels with wiper or with warm
water if the animal waste or some hard stints are there.
4. Continuous check of batteries charging and discharging through
solar controller.
5. Clean panel array with water and in case of hard stints, use warm
water
6. Visually inspect system on regular basis

PRENAC

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THANKS
ENGR. FAIZ M BHUTTA
Director
Pakistan Renewable Academy (PRENAC)
(Training and Consulting )
Faiz.bhutta@gmail.com
http://faizbhutta.wix.com/bhutta

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