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INTRODUCTION:
CAD(Computer Aided Drafting and design) as the name itself suggests is much more than just
drawing lines for design purposes by electronic means. There are various reasons for using CAD:

The most potent driving force is competition. Companies used CAD to draft better
designs quicker and much more cheaper than their competitors
Productivity is boosted by a CAD program enabling you to easily draw polygons, ellipses
multiple parallel lines that comprise a design.
Various automatic features like fillets and chamfers help increase the speed of designing.
The ability of the software to snap automatically to create particular geometric points
and features will spread the accurate positioning of line work.
Copy, Rotate and mirror facilities also come in very handy while drawing symmetrical
parts.
Another advantage of a CAD system is its ability to store entities, which are frequently
applied on drawings.

COORDINATE SYSTEM :
There are three different types of coordinate systems they are
1. Absolute coordinate system
2. Relative Rectangular coordinate system
3. Relative polar coordinate system
Absolute coordinate System:
In the absolute coordinate system all points are measured from the origin(0,0) . They are
suited to situations where you know the exact X and Y location of the point you want to
place.
To enter an absolute coordinate use the format (X,Y) Where X is the distance and direction
along the horizontal axis from the origin (0,0) and Y is the distance and direction along the
vertical axis from the origin (0,0)

## Relative Rectangular Coordinate system:

Relative coordinate entries are based on the last point entered. Use a relative coordinate when
you know the location of a point in relation to the previous point.
Format : @X,Y Where @ indicates a relative distance. X is the positive or negative distance
along the X axis from the previous position. Y is the positive or negative distance along the
Y axis from the previous position
Relative polar coordinate system:
A combination of angle and distance input is called polar coordinate. You use polar
coordinate when you know the angle and the distance from one point to another. In Autocad
Angles are (+) positive when measured counter- clpckwise and (-) negative when measured
from clockwise direction.
Graphical User Interface ( GUI) of AUTOCAD

Units:
Command

Button

Format=>Units

UN

Ribbon/Application
Application
Utilities=>units

It controls the display and format of coordinates and angles as well as the orientation of
angles.

Limits :
Command

LIMITS

Format=>Drawing Limits

Command entry

It sets and controls the limits of the grid display in the current model or named layout. The
following prompts are displayed:
Specify lower left corner[ON/OFF] <Current>:Specify a point enter on or off , or press enter
ON : Turns limits checking on, When this is on , you cannot enter points outside the grid
limits. Because limits checking tests only points that you enter, portions of objects such as
circles can extend outside the grid limits.

OFF : Turns off limits checking but maintains the current values for the next time you turn
limits checking on
LINE :
Command

Button

Draw =>Line

Ribbon/Application
Home => Draw =>
Line

With LINE, you can create a series of continuous line segments. Each segment is a line
object that can be edited separately
The following prompts are displayed :
Specify first point: Specify a point or press enter to continue from the last drawn line or arc
Specify next point or[Close/Undo]:

CIRCLE :
Command

Button

Draw =>Circle

Ribbon/Application
Home => Circle

The default method for drawing a circle is to specify a center point and a radius . You can
also choose to create a circle based on a diameter , circumference or area.
The following options are displayed :
Specify center point for circle or [ 3P/2P/Ttr(tan tan radius)] Specify a point or enter an option.
3P : (Three Points ) : draws a circle based on three points on the circumference.
Tan tantan : creates a circle tangent to three objects
2P: ( Two points ) Draws a circle based on two endpoints of the diameter.
TTR ( Tangent Tangent Radius ) : Draws a circle with a specified radius tangent to two objects.

ARC :
Command

Button

Draw => Arc

Ribbon/Application
Home = > Arc

To create an arc, you can specify combination of center, endpoint , start point , radius , angle
, chord length , and direction values. Except the first method , arcs are drawn
counterclockwise from the start point to the endpoint.
The following options are displayed:

ELLIPSE :
Command

Button

EL

Ribbon/Application

## Home = > Ellipse

The shape of ellipse is just an oblong or an oval , with the major and minor axis .
The following prompts are displayed :
Specify axis endpoint of ellipse or [Arc/Center/Isocircle]: Specify a point or enter an option
ARC : It creates an elliptical arc. The angle of the first axis determines the angle of the elliptical arc.
The first axis can define either the major or the minor axis depending on its size. The first two points
of the elliptical arc determines the location and length of the first axis. The third point determines the
distance between the center of the elliptical arc and the endpoint of the second axis. The fourth and
fifth points are the start and end angles.
ISO CIRCLE: Creates an isometric circle in the current isometric drawing plane.
Note : The Isocircle option is available only when you set the Style option of SNAP to Isometric

ERASE :
Command

Button

Ribbon/Application

## Modify => Erase

Home = >Modify
=> Erase

Erase helps to remove the objects from a drawing . To erase the unwanted objects;

## Activate the command

At the select objects prompt, use a selection method to select the objects to be erased
or enter an option
Press Enter to end th command

Note : Use the OOPS command to restore objects erased by the ERASE command .

MOVE :
Command

Button

Ribbon/Application

## Home = >Modify =>

Move

The move tool is used to move one or more objects from their current location to new location
without changing their size or orientation.
COPY :
Command

Button

CO

Ribbon/Application

## Home = >Modify =>

Copy

The copy tool allows to copy an existing object. This tool is used to make copies of the selected
objects and placed them at specified location.
ROTATE :
Command

RO

Button

Ribbon/Application

## Home = >Modify =>

Rotate

While creating designs sometimes we have to rotate an object or group of objects. This
requirement can be accomplished by using rotate tool

MIRROR:
Command

Button

MI

Ribbon/Application

## Home = >Modify =>

Mirror

It creates a mirror image of the selected object. The owner defines two points , along which
AUTO CAD generates a line of reflection and reflected object is generated across this line with
all components are reversed.

DRAFTING SETTINGS:
Command
DS

Status bar

Command entry

Drafting settings contains sets of traditional drafting tools , that helps draw easily.

## Grid and Snap:

Command

Grid F7 ,Snap F9

Status bar

Status bar

To enhance drawing speed and efficiency, you can display and snap the design to a rectangular
grid. You can also control its spacing , angle, and alignment.
Polar Spacing : Controls the polar snap increment distance.
Polar distance: Sets the snap increment distance when polar snap is selected under snap type and
style. If this value is 0 , the polar snap distance assumes the value for snap X spacing. The polar
distance setting is used in conjunction with polar tracking and/or object snap tracking.
If neither of the tracking feature is enabled , the polar distance setting has no effect.
Snap Type :
Rectangular snap : Sets the snap style to standard rectangular snap mode.
Isometric snap : Sets the snap style to isometric snap. When the snap type is set to grid snap and
snap mode is on, the cursor snaps to an isometric snap grid
Polar snap : Sets the snap type to polar. When snap mode is on and you specify points with polar
tracking turned on, the cursor snaps along polar alignment angles set on the polar tracking tab
relative to the starting polar tracking point.
Ortho :
Command

F8

Status bar

Status bar

Polar Tracking :
Command

F10

Status bar

Status bar

## Object Snap and Object Snap tracking :

Command

F3

Status bar

Status bar

The object snaps are drawing aids which are used in conjunction with other commands to help
draw accurately. Osnaps allow to snap onto a specific object location when picking a point.
The following options are displayed :

Dynamic Input :
Command

F12

Status bar

Status bar

It controls pointer input , dimensions input , dynamic prompting and the appearance of drafting
tooltips.

RECTANGLE :
Command

Button

REC

Ribbon/Application

Draw =>
Rectangle

## Home => Rectangle

With this command , you can specify the rectangle parameters ( length , width , rotation ) and
control the type of corners (fillet , chamfer , or square ).
EXPLODE :
Command

Button

Modify => Explode

Ribbon/Application
Home =>Modify

Explodes a compound object when you want to modify its components separately. Objects
that can be exploded include blocks , polylines , and among others.
ARRAY :
Command

Button

ARR

Ribbon/Application

Modify =>
Array

Home
=>Modify=>Array

It creates copies of objects arranged in both 2D as well as 3D pattern. You can create copies
of objects in a regularly spaced rectangular, polar, or path array.
SCALE :
Command

SC

Button

Ribbon/Application

## Modify => Scale

Home
=>Modify=>Scale

It enlarges or reduces selected objects , keeping the proportions of the object the same after
scaling. The objects are selected , and a base point and scaling factor are defined. An easy
way of changing a drawing from meters to millimeters is to scale everything up by a factor of
1000.

STRETCH :
Command

Button

Ribbon/Application

Modify =>
Stretch

Home
=>Modify=>Stretch

This command uses to lengthen object, shorten them and to alter their shapes by a selection
window or polygon. Stretch moves only the vertices and endpoints that lie inside the crossing
selection, leaving those outside unchanged.
LENGTHEN :
Command

LEN

Button

Ribbon/Application

Modify =>
Lengthen

Home
=>Modify=>Lengthen

The lengthen command can often be used instead of either the trim or extend commands.
Indeed the end result is exactly same. The lengthen command can be used to either lengthen
or shorten lines
Delta: This option is used if you want to add or remove extra length to or from current length
. If you input a negative value, the lengthen command will shorten the line.
Percentage : If you want to add or remove from the length specify a percentage of the current
length. The number should be positive , and non- zero. If it is > 100 then object will be
lengthen and if it is < 100 the object will be shorten
Total: Use the total option if you want the new total length of the line to be equal to the
number you input. If the new length is greater than current length the line will lengthen .If
the new length is lesser than the current length, then the line will be shorten.
Dynamic: This option is used to specify a new length of the object using the dynamic
movement of the mouse.

OFFSET :
Command

Button

Ribbon/Application

## Modify => offset

Home
=>Modify=>offset

This command creates concentric circles, parallel lines and parallel curve at a specified offset
distance.
TRIM :
Command

Button

TR

Ribbon/Application

## Modify => Trim

Home
=>Modify=>Trim

The trim command shortens an object so that it ends precisely at a certain boundary.
Select the objects that define the cutting edge to which you want to trim an object, or press
enter to select all displayed objects as potential cutting edges.
EXTEND :
Command

Button

EX

Ribbon/Application

Modify =>
Extend

Home
=>Modify=>Extend

The extend command allows to increase the length of an object within the limits of object
definition.
CHAMFER :
Command

CHA

Button

Ribbon/Application

Modify =>
Chamfer

Home
=>Modify=>Chamfer

The chamfer command draws a straight line segment between two given lines. Chamfer is
the name for machining process of flattening a sharp corner to create a beveled edge.

FILLET :
Command

Button

Ribbon/Application

## Modify => Fillet

Home
=>Modify=>Fillet

POLYLINE :(PL) The PLINE command allows you to create grouped objects that can be
extruded , given line width on the screen, and can contain arc segments. A polyline is an
object in AutoCAD that consists of one or more line(or arc) segments.
SPLINE : (SPL) To create curves in autocad you can use spline command. Spline can be
drawn by specifying series of fit data pointst hrough which the curve passes.
XLINE :(XL) : Lines that extends to infinity in one or both directions known as rays and
construction lines , respectively can be used as reference for creating other objects.
ZOOM (Z) The zoom tool is used to enlarge or to reduce view on the screen without
affecting the actual size of entities.
PAN(Z) Often you cannot see the entire drawing on the screen. So you need a way to see that
part of the drawing which is currently not visible. The Pan means to move the display
without changing the magnification.
LINETYPE(LT) A non continuous line type is a repetition pattern of dots, dashes, and
spaces. Line type can also include repeating texts or shapes.
LINE WEIGHT (LW) : Line weight let you represent objects with varying line width. The
width can represent the width of a pen.
PROPERTIES (PR) :
As mentioned earlier each object has properties associated with color, linetype, line weight
and so on .You can modify these properties by using properties palette. It displays the
properties of the selected objects or a set of objects.

LAYERS :
Layer is a concept that allows grouping of drawn geometry in distinct and separate categories
according to similar features and a common theme. This allows control over drawing, by
applying properties to the layers such as assigning colors and linetypes. You can also
manipulate each individual layer making it visible and invisible for clarity as well as being
able to lock them to prevent editing.
Alt+N => New Layer
Switch ON/OFF a particular layer
Freeze a particular layer
Lock / Unlock a particular layer
Change the Color , Linetype , Line weight , Transparency for each particular layer
Plot style = > When we take a print out we can switch off that layer

The below is an example for creating different types of layers with different colors , linetypes ,
transparency , etc..

## New Property filter :

Search already created layers based on colors , line types , transparency.
New Group filter :
Create a group of layers under one group , that means we can change or alter different layers at a
time .
Layer States manager :
Whenever you want to save the layers of current project and if we want to load on the same
layers in to the current project.

LAYERS RIBBONS :
1. Layer properties : Layers dialog box appears.
2. Set objects layer to current : To set the object layer as current layer.
3. Match : Click on the options match , and select the required object that wanted to be
changed then enter. After that select the destination of that layer, then automatically the
layer will change as per the requirements.
4. Previous : If we want to go to the previous layer.
5. Isolate : Locks all the layers except the selected layers.
6. Un isolate : To undo the isolate operations.
7. Freeze : To freeze layers means hide the layers directly from the layers ribbon.
8. Turn all layers ON : To turn ON the all locked layers.
9. Thaw all layers : To unfrozen the layers.
10. Change to current layer : Selected objects changed to current layer.
11. Copy objects to new layer : Change the selected layer properties to the another layer.
12. Layer Walk : To view all layers in that we can navigate individual layers.
13. Merge : Convert all similar layers .
Ex) Color to another layer or destination on selected layer.
14 . Delete : If we want to delete my particular layer.
OBJECT SELECTION METHODS :
1.
2.
3.
4.

## Drag left to right , we have to select total object.

Drag right to left , even small portion selected then total object is selected
Ctrl +A => Total objects will be selected.
Left Click :
Specify opposite corner or [ Fence W polygon C polygon]
Fence : We have to draw a line by intersecting that object then only that object will be
selected.
W polygon : We have to create a polygon area in such a way that the required selected
objects should be within that polygon.
C polygon : Creates a polygon area even with slight selection those objects are selected.
Q Select : Select any object based on single property

FILTERS : ( FI)
Select the objects based on multiple properties ( Color, Radius , etc )

BLOCK (B) :
A block is a collection of objects ( lines , arcs , circles , text , etc..) that form a more complex
entity that normally resents an object in the real world , e.g a door , a chair , window , or a
computer.

There are many advantages of using blocks , the major ones being described as follows :

Blocks are a single entity. This means that you can modify (move , copy , rotate ) a block
by selecting only one object in it.
You can build up a library of blocks consisting of the parts that you require many times
in your workday. These blocks can be stored in a separate folder and even on a network
so that all drafters have access to them. Think of plumbing parts , valves , elbows , etc.
Using blocks can help keep your file size down. Autocad stores block definitions in its
database. When you insert a block, Auto CAD only stores the name of the block, its
location (insertion point), scale and rotation. This can be very noticeably in large
drawings.
If you wish to change something, you can redefine a block.
Blocks can contain non graphical information, which are text objects called attributes .
For instance you have made blocks of different chairs. You can add information to the
block such as the manufacturer cost, weight, etc..

INSERT : (I) :
The following options are displayed.

ISOMETRIC VIEWS
The most common type of pictorial drawing used in the drafting industry is the isometric
drawing. This supplement focuses on tools and drawing aids that help you create 2D isometric
views that look 3D , as if the object tilts towards you . However , a 3D model provides a better
way to display isometric views, for most applications.
The isometric snap/Grid mode helps you create 2D isometric images that represent 3D objects.
By setting the isometric snap/Grid you can easily align objects along one of three isometric
planes; the isometric drawing appears to be 3D although it is actually a 2D representation.
Therefore you cannot expect to extract 3D distances and areas , display objects from different
viewpoints or remove hidden lines automatically.
Isometric Circles :
It represents circles on isometric planes using ellipses. If you are drawing on isometric planes ,
use an ellipse to represent a circle viewed from an oblique angle.
HATCH (H) :
Drafters and designers use repeating patterns called hatching to fill regions in a drawing for
various purposes. In a cross section view hatch patterns helps the viewer differentiate between
components of an assembly and indicate the material of each.
HATCHEDIT (HE):
Modifies hatch- specific properties , such as pattern , scale , and angle for an existing hatch or
fill.
A gradient fill is a solid hatch fill that gives the blended color effect of a surface with light on it.
The color is gradient fill makes a smooth transitions from light to dark or from dark to light.

2D DRAWING EXERCISE -1
Aim : To create a 2D view of the given diagram using Auto CAD.

Procedure :
1.
2.
3.
4.

## Type limits in command menu and set value to 200, 200.

Change the units to mm from inches and also precision to 0 by clicking format ->units->ok
Z- Enter and A- Enter to zooms to display all visible objects and visual aids.
Draw the 3 concentric circles with diameter 54, 74 , 94 and change the line type of 74 diameter
circle in to ISO dot and set scale factor as 0.25.

## To change the line type LT enter for line type manager

Go to Load and select ISO dot and change the global scale factor to 0.25.

5. Draw a construction line or XLINE (or) XL Enter A enter---60 enterwith the same previous
ISO dot Line Type, Which is as shown in figure.
6. Change the Line type ISO dot to BY LAYER on the top of the screen under properties ribbon
and Draw a circle of diameter 12 on this construction line which is as shown in figure.

7. By taking Array (AR Enter ) Polar Array Items 6 Enter which is as shown in figure.

8. Again change the Line Type from BY LAYER to ISO dot and draw the circle of radius 100
which is as shown in the figure.

9. Change the Line type to BY LAYER and Draw the two circles of radius 12 and 23 at the
intersection of 100 radius circle and 30 deg construction line which is as shown in the figure.

10. Offset the 100 radius circle with offset distance 23 ,And now change the line type of these two
circles to BY LAYER by double clicking on that particular circle and change the line type and
Trim the unwanted portion .

11. Repeat the same procedure of offsetting circle of radius 100 with offset distance 12 and change
the line types of that circles and trim the unwanted portions which is as shown in the figure.

12. Draw two lines of distance 18 from center axis and by taking fillet command draw arcs of radius
9 and 10 and trim the unwanted portion and we get the final required 2 D diagram which is as
shown in the figure and add dimensions to the above diagram . This completes the required 2D
diagram .

2D DRAWING EXERCISE -2
Aim : To create a 2D view of the given diagram using autocad

Procedure:
1. Type the limits in command menu and set values to 300,300.
2. Change the units to mm from inches and also precision to 0 by clicking format->units->ok
3. Z- Enter and A- Enter to zooms to display all visible objects and visual aids

4. Draw the circles of diameter 32 , 62 , and 85 and change the line type of 62 diameter
circle to ISO dot and set global scale factor as 0.25, which is as shown in the figure.

5. Change the Line type to BY LAYER and draw the center lines and draw circle of
diameter 14 and take array command select the circle and select polar array and no. of
items as 6 Which is as shown in the figure.

6. Offset the vertical center line with offset distance 4 and draw two lines and trim the
unwanted portion which is as shown in the figure.

## 7. Now draw a XLINE and take angle of 30 deg

8. Offset the the obtained line with offset distance 4 and trim unwanted portions and repeat
this by taking another XLINE with an angle of 150 deg and the obtained figure as shown
in the figure.

## 9. Draw a circles of dia 12 and radius 14 which is at a distance of 47 horizontally and 52

vertically and mirror to the other side of the center line and mirror the obtained four
circles to the upper side of the center line , which is as shown in the figure.

10. Draw line tangents to the circles and add fillets of radius 12 and we get the required 2D
Figure add dimensions .This is the required 2D diagram.

2D DRAWING EXERCISE -3

## Aim : To create a 2D view of the given diagram using autocad.

Procedure:
1. Type the limits in command menu and set values to 300,300.
2. Change the units to mm from inches and also precision to 0 by clicking format->units->ok
3. Z- Enter and A- Enter to zooms to display all visible objects and visual aids

4. Draw two circles of diameter 40 and 58 and copy the 58 dia circle which is at a distance
of 68 and draw a circle of diameter 36 with this center point, which is as shown in the
figure.

5. Take center lines for both the circles and draw a circle of dia 10 on 40 diameter circle
and array it with 8 no.of items. And draw the circle of diameter 8 on the 36 diameter
circle and array it with 6 no. of items. Which is as shown in the figure .

Change the line type of center lines by LT enter load centerand set the global scale
factor as 2.
6. Draw another circle of diameter 22 and radius 20 which is at a distance of 34 and mirror
the circle of radius 20. And draw the circle of diameter with this new center as shown in
the figure.

7. Draw line tangents to the circles and add fillets of radius 15 trim the unwanted portions
to get the required figure as shown below and add dimensions . This is the required 2D
diagram.

2D DRAWING EXERCISE -4

Procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.

## Type the limits in command menu and set values to 45, 45

Change the units to mm from inches and also precision to 0 by clicking format->units->ok
Z- Enter and A- Enter to zooms to display all visible objects and visual aids
Draw the circles of diameter 1 , 2 and radius 3 circles . change the line type for circle 3 with ISO
dash with global scale factor 0.125. Take XLINE with angle 40 deg with the horizontal axis which
is as shown in figure.

5. Draw circles of radius 0.50 and 1.00 at the intersection of the 40 deg line and circle of radius 3.
Draw another two circles of radius 0.50 and 1.0 at the intersection of the horizontal axis and circle
of radius 3.0. offset the circle of radius 3.0 with offset distance 0.50 and 1.0 and trim the unwanted
portions . And draw required arcs of radius 5 and fillet 3 which is as shown in figure add
dimensions to the above figure .This completes the task and we get the required 2D diagram ,
Which is as shown in the figure.

2D DRAWING EXERCISE -5

Procedure:
1. Type the limits in command menu and set values to 490,297
2. Change the units to mm from inches and also precision to 0 by clicking format->units->ok
3. Z- Enter and A- Enter to zooms to display all visible objects and visual aids

4. Draw the circles of diameter 50 , 68 , and 85. Change the line type for circle of diameter
68 from BY LAYER to ISO dash with global scale factor 0.50. With the line type as ISO
dash draw construction lines of angle 45 deg and 315 deg , which is as shown in figure.

5. Draw a circle of diameter 8 and array this circle with 8 no. of items. Draw another circle
of radius 70 change this line type to ISO dash and draw 3 circles of diameter 22 as shown
in figure and add dimensions this completes the task . Remove unwanted portions . This
is our required 2D diagram.

2D DRAWING EXERCISE -6

Procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.

## Type the limits in command menu and set values to 30,30

Change the units to mm from inches and also precision to 0 by clicking format->units->ok
Z- Enter and A- Enter to zooms to display all visible objects and visual aids.
Take line command from draw toolbar and draw a line of 6.50

## 5. Draw two vertical lines each of 1.00 which is as shown in figure.

6. Start drawing another line of 3.50 which is at a distance of 1.50 horizontally and 1.00 vertically
from the start point for this use the command tk wnter and specify horizontal distance 1.50 and
vertical distance 1.00.

## 7. Draw two vertical lines of 1.00 which is as shown in figure.

8. Draw another two horizontal lines of 1.25 from both ends which is as shown in figure.

## 11. Draw two inclined lines which is as shown in figure.

12. This completes the required 2D diagram and add dimensions to the above diagram.

ISOMETRIC EXERCISE-1
Aim : To create a 2D isometric view of the given diagram using Auto CAD.

Procedure :
1. ELLIPSE = >
Specify axis endpoint of ellipse or [Arc/Center/Isocircle]:i
Specify center of circle:
Specify radius of isocircle or[Diameter]: <Isoplane Left> <Isoplane Top> 25

## 2. Create isocircles with the following radius and center point.

Isocircle 1 = 23
Isocircle 2 = 22
Isocircle 3 = 20
Isocircle 4 = 19
Isocircle 5 = 17
Isocircle 6 = 16
Isocircle 7 = 14

Isocircle 8 = 13
Isocircle 9 = 11
Isocircle 10 =10

3. LINE :
Creates line as shown in top view.

Use the line command and draw from one level to other as shown below.

Let the lines to cross the circle all the time and after completing the lines use trim
command to trim all the lines and extra part of circles.
With this we get the required 2D Isometric Drawing.

ISOMETRIC EXERCISE-2
Aim : To create a 2D isometric view of the given diagram using Auto CAD.
Procedure :
LINE =>Specify first point:
Specify next point or[undo]:25
Specify next point or[undo]:5
Specify next point or[undo/Close]:10
Specify next point or[undo/Close]:10
Specify next point or[undo/Close]:10
Specify next point or[undo/Close]:C

## LINE : => Specify first point:

Specify next point or[undo]:10
Specify next point or[undo]:10
Specify next point or[undo/Close]:10

## Specify next point or[undo]: <Isoplane Top>10

Specify next point or[undo/Close]:10
Specify next point or[undo/Close]:: <Isoplane Right > 10
Specify next point or[undo/Close]:C

## LINE = > Specify first point :

Specify next point or [Undo] : <Isoplane Right >15
Specify next point or [Undo]: 15

## ELLIPSE => Specify axis endpoint of ellipse or [Arc/Center/Isocircle]:

Specify center of Iso circle :TRA First tracking point:
Next point :[Press ENTER to end tracking]: <Isoplane Left >5
Next point [Press ENTER to end tracking]
Specify radius of isocircle or [Diameter]:2
This completes the required 2D isometric drawing;

ISOMETRIC EXERCISE-3
Aim : To create a 2D isometric view of the given diagram using AutoCAD .
Procedure :
1. Draw the figure like shown below using line command and F5 to change orientation .

2. Next complete the figure by taking line command and F5 to change the orientation.

## 3. This is the required 2D Isometric drawing .

EXAMPLE ON LAYERS :
Create the different layers with different colors , line weights , line types transparency , etc like
show below.

Now draw the required Drawing Using Layers, Which is as shown below.

EXAMPLE ON BLOCKS
Directions :
1. Create the following symbol as blocks assuming proportionate dimensions.
2. Define the insertion base point marks with x marks in the following drawings.
3. Use the defined blocks and construct a pneumatic circuit diagram for DRILL SPINDLE
automation as given on the next page.
4. Save and close the drawing.

1--Cylinder

3--5/2 DC VALVE

4-- TIMER

7--SHUTTLE VALVE

6--CHECK VALVE

10--LIMIT SWITCH

## How to convert From 2D to 3D :

1]

2]

3]

3D exercise 1:
Aim : To create a solid model using AuroCAD 3D

Procedure :
1. Draw the required shape with polyline command I,e PL enter .

## 2. Convert this diagram to 3D and extrude up to 3 units.

3.

Change view to hidden and marks the points which is required as per the diagram.And completes the

figure.