FAULTS
updated
11/11/13
11/11/13
Introductory
Comments
Most
of
the
faults
that
occur
on
power
systems
are
unsymmetrical
faults,
which
may
consist
of
unsymmetrical
short
circuits,
unsymmetrical
faults
through
impedances,
or
open
conductors.
Unsymmetrical
faults
occur
as
single
linetoground
faults,
lineto
line
faults,
or
double
linetoground
faults.
The
path
of
the
fault
current
from
line
to
line
or
line
to
ground
may
or
may
not
contain
impedance.
One
or
two
open
conductors
result
in
unsymmetrical
faults,
through
either
the
breaking
of
one
or
two
conductors
or
the
acHon
of
fuses
and
other
devices
that
may
not
open
the
three
phases
simultaneously.
11/11/13
Introductory
Comments
Since
any
unsymmetrical
fault
causes
unbalanced
currents
to
ow
in
the
system,
the
method
of
symmetrical
components
is
very
used
in
the
analysis
to
determine
the
currents
and
voltages
in
all
parts
of
the
system
aLer
the
occurrence
of
the
fault.
We
will
consider
faults
on
a
power
system
by
applying
Thvenin's
theorem,
which
allows
us
to
nd
the
current
in
the
fault
by
replacing
the
enHre
system
by
a
single
generator
and
series
impedance,
and
we
will
show
how
the
bus
impedance
matrix
is
applied
to
the
analysis
of
unsymmetrical
faults.
11/11/13
Unsymmetrical
Faults
In
the
derivaHon
of
equaHons
for
the
symmetrical
components
of
currents
and
voltages
in
a
general
network
the
currents
owing
out
of
the
original
balanced
system
from
phases
a
,
b,
and
c
at
the
fault
point
will
be
designated
as
Ia,
lb,
and
lc,
respecHvely.
We
can
visualize
these
currents
by
as
follows:
a
I fa
b
I fb
c
I fc
This
shows
the
three
lines
a,
b,
and
c
of
the
threephase
system
at
the
part
of
the
network
where
the
fault
occurs.
The
ow
of
current
from
each
line
into
the
fault
is
indicated
by
arrows
shown
beside
hypotheHcal
stubs
connected
to
each
line
at
the
fault
locaHon.
11/11/13
Unsymmetrical
Faults
Appropriate
connecHons
of
the
stubs
represent
the
various
types
of
fault.
For
instance,
direct
connecHon
of
stubs
b
and
c
produces
a
linetoline
fault
through
zero
impedance.
The
current
in
stub
a
is
then
zero,
and
lb
equals

lc.
The
linetoground
voltages
at
any
bus
j
of
the
system
during
the
fault
will
be
designated
Vja,
Vjb
and
Vjc
and
we
shall
conHnue
to
use
superscripts
1,
2,
and
0,
respecHvely,
to
denote
posiHve,
negaHve,
and
zerosequence
quanHHes.
Thus,
for
example,
V(1)ja,
V(2)jb
and
V(0)jc
will
denote,
respecHvely,
the
posiHve,
negaHve,
and
zerosequence
components
of
the
lineto
ground
voltage
Vja
at
bus
j
during
the
fault.
11/11/13
Unsymmetrical
Faults
The
linetoneutral
voltage
of
phase
a
at
the
fault
point
before
the
fault
occurs
will
be
designated
simply
by
Vf,
which
is
a
posiHve
sequence
voltage
since
the
system
is
balanced.
We
considered
the
prefault
voltage
Vf
previously
when
calculaHng
the
currents
in
a
power
system
with
a
symmetrical
threephase
fault
applied.
11/11/13
Unsymmetrical
Faults
Consider
a
singleline
diagram
of
a
power
system
containing
two
synchronous
machines.
This
simple
system
is
suciently
general
that
the
equaHons
derived
are
applicable
to
any
balanced
system
regardless
of
the
complexity.
The
point
where
a
fault
is
assumed
to
occur
is
marked
P,
and
in
this
example
it
is
called
bus
k
on
the
singleline
diagram
and
in
the
sequence
networks.
P
k
Single
line
diagram
of
a
balanced
threephase
system
11/11/13
Unsymmetrical
Faults
P
k
(1)
I fa
P
+ k
Vf
(1)
I fa
(1)
Z kk
Reference
PosiKveSequence Network
11/11/13
+
Vf
+
Vka( )
1
Thvenin Equivalent of
PosiKveSequence
Network
8
Unsymmetrical
Faults
P
k
( 2)
I fa
P
k
( 2)
I fa
( 2)
Z kk
Reference
NegaKveSequence Network
11/11/13
+
Vka( )
2
Thvenin Equivalent of
NegaKveSequence
Network
9
Unsymmetrical
Faults
P
k
(0)
I fa
P
k
(0)
I fa
(0)
Z kk
Reference
ZeroSequence Network
11/11/13
+
Vka( )
0
Thvenin Equivalent of
ZeroSequence
Network
10
Unsymmetrical
Faults
Machines
are
represented
by
their
subtransient
internal
voltages
in
series
with
their
subtransient
reactances
when
subtransient
fault
condiHons
are
being
studied.
Previously
we
used
the
bus
impedance
matrix
composed
of
posiHvesequence
impedances
to
determine
currents
and
voltages
upon
the
occurrence
of
a
symmetrical
threephase
fault.
The
method
can
be
easily
extended
to
apply
to
unsymmetrical
faults
by
realizing
that
the
negaHve
and
zerosequence
networks
also
can
be
represented
by
bus
impedance
matrices.
The
bus
impedance
matrix
will
now
be
wriben
symbolically
for
the
posiHve,
negaHve,
and
zerosequence
networks
in
the
following
form
11/11/13
11
Unsymmetrical
Faults
(0,1,2)
bus =
11/11/13
0,1,2
Z11( )
(0,1,2)
Z 21
(0,1,2)
Z k1
0,1,2
Z N( 1 )
0,1,2
0,1,2
(0,1,2)
Z12( ) Z1k( ) Z1N
0,1,2
(0,1,2)
(0,1,2)
Z 22
Z 2k
Z 2( N )
(0,1,2)
(0,1,2)
(0,1,2)
Zk 2
Z kk
Z kN
0,1,2
(0,1,2)
(0,1,2)
Z N( 2 ) Z Nk
Z NN
12
Unsymmetrical
Faults
The
Thvenin
equivalent
circuit
between
the
fault
point
P
and
the
reference
node
in
each
sequence
network
can
be
used
for
the
analysis.
As
before,
the
voltage
source
in
the
posiHvesequence
network
and
its
Thvenin
equivalent
circuit
is
Vf,
the
prefault
voltage
to
neutral
at
the
fault
point
P,
which
happens
to
be
bus
k
in
this
illustraHon.
The
Thvenin
impedance
measured
between
point
P
and
the
reference
node
of
the
posiHvesequence
network
is
Z(1)kk,
and
its
value
depends
on
the
values
of
the
reactances
used
in
the
network.
Recall
that
subtransient
reactances
of
generators
and
1.5
Hmes
the
subtransient
reactances
(or
else
the
transient
reactances)
of
synchronous
motors
are
the
values
used
in
calculaHng
the
symmetrical
current
to
be
interrupted.
11/11/13
13
Unsymmetrical
Faults
There
are
no
negaHve
or
zerosequence
currents
owing
before
the
fault
occurs,
and
the
prefault
voltages
are
zero
at
all
buses
of
the
negaHve
and
zerosequence
networks.
Therefore,
the
prefault
voltage
between
point
P
and
the
reference
node
is
zero
in
the
negaHve
and
zerosequence
networks
and
no
electromoHve
forces
(emfs)
appear
in
their
Thvenin
equivalents.
The
negaHve
and
zerosequence
impedances
between
point
P
at
bus
k
and
the
reference
node
in
the
respecHve
networks
are
represented
by
the
the
impedances
Z(2)kk
and
Z(0)kk,
the
Diagonal
elements
of
Z(2)bus
and
Z(0)bus,
respecHvely.
11/11/13
14
Unsymmetrical
Faults
Since
Ifa
is
the
current
owing
from
the
system
into
the
fault,
its
symmetrical
components
ow
out
of
the
respecHve
sequence
networks
and
their
equivalent
circuits
at
point
P,
as
shown.
Thus,
the
currents
I(1)fa,
I(2)g
and
I(0)fc
represent
injected
currents
into
the
faulted
bus
k
of
the
posiHve,
negaHve,
and
zerosequence
networks
due
to
the
fault.
These
current
injecHons
cause
voltage
changes
at
the
buses
of
the
posiHve,
negaHve,
and
zerosequence
networks,
which
can
be
calculated
from
the
bus
impedance
matrices
in
the
manner
similare
to
what
we
have
done
before.
11/11/13
15
Unsymmetrical
Faults
For
instance,
due
to
the
injecHon
I(1)fa
into
bus
k,
the
voltage
changes
in
the
posiHvesequence
network
of
the
Nbus
system
are
given
in
general
terms
by:
(1)
V1a
1
V2a( )
=
1
Vka( )
(1)
VNa
11/11/13
(1)
(1)
(1)
Z1k
Z11
Z12
()
Z 21
()
()
Z 22
Z 2k
()
Z k1
1
Z N( 1)
1
Z k( 2) Z kk( )
1
()
Z N( )2 Z Nk
Z1N
0
1
Z 2( N) 0
1) =
(
1
( ) I
fa
Z kN
(1) 0
Z NN
(1)
1 1
Z1k( ) I (fa)
(1) (1)
Z 2k
I fa
(1) (1)
Z kk I fa
(1) (1)
Z Nk
I fa
16
Unsymmetrical
Faults
Once
again,
it
is
industry
pracHce
to
regard
all
prefault
currents
as
being
zero
and
to
designate
the
voltage
Vf
as
the
posiHvesequence
voltage
at
all
buses
of
the
system
before
the
fault
occurs.
Using
superposiHon,
the
total
posiHvesequence
voltage
of
phase
a
at
each
bus
during
the
fault
is:
11/11/13
(1)
V1a
1
V2a( )
=
1
Vka( )
(1)
VNa
Vf
Vf
+
Vf
Vf
V1a
1
V2a( )
1
Vka( )
(1)
VNa
(1)
1 1
V f Z1k( ) I (fa)
(1) (1)
V f Z 2k
I fa
(1) (1)
V f Z kk I fa
(1) (1)
V f Z Nk
I fa
17
Unsymmetrical
Faults
This
is
the
same
equaKon
as
found
for
symmetrical
faults,
the
only
dierence
being
the
added
superscripts
and
subscripts
denoKng
the
posiKvesequence
components
of
the
phase
a
quanKKes.
11/11/13
18
Unsymmetrical
Faults
The
negaHve
and
zerosequence
voltage
changes
due
to
the
fault
at
bus
k
of
the
Nbus
system
are
similarly
wriben
with
the
superscripts
changed
accordingly.
Because
the
prefault
voltages
are
zero
in
the
negaHve
and
zerosequence
networks,
the
voltage
changes
express
the
total
negaHve
and
zerosequence
voltages
during
the
fault,
namely,
11/11/13
V1a
( 2)
V2a
=
( 2)
Vka
( 2)
VNa
( 2)
2
2
Z1k( ) I (fa)
( 2) ( 2)
Z 2k
I fa
,
( 2) ( 2)
Z kk I fa
( 2) ( 2)
Z Nk
I fa
V1a
(0)
V2a
=
(0)
Vka
(0)
VNa
(0)
0
0
Z1k( ) I (fa)
(0) (0)
Z 2k
I fa
(0) (0)
Z kk I fa
(0) (0)
Z Nk
I fa
19
Unsymmetrical
Faults
When
the
fault
is
at
bus
k,
note
that
only
the
entries
in
columns
k
of
Z(2)bus
and
Z(0)bus
are
involved
in
the
calculaHons
of
negaHve
and
zerosequence
voltages.
Thus,
knowing
the
symmetrical
components
I(0)fa,
I(1)fa
and
I(2)fa
of
the
fault
currents
at
bus
k,
we
can
determine
the
sequence
voltages
at
any
bus
j
of
the
system
from
the
jth
rows
of
1
V1a( )
1
V2a( )
=
(1)
Vka
(1)
VNa
11/11/13
1 1
V f Z1k( ) I (fa)
(1) (1)
V f Z 2k
I fa
,
(1) (1)
V f Z kk I fa
(1) (1)
V f Z Nk
I fa
2
V1a( )
2
V2a( )
=
( 2)
Vka
( 2)
VNa
2
2
Z1k( ) I (fa)
( 2) ( 2)
Z 2k
I fa
,
( 2) ( 2)
Z kk I fa
( 2) ( 2)
Z Nk
I fa
0
V1a( )
0
V2a( )
=
(0)
Vka
(0)
VNa
0
0
Z1k( ) I (fa)
(0) (0)
Z 2k
I fa
(0) (0)
Z kk I fa
(0) (0)
Z Nk
I fa
20
Unsymmetrical
Faults
That
is,
during
the
fault
at
bus
k
the
voltages
at
any
bus
j
are:
(0)
(0) (0)
(1)
(1) (1)
( 2)
( 2) ( 2)
V
=
Z
I
,
V
=
V
Z
I
,
V
=
Z
I
ja
jk fa
ja
f
jk fa
ja
jk fa
If
the
prefault
voltage
at
bus
CD
is
not
Vf,
then
simply
replace
Vf
in
by
the
actual
value
of
the
prefault
(posiHvesequence)
voltage
at
that
bus.
Since
Vf
is
by
deniHon
the
actual
prefault
voltage
at
the
faulted
bus
k,
we
always
have
at
that
bus:
(0)
(0) (0)
(1)
(1) (1)
( 2)
( 2) ( 2)
Vka = Z kk I fa , Vka = V f Z kk I fa , Vka = Z kk I fa
and
these
are
the
terminal
voltage
equaHons
for
the
Thvenin
equivalents
of
the
sequence
networks
previously
shown.
11/11/13
21
Unsymmetrical
Faults
It
is
important
to
remember
that
the
currents
I(0)fa,
I(1)fa
and
I(2)fa
are
symmetricalcomponent
currents
in
the
stubs
hypotheHcally
abached
to
the
system
at
the
fault
point.
These
currents
take
on
values
determined
by
the
parHcular
type
of
fault
being
studied,
and
once
they
have
been
calculated,
they
can
be
regarded
as
negaHve
injecHons
into
the
corresponding
sequence
networks.
11/11/13
22
Unsymmetrical
Faults
If
the
system
has
Y
transformers,
some
of
the
sequence
voltages
may
have
to
be
shiLed
in
phase
angle
before
being
combined
with
other
components
to
form
the
new
bus
voltages
of
the
faulted
system.
There
are
no
phase
shiLs
involved
in
0
0
0
1
1 1
2
2
2
Vka( ) = Z kk( ) I (fa) , Vka( ) = V f Z kk( ) I (fa) , Vka( ) = Z kk( ) I (fa)
when
the
voltage
Vf
at
the
fault
point
is
chosen
as
reference,
which
is
customary.
11/11/13
23
Unsymmetrical
Faults
In
a
system
with
Y
transformers
the
open
circuits
encountered
in
the
zerosequence
network
requires
some
care
in
the
Zbus
building
algorithm.
Consider,
for
instance,
the
solidly
grounded
Y
transformer
connected
between
buses
m
and
n
as
shown
along
with
their
posiHve
and
zerosequence
circuits:
Z
m
n
m
m
Z
n
n
Reference
Reference
Y
transformer
with
leakage
impedance
Z
PosiKvesequence
circuit
Zerosequence
circuit
Unsymmetrical
Faults
It
is
straighlorward
using
the
circuit
representaHons
shown
to
generate
the
bus
impedance
matrices
Zbus
(0,1,2).
This
will
be
done
subsequently.
Suppose,
however,
that
we
wish
to
represent
removal
of
the
transformer
connecHons
from
bus
n
in
a
computer
algorithm
which
cannot
make
use
of
circuit
(schemaHc)
representaHons.
We
can
easily
undo
the
connecHons
to
bus
n
in
the
posiHve
and
negaHvesequence
networks
by
applying
the
building
algorithm
the
Zbus
(1,2)
matrices
in
the
usual
manner,
i.e.,
by
adding
the
negaHve
of
the
leakage
impedance
Z
between
buses
m
and
m
in
the
posiHve
and
negaHvesequence
networks.
(Next
slide)
11/11/13
25
Unsymmetrical
Faults
PosiKvesequence
circuit:

Z
Z
m
n
Reference
11/11/13
n
Reference
26
Unsymmetrical
Faults
This
strategy
does
not
apply
to
the
zerosequence
matrix
Zbus
(0)
if
it
has
been
formed
directly
from
the
schemaHc
representaHon
shown.
Adding

Z
between
buses
m
and
m
does
not
remove
the
zero
sequence
connecHon
from
bus
n.

Z
m
Reference
11/11/13
27
Unsymmetrical
Faults
To
permit
uniform
procedures
for
all
sequence
networks,
one
strategy
is
to
include
an
internal
node
p,
as
shown
below.
Note
that
the
leakage
impedance
is
now
subdivided
into
two
parts
between
node
p
and
the
other
nodes
as
shown.
ConnecHng
Z/2
between
buses
n
and
p
in
each
of
the
sequence
circuits
will
open
the
transformer
connecHons
to
bus
n.
Z
n
Reference
m
Reference
n
Reference
11/11/13
p Z/2
Z/2
p
Z/2
m
m
Z/2
Reference
Unsymmetrical
Faults
(c)
2013
H.
Zmuda
n
28
Unsymmetrical
Faults
ConnecHng
Z/2
between
buses
n
and
p
in
each
of
the
sequence
circuits
will
open
the
transformer
connecHons
to
bus
n.
Z/2
 Z/2
 Z/2
Z/2
Z/2
Reference
m
Reference
p
Z/2
Z/2
m
p
Reference
11/11/13
m
Reference
Unsymmetrical
Faults
(c)
2013
H.
Zmuda
p
Z/2
29
Unsymmetrical
Faults
The
faults
to
be
discussed
in
succeeding
secHons
may
involve
impedance
Zf
between
lines
and
from
one
or
two
lines
to
ground.
When
Zf
=
0,
we
have
a
direct
short
circuit,
which
is
called
a
bolted
fault
.
Although
such
direct
short
circuits
result
in
the
highest
value
of
fault
current
and
are
therefore
the
most
conservaHve
values
to
use
when
determining
the
eects
of
anHcipated
faults,
the
fault
impedance
is
seldom
zero.
11/11/13
30
Unsymmetrical
Faults
Most
faults
are
the
result
of
insulator
ashovers,
where
the
impedance
between
the
line
and
ground
depends
on
the
resistance
of
the
arc,
of
the
tower
itself,
and
of
the
tower
fooHng
if
ground
wires
are
not
used.
TowerfooHng
resistances
form
the
major
part
of
the
resistance
between
line
and
ground
and
depend
on
the
soil
condiHons.
The
resistance
of
dry
earth
is
10
to
100
Hmes
the
resistance
of
swampy
ground.
11/11/13
31
Unsymmetrical
Faults
ConnecHons
of
the
hypotheHcal
stubs
for
faults
through
impedance
Zf
are
as
follows:
a
Zf
I
fa
b
Zf
I fb
c
Zf
I fc
ThreePhase
Fault
11/11/13
32
Unsymmetrical
Faults
ConnecHons
of
the
hypotheHcal
stubs
for
faults
through
impedance
Zf
are
as
follows:
a
Zf
I
fa
b
I fb
c
I fc
Single
LinetoGround
Fault
11/11/13
33
Unsymmetrical
Faults
ConnecHons
of
the
hypotheHcal
stubs
for
faults
through
impedance
Zf
are
as
follows:
a
I fa
b
Zf
I fb
c
I fc
LinetoLine
Fault
11/11/13
34
Unsymmetrical
Faults
ConnecHons
of
the
hypotheHcal
stubs
for
faults
through
impedance
Zf
are
as
follows:
a
I fa
b
Zf
I fb
c
I fc
Double
LinetoGround
Fault
11/11/13
35
Unsymmetrical
Faults
Other
types
of
faults:
a
Ia
b
Ib
c
Ic
OpenConductor
Faults
11/11/13
36
Unsymmetrical
Faults
Other
types
of
faults:
a
Ia
b
Ib
c
Ic
OpenConductor
Faults
11/11/13
37
Unsymmetrical
Faults
A
balanced
system
remains
symmetrical
aLer
the
occurrence
of
a
threephase
fault
having
the
same
impedance
between
each
line
and
a
common
point.
Only
posiHvesequence
currents
ow.
With
the
fault
impedance
Zf
equal
in
all
phases,
as
in
a
threephase
fault,
we
simply
add
impedance
Zf
to
the
usual
(posiHvesequence)
Thvenin
equivalent
circuit
of
the
system
at
the
fault
bus
k
and
calculate
the
fault
current
from
the
equaHon:
Vf
(1)
I fa = (1)
Z kk + Z f
For
each
of
the
other
types
of
faults,
formal
derivaHons
of
the
equaHons
for
the
symmetricalcomponent
currents
follow.
In
each
case
the
fault
point
P
is
designated
as
bus
k.
11/11/13
38
Example
Two
synchronous
machines
are
connected
through
threephase
transformers
to
the
transmission
line
as
shown.
1
T1
2
3
T2
4
Machine
1
Machine
2
The
raHngs
and
reactances
of
the
machines
and
transformers
are:
Machine
1
&
2:
100MVA,
20
kV,
Xd
=
X1
=
X2
=
20%
X0
=
4%,
Xn
=
5%
Transformers
T1
&
T2:
100
MVA,
20/345Y
kV,
X
=
8%
On
a
chosen
base
of
100
MVA,
345
kV
in
the
transmission
line
circuit
the
line
reactances
are
X1
=
X2
=
15%
and
X0
=
50%.
Determine
Zbus
for
the
sequence
networks.
11/11/13
39
Example
PosiHve
and
negaHvesequence
circuit:
1
2
3
4
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
j0.04
j0.04
j0.04
j0.04
j0.15
(1)
j0.20
j0.20
+
+
V
Vf
f
Reference
The
raHngs
and
reactances
of
the
machines
and
transformers
are:
Machine
1
&
2:
100MVA,
20
kV,
Xd
=
X1
=
X2
=
20%
X0
=
4%,
Xn
=
5%
Transformers
T1,
T2:
100
MVA,
20/345Y
kV,
X
=
8%
(split
as
4%
+
4%)
Transmission
line
reactances
are
X1
=
X2
=
15%
and
X0
=
50%.
11/11/13
40
Example
1
2
(3)
3
4
(4)
(2)
j0.04
j0.04
j0.04
j0.04
j0.15
j0.20
(1)
+
V
f
Reference
1,2
Add
branch
(1):
Z1( ) = j0.20
Add
branch
(2):
j0.20
j0.20 j0.20
j0.20
(1,2)
Z2
11/11/13
=
j0.20
=
j0.20 + j0.08 j0.20
(5)
j0.20
+
Vf
j0.28
41
Example
1
j0.04
j0.20
(1)
+
V
f
Add
branch
(3):
j0.20
(1,2)
Z3 = j0.20
j0.20
11/11/13
(2)
j0.04
(3)
j0.15
(4)
j0.04
j0.04
(5)
j0.20
+
Vf
Reference
j0.20
j0.28
j0.28
j0.20
j0.28
= j0.20
j0.28 + j0.15 j0.20
j0.20
j0.20
j0.28
j0.28
j0.20
j0.28
j0.43
42
Example
1
j0.04
j0.20
(1)
+
V
f
Add
branch
(4):
1,2
Z 4( ) =
11/11/13
(2)
j0.04
(3)
j0.15
(4)
j0.04
j0.04
(5)
j0.20
+
Vf
Reference
j0.20
j0.20
j0.20
j0.20
j0.28
j0.28
j0.20
j0.28
j0.43
j0.20
j0.28
j0.43
j0.28
=
j0.43
j0.43+ j0.08
j0.20
j0.20
j0.20
j0.20
j0.20
j0.28
j0.28
j0.20
j0.28
j0.43
j0.20
j0.28
j0.43
j0.20
j0.28
j0.43
j0.51
43
Example
1
j0.04
j0.20
(1)
+
V
f
Add
branch
(5):
1,2
Z 4( ) =
11/11/13
(2)
j0.04
(3)
j0.15
(4)
j0.04
j0.04
(5)
j0.20
+
Vf
Reference
j0.20
j0.20
j0.20
j0.20
j0.28
j0.28
j0.20
j0.28
j0.43
j0.20
j0.28
j0.43
j0.20
j0.28
j0.43
j0.51
new
ij
= Z ij
Z ik Z kj
Z kk + Z b
44
Example
11/11/13
45
Example
( )
Z bus
:
1,2
11/11/13
46
47
Example
j0.5 3
j0.08
(3)
(1)
j0.19 j0.08
(4)
j0.19
(2)
(5)
Reference
11/11/13
48
Example
1
2
j0.5 3
j0.08
4
(3)
(4)
j0.19 j0.08 (2)
(1)
j0.19
Reference
0
Add
branch
(1): Z1(
) =
j0.19
Add
branch
(3):
j0.19
0
0
Add
branch
(2):
Z3( ) =
(0)
Z2
11/11/13
j0.19
=
0
j0.08
0
j0.08
j0.08
(5)
j0.08
j0.08 + j0.5
49
Example
1
j0.19 j0.08
(1)
Add
branch
(5):
j0.5 3 j0.08
(3)
(4)
j0.19
(2)
(5)
Reference
j0.19
0
(0)
Z bus =
0
0
11/11/13
j0.08
j0.08
j0.08
j0.58
0
0
j0.19
0
50
Example
Well
use
these
in
subsequent
examples.
j0.19
0
(0)
Z bus =
0
0
j0.08
j0.08
j0.08
j0.58
(1,2)
Z bus =
11/11/13
0
0
j0.19
0
j0.1437
j0.1211
j0.0789
j0.1211
j0.1696
j0.1104
j0.0789
j0.1104
j0.1696
j0.0563
j0.0789
j0.1211
j0.0563
j0.0789
j0.1211
j0.1437
51
I fb = I fc = 0, Vka = Z f I fa
11/11/13
52
1 1
I fa
0
1
2
(
)
(
)
(
)
() =
2
1
a
a
I fa
0 I fa = I fa = I fa =
3
3
2
( 2)
1 a
0
a
I fa
But
recall
from
Slide
21:
(0)
(0) (0)
(1)
(1) (1)
( 2)
( 2) ( 2)
V
=
Z
I
,
V
=
V
Z
I
,
V
=
Z
I
ka
kk fa
ka
f
kk fa
ka
kk fa
Thus:
(0)
(0) (0)
(1)
(1) (0)
( 2)
( 2) (0)
53
11/11/13
54
fa
Vf
(1)
+ (1)
Vka
Z kk
I (fa)
2
Z kk( )
+ ( 2)
Vka
(0)
I fa
(0)
Z kk
11/11/13
0
1
2
I (fa) = I (fa) = I (fa)
+ (0)
Vka
3Z f
55
11/11/13
56
11/11/13
57
(1)
(1) (1)
V ja = V f Z jk I fa
V ja( ) = Z (jk ) I (fa)
2
11/11/13
58
59
11/11/13
60
j0.04
j0.08
j0.15
j0.08
j0.15
j0.04
j0.15
Reference
11/11/13
61
j0.04
j0.08
j0.15
j0.08
j0.04
j0.15
j0.15
Reference
(0)
Z bus =
11/11/13
j0.1553
j0.1407
j0.0493
j0.1407
j0.1999
j0.0701
j0.0493
j0.0701
j0.1999
j0.0347
j0.0493
j0.1407
j0.0347
j0.0493
j0.1407
j0.1553
62
j0.0493
j0.0701
j0.1999
j0.1407
1
()
k
I
j0.0347 j0.0493 j0.1407 j0.1553
fA
j0.1437 j0.1211 j0.0789 j0.0563
1
()
1)
+
(
j0.1211
j0.1696
j0.1104
j0.0789
Z
V3a
33
Z( ) =
V f
= 1.0
j0.0789 j0.1104 j0.1696 j0.1211
( 2)
k
I fA
Vf
I fA
(0)
(1)
( 2)
I fA = I fA = I fA = (0)
(1)
( 2)
Z
+
Z
+
Z
+ 3Z f
( 2)
3
kk
kk
kk
2)
+
(
Z33
V3a
1
=
= j1.8549
j0.1999 + j1.696 + j1.696 + 0
0
I (fA)
k
Z
(0)
+
V (
0)
The
total
current
in
the
fault
is:
0
bus
1,2
bus
33
11/11/13
3a
3Z f = 0
I fA = 3I (fA) = j5.5648
0
63
11/11/13
)(
)(
)(
64
V (1) =
2
2
=
V
0.7754
1
a
a
1
a
a
4b
4a 3
3
2
2
V4c 1 a a V (2) 1 a a 0.2246
4a
0.2898
=
0.5346
j0.8660
per
unit
0.5346 j0.8660
11/11/13
65
0.2898
4a
3.346
20
0.5346
j0.8660
=
=
V
1.0187
121.8
4b
kV
V4c
11/11/13
0.5346
j0.8660
1.0187 121.8
66
Reference
(0)
V
0.261
(0)
4a
I a
=
=
=
j6.525
per
unit
jX 0
11/11/13
j0.04
67
Reference
(1)
V
V
1 0.7754
1
4a
I a( ) = f
=
= j1.123
j
X
j0.2
per
unit
()
V
0.2246
( 2)
4a
Ia =
=
= j1.123
jX 2
j0.2
1
11/11/13
68
j6.525
+
a
j1.123
+
a
(
) ( j1.123)
=
j5.402
per
unit
Since
the
base
current
in
the
machine
circuit
is:
100,000
I
=
base
= 2886.751
amps
3 20
I c =
15,994
amps
11/11/13
69
LinetoLine
Faults
To
represent
a
linetoline
fault
through
impedance
Zf
the
hypotheHcal
stubs
on
the
three
lines
at
the
fault
are
connected
as
shown.
Bus
k
is
again
the
fault
point
P,
and
without
any
loss
of
generality,
the
linetoline
fault
is
regarded
as
being
on
phases
b
and
c.
Clearly:
k
I fa
I fa = 0
k
Zf
I fb
k
I fc
11/11/13
Vkb Vkc = Z f I fb
I fb = I fc
70
LinetoLine
Faults
SubsHtuHng:
I (0)
0
fa
1 1 1
(1) 1
2
I fb
=
I
1
a
a
fa 3
1 a 2 a I fc
( 2)
I fa
(0)
I
=0
fa
(1)
( 2)
I fa = I fa
The
voltages
throughout
the
zerosequence
network
must
be
zero
0
since
there
are
no
zerosequence
sources,
and
because
I
(fa
)
=
0
,
current
is
not
being
injected
into
that
network
due
to
the
fault.
Hence,
linetoline
fault
calculaHons
do
not
involve
the
zero
sequence
network,
which
remains
the
same
as
before
the
fault

a
dead
network.
11/11/13
71
LinetoLine
Faults
(1)
( 2)
To
saHsfy
the
requirement
that
I
fa
=
I
fa
we
connect
the
Thvenin
equivalents
of
the
posiHve
and
negaHvesequence
networks
in
parallel,
as
shown:
Z kk( )
1
Vf
Zf
(1) +
I fa
Z kk( )
2
+ I ( 2)
fa
(1)
( 2)
Vka
Vka
Reference
11/11/13
72
LinetoLine
Faults
To
show
that
this
connecHon
of
the
networks
also
saHses
the
voltage
equaHon:
Vkb Vkc = Z f I fb
we
now
expand
each
side
of
that
equaHon
separately
as
follows:
(1)
( 2)
(1)
( 2)
V
V
=
V
+
V
V
+
V
kb
kc
kb
kb
kc
kc
1
1
2
2
= Vkb( ) Vkc( ) + Vkb( ) Vkc( )
1
2
= a 2 a Vka( ) + a a 2 Vka( )
(1)
( 2)
2
=
a
a
V
V
ka
ka
and:
(
(
(
(
)
)(
) (
) (
)
)
73
LinetoLine
Faults
Equate
both
terms
and
set:
I (fa1) = I (fa2)
(1)
( 2)
( 2)
2
2 (1)
V
V
=
a
a
V
V
=
Z
I
=
Z
a
I
+
aI
kb
kc
ka
ka
f fb
f
fa
fa
(1)
( 2)
(1)
2
2
a
V
V
=
Z
a
a
I
ka
ka
f
fa
(1)
( 2)
(1)
V
=
Z
I
ka
ka
f fa
But
this
is
precisely
the
voltage
drop
across
Zf
in
the
gure
on
Slide
66.
11/11/13
)(
)(
74
LinetoLine
Faults
Thus,
all
the
fault
condiHons
are
saHsed
by
connecHng
the
posiHve
and
negaHvesequence
networks
in
parallel
through
impedance
Zf
as
was
shown.
The
zerosequence
network
is
inacHve
and
does
not
enter
into
the
linetoline
calculaHons.
The
equaHon
for
the
posiHvesequence
current
in
the
fault
can
be
determined
directly
from
the
circuit
as:
11/11/13
75
11/11/13
76
Reference
From
the
circuit:
Vf
1.0
(1)
( 2)
I fA
=
I fA
=
(1)
( 2
) =
=
j2.9481
per
unit
1,2
bus
11/11/13
Z33 + Z33
2 j0.1696
77
78
11/12/13
)(
79
11/12/13
80
11/12/13
) (
) (
) (
81
11/11/13
)(
)(
82
(0) (0)
V4a = Z 43 I fa = 0
V4a( ) = V4a( ) 30 = 0.643 30 = 0.5569 j0.3215
1
11/12/13
83
V4b( ) = V4a( ) = 0
0
11/12/13
84
V4c( ) = V4a( ) = 0
0
11/12/13
85
V
= 1.7322
4,ab
4a
4b
0
0
(0)
V4,bc
= V4b( ) V4c( ) = 0.8661 j0.429
(0)
(0)
(
0)
per
unit
V4,ca
= V4c V4a = 0.8661+ j0.429
For
the
voltage,
mulHply
by
20
kV/31/2
(0)
V4,ab = 1.7322
20
3
= 20
()
V
4,bc
=
11.2
153.65
0
kV
(0)
V4,ca = 11.2153.65
11/12/13
86
I fa
I fa = 0
k
I fb
Zf
k
I fc
11/11/13
Vkb = Vkc = Z f I fb + I fc
Unsymmetrical
Faults
(c)
2013
H.
Zmuda
)
87
V (0)
1 1
ka
V (1) = 1 1 a
ka 3
1 a 2
V ( 2)
ka
11/11/13
1 ka
2 V
a
kb
a Vkc
) (
1 1
1
= 1 a
3
2
1
a
1 ka
2 V
a
kb
a Vkb
88
V (0)
1 1
ka
V (1) = 1 1 a
ka 3
1 a 2
V ( 2)
ka
1 ka
2 V
a
kb
a Vkb
1
Vka = a + a 2 Vkb
3
(1)
( 2)
Vka = Vka
( 2) 1 2
Vka = a + a Vkb
3
(1)
11/11/13
89
3I fa = I fb + I fc
V (0)
1 1
ka
V (1) = 1 1 a
ka 3
1 a 2
V ( 2)
ka
1 ka
2 V
a
kb
a Vkb
) (
11/11/13
)
90
3Z
I
ka
ka
f fa
Thus:
(1)
( 2)
(0)
(0)
Vka = Vka = Vka 3Z f I fa
and
since
Ifa
=
0
(0)
(1)
( 2)
I fa + I fa + I fa = 0
These
last
two
results
characterize
the
double
linetoground
fault.
11/11/13
91
3Z f
Clearly:
(1)
Vf
Vf
I fa = 1
=
0
2
()
()
()
(0)
( 2)
Z kk + Z kk + 3Z f Z kk
Z kk + 3Z f Z kk
(1)
Z kk + (0)
( 2)
Z + Z + 3Z
kk
11/11/13
kk
92
3Z f
By
current
divider:
(0)
( 2)
Z
+
3Z
Z kk
kk
f
( 2)
(1)
(0)
(1)
I fa = I fa (0)
,
I fa = I fa (0)
( 2)
( 2)
Z kk + Z kk + 3Z f
11/11/13
Z kk + Z kk + 3Z f
93
11/11/13
94
11/11/13
T1 2
T2
Machine 2
95
I fa
Vf
( 2)
I fa
Z kk( )
+ (1)
Vka
I (fa)
0
Z kk( )
2
+ ( 2)
Vka
Z kk( )
0
+ (0)
Vka
3Z f
j0.19
0
(0)
Z bus
=
0
0
11/12/13
j0.08
j0.08
j0.08
j0.58
0
(1,2)
, Z bus
=
j0.19
j0.1437
j0.1211
j0.0789
j0.1211
j0.1696
j0.1104
j0.0789
j0.1104
j0.1696
j0.0563
j0.0789
j0.1211
j0.0563
j0.0789
j0.1211
j0.1437
96
Vf
1.0
1.0
I (fa1) =
=
=
= j4.4342
(0) ( 2)
(0)
( 2)
( j0.19)( j0.1437 )
Z 44 Z 44
Z + 3Z f ) Z kk
(1)
(1) ( kk
j0.1437
+
Z
+
44
Z kk + (0)
(0)
( 2)
j0.19 + j0.1437
( 2)
Z
+
Z
44
44
Z
+
Z
+
3Z
kk
kk
f
per
unit
11/12/13
97
(1)
( 2)
(0)
(1) (1)
V4a = V4a = V4a = V f Z 44 I fa
=
1.0
j
j0.1437
j4.4342
= 0.3628
per
unit
11/12/13
)(
98
(0)
Z
(2)
(1)
kk
+ 3Z
f
(1
)
Z kk(0)
(
1)
Z
44(
0
)
I fa = I fa (0)
= I fa (0)
( 2)
( 2) = I fa (0)
( 2)
Z kk + Z kk + 3Z f
Z kk + Z kk
Z 44 + Z 44
j0.19
= j4.4342
=
j2.5247
per
unit
j0.19 + j0.1437
11/12/13
99
(0)
(1)
Z
(2)
(1)
Z (2)
kk
44
I
=
I
=
I
fa
fa
fa
0
2
(0)
( 2)
Z kk( ) + Z kk( ) + 3Z f
Z 44
+ Z 44
j0.1437
= j4.4342
= j1.9095
per
unit
j0.19 + j0.1437
11/12/13
100
11/12/13
101
(1)
( 2)
11/12/13
102
11/12/13
103
Phase
Shias
The
previous
two
examples
show
that
phase
shiLs
due
to
Y
transformers
do
not
enter
into
the
calculaHons
of
sequence
currents
and
voltages
in
that
part
of
the
system
where
the
fault
occurs
provided
Vf
at
the
fault
point
is
chosen
as
the
reference
voltage
for
the
calculaHons.
However,
for
those
parts
of
the
system
which
are
separated
by
Y
transformers
from
the
fault
point,
the
sequence
currents,
and
voltages
calculated
by
bus
impedance
matrix
must
be
shiLed
in
phase
before
being
combined
to
form
the
actual
voltages.
This
is
because
the
bus
impedance
matrices
of
the
sequence
networks
are
formed
without
consideraHon
of
phase
shiLs,
and
so
they
consist
of
perunit
impedances
referred
to
the
part
of
the
network
which
includes
the
fault
point.
11/11/13
104
j0.19
0
(0)
Z bus
=
0
0
11/12/13
T1 2
j0.08
j0.08
j0.08
j0.58
0
(1,2)
, Z bus
=
j0.19
T2
Machine 2
j0.1437
j0.1211
j0.0789
j0.1211
j0.1696
j0.1104
j0.0789
j0.1104
j0.1696
j0.0563
j0.0789
j0.1211
j0.0563
j0.0789
j0.1211
j0.1437
105
V2a = Z 24 I fa = ( 0 ) ( j1.9095) = 0
(0)
(0) (0)
() ()
V2a( ) = V f Z 24
I fa = 1.0 ( j0.0789 ) ( j4.4342 ) = 0.6501
1
() ()
V2a( ) = Z 24
I fa = ( j0.0789 ) ( j2.5247 ) = 0.1992
2
11/12/13
106
107
11/12/13
108
OpenConductor
Faults
When
one
phase
of
a
balanced
threephase
system
opens,
an
unbalance
is
created
and
asymmetrical
currents
ow.
A
similar
type
of
unbalance
occurs
when
any
two
of
the
three
phases
are
opened
while
the
third
phase
remains
closed.
These
unbalanced
condiHons
are
caused,
for
example,
when
one
or
twophase
conductors
of
a
transmission
line
are
physical
broken
by
accident
or
storm.
In
other
circuits,
due
to
current
overload,
fuses
or
other
switching
devices
may
operate
in
one
or
two
conductors
and
fail
to
operate
in
other
conductors.
Such
openconductor
faults
can
be
analyzed
by
means
of
the
bus
impedance
matrices
of
the
sequence
networks,
as
we
now
show.
11/11/13
109
OpenConductor
Faults
Consider
a
secHon
of
a
threephase
circuit
in
which
the
line
currents
in
the
respecHve
phases
are
la,
Ib,
and
Ic,
with
posiHve
direcHon
from
bus
m
to
bus
n,
with
phase
a
open
between
points
p
and
p:
p
m
a
m
b
Ia
n
Ib
Ic
11/11/13
110
OpenConductor
Faults
Also
consider
the
case
where
phases
b
and
c
are
open
between
points
p
and
p:
p
m
a
m
b
Ia
n
Ib
Ic
11/11/13
111
OpenConductor
Faults
The
same
openconductor
fault
condiHons
will
result
is
all
three
phases
are
rst
opened
between
points
p
and
p
and
short
circuits
are
then
applied
in
those
phases
which
are
shown
to
be
closed
in
the
preceding
gures.
The
ensuing
development
follows
this
reasoning.
Opening
the
three
phases
is
the
same
a
removing
the
line
mn
altogether
then
adding
appropriate
impedances
from
buses
m
and
n
to
the
points
p
and
p.
11/11/13
112
OpenConductor
Faults
If
line
mn
has
the
sequence
impedances
Z0,
Z1,
and
Z2,
simulate
the
opening
of
the
three
phases
by
adding
the
negaHve
impedances
Z0,
Z1,
and
Z2
between
buses
m
and
n
in
the
corresponding
Thvenin
equivalents
of
the
three
sequence
networks
of
the
intact
system.
11/11/13
113
OpenConductor
Faults
For
example,
consider
the
connecHon
of
Z1
to
the
posiHve
sequence
Thvenin
equivalent
between
buses
m
and
n:
(1)
(1)
Z mm
Z mn
m
+
Vm
Z1
(1)
(1)
n
Z nn
Z nm
Vn +
Z (1) = Z (1)
mn
nm
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
Z
=
Z
+
Z
2Z
th,mn
mm
nn
mn
0
Reference
Voltages
Vm
and
Vn
are
the
normal
(posiHvesequence)
voltages
of
phase
a
at
buses
m
and
n
before
the
openconductor
faults
occur.
11/11/13
114
OpenConductor
Faults
The
posiHvesequence
impedances
kZ1
and
(1
k)Z1,
0<k<1,
is
added
to
represent
the
fracHonal
lengths
of
the
broken
line
mn
from
bus
m
to
point
p
and
bus
n
to
point
p.
Z (pp)
1
()
()
Z mm
Z mn
1
Vm
(1)
nn
Z Z
()
()
Z mn
= Z nm
0
kZ1
Vn +
1
(1)
nm
Z1
(1)
(1 k ) Z
Va
p
()
()
()
()
Zth,mn
= Z mm
+ Z nn
2Z mn
1
Reference
11/11/13
115
OpenConductor
Faults
Simplify
()
()
Z mm
Z mn
1
Vm
()
()
Z nn
Z nm
1
()
()
Z mn
= Z nm
0
kZ1
Z1
(1 k ) Z
Va
p
donothing
source
Reference
11/11/13
Vn +
1
()
Zth,mn
1
116
OpenConductor
Faults
Simplify
Combine
these
()
()
Z mm
Z mn
1
Vm
()
()
Z nn
Z nm
1
()
()
Z mn
= Z nm
0
kZ1
Z1
Va( )
1
(1 k ) Z
Reference
11/11/13
Vn +
1
()
Zth,mn
1
117
OpenConductor
Faults
Simplify
()
()
Z mm
Z mn
1
Vm
()
()
Z nn
Z nm
1
()
()
Z mn
= Z nm
0
Va( )
1
Z1
Reference
11/11/13
Z1
Vn +
1
Perform
a
source
conversion
()
Zth,mn
1
118
OpenConductor
Faults
Simplify
()
()
Z mm
Z mn
1
Vm
()
()
Z nn
Z nm
1
()
()
Z mn
= Z nm
0
Va( )
Z1
Z1
Z1
p
Reference
11/11/13
Open circuit
Vn +
1
()
Zth,mn
1
119
OpenConductor
Faults
Final
result
(posiHvesequence
equivalent
circuit):
()
()
Z mm
Z mn
1
Vm
()
()
Z nn
Z nm
1
()
()
Z mn
= Z nm
0
11/11/13
(1)
Vn +
1
Va
Z1
Reference
()
Zth,mn
1
120
OpenConductor
Faults
The
above
consideraHons
for
the
posiHvesequence
network
also
apply
directly
to
the
negaHve
and
zerosequence
networks,
but
we
must
remember
that
the
laber
networks
do
not
contain
any
internal
sources
of
their
own.
11/11/13
121
OpenConductor
Faults
NegaHvesequence
equivalent
circuit:
Z (pp)
2
()
()
Z mm
Z mn
2
kZ 2
+
()
()
Z nn
Z nm
2
()
()
Z mn
= Z nm
2
Z 2
(1 k ) Z
2
Va( )
2
()
()
()
()
Zth,mn
= Z mm
+ Z nn
2Z mn
2
Reference
11/11/13
122
OpenConductor
Faults
NegaHvesequence
equivalent
circuit
simplied:
()
()
Z mm
Z mn
2
( 2)
()
()
Z nn
Z nm
2
()
()
Z mn
= Z nm
2
11/11/13
Va
Z2
Reference
()
Zth,mn
2
123
OpenConductor
Faults
Zerosequence
equivalent
circuit:
Z (pp)
0
()
()
Z mm
Z mn
0
kZ0
+
()
()
Z nn
Z nm
0
()
()
Z mn
= Z nm
0
Z0
(1 k ) Z
0
Va( )
0
()
()
()
()
Zth,mn
= Z mm
+ Z nn
2Z mn
0
Reference
11/11/13
124
OpenConductor
Faults
Zerosequence
equivalent
circuit
simplied:
()
()
Z mm
Z mn
0
(0)
()
()
Z nn
Z nm
0
()
()
Z mn
= Z nm
0
11/11/13
Va
Z0
Reference
()
Zth,mn
0
125
OpenConductor
Faults
1
Let
the
voltage
V
a
(
)
denote
the
phasea
posiHvesequence
component
of
the
voltage
drops
Vppa,
Vppb,
and
Vppc
from
p
to
p'
in
the
phase
conductors.
1)
(
We
will
soon
see
that
V
a
and
the
corresponding
negaHve
and
2
0
zerosequence
components
V
a
(
)
and
V
a
(
)
,
take
on
dierent
values
depending
on
which
one
of
the
openconductor
fauIts
is
being
considered.
11/11/13
126
OpenConductor
Faults
In
drawing
the
sequence
equivalent
circuits
it
is
understood
that
the
currents
sources
owe
their
origin
to
the
openconductor
fault
between
points
p
and
p'
in
the
system.
If
there
is
no
open
conductor,
the
voltages:
0
1
2
Va( ) , Va( ) , Va( )
are
all
zero
and
the
current
sources
disappear.
11/11/13
127
OpenConductor
Faults
Note
that
each
of
the
sequence
currents
sources:
(0)
(1)
( 2)
Va
Va
Va
,
,
Z0
Z1
Z2
can
be
regarded
in
turn
as
a
pair
of
injecHons
into
buses
m
and
n
of
the
corresponding
sequence
network
of
the
intact
system.
Hence,
we
can
use
the
bus
impedance
sequence
matrices
of
the
normal
conguraHon
of
the
system
to
determine
the
voltage
changes
due
to
the
openconductor
faults.
11/11/13
128
OpenConductor
Faults
First
we
must
nd
expressions
for
the
symmetrical
components
of
Va
(i.e.,
of
the
voltage
drops
across
the
fault
points
p
and
p
for
each
type
of
fault,
(one
or
two
open
lines).
These
voltage
drops
can
be
regarded
as
giving
rise
to
the
following
sets
of
injecHon
currents
into
the
sequence
networks
of
the
normal
system
conguraHon:
POSITIVE
NEGATIVE
ZERO
SEQUENCE
SEQUENCE
SEQUENCE
1
2
0
Va( ) Z1
Va( ) Z 2
Va( ) Z0
At
bus
m:
( 2)
(0)
(1)
At
bus
n:
Va Z 2
Va Z0
Va Z1
11/11/13
129
OpenConductor
Faults
Recall
Slide
87
from
Network
CalculaKons:
11/11/13
V1
V j
=
Vk
VN
Z1 j I j + Z1k I k
Z jj I j + Z jk I k
Z kj I j + Z kk I k
Z Nj I j + Z Nk I k
130
OpenConductor
Faults
The
changes
in
the
symmetrical
components
of
the
phasea
voltage
of
each
bus
i
is::
(0)
(0)
Z im Z in (0)
0)
(
Zerosequence:
Vi =
Va
Z0
(1)
(1)
Z
Z
1)
1)
(
(
im
in
PosiHvesequence:
Vi =
Va
Z1
( 2)
( 2)
Z
Z
( 2)
( 2)
im
in
Va
NegaHvesequence:
Vi =
Z2
11/11/13
131
OpenConductor
Faults
Before
developing
the
equaHons
for
the
sequence
components
of
the
voltage
for
each
type
of
open
conductor
fault,
let
us
derive
expressions
for
the
Thvenin
equivalent
impedances
of
the
sequence
networks
as
seen
from
fault
points
p
and
p.
11/11/13
132
OpenConductor
Faults
Looking
into
the
posiHvesequence
network
between
p
and
p,
we
see
the
impedance:
()
Z1Zth,mn
Z12
kZ1
(1)
()
()
Z mm
Z mn
1
+
()
()
Z nn
Z nm
1
()
()
Z mn
= Z nm
1
Va( )
1
(1 k ) Z
Reference
11/11/13
Z1
Z (pp)
1
()
()
()
()
Zth,mn
= Z mm
+ Z nn
2Z mn
1
133
OpenConductor
Faults
Vm Vn
(1)
The
opencircuit
voltage
from
p
to
p
is:
V pp = Z1 (1)
Zth,mn Z1
(1)
2
Z
Z
But: Z (p1p)
=
(1) 1
Thus:
V p(1p) = pp (Vm Vn )
Zth,mn Z1
Z1
Z (pp)
1
()
()
Z mm
Z mn
1
Vm
()
()
Z nn
Z nm
1
()
()
Z mn
= Z nm
0
kZ1
Vn +
1
Z1
Va( )
1
(1 k ) Z
()
()
()
()
Zth,mn
= Z mm
+ Z nn
2Z mn
1
Reference
11/11/13
134
OpenConductor
Faults
Before
any
conductor
opens,
the
current
Imn
in
phase
a
of
the
line
mn
is
posiHve
sequence
and
is
given
by:
Vm Vn
I mn =
Z1
1
1
Thus:
V p(p) = Z (pp) I mn
2
Z
1
Where:
Z (pp) = (1) 1
Zth,mn Z1
Z 2 2
Z0 2
( 2)
(0)
Similarly:
Z pp =
(2
)
and:
Z pp = (0)
Zth,mn Z 2
Zth,mn Z0
0
1
2
Now
we
can
nd:
Va( ) , Va( ) , Va( )
11/11/13
135
OpenConductor
Faults
Thvenin
equivalents:
p
(1)
+
Z
1
(
)
p
p
+
Ia
(1)
(1)
Va
I mn Z pp
p
PosiHveSequence
0
Z (pp)
0
ZeroSequence:
I a( )
Z (pp)
2
Ia
( 2)
Va
p
NegaHveSequence
+
0
Va( )
p
11/11/13
( 2)
136
m
a
m
b
Ia
(0)
(1)
( 2)
Ia = 0 Ia + Ia + Ia = 0
n
Ib
V pp ,b = 0
Ic
11/11/13
V pp ,c = 0
137
Va
1 1 1 V pp ,a
pp ,a
1
1
(1) =
2
= V pp ,a
Va
1
a
a
3
3
1 a
a 0
V pp ,a
Va( 2)
(0)
(1)
( 2) V pp ,a
Va = Va = Va =
3
The
open
conductor
in
phase
a
causes
equal
voltage
drops
to
appear
from
p
to
p'
in
each
of
the
sequence
networks.
We
can
saHsfy
this
requirement
by
connecHng
the
Thvenin
equivalents
of
the
sequence
networks
in
parallel
at
the
points
p
and
p.
11/11/13
138
p
p
p
From
this
circuit
the
expression
for
the
posiHvesequence
current
is
found
as:
(1)
I mn Z pp
(1)
(1)
I mn Z pp
I a = (1)
(0)
( 2) =
(0) ( 2) = I mn (0) (1)
(1) ( 2)
(0) ( 2)
Z pp + Z pp Z pp
Z
Z
Z
Z
+
Z
Z
+
Z
Z
pp pp
pp pp
pp pp
pp pp
(1)
Z pp + (0)
2
Z pp + Z (pp)
11/11/13
139
p
p
p
The
sequence
voltage
drops
are:
() ()
( ) () ( )
Z
Z
Z
Z Z
pp pp
pp pp pp
(0)
(1)
( 2)
(1)
Va = Va = Va = I a (0)
1
2
0
2
( 2) = I mn (0) (1)
Z pp + Z pp
Z pp Z pp + Z (pp) Z (pp) + Z (pp) Z (pp)
0
140
Va( )
Z0,1,2
0,1,2
(0,1,2)
(0,1,2)
Z nn
Z nm
(0,1,2)
(0,1,2)
Z mn
= Z nm
0
11/11/13
Reference
( )
Zth,mn
0,1,2
141
m
a
m
b
Ia
0
1
2
V pp ,a = Va( ) + Va( ) + Va( ) = 0
Ib
Ib = 0
Ic
11/11/13
Ic = 0
142
Ia
a
a
1 1 1
1
1
1
(
)
I =
2
= Ia
1
a
a
3
3
2
(
)
1 a
a 0
I
Ia
a
(0)
(1)
( 2) I a
Ia = Ia = Ia =
3
Along
with:
(0)
(1)
( 2)
V pp ,a = Va + Va + Va = 0
These
can
be
saHsed
by
connecHng
the
Thvenin
equivalents
of
the
sequence
networks
in
series
between
the
points
p
and
p.
11/11/13
143
Ia
Z (pp)
1
(1)
I mn Z pp
I a( )
2
+ (1)
Va
p
Z (pp)
2
(0)
+ ( 2)
Va
p
p
Ia
(0)
Z pp
11/11/13
Ia = Ia = Ia
+ (0)
Va
p
Unsymmetrical
Faults
(c)
2013
H.
Zmuda
144
Ia
Z (pp)
1
(1)
pp
I a( )
2
+ (1)
Va
p
0
1
2
I a( ) = I a( ) = I a( )
( 2)
Z pp
I a( )
0
+ ( 2)
Va
p
(1)
I mn Z pp
= (0)
(1)
( 2)
Z pp + Z pp + Z pp
Z (pp)
0
11/11/13
Ia = Ia = Ia
+ (0)
Va
p
Unsymmetrical
Faults
(c)
2013
H.
Zmuda
145
Z
I
p
I
a
(1)
I mn Z (pp)
Z pp
pp
pp a
I mn Z (pp)
1
+ (1)
Va
p
Z (pp) + Z (pp)
0
( 2)
a
( 2)
Z pp
I a( )
0
+ ( 2)
Va
p
+ (0)
Va
p
= I mn Z (pp) (0)
1
2
Z pp + Z (pp) + Z (pp)
1
Z (pp)
11/11/13
mn
I mn Z (pp) Z (pp)
1
2
2
2
Va( ) = Z (pp) I a( ) = (0)
1
2
Z pp + Z (pp) + Z (pp)
I mn Z (pp) Z (pp)
0
0
0
0
Va( ) = Z (pp) I a( ) = (0)
1
2
Z pp + Z (pp) + Z (pp)
146
147
148
P jQ ) S
(
P jQ
S = V I I 23 =
= S
*
1.0
V3
*
3 23
= 0.5
11/11/13
0.8 j0.6
= 0.4 j0.3
1.0
149
0
j0.0563 j0.0789 j0.1211 j0.1437
0
0
j0.19
2
2
Z
Z
0
1
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
Z (pp) = (0) 0
From
Slide
108:
Z (pp) = (1) 1
Zth,mn
= Z mm
+ Z nn
2Z mn
0
bus
1,2
bus
Zth,mn Z1
Zth,mn Z0
( j0.15)
Z12
Z0 2
( j0.5)
Z (pp) = (0)
=
=
(0)
(0)
Z 22 + Z33 2Z 23 Z0 j0.08 + j0.58 2 ( j0.08) j0.5
0
11/11/13
150
j0.04 1
(1)
(2)
3X n = j0.15
Transformer
Node
Bus
(3)
(4)
(5)
4
Transformer
Node
Bus
j0.04
(6)
3X n = j0.15
j0.04
Reference
11/11/13
151
Z
Z
Z
0
0
1
2
1
in
in
Vi( ) = im
Va( ) , Vi( ) = Vi( ) = im
Va( )
Z0
Z1
11/11/13
152
Z
Z
Z
0
0
1
2
1
33
33
V3( ) = 32
Va( ) , V3( ) = V3( ) = 32
Va( )
Z0
Z1
j0.08 j0.58
V3 =
0.1068 + j1424 ) = 0.1068 j0.1424
(
j0.5
(1)
( 2) j0.1104 j0.1696
V3 = V3 =
0.1068 + j1424 ) = 0.0422 j0.0562
(
j0.15
(0)
0
1
2
V3 = V3( ) + V3( ) + V3( ) = 0.1912 j0.24548
153
j0.20
Vf
11/11/13
(1)
j0.04
j0.04
(3)
Open
(4)
j0.04
(5)
j0.04
j0.20
Reference
Unsymmetrical
Faults
(c)
2013
H.
Zmuda
+
Vf
154