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UNSYMMETRICAL

FAULTS

updated 11/11/13

11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

Introductory Comments

Most of the faults that occur on power systems are unsymmetrical
faults, which may consist of unsymmetrical short circuits,
unsymmetrical faults through impedances, or open conductors.

Unsymmetrical faults occur as single line-to-ground faults, line-to-
line faults, or double line-to-ground faults. The path of the fault
current from line to line or line to ground may or may not contain
impedance. One or two open conductors result in unsymmetrical
faults, through either the breaking of one or two conductors or the
acHon of fuses and other devices that may not open the three
phases simultaneously.

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Introductory Comments

Since any unsymmetrical fault causes unbalanced currents to ow in
the system, the method of symmetrical components is very used in
the analysis to determine the currents and voltages in all parts of
the system aLer the occurrence of the fault.

We will consider faults on a power system by applying Thvenin's
theorem, which allows us to nd the current in the fault by
replacing the enHre system by a single generator and series
impedance, and we will show how the bus impedance matrix is
applied to the analysis of unsymmetrical faults.

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Unsymmetrical Faults

In the derivaHon of equaHons for the symmetrical components of
currents and voltages in a general network the currents owing out
of the original balanced system from phases a , b, and c at the fault
point will be designated as Ia, lb, and lc, respecHvely. We can
visualize these currents by as follows:

a
I fa


b

I fb

c
I fc

This shows the three lines a, b, and c of the three-phase system at
the part of the network where the fault occurs. The ow of current
from each line into the fault is indicated by arrows shown beside
hypotheHcal stubs connected to each line at the fault locaHon.
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Unsymmetrical Faults

Appropriate connecHons of the stubs represent the various types of
fault. For instance, direct connecHon of stubs b and c produces a
line-to-line fault through zero impedance.

The current in stub a is then zero, and lb equals - lc.

The line-to-ground voltages at any bus j of the system during the
fault will be designated Vja, Vjb and Vjc and we shall conHnue to use
superscripts 1, 2, and 0, respecHvely, to denote posiHve-, negaHve-,
and zero-sequence quanHHes.

Thus, for example, V(1)ja, V(2)jb and V(0)jc will denote, respecHvely, the
posiHve-, negaHve-, and zero-sequence components of the line-to-
ground voltage Vja at bus j during the fault.
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Unsymmetrical Faults

The line-to-neutral voltage of phase a at the fault point before the
fault occurs will be designated simply by Vf, which is a posiHve-
sequence voltage since the system is balanced.

We considered the prefault voltage Vf previously when calculaHng
the currents in a power system with a symmetrical three-phase
fault applied.

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Unsymmetrical Faults

Consider a single-line diagram of a power system containing two
synchronous machines. This simple system is suciently general
that the equaHons derived are applicable to any balanced system
regardless of the complexity. The point where a fault is assumed to
occur is marked P, and in this example it is called bus k on the
single-line diagram and in the sequence networks.



P

k



Single line diagram of a balanced three-phase system
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Unsymmetrical Faults


P

k



(1)

I fa


P + k


Vf



(1)

I fa
(1)

Z kk



Reference

PosiKve-Sequence Network

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+
Vf

+
Vka( )
1

Thvenin Equivalent of

PosiKve-Sequence Network
8

Unsymmetrical Faults


P

k



( 2)

I fa


P k





( 2)

I fa
( 2)

Z kk



Reference

NegaKve-Sequence Network

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+
Vka( )
2

Thvenin Equivalent of

NegaKve-Sequence Network
9

Unsymmetrical Faults


P

k



(0)

I fa


P k





(0)

I fa
(0)

Z kk

Reference

Zero-Sequence Network

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+
Vka( )
0

Thvenin Equivalent of

Zero-Sequence Network
10

Unsymmetrical Faults

Machines are represented by their subtransient internal voltages in
series with their subtransient reactances when subtransient fault
condiHons are being studied.

Previously we used the bus impedance matrix composed of
posiHve-sequence impedances to determine currents and voltages
upon the occurrence of a symmetrical three-phase fault. The
method can be easily extended to apply to unsymmetrical faults by
realizing that the negaHve- and zero-sequence networks also can be
represented by bus impedance matrices. The bus impedance matrix
will now be wriben symbolically for the posiHve-, negaHve-, and
zero-sequence networks in the following form

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Unsymmetrical Faults

(0,1,2)
bus =

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0,1,2
Z11( )

(0,1,2)
Z 21

(0,1,2)

Z k1

0,1,2
Z N( 1 )

0,1,2
0,1,2
(0,1,2)
Z12( ) Z1k( ) Z1N

0,1,2
(0,1,2)
(0,1,2)
Z 22
Z 2k
Z 2( N )

(0,1,2)
(0,1,2)
(0,1,2)
Zk 2
Z kk
Z kN

0,1,2
(0,1,2)
(0,1,2)
Z N( 2 ) Z Nk
Z NN

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Unsymmetrical Faults

The Thvenin equivalent circuit between the fault point P and the
reference node in each sequence network can be used for the
analysis.

As before, the voltage source in the posiHve-sequence network and
its Thvenin equivalent circuit is Vf, the prefault voltage to neutral
at the fault point P, which happens to be bus k in this illustraHon.
The Thvenin impedance measured between point P and the
reference node of the posiHve-sequence network is Z(1)kk, and its
value depends on the values of the reactances used in the network.

Recall that subtransient reactances of generators and 1.5 Hmes the
subtransient reactances (or else the transient reactances) of
synchronous motors are the values used in calculaHng the
symmetrical current to be interrupted.
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13

Unsymmetrical Faults

There are no negaHve- or zero-sequence currents owing before
the fault occurs, and the prefault voltages are zero at all buses of
the negaHve- and zero-sequence networks. Therefore, the prefault
voltage between point P and the reference node is zero in the
negaHve- and zero-sequence networks and no electromoHve forces
(emfs) appear in their Thvenin equivalents.

The negaHve- and zero-sequence impedances between point P at
bus k and the reference node in the respecHve networks are
represented by the the impedances Z(2)kk and Z(0)kk, the Diagonal
elements of Z(2)bus and Z(0)bus, respecHvely.

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Unsymmetrical Faults

Since Ifa is the current owing from the system into the fault, its
symmetrical components ow out of the respecHve sequence
networks and their equivalent circuits at point P, as shown.

Thus, the currents I(1)fa, I(2)g and I(0)fc represent injected currents
into the faulted bus k of the posiHve-, negaHve-, and zero-sequence
networks due to the fault.

These current injecHons cause voltage changes at the buses of the
posiHve-, negaHve-, and zero-sequence networks, which can be
calculated from the bus impedance matrices in the manner similare
to what we have done before.

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Unsymmetrical Faults

For instance, due to the injecHon I(1)fa into bus k, the voltage
changes in the posiHve-sequence network of the N-bus system are
given in general terms by:

(1)

V1a
1
V2a( )


=

1
Vka( )


(1)
VNa

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(1)

(1)

(1)

Z1k

Z11

Z12

()
Z 21

()
()
Z 22
Z 2k

()
Z k1
1

Z N( 1)
1

Z k( 2) Z kk( )
1

()
Z N( )2 Z Nk

Z1N
0


1
Z 2( N) 0

1) =
(

1
( ) I

fa
Z kN




(1) 0
Z NN

(1)

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

1 1
Z1k( ) I (fa)
(1) (1)
Z 2k
I fa

(1) (1)
Z kk I fa

(1) (1)
Z Nk
I fa

16

Unsymmetrical Faults

Once again, it is industry pracHce to regard all prefault currents as
being zero and to designate the voltage Vf as the posiHve-sequence
voltage at all buses of the system before the fault occurs. Using
superposiHon, the total posiHve-sequence voltage of phase a at
each bus during the fault is:

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(1)

V1a

1
V2a( )


=

1
Vka( )

(1)
VNa

Vf

Vf


+

Vf



Vf

V1a

1
V2a( )

1
Vka( )


(1)
VNa

(1)

1 1
V f Z1k( ) I (fa)
(1) (1)
V f Z 2k
I fa

(1) (1)
V f Z kk I fa

(1) (1)
V f Z Nk
I fa

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Unsymmetrical Faults



This is the same equaKon as found for symmetrical faults, the only
dierence being the added superscripts and subscripts denoKng
the posiKve-sequence components of the phase a quanKKes.

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Unsymmetrical Faults

The negaHve- and zero-sequence voltage changes due to the
fault at bus k of the N-bus system are similarly wriben with the
superscripts changed accordingly. Because the prefault voltages are
zero in the negaHve- and zero-sequence networks, the voltage
changes express the total negaHve- and zero-sequence voltages
during the fault, namely,

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V1a
( 2)
V2a


=
( 2)
Vka


( 2)
VNa

( 2)

2
2
Z1k( ) I (fa)
( 2) ( 2)
Z 2k
I fa

,
( 2) ( 2)
Z kk I fa

( 2) ( 2)
Z Nk
I fa

V1a
(0)
V2a


=
(0)
Vka


(0)
VNa

(0)

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0
0
Z1k( ) I (fa)
(0) (0)
Z 2k
I fa

(0) (0)
Z kk I fa

(0) (0)
Z Nk
I fa

19

Unsymmetrical Faults

When the fault is at bus k, note that only the entries in columns k of
Z(2)bus and Z(0)bus are involved in the calculaHons of negaHve- and
zero-sequence voltages.

Thus, knowing the symmetrical components I(0)fa, I(1)fa and I(2)fa of
the fault currents at bus k, we can determine the sequence voltages
at any bus j of the system from the jth rows of

1
V1a( )

1
V2a( )


=
(1)
Vka


(1)
VNa

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1 1
V f Z1k( ) I (fa)
(1) (1)
V f Z 2k
I fa

,
(1) (1)
V f Z kk I fa

(1) (1)
V f Z Nk
I fa

2
V1a( )

2
V2a( )


=
( 2)
Vka


( 2)
VNa

2
2
Z1k( ) I (fa)
( 2) ( 2)
Z 2k
I fa

,
( 2) ( 2)
Z kk I fa

( 2) ( 2)
Z Nk
I fa

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0
V1a( )

0
V2a( )


=
(0)
Vka


(0)
VNa

0
0
Z1k( ) I (fa)
(0) (0)
Z 2k
I fa

(0) (0)
Z kk I fa

(0) (0)
Z Nk
I fa

20

Unsymmetrical Faults

That is, during the fault at bus k the voltages at any bus j are:

(0)
(0) (0)
(1)
(1) (1)
( 2)
( 2) ( 2)
V
=
Z
I
,
V
=
V

Z
I
,
V
=
Z
I

ja
jk fa
ja
f
jk fa
ja
jk fa

If the prefault voltage at bus CD is not Vf, then simply replace Vf in
by the actual value of the prefault (posiHve-sequence) voltage at
that bus. Since Vf is by deniHon the actual prefault voltage at the
faulted bus k, we always have at that bus:

(0)
(0) (0)
(1)
(1) (1)
( 2)
( 2) ( 2)
Vka = Z kk I fa , Vka = V f Z kk I fa , Vka = Z kk I fa


and these are the terminal voltage equaHons for the Thvenin
equivalents of the sequence networks previously shown.
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Unsymmetrical Faults

It is important to remember that the currents I(0)fa, I(1)fa and I(2)fa are
symmetrical-component currents in the stubs hypotheHcally
abached to the system at the fault point.

These currents take on values determined by the parHcular type of
fault being studied, and once they have been calculated, they
can be regarded as negaHve injecHons into the corresponding
sequence networks.

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22

Unsymmetrical Faults

If the system has -Y transformers, some of the sequence voltages
may have to be shiLed in phase angle before being combined with
other components to form the new bus voltages of the faulted
system. There are no phase shiLs involved in


0
0
0
1
1 1
2
2
2
Vka( ) = Z kk( ) I (fa) , Vka( ) = V f Z kk( ) I (fa) , Vka( ) = Z kk( ) I (fa)


when the voltage Vf at the fault point is chosen as reference, which
is customary.

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Unsymmetrical Faults

In a system with -Y transformers the open circuits encountered in
the zero-sequence network requires some care in the Zbus building
algorithm.

Consider, for instance, the solidly grounded -Y transformer
connected between buses m and n as shown along with their
posiHve and zero-sequence circuits:
Z


m
n
m
m
Z n
n
Reference
Reference

-Y transformer with
leakage impedance Z

PosiKve-sequence
circuit

Zero-sequence
circuit

The negaHve-sequence circuit is the same as the posiHve-sequence


circuit.

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24

Unsymmetrical Faults

It is straighlorward using the circuit representaHons shown to
generate the bus impedance matrices Zbus (0,1,2). This will be done
subsequently.

Suppose, however, that we wish to represent removal of the
transformer connecHons from bus n in a computer algorithm which
cannot make use of circuit (schemaHc) representaHons.

We can easily undo the connecHons to bus n in the posiHve- and
negaHve-sequence networks by applying the building algorithm the
Zbus (1,2) matrices in the usual manner, i.e., by adding the negaHve of
the leakage impedance Z between buses m and m in the posiHve-
and negaHve-sequence networks. (Next slide)
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25

Unsymmetrical Faults


PosiKve-sequence circuit:

- Z
Z
m

n
Reference

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n
Reference

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26

Unsymmetrical Faults

This strategy does not apply to the zero-sequence matrix Zbus (0) if it
has been formed directly from the schemaHc representaHon shown.
Adding - Z between buses m and m does not remove the zero-
sequence connecHon from bus n.
- Z

m
Reference

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27

Unsymmetrical Faults

To permit uniform procedures for all sequence networks, one
strategy is to include an internal node p, as shown below. Note that
the leakage impedance is now subdivided into two parts between
node p and the other nodes as shown. ConnecHng Z/2 between
buses n and p in each of the sequence circuits will open the
transformer connecHons to bus n.
Z

n
Reference

m
Reference


n
Reference
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p Z/2

Z/2 p Z/2
m

m
Z/2
Reference
Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

n
28

Unsymmetrical Faults

ConnecHng Z/2 between buses n and p in each of the sequence
circuits will open the transformer connecHons to bus n.

Z/2

- Z/2

- Z/2

Z/2

Z/2

Reference

m
Reference

p
Z/2


Z/2
m

p
Reference

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m
Reference
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p
Z/2

29

Unsymmetrical Faults

The faults to be discussed in succeeding secHons may involve
impedance Zf between lines and from one or two lines to ground.

When Zf = 0, we have a direct short circuit, which is called a bolted
fault .

Although such direct short circuits result in the highest value of fault
current and are therefore the most conservaHve values to use when
determining the eects of anHcipated faults, the fault impedance is
seldom zero.

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Unsymmetrical Faults

Most faults are the result of insulator ashovers, where the
impedance between the line and ground depends on the resistance
of the arc, of the tower itself, and of the tower fooHng if ground
wires are not used.

Tower-fooHng resistances form the major part of the resistance
between line and ground and depend on the soil condiHons. The
resistance of dry earth is 10 to 100 Hmes the resistance of swampy
ground.

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31

Unsymmetrical Faults

ConnecHons of the hypotheHcal stubs for faults through impedance
Zf are as follows:

a

Zf
I

fa


b

Zf
I fb


c

Zf
I fc


Three-Phase Fault
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32

Unsymmetrical Faults

ConnecHons of the hypotheHcal stubs for faults through impedance
Zf are as follows:

a

Zf
I

fa


b

I fb


c

I fc


Single Line-to-Ground Fault
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33

Unsymmetrical Faults

ConnecHons of the hypotheHcal stubs for faults through impedance
Zf are as follows:

a

I fa



b

Zf
I fb


c

I fc


Line-to-Line Fault
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34

Unsymmetrical Faults

ConnecHons of the hypotheHcal stubs for faults through impedance
Zf are as follows:

a

I fa



b

Zf
I fb


c

I fc


Double Line-to-Ground Fault
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35

Unsymmetrical Faults

Other types of faults:


a

Ia



b
Ib



c

Ic

Open-Conductor Faults
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36

Unsymmetrical Faults

Other types of faults:


a

Ia



b
Ib



c

Ic

Open-Conductor Faults
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37

Unsymmetrical Faults

A balanced system remains symmetrical aLer the occurrence of a
three-phase fault having the same impedance between each line
and a common point. Only posiHve-sequence currents ow. With
the fault impedance Zf equal in all phases, as in a three-phase fault,
we simply add impedance Zf to the usual (posiHve-sequence)
Thvenin equivalent circuit of the system at the fault bus k and
calculate the fault current from the equaHon:

Vf
(1)

I fa = (1)

Z kk + Z f

For each of the other types of faults, formal derivaHons of the
equaHons for the symmetrical-component currents follow. In each
case the fault point P is designated as bus k.
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38

Example

Two synchronous machines are connected through three-phase
transformers to the transmission line as shown.
1 T1 2
3 T2 4

Machine 1
Machine 2



The raHngs and reactances of the machines and transformers are:
Machine 1 & 2: 100MVA, 20 kV, Xd = X1 = X2 = 20%
X0 = 4%, Xn = 5%

Transformers T1 & T2: 100 MVA, 20/345Y kV, X = 8%

On a chosen base of 100 MVA, 345 kV in the transmission line
circuit the line reactances are X1 = X2 = 15% and X0 = 50%.
Determine Zbus for the sequence networks.
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39

Example

PosiHve- and negaHve-sequence circuit:
1
2
3
4

(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

j0.04
j0.04
j0.04
j0.04
j0.15

(1)

j0.20
j0.20


+
+
V
Vf
f

Reference


The raHngs and reactances of the machines and transformers are:
Machine 1 & 2: 100MVA, 20 kV, Xd = X1 = X2 = 20%
X0 = 4%, Xn = 5%
Transformers T1, T2: 100 MVA, 20/345Y kV, X = 8% (split as 4% + 4%)
Transmission line reactances are X1 = X2 = 15% and X0 = 50%.
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40

Example

1
2 (3)
3
4

(4)
(2)

j0.04
j0.04
j0.04
j0.04
j0.15
j0.20
(1)

+
V
f

Reference

1,2
Add branch (1): Z1( ) = j0.20

Add branch (2):

j0.20
j0.20 j0.20
j0.20
(1,2)
Z2

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=
j0.20

=
j0.20 + j0.08 j0.20

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(5)

j0.20
+
Vf

j0.28

41

Example

1


j0.04
j0.20
(1)

+
V
f


Add branch (3):
j0.20
(1,2)
Z3 = j0.20
j0.20

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(2)

j0.04

(3)

j0.15

(4)

j0.04

j0.04

(5)

j0.20
+
Vf

Reference

j0.20
j0.28
j0.28

j0.20

j0.28
= j0.20
j0.28 + j0.15 j0.20
j0.20

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

j0.20
j0.28
j0.28

j0.20

j0.28
j0.43
42

Example

1


j0.04
j0.20
(1)

+
V
f


Add branch (4):

1,2
Z 4( ) =

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(2)

j0.04

(3)

j0.15

(4)

j0.04

j0.04

(5)

j0.20
+
Vf

Reference

j0.20

j0.20

j0.20

j0.20

j0.28

j0.28

j0.20

j0.28

j0.43

j0.20

j0.28

j0.43



j0.28

=

j0.43

j0.43+ j0.08
j0.20

j0.20

j0.20

j0.20

j0.20

j0.28

j0.28

j0.20

j0.28

j0.43

j0.20

j0.28

j0.43

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

j0.20

j0.28
j0.43
j0.51
43

Example

1


j0.04
j0.20
(1)

+
V
f


Add branch (5):

1,2
Z 4( ) =

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(2)

j0.04

(3)

j0.15

(4)

j0.04

j0.04

(5)

j0.20
+
Vf

Reference

j0.20

j0.20

j0.20

j0.20

j0.28

j0.28

j0.20

j0.28

j0.43

j0.20

j0.28

j0.43

j0.20

j0.28
j0.43
j0.51

new
ij

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

= Z ij

Z ik Z kj
Z kk + Z b
44

Example

11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

45

Example

( )
Z bus
:
1,2

11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

46

Example Zero-sequence circuit:



See Slide 196
See Slide 199
of Symmetrical
of Symmetrical

Components
Components

4 j0.04
j0.04 1
j0.04 2 j0.5 3 j0.08

Transformer
Transformer
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(1)
Node Bus
Node Bus
(2)

3X n = j0.15
3X n = j0.15 j0.04

Reference


The raHngs and reactances of the machines and transformers are:
Machine 1 & 2: 100MVA, 20 kV, Xd = X1 = X2 = 20%
X0 = 4%, Xn = 5%
Transformers T1 & T2: 100 MVA, 20/345Y kV, X = 8%
Transmission line reactances are X1 = X2 = 15% and X0 = 50%.
11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

47

Example

j0.5 3 j0.08
(3)

(1)

j0.19 j0.08

(4)

j0.19

(2)

(5)

Reference

11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

48

Example

1
2 j0.5 3 j0.08
4


(3)
(4)

j0.19 j0.08 (2)
(1)
j0.19



Reference

0
Add branch (1): Z1( ) = j0.19
Add branch (3):

j0.19
0
0
Add branch (2):

Z3( ) =

(0)

Z2

11/11/13

j0.19
=
0

j0.08
0

j0.08

j0.08

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

(5)

j0.08

j0.08 + j0.5
49

Example

1



j0.19 j0.08
(1)




Add branch (5):

j0.5 3 j0.08

(3)

(4)

j0.19

(2)

(5)

Reference

j0.19

0
(0)
Z bus =
0
0

11/11/13

j0.08

j0.08

j0.08

j0.58

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

0
0
j0.19
0

50

Example

Well use these in subsequent examples.
j0.19

0
(0)
Z bus =
0
0

j0.08

j0.08

j0.08

j0.58

(1,2)
Z bus =

11/11/13

0
0
j0.19
0

j0.1437

j0.1211

j0.0789

j0.1211

j0.1696

j0.1104

j0.0789

j0.1104

j0.1696

j0.0563

j0.0789

j0.1211

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

j0.0563

j0.0789
j0.1211
j0.1437
51

Single Line-to-Ground Faults



The single line-to-ground fault, the most common type, is caused by
lightning or by conductors making contact with grounded
structures. A single line-to-ground fault on phase a through
impedance Zf is shown below:
k

a
I fa Z


b
I fb


c
I fc

The relaHons to be developed will apply only when the fault is on
phase a, but any phase can be designated as phase a. The
condiHons at the fault bus k are expressed by the following
equaHons:
f

I fb = I fc = 0, Vka = Z f I fa

11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

52

Single Line-to-Ground Faults



The symmetrical components of the current are, with I fb =
I fc = 0 :

I (fa0)
1 1 1 I fa

1 1
I fa

0
1
2
(
)
(
)
(
)
() =
2
1
a
a
I fa
0 I fa = I fa = I fa =

3
3
2

( 2)
1 a
0
a

I fa

But recall from Slide 21:

(0)
(0) (0)
(1)
(1) (1)
( 2)
( 2) ( 2)
V
=
Z
I
,
V
=
V

Z
I
,
V
=
Z
I
ka
kk fa
ka
f
kk fa
ka
kk fa

Thus:
(0)

(0) (0)

(1)

(1) (0)

( 2)

( 2) (0)

Vka = Z kk I fa , Vka = V f Z kk I fa , Vka = Z kk I fa


11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

53

Single Line-to-Ground Faults



Summing, and noHng that Vka = 3Z f I (fa0)


(0)
(1)
( 2)
Vka = Vka + Vka + Vka

0
1
2
0
0

= V f Z kk( ) + Z kk( ) + Z kk( ) I (fa) = 3Z f I (fa)

0
Solve for I (fa)


Vf
(0)
(1)
( 2)
I fa = I fa = I fa = (0)

(1)
( 2)
Z kk + Z kk + Z kk + 3Z f


This has the circuit representaHon shown on the next slide.

11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

54

Single Line-to-Ground Faults



(1)
k
I

fa

Vf

(1)

+ (1)
Vka

Z kk

I (fa)
2

Z kk( )

+ ( 2)
Vka

(0)

I fa

(0)

Z kk
11/11/13

0
1
2
I (fa) = I (fa) = I (fa)

+ (0)
Vka

3Z f

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

55

Single Line-to-Ground Faults



The last result are the fault current equaHons parHcular to the
single line-to-ground fault through impedance Zf and they are used
with the symmetrical-component relaHons to determine all the
voltages and currents at the fault point P.

If the Thvenin equivalent circuits of the three sequence networks
of the system are connected in series, as shown on the previous
slide, we see that the resulHng currents and voltages saHsfy the
above equaHons for the Thvenin impedances looking into the
three sequence networks at fault bus k are then in series with the
fault impedance 3Zf and the prefault voltage source Vf.

11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

56

Single Line-to-Ground Faults



With the equivalent circuits so connected, the voltage across each
sequence network is the corresponding symmetrical component of
the voltage Vka at the fault bus k, and the current injected into each
sequence network at bus k is the negaHve of the corresponding
sequence current in the fault.

The series connecHon of the Thvenin equivalents of the sequence
networks, as shown on Slide 55 is a convenient means of
remembering the equaHons for the soluHon of the single line-to-
ground fault, for all the necessary equaHons for the fault point can
be determined from the sequence-network connecHon.

11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

57

Single Line-to-Ground Faults



Once the sequence components of the fault currents are known,
the components of voltages at all other buses of the system can be
determined from the bus impedance matrices of the sequence
networks according to Slide 21, namely:

V ja( ) = Z (jk ) I (fa)


0

(1)

(1) (1)

V ja = V f Z jk I fa
V ja( ) = Z (jk ) I (fa)
2

11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

58

EXAMPLE Single Line-to-Ground Faults



Two synchronous machines are connected through three-phase
transformers to the transmission line as shown.

1 T1 2
3 T2 4

Machine 1
Machine 2




The raHngs and reactances of the machines and transformers are:
Machine 1 & 2: 100MVA, 20 kV, Xd = X1 = X2 = 20%
X0 = 4%, Xn = 5%

Transformers T1 & T2: 100 MVA, 20Y/345Y kV, X = 8%
11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

59

EXAMPLE Single Line-to-Ground Faults



Both transformers are solidly grounded on on two sides. On a
chosen base of 100 MVA, 345 kV in the transmission line circuit the
line reactances are X1 = X2 = 15 % and X0 = 50 %.

The system is operaHng at nominal voltage without prefault
currents when a bolted (Zf = 0) single line-to -ground fault occurs on
phase A at bus 3.

Using the bus impedance matrix for each of the three sequence
networks, determine the subtransient current to ground at the
fault, the line-to-ground voltages at the terminals of machine 2, and
the subtransient current out of phase c of machine 2.

11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

60

EXAMPLE Single Line-to-Ground Faults



The system is the same as on Slide 39, except that the transformers
are now Y-Y connected. Therefore, we can conHnue to use Zbus (1,2)
from Slide 51, however, because the transformers are solidly
grounded on both sides, the zero-sequence network is fully
connected, as shown below, and has the bus impedance matrix
1

j0.04

j0.08

j0.15

j0.08

j0.15

j0.04
j0.15

Reference
11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

61

EXAMPLE Single Line-to-Ground Faults



The bus impedance matrix is:
1

j0.04

j0.08

j0.15

j0.08

j0.04

j0.15

j0.15
Reference

(0)
Z bus =

11/11/13

j0.1553

j0.1407

j0.0493

j0.1407

j0.1999

j0.0701

j0.0493

j0.0701

j0.1999

j0.0347

j0.0493

j0.1407

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

j0.0347

j0.0493
j0.1407
j0.1553
62

EXAMPLE Single Line-to-Ground Faults


j0.1553 j0.1407 j0.0493 j0.0347
Since the line-to-ground fault is at bus 3: ( ) j0.1407 j0.1999 j0.0701 j0.0493
Z =


j0.0493
j0.0701
j0.1999
j0.1407
1

()
k
I
j0.0347 j0.0493 j0.1407 j0.1553
fA


j0.1437 j0.1211 j0.0789 j0.0563

1

()
1)
+
(
j0.1211
j0.1696
j0.1104
j0.0789
Z

V3a
33
Z( ) =
V f = 1.0
j0.0789 j0.1104 j0.1696 j0.1211

j0.0563 j0.0789 j0.1211 j0.1437


( 2)

k
I fA
Vf
I fA
(0)
(1)
( 2)

I fA = I fA = I fA = (0)
(1)
( 2)
Z
+
Z
+
Z
+ 3Z f

( 2)
3
kk
kk
kk
2)
+
(
Z33
V3a

1

=
= j1.8549

j0.1999 + j1.696 + j1.696 + 0
0

I (fA)
k

Z (0) + V ( 0) The total current in the fault is:
0
bus

1,2
bus

33

11/11/13

3a

3Z f = 0

I fA = 3I (fA) = j5.5648
0

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

63

EXAMPLE Single Line-to-Ground Faults



Since the base current in the high-voltage transmission line is:

100,000
I base
= = 167.35
amps
3 345

Then: I fA = j5.5648
167.35
= 931270
amps

The phase-a sequence voltages at bus 4, the terminals of machine 2,
are (from Slide 21 with k = 3 and j = 4):

(0)
(0) (0)
V
=
Z
I = j0.1407 j1.8549 = 0.261
43 fA
4a
V (1) = V Z (1) I (1) = 1 j0.1211 j1.8549 = 0.7754
4a f 43 fA per unit
2
( 2) ( 2)
V4a( ) = Z 43
I fA = j0.1211 j1.8549 = 0.2246

11/11/13

)(

)(

)(

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

64

EXAMPLE Single Line-to-Ground Faults



Note that the subscripts A and a denote voltages in the high-voltage
and low-voltage circuits, respecHvely, of the Y-Y connected
transformer. No phase shiL is involved.

From the symmetrical components we can calculate the a-b-c line-
to-ground voltages at bus 4 as:

V (0)
V
4a 1 1 1 1 4a 1 1 1 1 0.261

V (1) =
2
2

=
V
0.7754
1
a
a
1
a
a

4b

4a 3

3
2
2
V4c 1 a a V (2) 1 a a 0.2246

4a

0.2898

= 0.5346
j0.8660
per unit
0.5346 j0.8660

11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

65

EXAMPLE Single Line-to-Ground Faults



To express the line-to-ground voltages of machine 2 (in kV) mulHply
by 20/31/2:

V

0.2898
4a
3.346

20

0.5346

j0.8660

=
=
V
1.0187

121.8
4b kV

V4c

11/11/13

0.5346

j0.8660

1.0187 121.8

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

66

EXAMPLE Single Line-to-Ground Faults



To determine phase-c current out of machine 2 we must rst
calculate the symmetrical components of the phase-a current in the
branches represenHng the machine in the sequence networks.

From the zero-sequence circuit, the zero-sequence current out of
0
the machine is: 1
2
3
4
I a( )

j0.04
j0.04
j0.15
j0.08
j0.08

+

0
j0.15
j0.15
V4a( )

Reference

(0)

V
0.261
(0)
4a
I a = = = j6.525
per unit
jX 0

11/11/13

j0.04

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

67

EXAMPLE Single Line-to-Ground Faults



Similarly for the posiHve- and negaHve-sequence currents:

1
2
3
4

(1,2)

I
a
j0.04
j0.04
j0.04
j0.04
j0.15
j0.20
+
j0.20

1,2
V4a( )
+
+
V f
Vf

Reference


(1)
V

V
1 0.7754
1
4a

I a( ) = f
=
= j1.123
j X j0.2
per unit
()
V
0.2246
( 2)
4a
Ia =
=
= j1.123
jX 2
j0.2
1

11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

68

EXAMPLE Single Line-to-Ground Faults



The phase-c current in machine 2 is

0
1
2
I c = I a( ) + aI a( ) + a 2 I a( )

2
=

j6.525
+
a

j1.123
+
a
(
) ( j1.123)

= j5.402
per unit

Since the base current in the machine circuit is:

100,000
I
=
base = 2886.751
amps
3 20


I c = 15,994
amps

11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

69

Line-to-Line Faults

To represent a line-to-line fault through impedance Zf the
hypotheHcal stubs on the three lines at the fault are connected as
shown. Bus k is again the fault point P, and without any loss of
generality, the line-to-line fault is regarded as being on phases b
and c. Clearly:
k

I fa

I fa = 0
k

Zf

I fb
k

I fc
11/11/13

Vkb Vkc = Z f I fb
I fb = I fc

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

70

Line-to-Line Faults

SubsHtuHng: I (0)
0
fa

1 1 1

(1) 1
2
I fb
=

I

1
a
a

fa 3

1 a 2 a I fc
( 2)


I fa

(0)

I
=0

fa

(1)
( 2)
I fa = I fa

The voltages throughout the zero-sequence network must be zero
0
since there are no zero-sequence sources, and because I (fa ) =
0 ,
current is not being injected into that network due to the fault.
Hence, line-to-line fault calculaHons do not involve the zero-
sequence network, which remains the same as before the fault - a
dead network.
11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

71

Line-to-Line Faults

(1)
( 2)
To saHsfy the requirement that I fa =
I fa we connect the Thvenin
equivalents of the posiHve- and negaHve-sequence networks in
parallel, as shown:

Z kk( )
1

Vf

Zf

(1) +

I fa

Z kk( )
2

+ I ( 2)
fa

(1)

( 2)

Vka

Vka

Reference

11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

72

Line-to-Line Faults

To show that this connecHon of the networks also saHses the
voltage equaHon:
Vkb Vkc = Z f I fb

we now expand each side of that equaHon separately as follows:

(1)
( 2)
(1)
( 2)
V

V
=
V
+
V

V
+
V

kb
kc
kb
kb
kc
kc

1
1
2
2
= Vkb( ) Vkc( ) + Vkb( ) Vkc( )

1
2

= a 2 a Vka( ) + a a 2 Vka( )

(1)
( 2)
2
=
a

a
V

V
ka
ka

and:

(
(
(
(

)
)(

) (
) (

)
)

Z f I fb = Z f I (fb) + I (fb) = Z f a 2 I (fa) + aI (fa)


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Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

73

Line-to-Line Faults

Equate both terms and set: I (fa1) = I (fa2)


(1)
( 2)
( 2)
2
2 (1)
V

V
=
a

a
V

V
=
Z
I
=
Z
a
I
+
aI

kb
kc
ka
ka
f fb
f
fa
fa


(1)
( 2)
(1)
2
2

a
V

V
=
Z
a

a
I

ka
ka
f
fa


(1)
( 2)
(1)

V
=
Z
I
ka
ka
f fa


But this is precisely the voltage drop across Zf in the gure on Slide 66.

11/11/13

)(

)(

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

74

Line-to-Line Faults

Thus, all the fault condiHons are saHsed by connecHng the
posiHve- and negaHve-sequence networks in parallel through
impedance Zf as was shown.

The zero-sequence network is inacHve and does not enter into the
line-to-line calculaHons. The equaHon for the posiHve-sequence
current in the fault can be determined directly from the circuit as:

11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

75

Example Line-to-Line Faults



The same system as before is operaHng at nominal system voltage
without prefault currents when a bolted line-to-line fault occurs at
bus 3. Determine the currents in the fault, the line-to-line voltage at
the fault bus, and the line-to-line voltages at the terminals of
machine 2.

11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

76

Example Line-to-Line Faults



Note that we will not need the zero-sequence bus impedance
matrix since the fault is line-to-line (see Slide 71).

The Thvenin equivalent circuit for the posiHve- and negaHve-
sequence is:
(1)
( 2)
Z33
3
3
Zf = 0
Z
33


j0.1437 j0.1211 j0.0789 j0.0563
( 2)
1) +
+
(
I
I fA
j0.1211 j0.1696 j0.1104 j0.0789
fA
( )
1
2
Z =
j0.0789 j0.1104 j0.1696 j0.1211 V f
V3(A)
V3(A)
j0.0563 j0.0789 j0.1211 j0.1437


Reference
From the circuit:

Vf
1.0
(1)
( 2)
I fA = I fA = (1) ( 2 ) = = j2.9481
per unit
1,2
bus

11/11/13

Z33 + Z33

2 j0.1696

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

77

Example Line-to-Line Faults



0
Since I (fA) = 0 (Uppercase since the fault is in the high-voltage
transmission line)

Then I fA = I (fA1) + I (fA2)

and since I (fA1) = I (fA2)

Then I fA = 0

2)
(
2 (1)
Also I fB = a I fA + aI fA = 5.1061
per unit

and I fC = I fB = 5.1061
per unit

MulHply these by Ibase = 167.35 A to get the actual currents.
11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

78

Example Line-to-Line Faults



The symmetrical components of phase-A voltage to ground at bus 3
are:

0
V3(A) = 0


1
2
1 1

V3(A) = V3(A) = 1 Z kk( ) I (fA) = 1 j0.1696 j2.9481

= 0.5 + j0
per unit

11/12/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

)(

79

Example Line-to-Line Faults



The line-to-ground voltages at fault bus 3 are:


(0)
(1)
( 2)
V3 A = V3 A + V3 A + V3 A = 0 + 0.5 + 0.5 = 1.0



(0)
( 2)
2 (1)
2
V
=
V
+
a
V
+
2V
=
0
+
a
0.5 + a 0.5 = 0.5

3B
3B
3B
3B


V3C = V3B = 0.5


all per unit

11/12/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

80

Example Line-to-Line Faults



The line-to-line voltages at fault bus 3 are:


V3,AB = V3 A V3B = 1+ j0 0.5 + j0 = 1.5



V3,BC = V3B V3C = 0.5 + j0 0.5 + j0 = 0



V3,CA = V3C V3 A = 0.5 + j0 1+ j0 = 1.5


all per unit. MulHply these by 345/31/2 to obtain the actual voltage.

11/12/13

) (

) (

) (

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

81

Example Line-to-Line Faults



For the moment, let us avoid phase shiLs due to the -Y
transformer connected to machine 2 and calculate the sequence
voltages of phase A at bus 4 using the the results from Slide 21 with
k = 3 and j = 4:

0
0
0
1
1 1
2
2
2

V ja( ) = Z (jk ) I (fa) , V ja( ) = V f Z (jk) I (fa) , V ja( ) = Z (jk ) I (fa)


0
(0) (0)

V4a( ) = Z 43
I fa = 0

(1)
(1) (1)
V4a = V f Z jk I fa = 1 j0.1211 j2.9481 = 0.643

2
( 2) ( 2)

V4a( ) = Z 43
I fa = j0.1211 j2.9481 = 0.357

per unit

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)(

)(

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

82

Example Line-to-Line Faults



To account for phase shiLs in stepping down from the high-voltage
transmission line to the low-voltage terminals of machine 2, we
must retard the posiHve-sequence voltage and advance the
negaHve-sequence voltage by 30. At machine 2 terminals,
indicated by lowercase a, the voltages are:
(0)

(0) (0)

V4a = Z 43 I fa = 0
V4a( ) = V4a( ) 30 = 0.643 30 = 0.5569 j0.3215
1

V4a( ) = V4a( )30 = 0.35730 = 0.3092 + j0.1785


2

V4a = V4a( ) + V4a( ) + V4a( ) = 0.8861 j0.1430 = 0.8778 9.4


0

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Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

83

Example Line-to-Line Faults



Phase-b voltages at the terminals of machine 2 are:

V4b( ) = V4a( ) = 0
0

V4b( ) = a 2V4a( ) = 1240 0.643 30 = 0.5569 j0.3215


1

V4b( ) = aV4a( ) = 1120 0.35730 = 0.3092 + j0.1785


2

V4b = V4b( ) + V4b( ) + V4b( ) = 0.8861 j0.1430 = 0.8778 170.6


0

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84

Example Line-to-Line Faults



Phase-c voltages at the terminals of machine 2 are:

V4c( ) = V4a( ) = 0
0

V4c( ) = aV4a( ) = 1120 0.643 30 = 0.64390


1

V4c( ) = a 2V4a( ) = 1240 0.35730 = 0.357 90


2

V4c = V4c( ) + V4c( ) + V4c( ) = j0.286


0

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85

Example Line-to-Line Faults



Line-to-line voltages at the terminals of machine 2 are:

(0)
(0)
(0)
V
=
V

V
= 1.7322

4,ab
4a
4b
0
0

(0)
V4,bc
= V4b( ) V4c( ) = 0.8661 j0.429

(0) (0) ( 0) per unit
V4,ca
= V4c V4a = 0.8661+ j0.429

For the voltage, mulHply by 20 kV/31/2




(0)

V4,ab = 1.7322

20
3

= 20

()
V 4,bc
= 11.2

153.65


0

kV

(0)

V4,ca = 11.2153.65
11/12/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

86

Double Line-to-Ground Faults



Again it is clear, with fault taken on phases b and c, that the
relaHons at fault bus k are:
k

I fa

I fa = 0
k

I fb

Zf
k

I fc
11/11/13

Vkb = Vkc = Z f I fb + I fc
Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

)
87

Double Line-to-Ground Faults



1
(0) 1
Since I fa = 0 I fa = I fa + I fb + I fc = I fb + I fc
3
3

(0)
Thus Vkb = Vkc = Z f I fb + I fc = 3Z f I fa

SubsHtuHng into:

V (0)
1 1
ka
V (1) = 1 1 a
ka 3
1 a 2
V ( 2)
ka

11/11/13

1 ka
2 V
a
kb

a Vkc

) (

1 1
1
= 1 a
3
2
1
a

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

1 ka
2 V
a
kb

a Vkb

88

Double Line-to-Ground Faults



Expanding the second and third equaHons:

V (0)
1 1
ka
V (1) = 1 1 a
ka 3
1 a 2
V ( 2)
ka

1 ka
2 V
a
kb

a Vkb

1
Vka = a + a 2 Vkb
3
(1)
( 2)
Vka = Vka
( 2) 1 2
Vka = a + a Vkb
3
(1)

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Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

89

Double Line-to-Ground Faults



From the rst equaHon: recall: Vkb = Vkc = Z f I fb + I fc
(0)

3I fa = I fb + I fc

V (0)
1 1
ka
V (1) = 1 1 a
ka 3
1 a 2
V ( 2)
ka

1 ka
2 V
a
kb

a Vkb

) (

3Vka( ) = Vka + 2Vkb = Vka( ) + Vka( ) + Vka( ) + 2 3Z f I (fa)


0

11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

)
90

Double Line-to-Ground Faults



1
2
Collect zero-sequence terms and recall that Vka( ) = Vka( )

0
0
0
1

3Vka( ) = Vka( ) + 6Z f I (fa) + 2Vka( )
Now solve:

(1)
(0)
(0)
V
=
V

3Z
I
ka
ka
f fa

Thus:


(1)
( 2)
(0)
(0)
Vka = Vka = Vka 3Z f I fa

and since Ifa = 0
(0)
(1)
( 2)
I fa + I fa + I fa = 0


These last two results characterize the double line-to-ground fault.
11/11/13

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91

Double Line-to-Ground Faults



These can be realized by puxng all three sequence networks in
parallel as follows:

1

0)
( 2)
(
I (fa)
k
k
I fa
I fa

k

+
(1) +
( 2) +
( 2)
(0)
(0) +
(1)
Z
Z
Vf
Z
V
V
Vka
kk
kk
kk
ka
ka



3Z f

Clearly: (1)
Vf
Vf
I fa = 1
=
0
2
()
()
()
(0)
( 2)
Z kk + Z kk + 3Z f Z kk
Z kk + 3Z f Z kk
(1)
Z kk + (0)
( 2)
Z + Z + 3Z

kk

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Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

kk

92

Double Line-to-Ground Faults




1

( 2)
(0)
I (fa)
k
k
I
I fa
k
fa


(1) +
( 2) +
+
( 2)
(0)
(0) +
(1)
Z
Z
Vf
Z
V
V
V
kk
kk
kk
ka
ka
ka



3Z f


By current divider:
(0)
( 2)
Z
+
3Z
Z kk
kk
f
( 2)
(1)
(0)
(1)
I fa = I fa (0)
,
I fa = I fa (0)
( 2)
( 2)

Z kk + Z kk + 3Z f

11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

Z kk + Z kk + 3Z f

93

Double Line-to-Ground Faults



For a bolted fault Zf is set equal to 0. When Zf = , the zero-
sequence circuit becomes an open circuit, no zero-sequence current
an ow, and the equaHons revert back to those for the line-to-line
fault.

Again we observe that the sequence currents, once calculated, can
be treated as negaHve injecHons into the sequence networks at
the fault bus k and the sequence voltage changes at all buses of the
system can then be calculated from the bus impedance matrices, as
we have done in all along.

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94

Example Double Line-to-Ground Faults



Find the subtransient currents and the line-to-line voltages at the
fault under subtransient condiHons when a double line-to-ground
fault with Zf = 0 occurs at the terminals of machine 2 in the system
below. Assume that the system in unloaded and operaHng at rated
voltage when the fault occurs.
Machine 1

11/11/13

T1 2

T2

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

Machine 2

95

Example Double Line-to-Ground Faults



Model (the fault is a bus k = 4):
(1)

I fa
Vf

( 2)

I fa

Z kk( )

+ (1)
Vka

I (fa)
0

Z kk( )
2

+ ( 2)
Vka

Z kk( )
0

+ (0)
Vka

3Z f

j0.19

0
(0)
Z bus
=
0
0

11/12/13

j0.08

j0.08

j0.08

j0.58

0
(1,2)
, Z bus
=

j0.19

j0.1437

j0.1211

j0.0789

j0.1211

j0.1696

j0.1104

j0.0789

j0.1104

j0.1696

j0.0563

j0.0789

j0.1211

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

j0.0563

j0.0789
j0.1211
j0.1437
96

Example Double Line-to-Ground Faults



Model (the fault is a bus k = 4):


(1)
( 2)
(0)
I
4
4
I

I


4
fa
fa
fa

j0.19 + V (0)
j0.1437 + V (1)
j0.1437 + V ( 2)
1.0 +
4a
4a
4a






Vf
1.0
1.0
I (fa1) =
=
=
= j4.4342
(0) ( 2)
(0)
( 2)
( j0.19)( j0.1437 )
Z 44 Z 44
Z + 3Z f ) Z kk
(1)
(1) ( kk
j0.1437
+
Z
+

44
Z kk + (0)
(0)
( 2)
j0.19 + j0.1437
( 2)
Z
+
Z
44
44
Z
+
Z
+
3Z
kk kk f per unit
11/12/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

97

Example Double Line-to-Ground Faults



The sequence voltages at the fault are:


(1)
( 2)
(0)
I
4
4
I

I


4
fa
fa
fa

j0.19 + V (0)
j0.1437 + V (1)
j0.1437 + V ( 2)
1.0 +
4a
4a
4a







(1)
( 2)
(0)
(1) (1)
V4a = V4a = V4a = V f Z 44 I fa

= 1.0 j j0.1437
j4.4342
= 0.3628
per unit

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)(

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

98

Example Double Line-to-Ground Faults



(1)
Now that we have I fa


(1)
( 2)
(0)
I
4
4
I

I


4
fa
fa
fa

j0.19 + V (0)
j0.1437 + V (1)
j0.1437 + V ( 2)
1.0 +
4a
4a
4a





(0)
Z
(2) (1) kk + 3Z
f (1 ) Z kk(0) ( 1) Z 44( 0 )
I fa = I fa (0)
= I fa (0)
( 2)
( 2) = I fa (0)
( 2)

Z kk + Z kk + 3Z f
Z kk + Z kk
Z 44 + Z 44

j0.19
= j4.4342
= j2.5247
per unit
j0.19 + j0.1437

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99

Example Double Line-to-Ground Faults



(1)
Now that we have I fa


(1)
( 2)
(0)
I
4
4
I

I


4
fa
fa
fa

j0.19 + V (0)
j0.1437 + V (1)
j0.1437 + V ( 2)
1.0 +
4a
4a
4a





(0) (1) Z (2) (1) Z (2)
kk
44
I
=

I
=

I
fa
fa
fa
0
2

(0)
( 2)
Z kk( ) + Z kk( ) + 3Z f
Z 44
+ Z 44

j0.1437
= j4.4342
= j1.9095
per unit
j0.19 + j0.1437

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100

Example Double Line-to-Ground Faults



The currents out of the system at the fault point are:

(0)
(1)
( 2)
I
=
I
+
I
+
I
= j1.9095 j4.4342 + j2.5247 = 0
fa
fa
fa
fa

0
1
2
I fb = I (fa) + a 2 I (fa) + aI (fa) = 6.0266 + j2.8642

0
1
2

I fc = I (fa) + aI (fa) + a 2 I (fa) = 6.0266 + j2.8642

The current If into ground is:

0

I f = I fa + I fb + I fc = 2I (fa) = j5.7285

all in per unit

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101

Example Double Line-to-Ground Faults



CalculaHng the a-b-c voltages at the fault bus:
(0)

(1)

( 2)

V4a = V4a + V4a + V4a = 1.0884


V4b = V4c = 0
V4,ab = V4a V4b = 1.0884
V4,bc = V4b V4c = 0
V4,ca = V4c V4a = 1.0884

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102

Example Double Line-to-Ground Faults



Recall the base current in the circuit of machine 2 is:


100 103
I base = = 2887
amps
3 20


and the base line-to-neutral voltage in machine 2 is:


20
Vbase
= kV

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Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

103

Phase Shias

The previous two examples show that phase shiLs due to -Y
transformers do not enter into the calculaHons of sequence
currents and voltages in that part of the system where the fault
occurs provided Vf at the fault point is chosen as the reference
voltage for the calculaHons.

However, for those parts of the system which are separated by -Y
transformers from the fault point, the sequence currents, and
voltages calculated by bus impedance matrix must be shiLed in
phase before being combined to form the actual voltages.

This is because the bus impedance matrices of the sequence
networks are formed without consideraHon of phase shiLs, and so
they consist of per-unit impedances referred to the part of the
network which includes the fault point.
11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

104

Example Phase Shias



Solve for the subtransient voltages to ground at bus 2, the end of
the transmission line remote from the double line-to-ground fault
for the same system.
Machine 1

j0.19

0
(0)
Z bus
=
0
0

11/12/13

T1 2

j0.08

j0.08

j0.08

j0.58

0
(1,2)
, Z bus
=

j0.19

T2

Machine 2

j0.1437

j0.1211

j0.0789

j0.1211

j0.1696

j0.1104

j0.0789

j0.1104

j0.1696

j0.0563

j0.0789

j0.1211

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

j0.0563

j0.0789
j0.1211
j0.1437
105

Example Phase Shias



We just solved for the values of the fault-current components.

NeglecHng the phase shiL of the -Y transformer for the moment
we have, from Slide 21:

0
0
0
1
1 1
2
2
2

V ja( ) = Z (jk ) I (fa) , V ja( ) = V f Z (jk) I (fa) , V ja( ) = Z (jk ) I (fa)

At bus 2:

V2a = Z 24 I fa = ( 0 ) ( j1.9095) = 0
(0)

(0) (0)

() ()
V2a( ) = V f Z 24
I fa = 1.0 ( j0.0789 ) ( j4.4342 ) = 0.6501
1

() ()
V2a( ) = Z 24
I fa = ( j0.0789 ) ( j2.5247 ) = 0.1992
2

11/12/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

106

Example Phase Shias



AccounHng for phase shiL in stepping up to the transmission-line
circuit from the fault at bus 4 we have:

0
V2(A) = 0

1
1

V2(A) = V2(A)30 = 0.650130

( 2)
( 2)
V
=
V
30 = 0.1992 30
2A
2A

Now the required voltages can be calculated:

(0)
(1)
( 2)
V
=
V
+
V
+
V
= 0.7355 + j0.2255

4A
4A
4A
4A
(0)
( 2)
2 (1)

V4 B = V4 B + a V4 B + aV4 B = 0.1275 j0.5535

(0)
(1)
( 2)
V4C = V4C
+ aV4C
+ a 2V4C
= 0.5656 + j0.1274


all per unit
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Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

107

Example Phase Shias



The per-unit values can be converted to volts by mulHplying by the
line-to-neutral base voltage of:


345
V base = kV
3

of the transmission line.

11/12/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

108

Open-Conductor Faults

When one phase of a balanced three-phase system opens, an
unbalance is created and asymmetrical currents ow. A similar type
of unbalance occurs when any two of the three phases are opened
while the third phase remains closed.

These unbalanced condiHons are caused, for example, when one- or
two-phase conductors of a transmission line are physical broken by
accident or storm.

In other circuits, due to current overload, fuses or other switching
devices may operate in one or two conductors and fail to operate in
other conductors. Such open-conductor faults can be analyzed by
means of the bus impedance matrices of the sequence networks, as
we now show.
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Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

109

Open-Conductor Faults

Consider a secHon of a three-phase circuit in which the line currents
in the respecHve phases are la, Ib, and Ic, with posiHve direcHon from
bus m to bus n, with phase a open between points p and p:
p

m
a

m
b

Ia
n

Ib

Ic
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Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

110

Open-Conductor Faults

Also consider the case where phases b and c are open between
points p and p:
p

m
a

m
b

Ia
n

Ib

Ic
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Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

111

Open-Conductor Faults

The same open-conductor fault condiHons will result is all three
phases are rst opened between points p and p and short circuits are
then applied in those phases which are shown to be closed in the
preceding gures.

The ensuing development follows this reasoning.

Opening the three phases is the same a removing the line m-n
altogether then adding appropriate impedances from buses m and n
to the points p and p.

11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

112

Open-Conductor Faults

If line m-n has the sequence impedances Z0, Z1, and Z2, simulate the
opening of the three phases by adding the negaHve impedances
Z0, Z1, and Z2 between buses m and n in the corresponding
Thvenin equivalents of the three sequence networks of the intact
system.

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Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

113

Open-Conductor Faults

For example, consider the connecHon of Z1 to the posiHve-
sequence Thvenin equivalent between buses m and n:
(1)
(1)

Z mm
Z mn
m

+
Vm


Z1

(1)
(1)
n
Z nn
Z nm


Vn +

Z (1) = Z (1)
mn
nm
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
Z
=
Z
+
Z

2Z

th,mn
mm
nn
mn
0 Reference


Voltages Vm and Vn are the normal (posiHve-sequence) voltages of
phase a at buses m and n before the open-conductor faults occur.
11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

114

Open-Conductor Faults

The posiHve-sequence impedances kZ1 and (1 k)Z1, 0<k<1, is
added to represent the fracHonal lengths of the broken line m-n
from bus m to point p and bus n to point p.
Z (pp)
1

()
()
Z mm
Z mn
1

Vm

(1)
nn

Z Z

()
()
Z mn
= Z nm
0

kZ1

Vn +
1

(1)
nm

Z1

(1)

(1 k ) Z

Va
p

()
()
()
()
Zth,mn
= Z mm
+ Z nn
2Z mn
1

Reference
11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

115

Open-Conductor Faults

Simplify
()
()
Z mm
Z mn
1

Vm

()
()
Z nn
Z nm
1

()
()
Z mn
= Z nm
0

kZ1

Z1

(1) Add the

(1 k ) Z

Va
p

do-nothing
source

Reference

11/11/13

Vn +
1

()
Zth,mn
1

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

116

Open-Conductor Faults

Simplify
Combine these

()
()
Z mm
Z mn
1

Vm

()
()
Z nn
Z nm
1

()
()
Z mn
= Z nm
0

kZ1

Z1

Va( )
1

(1 k ) Z

Reference

11/11/13

Vn +
1

()
Zth,mn
1

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

117

Open-Conductor Faults

Simplify
()
()
Z mm
Z mn
1

Vm

()
()
Z nn
Z nm
1

()
()
Z mn
= Z nm
0

Va( )
1

Z1

Reference

11/11/13

Z1

Vn +
1

Perform a
source conversion

()
Zth,mn
1

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

118

Open-Conductor Faults

Simplify
()
()
Z mm
Z mn
1

Vm

()
()
Z nn
Z nm
1

()
()
Z mn
= Z nm
0

Va( )
Z1

Z1

Z1
p

Reference

11/11/13

Open circuit

Vn +
1

()
Zth,mn
1

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

119

Open-Conductor Faults

Final result (posiHve-sequence equivalent circuit):
()
()
Z mm
Z mn
1

Vm

()
()
Z nn
Z nm
1

()
()
Z mn
= Z nm
0

11/11/13

(1)

Vn +
1

Va
Z1

Reference

()
Zth,mn
1

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

120

Open-Conductor Faults

The above consideraHons for the posiHve-sequence network also
apply directly to the negaHve- and zero-sequence networks, but we
must remember that the laber networks do not contain any internal
sources of their own.

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121

Open-Conductor Faults

NegaHve-sequence equivalent circuit:
Z (pp)
2

()
()
Z mm
Z mn
2

kZ 2

+
()
()
Z nn
Z nm
2

()
()
Z mn
= Z nm
2

Z 2

(1 k ) Z

2
Va( )
2

()
()
()
()
Zth,mn
= Z mm
+ Z nn
2Z mn
2

Reference

11/11/13

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

122

Open-Conductor Faults

NegaHve-sequence equivalent circuit simplied:
()
()
Z mm
Z mn
2

( 2)

()
()
Z nn
Z nm
2

()
()
Z mn
= Z nm
2

11/11/13

Va
Z2

Reference

()
Zth,mn
2

Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

123

Open-Conductor Faults

Zero-sequence equivalent circuit:
Z (pp)
0

()
()
Z mm
Z mn
0

kZ0

+
()
()
Z nn
Z nm
0

()
()
Z mn
= Z nm
0

Z0

(1 k ) Z

0
Va( )
0

()
()
()
()
Zth,mn
= Z mm
+ Z nn
2Z mn
0

Reference

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124

Open-Conductor Faults

Zero-sequence equivalent circuit simplied:
()
()
Z mm
Z mn
0

(0)

()
()
Z nn
Z nm
0

()
()
Z mn
= Z nm
0

11/11/13

Va
Z0

Reference

()
Zth,mn
0

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125

Open-Conductor Faults

1
Let the voltage V
a ( ) denote the phase-a posiHve-sequence
component of the voltage drops Vppa, Vppb, and Vppc from p to p' in
the phase conductors.

1)
(
We will soon see that V
a and the corresponding negaHve- and
2
0
zero-sequence components V a ( ) and V
a ( ) , take on dierent values
depending on which one of the open-conductor fauIts is being
considered.

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126

Open-Conductor Faults

In drawing the sequence equivalent circuits it is understood that the
currents sources owe their origin to the open-conductor fault
between points p and p' in the system.

If there is no open conductor, the voltages:

0
1
2

Va( ) , Va( ) , Va( )

are all zero and the current sources disappear.

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127

Open-Conductor Faults

Note that each of the sequence currents sources:

(0)
(1)
( 2)
Va
Va
Va

,
,

Z0
Z1
Z2

can be regarded in turn as a pair of injecHons into buses m and n of
the corresponding sequence network of the intact system.

Hence, we can use the bus impedance sequence matrices of the
normal conguraHon of the system to determine the voltage
changes due to the open-conductor faults.

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128

Open-Conductor Faults

First we must nd expressions for the symmetrical components of Va
(i.e., of the voltage drops across the fault points p and p for each
type of fault, (one or two open lines).

These voltage drops can be regarded as giving rise to the following
sets of injecHon currents into the sequence networks of the normal
system conguraHon:

POSITIVE NEGATIVE ZERO
SEQUENCE SEQUENCE SEQUENCE

1
2
0
Va( ) Z1
Va( ) Z 2
Va( ) Z0
At bus m:

( 2)
(0)
(1)
At bus n:
Va Z 2
Va Z0
Va Z1
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Open-Conductor Faults

Recall Slide 87 from Network CalculaKons:

11/11/13

V1

V j
=
Vk

VN

Z1 j I j + Z1k I k

Z jj I j + Z jk I k
Z kj I j + Z kk I k

Z Nj I j + Z Nk I k

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130

Open-Conductor Faults

The changes in the symmetrical components of the phase-a voltage of
each bus i is::


(0)
(0)
Z im Z in (0)
0)
(
Zero-sequence:
Vi =
Va
Z0



(1)
(1)
Z

Z
1)
1)
(
(
im
in
PosiHve-sequence: Vi =
Va
Z1


( 2)
( 2)

Z

Z
( 2)
( 2)
im
in
Va
NegaHve-sequence: Vi =

Z2

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131

Open-Conductor Faults

Before developing the equaHons for the sequence components of the
voltage for each type of open- conductor fault, let us derive
expressions for the Thvenin equivalent impedances of the sequence
networks as seen from fault points p and p.

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132

Open-Conductor Faults

Looking into the posiHve-sequence network between p and p, we see
the impedance:
()
Z1Zth,mn

Z12

kZ1

Z pp = kZ1 + Zth,mn ( Z1 ) + (1 k ) Z1 = Z1 (1)


= (1)
Zth,mn Z1 Zth,mn Z1
(1)

(1)

()
()
Z mm
Z mn
1

+
()
()
Z nn
Z nm
1

()
()
Z mn
= Z nm
1

Va( )
1

(1 k ) Z

Reference

11/11/13

Z1

Z (pp)
1

()
()
()
()
Zth,mn
= Z mm
+ Z nn
2Z mn
1

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133

Open-Conductor Faults

Vm Vn
(1)
The open-circuit voltage from p to p is: V pp = Z1 (1)
Zth,mn Z1

(1)
2
Z
Z
But: Z (p1p) = (1) 1 Thus: V p(1p) = pp (Vm Vn )
Zth,mn Z1

Z1

Z (pp)
1

()
()
Z mm
Z mn
1

Vm

()
()
Z nn
Z nm
1

()
()
Z mn
= Z nm
0

kZ1

Vn +
1

Z1

Va( )
1

(1 k ) Z

()
()
()
()
Zth,mn
= Z mm
+ Z nn
2Z mn
1

Reference

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134

Open-Conductor Faults

Before any conductor opens, the current Imn in phase a of the line m-n
is posiHve sequence and is given by:

Vm Vn

I mn =
Z1

1
1
Thus: V p(p) = Z (pp) I mn

2
Z
1
Where: Z (pp) = (1) 1
Zth,mn Z1


Z 2 2
Z0 2
( 2)
(0)
Similarly: Z pp = (2 ) and: Z pp = (0)
Zth,mn Z 2
Zth,mn Z0


0
1
2
Now we can nd: Va( ) , Va( ) , Va( )
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Open-Conductor Faults

Thvenin equivalents:
p


(1)
+
Z
1
(
)
p
p

+
Ia

(1)
(1)
Va
I mn Z pp
p


PosiHve-Sequence


0

Z (pp)
0
Zero-Sequence:
I a( )

Z (pp)
2

Ia

( 2)

Va
p

NegaHve-Sequence

+
0
Va( )

p
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( 2)

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136

Open-Conductor Faults One Open Conductor




p

m
a

m
b

Ia

(0)

(1)

( 2)

Ia = 0 Ia + Ia + Ia = 0
n

Ib

V pp ,b = 0

Ic

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V pp ,c = 0

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137

Open-Conductor Faults One Open Conductor



(0)
V

Va
1 1 1 V pp ,a
pp ,a

1
1

(1) =
2
= V pp ,a
Va
1
a
a

3

3

1 a
a 0
V pp ,a
Va( 2)



(0)
(1)
( 2) V pp ,a
Va = Va = Va =

3

The open conductor in phase a causes equal voltage drops to appear
from p to p' in each of the sequence networks. We can saHsfy this
requirement by connecHng the Thvenin equivalents of the sequence
networks in parallel at the points p and p.
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Open-Conductor Faults One Open Conductor




(1)
( 2)
(0)
p
p
I

p
I
I

a
a
a
+

(1) +
( 2) +
(0) +
(0)
(1)
2)
(
Z
1)
Z
Z
(
Va
pp
Va
I Z
V
pp
pp
a
mn pp


p
p
p


From this circuit the expression for the posiHve-sequence current is
found as:
(1)

I mn Z pp

(1)

(1)

I mn Z pp

Z (pp) Z (pp) + Z (pp)


1

I a = (1)
(0)
( 2) =
(0) ( 2) = I mn (0) (1)
(1) ( 2)
(0) ( 2)
Z pp + Z pp Z pp
Z
Z
Z
Z
+
Z
Z
+
Z
Z
pp pp
pp pp
pp pp
pp pp
(1)
Z pp + (0)
2
Z pp + Z (pp)
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Open-Conductor Faults One Open Conductor



1
2

(0)
p
p
I a( )
p
I a( )
Ia

+
(1) +
( 2) +
(0) +

1)
(0)
(
2)
(
Z
Z
Z
(1)
V
pp
Va
Va
pp
pp
a
I
Z
mn
p
p

p
p

p

The sequence voltage drops are:
() ()
( ) () ( )
Z
Z
Z
Z Z
pp pp
pp pp pp
(0)
(1)
( 2)
(1)
Va = Va = Va = I a (0)
1
2
0
2
( 2) = I mn (0) (1)
Z pp + Z pp
Z pp Z pp + Z (pp) Z (pp) + Z (pp) Z (pp)
0

These terms are known from the impedance


parameters of the sequence networks and the
prefault current in phase a of the line m-n.
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Open-Conductor Faults One Open Conductor



(0)
(1)
( 2)
V
V
V
a
a
a
The currents:
,
,
Z0
Z1
Z2

for injecHon into the sequence networks can now be determined.
(0,1,2)
(0,1,2)
Z mm
Z mn

Va( )
Z0,1,2
0,1,2

(0,1,2)
(0,1,2)
Z nn
Z nm
(0,1,2)
(0,1,2)
Z mn
= Z nm
0
11/11/13

Reference

( )
Zth,mn
0,1,2

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141

Open-Conductor Faults Two Open Conductors



Clearly:
p

m
a

m
b

Ia

0
1
2
V pp ,a = Va( ) + Va( ) + Va( ) = 0

Ib

Ib = 0

Ic

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Ic = 0

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142

Open-Conductor Faults Two Open Conductors



Resolving the current into its symmetrical components:

I (0)

Ia
a
a
1 1 1

1
1


1
(
)
I =
2
= Ia
1
a
a

3
3

2
(
)
1 a
a 0
I
Ia

a


(0)
(1)
( 2) I a
Ia = Ia = Ia =

3
Along with:
(0)
(1)
( 2)

V pp ,a = Va + Va + Va = 0

These can be saHsed by connecHng the Thvenin equivalents of
the sequence networks in series between the points p and p.

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Open-Conductor Faults Two Open Conductors



(1)
(0)
(1)
( 2)
+

Ia

Z (pp)
1

(1)

I mn Z pp

I a( )
2

+ (1)
Va
p

Z (pp)
2

(0)

+ ( 2)
Va
p
p

Ia

(0)

Z pp

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Ia = Ia = Ia

+ (0)
Va
p
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144

Open-Conductor Faults Two Open Conductors



(1)
(0)
(1)
( 2)
+
I mn Z

Ia

Z (pp)
1

(1)
pp

I a( )
2

+ (1)
Va
p

0
1
2
I a( ) = I a( ) = I a( )

( 2)

Z pp

I a( )
0

+ ( 2)
Va
p

(1)

I mn Z pp

= (0)
(1)
( 2)
Z pp + Z pp + Z pp

Z (pp)
0

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Ia = Ia = Ia

+ (0)
Va
p
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145

Open-Conductor Faults Two Open Conductors



(1)
(1)
(1) (1)
(1)
V
=
I
Z

Z
I
p

I
a

(1)

I mn Z (pp)

Z pp

pp

pp a

I mn Z (pp)
1

+ (1)
Va
p

= I mn Z (pp) Z (pp) (0)


1
2
Z pp + Z (pp) + Z (pp)
1

Z (pp) + Z (pp)
0

( 2)
a

( 2)

Z pp

I a( )
0

+ ( 2)
Va
p

+ (0)
Va
p

= I mn Z (pp) (0)
1
2
Z pp + Z (pp) + Z (pp)
1

Z (pp)

11/11/13

mn

I mn Z (pp) Z (pp)
1

2
2
2
Va( ) = Z (pp) I a( ) = (0)
1
2
Z pp + Z (pp) + Z (pp)

I mn Z (pp) Z (pp)
0

0
0
0
Va( ) = Z (pp) I a( ) = (0)
1
2
Z pp + Z (pp) + Z (pp)

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146

Open-Conductor Faults Two Open Conductors



In each of these equaHons the right-hand side quanHHes are all
known before the fault occurs.

The net eect of the open conductors on the posiHve-sequence
network is to increase the transfer impedance across the line in
which the open-conductor fault occurs.

For one open conductor this increase in impedance equals the
parallel combinaHon of the negaHve- and zero-sequence networks
between points p and p.

For two open conductors the increase in impedance equals the
series combinaHon of the negaHve-and zero-sequence networks
between points p and p'.
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147

Open-Conductor Faults EXAMPLE



For the system of Slide 39, consider that Machine 2 is a motor
drawing a load equivalent to 50 MVA at 0.8 power-factor lagging and
nominal system voltage of 345 kV at bus 3.

1 T1 2
3 T2 4
Machine 1
Machine 2




Determine the change in voltage at bus 3 when the transmission line
undergoes
a. a one-open-conductor fault and
b. a two-open-conductor fault along its span between buses 2 and 3.
Choose a base of 100 MVA, 345 kV in the transmission line.
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148

Open-Conductor Faults EXAMPLE



Prefault current (per unit) in line 2-3:
50
50
S =
=
= 0.5
Sbase 100

P jQ ) S
(
P jQ
S = V I I 23 =
= S
*
1.0
V3
*
3 23

= 0.5

11/11/13

0.8 j0.6
= 0.4 j0.3
1.0

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149

Open-Conductor Faults EXAMPLE



Recall: Z1 = Z 2 = j0.15, Z0 = j0.5

j0.19
j0.1437 j0.1211 j0.0789 j0.0563
0
0
0
Also recall: ( ) 0 j0.08 j0.08 0 ( ) j0.1211 j0.1696 j0.1104 j0.0789
Z =
, Z = j0.0789 j0.1104 j0.1696 j0.1211

0
j0.08
j0.58
0

0
j0.0563 j0.0789 j0.1211 j0.1437
0
0
j0.19



2
2
Z
Z
0
1
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
Z (pp) = (0) 0
From Slide 108: Z (pp) = (1) 1
Zth,mn
= Z mm
+ Z nn
2Z mn
0
bus

1,2
bus

Zth,mn Z1

Zth,mn Z0

( j0.15)

Z12

Z (pp) = Z (pp) = (1)


=
= j0.712
(1)
(1)
Z 22 + Z33 2Z 23 Z1 j0.1696 + j0.1696 2 ( j0.1104 ) j0.15
1

Z0 2

( j0.5)

Z (pp) = (0)
=
=
(0)
(0)
Z 22 + Z33 2Z 23 Z0 j0.08 + j0.58 2 ( j0.08) j0.5
0

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150

Open-Conductor Faults EXAMPLE



Thus, if the line from bus 2 to bus 3 is opened, then an innite
impedance is seen looking into the zero-sequence network between
points p and p' of the opening. The zero-sequence circuit conrms this
fact since bus 3 would be isolated from the reference by opening the
connecHon between bus 2 and bus 3.

Slide 47:
j0.04 2 j0.5 3 j0.08

j0.04 1
(1)

(2)

3X n = j0.15

Transformer
Node Bus

(3)

(4)

(5)

4
Transformer
Node Bus

j0.04
(6)

3X n = j0.15

j0.04
Reference

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Open-Conductor Faults EXAMPLE



One open conductor: From Slide 118,

(0) (1) ( 2)
(1) ( 2)
(0)
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
pp pp pp
pp pp
(1)
( 2)
I mn (1)
Va = Va = Va = I mn (0) (1)
2
0)
(1) ( 2)
(0) ( 2) Z (
Z pp Z pp + Z pp Z pp + Z pp Z pp pp
Z pp + Z (pp)

2

j0.712 )
(
= 0.1068 + j1424
= ( 0.4 j0.3)
2 ( j0.712 )

From Slide 104:
(0)
(0)
(1)
(1)
Z

Z
Z

Z
0
0
1
2
1
in
in
Vi( ) = im
Va( ) , Vi( ) = Vi( ) = im
Va( )
Z0
Z1

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Open-Conductor Faults EXAMPLE



One open conductor:
(0)
(0)
(1)
(1)
Z

Z
Z

Z
0
0
1
2
1
33
33
V3( ) = 32
Va( ) , V3( ) = V3( ) = 32
Va( )
Z0
Z1

j0.08 j0.58
V3 =
0.1068 + j1424 ) = 0.1068 j0.1424
(
j0.5
(1)
( 2) j0.1104 j0.1696
V3 = V3 =
0.1068 + j1424 ) = 0.0422 j0.0562
(
j0.15
(0)

0
1
2
V3 = V3( ) + V3( ) + V3( ) = 0.1912 j0.24548

V3new = V3 + V3 = 1.0 0.1912 j0.24548 = 0.8088 j0.2548


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153

Open-Conductor Faults EXAMPLE



Two open conductors: InserHng the innite impedance of the zero-
sequence network in series between points p and p' of the posiHve-
sequence network causes an open circuit in the laber .

No power transfer can occur in the system, since power cannot be
transferred by only one phase conductor of the transmission line in
this case since the zero-sequence network oers no return path for
current.
1
2
3
4
(2)

j0.20
Vf

11/11/13

(1)

j0.04

j0.04

(3)

Open

(4)

j0.04

(5)

j0.04
j0.20

Reference
Unsymmetrical Faults (c) 2013 H. Zmuda

+
Vf

154