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SECTION III – EXERCISES - SOLUTIONS

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III.3. Find the poles of and classify the following processes as being stable (asymptotically or

critically), or unstable,

1

(3s + 1)( s + 1)

1

g 2 ( s) =

(3s + s )( s + 2)

1

g 3 ( s) = 3

3s + s 2 + s + 1

1

g 4 ( s) = 4

s + 4s 3 + 4s 2 + 2s + 1

g1 ( s ) =

Solution:

The roots of each denominator polynomial are given as follows, along with their classification:

p1 ( s ) = (3s + 1)( s + 1); s1,2 = 1 / 3,1 : two negative real roots, thus asymptotically stable.

p 2 ( s ) = (3s 2 + s )( s + 2); s1,2,3 = 0,1 / 3,2 : two negative real roots plus one root at the origin,

thus critically stable.

p 3 ( s ) = 3s 3 + s 2 + s + 1; s1,2,3 = 0.635,0.1508 0.706 j : one negative real root and two

complex conjugate roots with positive real parts, thus unstable.

and two complex conjugate roots with negative real parts, thus asymptotically

stable.

1

y(s)

= 2

u ( s) 4s + s + 2

Introduce a step change of magnitude 5 into the system and find, (a) % overshoot, (b) decay

ratio, (c) maximum value of y (t ) , (d) ultimate value of y (t ) , (e) rise time, and (f) period of

oscillation.

Solution:

Write the transfer function in the standard form and find the factors and .

1

y( s)

1

K

2

=

=

=

2

2

2

u ( s ) 4s + s + 2 2 s 2 + 1 s + 1 s + 2s + 1

2

Hence = 1.414 sec, and = 0.177. Therefore, this system is underdamped.

Overshoot = exp(

1 2

) = 0.5684

2

sec

= 9.02

Period of Oscillation(T ) =

cycle

1 2

The ultimate value is calculated using final value theorem.

5s

) = 2.5

yultimate = lim ( sy ( s )) = lim ( sg ( s )u ( s )) = lim (

2

s 0

s 0

s 0 (4 s + s + 2) s

Maximum value is

ymax imum = (1 + overshoot ) yultimate = 3.92

Rise time can be found either by iterating Y(t) expression or by visual inspection from the

response plot.

rise = 2.44 sec

III.10. A step change of magnitude 4 is introduced into a process having the transfer function:

y( s)

10

= 2

u ( s ) s + 1.6s + 4

Obtain the output response by simulation and determine:

Percent overshoot

Rise time

Settling time

Period of oscillation

Ultimate value of y(t).

Solution:

14

12

10

3.0

6

10

Percent overshoot:

%Overshoot =

12.6 10.1

100 = 24.75%

10.1

Settling time: 4.5

Period of oscillation: 3.0

Ultimate value of y(t): 10

III.12. A two-tank flow-surge system is given in Figure III.1, along with the block diagram

representing the approximate dynamics of the system.

qi

h1

q1

R1

h2

q2

R2

Qi(s)

Q1(s)

1

5s + 1

1

4s + 1

Q2(s)

Figure III.1: A two-tank surge process (a) and its transfer function model (b).

(a) What is the response q 2 (t ) to a step input of magnitude 0.5 m3/min in qi (t ) if the

system is initially at steady-state corresponding to qi = q1 = q2 = 1 m3 / min .

(b) The head-flow relations for the tanks are

q1 =

5m 3 / min

2m 3 / min

h1 , q 2 =

h2

m

m

What are the ultimate values of each tank level after 1 m3 of liquid is suddenly added to the first

tank? Why?

Solution:

The transfer function between the input flow rate and the exit flow rate is given by,

Q' 2 (s)

1

=

Q' i (s) (5s + 1)(4s + 1)

If there is a step change in the input flow rate, the exit flow rate will be given as,

Q' 2 (s) =

1

0.5

(5s + 1)(4s + 1) s

Either using the partial fraction expansions, or the formulas for second-order process responses,

we can find the time-domain response of the exit flow rate. We shall use the latter,

1e t / 1 2 e t / 2

q ' ( t ) = KM 1

1 2

.

). The

result is,

q ( t ) = 1 + 0.5(1 5e t /5 + 4e t / 4 )

For part (b), we need to first find the transfer functions between the inlet flow rate and the levels

in each tank.

=

=

Q' i (s) Q'1 (s) Q' i (s) 5 5s + 1

H ' 2 (s) H ' 2 (s) Q' 2 (s) 1

1

=

=

Q' i (s) Q' 2 (s) Q' i (s) 2 (5s + 1)(4s + 1)

The disturbance for this case is an impulse of magnitude 1. Hence the level responses will look

like,

1 1

(1)

5 5s + 1

1

1

H ' 2 (s) =

(1)

2 (5s + 1)(4s + 1)

H '1 (s) =

Using the Final Value Theorem, we can find the ultimate values of these levels,

1 1

(1) = 0

s 0

s 0 5 5s + 1

1

1

(1) = 0

s 0

s 0 2 (5s + 1)( 4s + 1)

This means that the levels go back to their original height after a transient deviation, as a result

of the fact that the levels act like self-regulating processes.

III.13. The dynamic behavior of a drum boiler can be represented by the following transfer

function between the liquid level and the cold water feed,

H ( s ) ( 1) s + 1

=

Qin ( s )

s (s + 1)

Plot the poles and zeros of this transfer function in the complex plane for two cases:

= 0.5

= 2.0

For each case sketch the level response to a step change in the cold water flow rate.

Solution:

The transfer functions for each case are given below,

H (s)

0.5s + 1

=

CASE 1

Q in (s) s(0.5s + 1)

H (s)

s+1

=

CASE 2

Q in (s) s(2s + 1)

It can be seen that the pole-zero locations for each case are:

z = 2, p 1 = 0, p 2 = 2

CASE 1

z = 1, p 1 = 0, p 2 = 0.5 CASE 2

and graphically this is shown in Figure III.S5,

Im

Im

z=-1

p=-2

p=0

z=2

Real

p=-0.5

p=0

Real

CASE 2

CASE 1

time

In Figure III.S6, note the presence of the wrong-way behavior due to the right-half-plane zero for

CASE 1 and essentially unbounded response due to the presence of the integrator (pole at the

origin).

III.14. An exothermic chemical reactor has the following transfer function relationship between

the inlet flow rate and the reactor temperature.

g (s) =

2(2.5s + 1)

9 s 2 + 3s + 1

The units of the input are liters/min and the output is in degrees C. Is this system overdamped or

underdamped? Does this system exhibit overshoot when subjected to a unit-step change in the

input? If yes, what is the percent overshoot? What is the ultimate value of the output? Sketch

the system response for this input and provide an explanation for the dynamic behavior observed.

Solution:

This is a second order system and the denominator is in the following form,

2 s 2 + 2s + 1 = 9s 2 3s + 1

This indicates the following constants:

= 3, = 0.5

Hence, this is an underdamped system. By virtue of being an underdamped system, the system

will exhibit overshoot. The overshoot can be calculated using the following formula:

overshoot = exp

= 0.163

The ultimate value of this system when subjected to a unit-step change can be calculated by the

Final Value Theorem.

2(2.5s + 1) 1

lim 2

s = 2

s 0 9 s + 3s + 1 s

A sketch of the step-response is given in Figure III.S7.

S tep Re s pon s e

Am plitu de

1.5

0.5

-0.5

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

Time (s ec.)

It is clear that the system exhibits inverse response, as indicated by the RHP zero, and the

ultimate value is reached after decaying oscillations.

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