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SECTION III EXERCISES - SOLUTIONS

III.3. Find the poles of and classify the following processes as being stable (asymptotically or
critically), or unstable,
1
(3s + 1)( s + 1)
1
g 2 ( s) =
(3s + s )( s + 2)
1
g 3 ( s) = 3
3s + s 2 + s + 1
1
g 4 ( s) = 4
s + 4s 3 + 4s 2 + 2s + 1
g1 ( s ) =

Explain your decisions.

Solution:
The roots of each denominator polynomial are given as follows, along with their classification:

p1 ( s ) = (3s + 1)( s + 1); s1,2 = 1 / 3,1 : two negative real roots, thus asymptotically stable.
p 2 ( s ) = (3s 2 + s )( s + 2); s1,2,3 = 0,1 / 3,2 : two negative real roots plus one root at the origin,
thus critically stable.
p 3 ( s ) = 3s 3 + s 2 + s + 1; s1,2,3 = 0.635,0.1508 0.706 j : one negative real root and two
complex conjugate roots with positive real parts, thus unstable.

p 4 ( s ) = s 4 + 4 s 3 + 4 s 2 + 2 s + 1; s1,2,3,4 = 1,2.77,0.1154 0.5897 j : two negative real roots


and two complex conjugate roots with negative real parts, thus asymptotically
stable.

III.8. Consider a second-order process represented by the transfer function,

1
y(s)
= 2
u ( s) 4s + s + 2
Introduce a step change of magnitude 5 into the system and find, (a) % overshoot, (b) decay
ratio, (c) maximum value of y (t ) , (d) ultimate value of y (t ) , (e) rise time, and (f) period of
oscillation.
Solution:

Write the transfer function in the standard form and find the factors and .
1

y( s)
1
K
2
=
=
=
2
2
2
u ( s ) 4s + s + 2 2 s 2 + 1 s + 1 s + 2s + 1
2
Hence = 1.414 sec, and = 0.177. Therefore, this system is underdamped.

Overshoot = exp(

1 2

) = 0.5684

DecayRatio = (Overshoot ) 2 = 0.323


2
sec
= 9.02
Period of Oscillation(T ) =
cycle
1 2
The ultimate value is calculated using final value theorem.
5s
) = 2.5
yultimate = lim ( sy ( s )) = lim ( sg ( s )u ( s )) = lim (
2
s 0
s 0
s 0 (4 s + s + 2) s
Maximum value is
ymax imum = (1 + overshoot ) yultimate = 3.92
Rise time can be found either by iterating Y(t) expression or by visual inspection from the
response plot.
rise = 2.44 sec

III.10. A step change of magnitude 4 is introduced into a process having the transfer function:

y( s)
10
= 2
u ( s ) s + 1.6s + 4
Obtain the output response by simulation and determine:
Percent overshoot
Rise time
Settling time
Period of oscillation
Ultimate value of y(t).

Solution:

The response is given in Figure III.S4.

14

12

10

3.0
6

10

Figure III.S4: The step-response of transfer function in Exercise III.10.

From Figure III.S4, we can establish the following quantities:

Percent overshoot:

%Overshoot =

12.6 10.1
100 = 24.75%
10.1

Rise time: 1.2


Settling time: 4.5
Period of oscillation: 3.0
Ultimate value of y(t): 10

III.12. A two-tank flow-surge system is given in Figure III.1, along with the block diagram
representing the approximate dynamics of the system.

qi

h1
q1
R1

h2
q2
R2

Qi(s)

Q1(s)

1
5s + 1

1
4s + 1

Q2(s)

Figure III.1: A two-tank surge process (a) and its transfer function model (b).

(a) What is the response q 2 (t ) to a step input of magnitude 0.5 m3/min in qi (t ) if the
system is initially at steady-state corresponding to qi = q1 = q2 = 1 m3 / min .
(b) The head-flow relations for the tanks are

q1 =

5m 3 / min
2m 3 / min
h1 , q 2 =
h2
m
m

What are the ultimate values of each tank level after 1 m3 of liquid is suddenly added to the first
tank? Why?

Solution:
The transfer function between the input flow rate and the exit flow rate is given by,

Q' 2 (s)
1
=
Q' i (s) (5s + 1)(4s + 1)
If there is a step change in the input flow rate, the exit flow rate will be given as,
Q' 2 (s) =

1
0.5
(5s + 1)(4s + 1) s

Either using the partial fraction expansions, or the formulas for second-order process responses,
we can find the time-domain response of the exit flow rate. We shall use the latter,

1e t / 1 2 e t / 2

q ' ( t ) = KM 1
1 2

where KM=0.5, and 1 = 5, 2 = 4 , as this is a slightly overdamped process ( = 1006


.
). The
result is,
q ( t ) = 1 + 0.5(1 5e t /5 + 4e t / 4 )
For part (b), we need to first find the transfer functions between the inlet flow rate and the levels
in each tank.

H '1 (s) H '1 (s) Q'1 (s) 1 1


=
=
Q' i (s) Q'1 (s) Q' i (s) 5 5s + 1
H ' 2 (s) H ' 2 (s) Q' 2 (s) 1
1
=
=
Q' i (s) Q' 2 (s) Q' i (s) 2 (5s + 1)(4s + 1)
The disturbance for this case is an impulse of magnitude 1. Hence the level responses will look
like,
1 1
(1)
5 5s + 1
1
1
H ' 2 (s) =
(1)
2 (5s + 1)(4s + 1)
H '1 (s) =

Using the Final Value Theorem, we can find the ultimate values of these levels,
1 1

lim(sH '1 (s)) = lim s


(1) = 0

s 0
s 0 5 5s + 1
1
1

lim(sH ' 2 (s)) = lim s


(1) = 0
s 0
s 0 2 (5s + 1)( 4s + 1)

This means that the levels go back to their original height after a transient deviation, as a result
of the fact that the levels act like self-regulating processes.

III.13. The dynamic behavior of a drum boiler can be represented by the following transfer
function between the liquid level and the cold water feed,
H ( s ) ( 1) s + 1
=
Qin ( s )
s (s + 1)
Plot the poles and zeros of this transfer function in the complex plane for two cases:
= 0.5
= 2.0
For each case sketch the level response to a step change in the cold water flow rate.

Solution:
The transfer functions for each case are given below,

H (s)
0.5s + 1
=
CASE 1
Q in (s) s(0.5s + 1)
H (s)
s+1
=
CASE 2
Q in (s) s(2s + 1)
It can be seen that the pole-zero locations for each case are:
z = 2, p 1 = 0, p 2 = 2
CASE 1
z = 1, p 1 = 0, p 2 = 0.5 CASE 2
and graphically this is shown in Figure III.S5,
Im

Im

z=-1
p=-2

p=0

z=2

Real

p=-0.5

p=0

Figure III.S5: Pole-zero locations for Exercise III.13.

The responses are given in Figure III.S6.

Real

CASE 2

CASE 1

time

Figure III.S6: Responses for Exercise III.13.


In Figure III.S6, note the presence of the wrong-way behavior due to the right-half-plane zero for
CASE 1 and essentially unbounded response due to the presence of the integrator (pole at the
origin).

III.14. An exothermic chemical reactor has the following transfer function relationship between
the inlet flow rate and the reactor temperature.
g (s) =

2(2.5s + 1)
9 s 2 + 3s + 1

The units of the input are liters/min and the output is in degrees C. Is this system overdamped or
underdamped? Does this system exhibit overshoot when subjected to a unit-step change in the
input? If yes, what is the percent overshoot? What is the ultimate value of the output? Sketch
the system response for this input and provide an explanation for the dynamic behavior observed.

Solution:
This is a second order system and the denominator is in the following form,
2 s 2 + 2s + 1 = 9s 2 3s + 1
This indicates the following constants:

= 3, = 0.5

Hence, this is an underdamped system. By virtue of being an underdamped system, the system
will exhibit overshoot. The overshoot can be calculated using the following formula:


overshoot = exp
= 0.163

The ultimate value of this system when subjected to a unit-step change can be calculated by the
Final Value Theorem.
2(2.5s + 1) 1
lim 2
s = 2
s 0 9 s + 3s + 1 s

A sketch of the step-response is given in Figure III.S7.

S tep Re s pon s e

Am plitu de

1.5

0.5

-0.5
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

Time (s ec.)

Figure III.S7: Step-response for the system in Exercise III.14.

It is clear that the system exhibits inverse response, as indicated by the RHP zero, and the
ultimate value is reached after decaying oscillations.