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Data formatting & carrier

Modulation transmitter
Trainer and carrier
Demodulation & data
Reformatting receiver trainer
ST2156 & ST2157

Learning Material
Ver. 1.2

An ISO 9001:2008 company

94, Electronic Complex, Pardesipura
Indore - 452 010 India
Tel: +91-731 4211100
Fax: +91-731-2555643
e mail: info@scientech.bz
Websites: www.caddo.bz
www.scientech.bz

ST2156 &ST2157

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Dear User,
We request you to use the Learning material in the CD form
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plenty of theory,
detailed experiments with observation tables,
frequently asked questions, etc.
…….. and more so sometimes videos as well.
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Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd.

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ST2156 &ST2157

Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd.

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ST2156 &ST2157

Data Formatting & Carrier Modulation Transmitter Trainer and Carrier
Demodulation & Data Reformatting Receiver Trainer
ST2156 & ST2157
Table of Contents
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Safety Instructions
5
Introduction
6
Features
7
Technical Specifications
8 &9
Theory
10
• Communication and Communication System
10
• Digital Communication
11
• Line Coding and Decoding
13
• Different Data Formatting techniques
15
• Modulation and its purpose
18
• Digital Modulation
18
• Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Technique
18
• Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Technique
20
• Phase Shift Keying (PSK) and Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK)
Technique
23
• Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) Technique
26
• Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
32
6. Operating Instructions
33
7. Experiments
• Experiment 1
34
Study of Data Formats
• Experiment 2
36
Study of Amplitude Shift Keying
• Experiment 3
39
Study of Frequency Shift Keying
• Experiment 4
41
Study of Phase Shift Keying
• Experiment 5
45
Study of Differential Phase Shift Keying
• Experiment 6
47
Study of Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
• Experiment 7
51
Study of Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
8. Warranty & List of Accessories

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Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd.

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ST2156 &ST2157

Safety Instructions
Read the following safety instructions carefully before operating the instrument. To
avoid any personal injury or damage to the instrument or any product connected to it.
Do not operate the instrument if you suspect any damage within.
The instrument should be serviced by qualified personnel only.
For your safety:
Use proper mains cord

: Use only the mains cord designed for this instrument.
Ensure that the mains cord is suitable for your
country.

Ground the instrument

: This instrument is grounded through the protective
earth conductor of the mains cord. To avoid electric
shock the grounding conductor must be connected to
the earth ground. Before making connections to the
input terminals, ensure that the instrument is properly
grounded.

Observe terminal ratings :
Use only the proper Fuse

To avoid fire or shock hazards, observe all ratings and
marks on the instrument.
: Use the fuse type and rating specified for this
instrument.

Use in proper atmosphere : Please refer to operating conditions given in the
manual.

Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd.

1.

Do not operate in wet / damp conditions.

2.

Do not operate in an explosive atmosphere.

3.

Keep the product dust free, clean and dry.

5

DPSK. ASK. Scientech Technologies Pvt. 6 . QPSK etc. Ltd. FSK. PSK.ST2156 &ST2157 Introduction Data Formatting & Carrier Modulation Transmitter Trainer ST2156 and Carrier Demodulation & Data Reformatting Receiver Trainer ST2157 are complete digital communication system which efficiently explains all communication processing steps involved in digital transmission & reception of analog signals. Various digital modulation techniques viz. can be implemented using combinations of these two trainers.

• On . AMI. • On-board data inverter.Board 4th Order Butterworth filters • On board 8 bit Data Receiver. DQPSK carrier modulation. Biphase (Mark). (Manchester).ST2156 &ST2157 Features Features of ST2156 • On-board Carrier generation circuit (Sine waves synchronized to transmitter data). Biphase (Manchester). • FSK. • On-board in phase and quadrate phase carrier for QPSK modulation. PSK. • On-board Unipolar to Bipolar conversion. Biphase. NRZ (M).Board Biphase Clock recovery circuit. DPSK & QPSK carrier demodulation. • ASK. QPSK. Ltd. FSK. DPSK ASK. • On-board 8-bit Data Source • On-board Clock Source Features of ST2157 • 7 different data reconditioning formats NRZ (M).Board data squaring circuit and differential decoder. RZ. RB. PSK. • On . RB. 7 . Biphase (Mark). • Different data conditioning formats NRZ (L). Scientech Technologies Pvt. • On . RZ. AMI.

Ltd. (approx) Scientech Technologies Pvt. (90 deg. 8 . Carrier modulation : ASK. DPSK. RB. AMI. phase) 960 KHz. NRZ (M).ST2156 &ST2157 Technical Specifications of ST2156 Data formats : NRZ (L). (0 deg. phase) Test Points : 43 Power Supply : 220V ± 10%. Power Consumption : 3VA (approx. QPSK On-board carrier : Sine waves synchronized to transmitted data at 1.) Interconnections : 2 mm sockets Dimensions (mm) : W420 x H100 x D255 Weight : 2 Kg. FSK.6 MHz. 50 Hz. 960 KHz. PSK. Biphase (Manchester). Biphase (Mark). RZ.

10%.ST2156 &ST2157 Technical Specifications of ST2157 Input : From Model ST2156 Carrier Demodulation : ASK .Square Loop Detector QPSK . 9 .Fourth Power Loop Detector Biphase Clock Recovery : By PLL Power Consumption : 6 VA (approx) Test Points : 39 Interconnections : 2 mm Sockets Power Supply : 220 V +/. 50 Hz Dimensions (mm) : W 420 x H100 x D255 Weight : 2 Kgs (approx) Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd.Rectifier Diode FSK Detector PSK / DPSK.

ST2156 &ST2157 Theory Communication and Communication System: Communications is the field of study concerned with the transmission of information through various means. In the most fundamental sense. • The description of that message signal by set of symbols. • The encoding of these symbols in a form that is suitable for transmission over physical medium. music. 10 . transmitter. It can also be defined as technology employed in transmitting messages. and picture or computer data. namely. Communication involves implicitly the transmission of information from one place to another through a succession of processes. as describe here: • The generation of message signal: voice. • The recreation of original message. • The decoding and reproduction of original symbol. receiver and channel as shown in figure 1 Block diagram of Communication System Figure 1 Scientech Technologies Pvt. In a communication system. there are three basic elements. Ltd. • The transmission of encoded symbols to desired destination.

The received signal is a corrupted version of transmitted signal. into a form suitable for transmission over the channel.ST2156 &ST2157 The transmitter is located at one point in space. This is in contrast with analog communications. digital communications has grown quickly. The receiver has the task of operating on the received signal so as to reconstruct a recognizable form of the original message signal. While analog communication uses a continuously varying signal. it is distorted due to channel imperfections. Transmitting data in discrete messages allows for greater signal processing capability. Ltd. and channel is a physical medium which connects them. The ability to process a communication signal means that errors caused by random processes can be detected and corrected. as the signal propagates along the channel. and recent advances in wideband communication channels and solid-state electronics have allowed scientists to fully realize these advantages. Digital Communication: Digital communications refers to the field of study concerned with the transmission of digital data. Scientech Technologies Pvt. a digital transmission can be broken down into discrete messages. Digital signals can also be sampled instead of continuously monitored and multiple signals can be multiplexed together to form one signal. 11 . the receiver is located at some other point separated from transmitter. Digital communications is quickly edging out analog communication because of the vast demand to transmit computer data and the ability of digital communiations to do so. The purpose of transmitter is to convert the message signal produced by the source of information. However. Because of all these advantages.

ST2156 &ST2157 Block diagram of Digital Communication System Figure 2 Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd. 12 .

which will meet all needs. by an amplitude. Finally. the modulator represents each symbol of the channel code word by a corresponding analog symbol. 13 . The data stream is processed next by the channel encoder. are paired as follows: • Source Encoder-Decoder • Channel Encoder-Decoder • Modulator-Demodulator The source encoder removes redundant information from the message signal and is responsible for efficient use of the channel. The functional blocks of the transmitter and the receiver. Each of the various line formats has a particular advantage and disadvantage. Scientech Technologies Pvt. starting from the far end of the channel. appropriately selected from a finite set of possible analog symbols. long strings of zeros or ones do not cause clocking problems. the rationale for which is rooted in information theory.ST2156 &ST2157 A digital communication system represented by the block diagram in figure 2. The resulting sequence of symbol is called the source code word. which produces a new sequence of symbol called the channel code word.and time-discrete signal that is optimally tuned for the specific properties of the physical channel (and of the receiving equipment). Ltd. The waveform pattern of voltage or current used to represent the 1s and 0s of a digital signal on a transmission link is called line encoding. The common types of line encoding are unipolar. bipolar and Manchester encoding. polar. Line Coding and Decoding: Line coding consists of representing the digital signal to be transported. Consequently. Line codes are used commonly in computer communication networks over short distances. It is not possible to select one. The format may be selected to meet one or more of the following criteria: • Minimize transmission hardware • Facilitate synchronization • Ease error detection and correction • Minimize spectral content • Eliminate a dc component The Manchester code is quite popular. It is known as a self-clocking code because there is always a transition during the bit interval.

Ltd. 14 .ST2156 &ST2157 Various Data formatting techniques Figure 3 Classification of Line codes Figure 4 Scientech Technologies Pvt.

15 . Bandwidth : Twice as that required for the NRZ. Timing Information : No timing information (For long stream of 0s) Waveforms of NRZ-M Figure 6 Return to zero (RZ): Representation : 0V for bit 0 and for bit 1. Timing Information : No timing information (For long stream of 1s and 0s) Waveforms of NRZ-L Figure 5 Non return to zero. Timing Information : No timing information (For long stream of 0s) Scientech Technologies Pvt. Ltd. DC Level : High DC component. Bandwidth : Low bandwidth. DC Level : High DC component.level (NRZ-M): Representation : Level transition for bit 1 and unchanged level for bit 0. DC Level : High DC component. Bandwidth : Low bandwidth.level (NRZ-L): Representation : +5V for data bit 1 and 0V for data bit 0. for half bit duration +5V and the rest of the bit duration is represented as 0V.ST2156 &ST2157 Different Data Formatting techniques: Non return to zero.

Timing Information : Good clock recovery. Timing Information : Good clock recovery. 16 . DC Level : No DC component. Bit 0 Bit Pattern remains the same. 0V for first half bit time and +5V during the second half. first half bit duration +5V or 0V and invert of first half during next half bit duration. +5V for first half bit time and 0V during the second half and for bit 0. Bit 1 Phase Reversal. Waveforms of Manchester Figure 8 Biphase (Mark): Representation : For any bit either 1 or 0. DC Level : No DC component. Ltd.ST2156 &ST2157 Waveforms of RZ-L Figure 7 Biphase (Manchester): Representation : For bit 1. Bandwidth : Twice as that required for the NRZ. Bandwidth : Twice as that required for the NRZ. Scientech Technologies Pvt.

ST2156 &ST2157 Waveforms of Mark Figure 9 Return to Bias (RB): Representation : During the first half a period. Timing Information : No timing information (For long sequence of 0’s). Bandwidth : Twice as that required for the NRZ. as for a bit 0 bias level and for a bit 1 either a positive level or negative level. DC Level : The DC component depends on the string of 1’s and 0’s. a negative or bias level. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Waveforms of RB Figure 10 Alternate Mark Inversion (AMI): Representation : Like RB encoding. Timing Information : Good clock recovery (Self clocking system). both returns to the bias level. DC Level : No DC component. the level being chose opposite to what it was used to represent the previous bit 1. positive level for bit 1 and a negative level for bit 0 and during the second half bit time. Ltd. 17 . the AMI always returns to the bias level during second half of the bit time interval and during the first half the transmitted level can be a positive. Bandwidth : Twice as that required for the NRZ.

18 . an analog carrier signal is modulated by a digital bit stream. frequency or amplitude according to the digital data. This conversion process is known as Modulation. At the receiver separate the signal and the digital information by the process of demodulation. This technique is also known as ON-OFF keying. To have a high noise immunity. A carrier is sinusoidal signal of the high frequency. These signals are usually further modified to facilitate transmission. The simplest way of achieving amplitude shift keying is by switching 'ON' the carrier whenever the data bit is '1' & switching it 'OFF' whenever the data bit is '0' i. In this process. Scientech Technologies Pvt. This modulation technique is known as Amplitude Shift Keying. For realizable height of Antenna. Simultaneous transmission of several signals. we have to modulate the signal that is varying phase. Digital modulation methods can be considered as digital-to-analog conversion. Thus. frequency or phase is varied according to the message signal. Digital Modulation: In digital modulation.e. To be able to transmit the data over long distance. the baseband signal is used to modify some parameter of a high frequency carrier signal. Purpose of Modulation: 1. Figure 12 illustrates the amplitude shift keying for the given data stream. and one of its parameter such as amplitude. 2. and the corresponding demodulation or detection as analog-to-digital conversion.ST2156 &ST2157 Waveforms of AMI Figure 11 Modulation and its purpose: Baseband signals produced by various information sources are not always suitable for direct transmission over a given channel. Some of the digital modulation techniques are described here as follows Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Technique: The simplest method of modulating a carrier with a data stream is to change the amplitude of the carrier wave every time the data changes. 3. the transmitter outputs the carrier for a' 1 ' & totally suppresses the carrier for a '0'. Ltd.

Ltd.ST2156 &ST2157 Data = 1 carrier transmitted Data = 0 carrier suppressed Amplitude Shift Keying modulation waveform Figure 12 The ASK waveform is generated by a balanced modulator circuit. the carrier wave is a sinusoidal signal since any other waveform would increase the bandwidth. As the name suggests. the device multiplies the instantaneous signal at its two inputs. 19 . without providing any advantages. Amplitude Shift Keying Modulator Figure 13 Scientech Technologies Pvt. The other input which is the information signal to be transmitted. also known as a linear multiplier as shown in the figure 13 given below. is DC coupled. Generally. The output voltage being product of the two input voltages at any instance of time. It is known as modulating signal. One of the inputs is AC coupled 'carrier' wave of high frequency.

may lead to the incorrect decoding at the receiver.ST2156 &ST2157 The data stream applied is unipolar i. Application wise. the carrier frequency is shifted in steps (i. from one frequency to another) corresponding to the digital modulation signal. The method to demodulate the ASK waveform is to rectify it. The ASK modulation result in a great simplicity at the receiver. this technique is not widely used is practice. Hence. The output is the original data stream. Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Technique: In frequency shift keying. but it is less efficient. pass it through the filter & ‘shape up’ the resulting waveform. the resulting Frequency shift keying waveform appears as shown in figure 15. Thus Data = 1 high frequency Data = 0 low frequency Scientech Technologies Pvt. it is however used in diverse areas such as old emergency radio transmissions and fiber-optic communications. If the higher frequency is used to represent data '1' & lower frequency for data '0'.e. unchanged in phase when a data bit ‘l' is applied to it and is zero when the data bit '0' is applied. because the noise inherent in the transmission channel can deteriorate the signal so much that the amplitude changes in the modulated carrier wave due to noise addition. 0 volts for logic '0' & + 5 Volts for logic '1'. The output of balanced modulator is a sine wave.e. Amplitude Shift Keying Demodulator Figure 14 Advantages and limitations of Amplitude Shift Keying Modulation: Amplitude shift keying is fairly simple to implement in practice. Ltd. 20 . Figure 14 shows the functional blocks required in order to demodulate the ASK waveform at receiver.

This is illustrated in figure 16. Generation of FSK Waveform from the sum of two ASK Waveforms Figure 16 Scientech Technologies Pvt.ST2156 &ST2157 Frequency Shift Keying Waveform Figure 15 Frequency Shift Keying Modulator: On a closer look at the FSK waveform. 21 . it is apparent that it can be represented as the sum of two ASK waveforms. Ltd.

The output voltage from PLL contains the carrier components. 22 . Frequency Shift Keying Modulator Figure 17 The demodulation of FSK waveform can be carried out by a phase locked loop. Therefore the signal is passed through the low pass filter to remove them. Also. It achieves this by generating corresponding output voltage to be fed to the voltage controlled oscillator. Thus the PLL detector follows the frequency changes & generates proportional output voltage. Ltd. The signal is 'Shaped Up' by feeding it to the voltage comparator. the phase locked loop tries to 'lock' to the input frequency. the amplitude level may be very low due to channel attenuation. The functional block diagram of FSK demodulator is shown in figure 18.ST2156 &ST2157 The functional blocks required in order to generate the FSK signal is as shown in figure 17. As known. Frequency Shift Keying Demodulator Figure 18 Scientech Technologies Pvt. The resulting wave is rounded to be used for digital data processing. each has different carrier frequencies but the digital data is inverted in one of the modulator. There are two ASK modulator. These two different ASK modulated signal are applied to the summing amplifier to get FSK modulated signal. if any frequency deviation at its input is encountered.

Scientech Technologies Pvt. this modulation technique is very reliable even in noisy & fading channels. the output of modulator is a sine wave which is shifted out of phase by 180° from the carrier input. Both uses balanced modulator to multiply the carrier with the modulating signal. But in contrast to ASK technique. have equal positive and negative voltage levels.ST2156 &ST2157 Advantages and limitations of Frequency Shift Keying Modulation Since the amplitude change in FSK waveform does not matter.. This happens because the carrier input is now multiplied by the negative constant level. Phase shift keying is also known as phase reversal keying (PRK). The bandwidth required is at least doubled than that in the ASK modulation. 23 . Also. for a given data. For Binary PSK S0 (t) = Acos(wt) represents binary ‘0’ S1 (t) = Acos(wt+π ) represents binary ‘1’ Phase Shift Keying Waveform Figure 19 Functionally. the PSK modulator is very similar to the ASK modulator. the wider the required bandwidth. The functional block representation of the PSK modulator is shown in the figure 20. When the modulating input is positive the output of modulator is a sine wave in phase with the carrier input. The PSK waveform for a given data is as shown in figure 19.e. The price in this case is widening of the required bandwidth. But there is always a price to be paid to gain that advantage. the higher the frequencies & the more they differ from each other. The bandwidth increase depends upon the two carrier frequencies used & the digital data rate. Where as for the negative voltage levels. Ltd. the digital signal applied to the modulation input for PSK generation is bipolar i. This means that lesser number of communication channels for given band of frequencies. Phase Shift Keying (PSK) and Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) Technique: Phase shift keying involves the phase change of the carrier wave between 0° and 180° in accordance with the data levels to be transmitted.

the switch opens & the output of detector output falls to 0 Volts. The PSK demodulator is as shown in figure 21. the PLL output is divided by two. Also its output controls the closing of an analog switch. Since phase change of 360° is same as 0° phase change. Phase Shift Keying Demodulator Figure 21 The incoming PSK signal with 0° & 180° phase changes is first fed to the signal squarer. The following phase adjust circuit allows the phase of the digital signal to be adjusted with respect to the input PSK signal.ST2156 &ST2157 Phase Shift Keying Modulator Figure 20 For PSK signal demodulation the square loop detector circuit is used. The PLL block locks to the frequency of the signal square output & produces a clean square wave output of same frequency. it can be said that the signal squarer simply removes the phase transitions from the original PSK waveform. Ltd. The demodulator output contains positive half cycles when the PSK input has one phase & only negative half cycles when the PSK input has another phase. When the output of phases adjust block is low. which multiplies the input signal by itself. When the output is high the switch closes & the original PSK signal is switched through the detector. The Scientech Technologies Pvt. The output of this block is a signal of having twice the frequency to that of the input carrier frequency. To derive the square wave of same frequency as the incoming PSK signal. the 0° & 180° phase changes are reflect as 0° & 360° phase changes. 24 . As the frequency of the output doubled. The average level information of the demodulator output which contains the digital data information is extracted by the following low pass filter. The phase adjust potentiometer is adjusted properly.

Phase Shift Keying Receiver System Figure 22 Since the sine wave is symmetrical. Therefore it is 'Squared Up' by a voltage comparator. This phase ambiguity can be corrected by applying some data conditioning to the incoming stream to convert it to a form which recognizes the logic levels by changes that occur & not by the absolute value. 25 . the receiver has no way of detecting whether the incoming phase of the signal is 0° or 180° This phase ambiguity create two different possibilities for the receiver output i. the final data stream can be either the original data stream or its inverse. A change in level represents data '1' & no change represents data '0'. This process is known as differential encoding. This is known as differential phase shift keying. The comparator output at receiver can again be of two forms. One such code is NRZ (M) where a change or the absence of change conveys the information. a level change representing a '1' and no level changes representing a '0' thus the phase ambiguity problem does not makes difference any more. one being the logical inverse of the other.e. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Now the receiver simply locks for changes in levels. But now it is not the absolute value in which we are interested.ST2156 &ST2157 low pass filter output is too rounded to be used for digital processing. This NRZ (M) waveform is used to change the phase at the modulator. Ltd.

.. The input binary bit stream d k . d k = 0.. d4.. Ltd. d5.. d I (t) = d0.. Serial to Parallel Conversion Figure 23 Scientech Technologies Pvt. each with a phase shift differing by 90 degree then we have Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK)... d2. 26 . arrives at the modulator input at a rate 1/T bits/sec and is separated into two data streams d I (t) and d Q (t) containing odd and even bits respectively. d Q (t) = d1. d3..1..2...ST2156 &ST2157 Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) Technique: If we define four signals..

Scientech Technologies Pvt. The 0° phase carrier is called In-phase carrier and is labeled 1 The other is 90° (lagging) phase carrier termed as the quadrature carrier and is labeled Q. 10 and 11.ST2156 &ST2157 A convenient orthogonal realization of a QPSK waveform . 225°. Each code represents either a phase of 45°. When the MSB is a level ‘0' the phase is 0 degrees when the MSB goes to level 1 the phase reverses to 180° The Q-carrier starts with 90° out of phase (with respect to reference I carrier). 27 . The choice of these phases is arbitrary as it is convenient to produce them. and 315° lagging. s(t) is achieved by amplitude modulating the in-phase and quadrature data streams onto the cosine and sine functions of a carrier wave as follows: s(t)=1/ 2 dI(t) cos (2πft + π/4) + 1/ 2 dQ(t) sin (2πft + π/4) Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Waveforms Figure 24 In quardrature Phase Shift keying each pair of consecutive data bit is treated as a two bit (or Dibit) code which is used to switch the phase of the carrier sine wave between one of four phases 90° apart. Quadrature phase shift keying offers an advantage over PSK. See figure 25. The second choice results in a lowering of bandwidth requirement. in a manner that now each phase represents a two bit code rather than a single bit. This carrier is controlled by the LSB (least significant bit) of the digit code when the LSB is a level 0. This means now either we can change phase per second or the same amount of data can be transmitted with half as many phase changes per second. relative to the phase of the original un-modulated carrier. The four possible combination of Dibit code are 00. 135°. 01. The I-carrier is controlled by the MSB (most significant bit) of the Dibit code. The four phases are produced by adding two carrier waves of same frequency but 90° out of phases. the phase reverses to 270°. the phase is 90° degrees with reference to I-carrier). When the LSB goes to a level 1. Ltd.

90° phase difference between the two modulation outputs. Ltd. the amplitude of the resultant phasor will always be √2 times the amplitude of input phase or if they are equal. As a result. The creation of four phases by vector addition is as shown in figure 27.ST2156 &ST2157 Phasor Diagram Figure 25 Assume the digit code be 00. See figure 26. there is always a +/. Scientech Technologies Pvt. If we add these two waves we would get a 45° resultant. 28 . This would give a 0° phase to the in phase carrier and 0° phase to quadrature carrier (90° out of phase with respect to I-carrier). Phasor Diagram for data bit 00 Figure 26 At any instance of time.

Ltd. 29 . The QPSK modulator can be configured as shown in the figure 28 Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Modulator Figure 28 Scientech Technologies Pvt. The only difference is that QPSK is sum of two such PSK modulators.ST2156 &ST2157 Phasor Diagram Figure 27 It can be appreciated from the above phasor diagram that each phasor switches its phase depending on the data level exactly in the same way as the same way as the PSK modulator does.

The output of modulator 2 is a PSK signal with phase shift of 90° and 270° respectively. and 2. the phase of the QPSK output changes by 0°. This circuit is identical to signal squarer with frequency double that of the signal at its input (Quadrupled with respect to the original QPSK input signal frequency). 180° or 270° from its previous phase position. have same frequency but differ in phase by 90°. This is because all the phase changes are also doubled. since the phases are also doubled (Also 2 x 180° = 360° = 0° phase shift). 90°. The 0° & 180° phase changes becomes 0° (as 2 x 180° = 360° = 0° phase shift. the phase of the summing amplifier's output signal relative to I-carrier. 225°.ST2156 &ST2157 The two carriers namely I & Q as has been stated. 30 . Each modulator performs phase-shift keying on its respective carrier input in accordance with respective data input such that. The output of the signal squarer 1 is fed to signal squarer 2. When these Dibit codes alter. The demodulation of QPSK signal is performed by the fourth power loop detector. Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Demodulator: The incoming QPSK signal is first squared in the signal squarer 1. Scientech Technologies Pvt. The output of the two modulators is summed by a summing amplifier. relative to the I-carrier.) and the 90° and 270° phases both become 180° (since 270° + 270° = 540° = 180° phase shift) Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Demodulator Figure 29 The output of the signal squarer 1 is fed to signal 1. The 0° and 180° phases changes are also reduced to a 0° phase changes are also reduced to 0° phases shift. Also the I data refer to the Dibit MSB & Q data refers to the Dibit LSB. Ltd. The demodulator is quite similar to the one used in PSK system as can be seen from figure 29. The output of the signal squarer 1 is a signal at twice the original frequency with phase changes reduced to 0° & 180°. 1. The functioning of the signal squarer has already been discussed in the PSK Modulator section. relative to the I-carrier. at any instance of time takes one of the four phases 45° 135°. Thus the output of the summing amplifier is a QPSK waveform. and 315° depending on the applied debit code. The output of modulator 1 is a PSK signal with phase shift of 0° and 180° respectively. As it is clear from the earlier phasor diagram.

The output of signal squarer 2 is fed to the phase locked loop (PLL) which locks on the incoming signal & produces a square wave of same frequency as that of the input. the I & Q outputs will contain information about original two bit code. The output of the phase circuit controls the two analog switches. The next stage in demodulation is a phase adjusts Circuit. Ltd. 31 . The original QPSK signal is then switched through to one of the QPSK demodulator. Once the correct phase relation between QPSK signal & phase adjust output have been set. Now the frequency is same as that of the QPSK carrier signal. The output of the phase adjust circuit are two square waves of same frequency as the input signal applied and with 90° phase shift between them. the output from signal squarer 2 is a sinewave at four times the frequency of the original QPSK carrier signal with no phase changes. The switch is closed when the corresponding output goes high.ST2156 &ST2157 Therefore. All Angles represent phase LAG with respect to 0° Phasor Diagram Figure 30 Scientech Technologies Pvt. Note that the 90° phase difference between the two outputs is maintained. This is illustrated in phase or diagram. The two outputs from the demodulator are labeled I & Q. How output can be input with a low level. See figure 30. Also the phase of the two output signals can also be adjusted relative to the original QPSK signal. The output of PLL is divided in frequency by a factor of 4 by a ÷ 4 circuit. the switches are open & the output is pulled down to 0V.

'Q' data at 'I' data output 'I' data at 'Q' data output & inverted. 2. still make use of Dibit code but now they mean changes in phase rather than actual phase Code Old Meaning New Meaning NRZ (L) Code The Phase The Phase Change 0 0 45° No Change 0 1 315° 90° 1 0 135° 180° 1 1 225° 270° Table 1 Scientech Technologies Pvt. To overcome this problem.e. The average level of the two outputs is extracted by passing them through the low pass filter. 3. This leads to phase ambiguity. As shown in the figure 31.g. the receiver does not know which phase is which as a result it might interpret any of the four phases e. 'I' data at 'Q' data at correct outputs but both data streams inverted. 45° QPSK wave. Since the phase information is lost in demodulator. Ltd. if the receiver treats one of the three QPSK Phases to be at 45° phase. In this format. i.g. The wave 'Squared Up' by a voltage a comparator circuit. then the possibilities which arise are: 1. 32 . each Dibit pair as encoded as a change in the code.ST2156 &ST2157 The average level of the I & Q outputs contains information about the Dibit code. 'I' data at 'Q' data output 'Q' data at 'I' data output & inverted. Since there are four possible combinations our chances of recovering correct code is mere 25% e. This means that we make the phase change depend on the two bit code at the input instead of making the phase dependent on two bit code. The output of the filters is rounded & cannot be used for digital processing. the NRZ (L) data is first encoded into differentially encoded Dibit format at transmitter. Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Receiver Figure 31 Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying: A problem arises at this point.

4. But now the absolute levels of the received data are no longer important.ST2156 &ST2157 At the receiver. Use reset switch to synchronies LED patterns of receiver same as that of transmitter. To derive NRZ (L) waveform from the encoded pair a differential Dibit decoder is used at receiver. 3. Its output is serially transmitted. Scientech Technologies Pvt. 2. The experiments make use of two trainers namely ST2156 & ST2157. 33 . As a result phase ambiguity is no longer a problem. Do not forget to connect grounds of both the trainers ST2156 & ST2157. Set carrier frequency selection switch according to a carrier frequency used in a carrier modulation at ST2156 while using PSK & DPSK demodulation. Operating Instructions 1. The receiver simply has to tell the two bit code change. ST2156 serves Transmitter device while ST2157 trainer serves as receiver. Ltd. once again there are four possibilities the two outputs may be interchanged or inverted as mentioned above. The fig 43 shows the functional block diagrams of the QPSK system.

Connect the power supply of ST2156 but do not turn on the power supplies until connections are made for this experiment. 2 mm Banana cable 3. 7. Connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Data In’ and CH2 to ‘NRZ (L)’ and observe the waveforms.1. Connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Data In’ and CH2 to ‘NRZ (M)’ and observe the waveforms. 5. 4.1 for the connection diagram for Experiment 1. 34 . Make the connections as shown in the figure 1. Figure 1. ST2156 Trainer. Switch 'ON' the power. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Data In’ and CH2 to ‘Biphase (manchester)’ and observe the waveforms. 2. 3.ST2156 &ST2157 Experiment 1 Objective: Study of Data Formats Equipments Needed: 1. Connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Data In’ and CH2 to ‘RZ’ and observe the waveforms.1 Procedure: 1. 6. Ltd. Oscilloscope Caddo 802 or equivalent Circuit diagram: Refer the figure 1. 2. Connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Data In’ and CH2 to ‘Clock In’ and observe the waveforms. 8.

e. Ltd. The NRZ(L) waveform simply goes low for one bit time to represent a data ‘0’ and high for one bit time to represent a data ‘1’. 10. The Biphase Mark code being very similar to the Biphase (Manchester) coding requires same amount of bandwidth which is double as that of NRZ (L). 5. 2. 2. Connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Data In’ and CH2 to ‘Biphase (Mark)’ and observe the waveforms. 11. It is equivalent to sending two logic levels in each clock period. Scientech Technologies Pvt. The ‘NRZ (L)’ data is same as ‘Data In’ but it is one bit shifted. 3. The maximum transition rate for AMI can only occur during a stream of all ‘1s’ thus the bandwidth required is twice that required for the NRZ codes. In the ‘Biphase Mark’ if a data ‘0’ is to be transmitted. the sequence of the transmitted levels will remain same as for the previous bit interval and if a ‘1’ is to be transmitted .ST2156 &ST2157 9. Thus bandwidth requires is twice as that required for the NRZ waveforms. 4. irrespective of the data being transmitted. Observations: 1. the bandwidth requirements is same as that for RZ. The output at ‘Data In’ is repeating sequence of bits generated by Parallel to serial Converter. Connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Data In’ and CH2 to ‘AMI’ and observe the waveforms. Therefore the required bandwidth is same as that of RZ code & double as that of NRZ (L) code. 35 . Connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Data In’ and CH2 to ‘RB’ and observe the waveforms. 3. Verify all the formatting techniques according to example patterns given on the ST2156 board. The Biphase Manchester codes always contain at least one transition per bit time. Conclusions: 1. phase reversal will occur. 7. Biphase codes and double that for NRZ codes. 6. In the NRZ (M) line codes the present level is related to the previous level that is when logic ‘1’ is to be transmitted change in level occurs and for logic ‘0’ the level remains unchanged. the maximum signal frequency of ‘RZ’ signal occurs when a string of ‘1’ is transmitted. the sequence of the transmitted levels will reverse i. In the RZ line codes. The maximum signal frequency in RB code is equal to the data clock frequency. 8. Hence the maximum frequency of the biphase code is equal to the data clock rate when a stream of consecutive data ‘1’ & ‘0’ is transmitted.

On ST2156. connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘NRZ (L)’ and CH2 to ‘Output’ of comparator on ST2157 and observe the waveforms. 2.1 Procedure: 1. connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Clock In’ and CH2 to ‘Data In’ and observe the waveforms.ST2156 &ST2157 Experiment 2 Objective: Study of Amplitude Shift Keying. 6. Switch 'ON' the power.1 for the connection diagram for Experiment 2. 2 mm Banana cable 3. ST2156 and ST2157 Trainers. On ST2156. 3. 7. Ltd. Equipments Needed: 1. Connect the power supplies of ST2156 and ST2157 but do not turn on the power supplies until connections are made for this experiment. Oscilloscope Caddo 802 or equivalent Circuit diagram: Refer the figure 2. Vary the gain potentiometer of modulator circuit (l) on ST2156 to adjust the amplitude of ASK Waveform. connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘NRZ (L)’ and CH2 to ‘Output’ of modulator Circuit (l) on ST2156 and observe the waveforms. 2. Figure 2. Make the connections as shown in the figure 8. Scientech Technologies Pvt. 5.1. 4. On ST2156. 36 .

The output at comparator on ST2157 is the same as ‘Data In’ on ST2156. 3. 2.2 Scientech Technologies Pvt.ST2156 &ST2157 Observations: 1. Ltd. The output at ‘Data In’ is repeating sequence of bits generated by Data Source. Waveforms Of ASK Modulation Figure 2. The output at Modulator Circuit (l) is the ASK waveform which contains carrier transmitted for Data ‘1’ and carrier suppressed Data ‘0’. 37 .

Application wise. The technique is not widely used is practice. Ltd. Amplitude shift keying is fairly simple to implement in practice. 2. but it is less efficient. Scientech Technologies Pvt.ST2156 &ST2157 Waveforms Of ASK Demodulation Figure 2. may lead to the incorrect decoding at the receiver. it is however used in diverse areas and old as emergency radio transmissions and fiber-optic communications. 38 .3 Conclusions: 1. because the noise inherent in the transmission channel can deteriorate the signal so much that the amplitude changes in the modulated carrier wave due to noise addition.

Equipments Needed: 1. Oscilloscope Caddo 802 or equivalent Circuit diagram: Refer the figure 3. 2.1 Procedure: 1. On ST2156.1 for the connection diagram for Experiment 3. 2. 7.ST2156 &ST2157 Experiment 3 Objective: Study of Frequency Shift Keying.1. 39 . On ST2156. connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘NRZ (L)’ and CH2 to ‘Output’ of Summing Amplifier on ST2156 and observe the waveforms. Adjust the potentiometers of both the Modulator Circuit (l) &(ll) onST2156 to adjust the amplitude of FSK waveform at Summing Amplifier’s output on ST2156. Ltd. connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Clock In’ and CH2 to ‘Data In’ and observe the waveforms. Figure 3. connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘NRZ (L)’ and CH2 to ‘Output’ of comparator on ST2157 and observe the waveforms. Switch 'ON' the power. On ST2156. Make the connections as shown in the figure 3. Scientech Technologies Pvt. 5. 3. 2 mm Banana cable 3. ST2156 and ST2157 Trainers. 4. Connect the power supplies of ST2156 and ST2157 but do not turn on the power supplies until connections are made for this experiment. 6.

Waveforms of FSK Modulation & Demodulation Figure 3. The amplitude change in FSK waveform does not matter. Ltd. Scientech Technologies Pvt.2 Conclusions: 1.6 MHz)The output at comparator on ST2157 is the same as ‘Data In’ on ST2156. 40 .ST2156 &ST2157 Observations: 1. The output at Summer Amplifier is the FSK waveform. Observe that for data bit '0' the FSK signal is at lower frequency (960KHz) & for data bit '1’ the FSK signal is at higher frequency (1. therefore FSK modulation technique is very reliable even in noisy & fading channels.

3. On ST2156. 2. Ltd. 6. output of Divide by four (÷ 2) observe the wave forms. output of PLL. 41 . Connect the power supplies of ST2156 and ST2157 but do not turn on the power supplies until connections are made for this experiment. 4. On ST2156.1. ST2156 and ST2157 Trainers. 5. 2 mm Banana cable 3. Switch 'ON' the power. Equipments Needed: 1. Figure 4.1 Procedure: 1. Adjust the ‘Gain’ potentiometer of the Modulator Circuit (l) on ST2156 to adjust the amplitude of PSK waveform at output of Modulator Circuit (l) on ST2156. Oscilloscope Caddo 802 or equivalent Circuit diagram: Refer the figure 4.ST2156 &ST2157 Experiment 4 Objective: Study of Phase Shift Keying. connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘NRZ (L)’ and CH2 to ‘Output’ of Modulator Circuit (l) on ST2156 and observe the waveforms. connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Clock In’ and CH2 to ‘Data In’ and observe the waveforms. Now on ST2157 connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Input’ of PSK demodulator and connect CH2 one by one to output of double squaring circuit.1 for the connection diagram for Experiment 4. Scientech Technologies Pvt. 7. 2. Make the connections as shown in the figure 4.

42 . The output of PSK demodulator is a signal having group of positive half cycles and group of negative half cycles of the carrier signal. The output of Phase Lock Loop (PLL) is clock signal of same frequency as that of the output of double squaring circuit and output of Divide by two (÷ 2) is clock signal of frequency two times less than the output of PLL signal. Observations: 1. Connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Output’ of Low Pass Filter on ST2157 then connect CH2 to ‘Output’ of Comparator on ST2157 and observe the waveforms. 2. 8. The variation in reference voltage potentiometer affect the Data. Ltd. Set all toggle switch to 0 and compare the waveform now vary the phase adjust potentiometer and observe its effects on the demodulated signal waveform. If both data does not matches then try to match it by varying the phase adjust potentiometer on QPSK Demodulator. 9. 3. 13. 11. connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘NRZ (L)’ and CH2 to ‘Output’ of comparator on ST2157 and observe the waveforms. 6. A low pass filter removes high frequency component from demodulated PSK signal and it makes the signal smooth. to recover Data correctly potentiometer adjustment is necessary. now vary the reference voltage potentiometer of first comparator to generate desired data pattern. The Phase Adjust potentiometer on ST2157 matches the phase of regenerated clock and carrier with input clock and carrier signal. The ‘Output’ of Modulator Circuit (l) is Phase Shift Keying modulated signal. Connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Data In’ then connect CH2 output to Bit decoder and observe the waveforms. 5. 4. On ST2156.ST2156 &ST2157 8. 12. (Note: If there is problem in setting the waveform with potentiometer then toggle the switch given in PSK demodulator block two to three times to get the required waveform). On ST2157 connect oscilloscope CH1 to output of Phase adjust and CH2 to ‘output’ of PSK demodulator and observe the waveforms. Now connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘PSK’ output of PSK demodulator on ST2157 and connect CH2 ‘Output’ of Low Pass Filter on ST2157 and observe the waveforms. Scientech Technologies Pvt. 7. The output of Double squaring circuit is sinusoidal signal (carrier signal) but frequency is four times higher than that of carrier used for modulation. 10. The output at ‘Data In’ is repeating sequence of bits generated by Data Source. Now try to match the LED sequence by once pressing the reset switch on ST2156.

2 Scientech Technologies Pvt. 43 . Ltd.ST2156 &ST2157 Waveforms of PSK Modulation Figure 4.

3 Conclusions: Scientech Technologies Pvt.ST2156 &ST2157 Waveforms of PSK Demodulation Figure 4. 44 . Ltd.

Equipments Needed: 1. On ST2156. Ltd. 7. 2. 6. Oscilloscope Caddo 802 or equivalent Circuit diagram: Refer the figure 5. 45 . 2.1. Scientech Technologies Pvt. 3. Adjust the ‘Gain’ potentiometer of the Modulator Circuit (l) onST2156 to adjust the amplitude of PSK waveform at output of Modulator Circuit (l) on ST2156. connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Clock In’ and CH2 to ‘Data In’ and observe the waveforms. Connect the power supplies of ST2156 and ST2157 but do not turn on the power supplies until connections are made for this experiment.ST2156 &ST2157 Experiment 5 Objective: Study of Differential Phase Shift Keying.1 Procedure: 1. Figure 5.1 for the connection diagram for Experiment 5. output of Divide by four (÷ 2) observe the wave forms. output of PLL. Switch 'ON' the power. Make the connections as shown in the figure 5. Now on ST2157 connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Input’ of PSK demodulator and connect CH2 one by one to output of double squaring circuit. 5. On ST2156. 4. 2 mm Banana cable 3. ST2156 and ST2157 Trainers. connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘NRZ (L)’ and CH2 to ‘Output’ of Modulator Circuit (l) on ST2156 and observe the waveforms.

to recover Data correctly potentiometer adjustment is necessary. 12. The output at ‘Data In’ is repeating sequence of bits generated by Data Source. 11. The ‘Output’ of Modulator Circuit (l) is Phase Shift Keying modulated signal.ST2156 &ST2157 8. 13. On ST2157 connect oscilloscope CH1 to output of Phase adjust and CH2 to ‘output’ of PSK demodulator and observe the waveforms. now vary the reference voltage potentiometer of first comparator to generate desired data pattern. 3. The output of Phase Lock Loop (PLL) is clock signal of same frequency as that of the output of double squaring circuit and output of Divide by two (÷ 2) is clock signal of frequency two times less than the output of PLL signal. The output of PSK demodulator is a signal having group of positive half cycles and group of negative half cycles of the carrier signal. connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘NRZ (L)’ and CH2 to ‘Output’ of comparator on ST2157 and observe the waveforms. The output of Double squaring circuit is sinusoidal signal (carrier signal) but frequency is four times higher than that of carrier used for modulation. Observations: 1. Connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Output’ of Low Pass Filter on ST2157 then connect CH2 to ‘Output’ of Comparator on ST2157 and observe the waveforms. 10. 5. 2. 4. 7. Connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Data In’ then connect CH2 output to Bit decoder and observe the waveforms. 8. Ltd. 6. Now try to match the LED sequence by once pressing the reset switch on ST2156. The variation in reference voltage potentiometer affect the Data. Scientech Technologies Pvt. If both data does not matches then try to match it by varying the phase adjust potentiometer on QPSK Demodulator. Now connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘PSK’ output of PSK demodulator on ST2157 and connect CH2 ‘Output’ of Low Pass Filter on ST2157 and observe the waveforms. On ST2156. A low pass filter removes high frequency component from demodulated PSK signal and it makes the signal smooth. Now vary the phase adjust potentiometer and observe its effects on the demodulated signal waveform 9. 46 . The Phase Adjust potentiometer on ST2157 matches the phase of regenerated clock and carrier with input clock and carrier signal.

Scientech Technologies Pvt. Equipments Needed: 1. On ST2156. ST2156 and ST2157 Trainers. On ST2156.ST2156 &ST2157 Experiment 6 Objective: Study of Quadrature Phase Shift Keying. Now connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Q Data’ output on ST2156 and connect CH2 one by one to ‘Signal In’.1 for the connection diagram for Experiment 6. 6. connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Data In’ and connect CH2 one by one to ‘I Data’ and ‘Q Data’ outputs and observe the waveforms. 4.1 Procedure: 1. ‘Carrier In’ and ‘Output’ of modulator circuit (ll) on ST2156 and observe the waveforms. Now connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘I Data’ output on ST2156 and connect CH2 one by one to ‘Signal In’. 2. 5. Figure 6. Connect the power supplies of ST2156 and ST2157 but do not turn on the power supplies until connections are made for this experiment. 2 mm Banana cable 3. Make the connections as shown in the figure 6. ‘Carrier In’ and ‘Output’ of modulator circuit (l) on ST2156 and observe the waveforms. On ST2156. 47 . connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Clock In’ and CH2 to ‘Data In’ and observe the waveforms. 2. Ltd. Switch 'ON' the power. 7.1. Oscilloscope Caddo 802 or equivalent Circuit diagram: Refer the figure 6. connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Clock Output’ and CH2 one by one to ‘Sine’ and ‘Cosine’ output of 960 KHz and observe the waveforms. 8. 3.

Scientech Technologies Pvt. and summation of these two signals are Quadrature Phase Shifted signal as shown in the figure 6. 5. The output of QPSK demodulator is a signal having group of positive half cycles and group of negative half cycles of the carrier signal as shown in the figure 6. On ST2157. The output of Double squaring circuit is sinusoidal signal (carrier signal) but frequency is four times higher than that of carrier used. If both data does not matches then try to match it by varying the phase adjust potentiometer on QPSK Demodulator. Connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Data In’ then connect CH2 output to Bit decoder and observe the waveforms. Now connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Data Out’ on ST2156 and CH2 to ‘Output’ of Summing Amplifier on ST2156 and observe the waveforms. The ‘Output’ of Modulator Circuit (l) and Modulator Circuit (ll) are Phase Shift Keying modulated signals.2. 48 . now vary the phase adjust potentiometer and observe its effects on the demodulated signal waveforms. output of Divide by four (÷ 4) observe the wave forms. Set ‘Carrier frequency’ selection switch to ‘960 KHz’ on ST2157. 14. 13. Ltd. output of Comparator on ST2157 and observe the waveforms. connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘I’ output of QPSK demodulator and CH2 to ‘Q’ output of QPSK demodulator and observe the waveforms. The output at ‘Data In’ is repeating sequence of bits generated by Data Source.3. 2. The ‘I Data’ and ‘Q Data’ output are even and odd bit sequence of input data sequence and bit duration is double of input data sequence as shown in the figure 11. Compare the output of comparators on ST2157 with the output ‘I Data’ and ‘Q Data’ on ST2156 respectively. 16. 3. Connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Q’ output of QPSK demodulator on ST2157 then connect CH2 one by one to output of low pass filter. output of Comparator on ST2157 and observe the waveforms. Now try to match the LED sequence by once pressing the reset switch on ST2156. Now on ST2157 connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Input’ of QPSK demodulator and connect CH2 one by one to output of double squaring circuit. Observations: 1.ST2156 &ST2157 9. Set all toggle switch to 0. 17.2. 12. 10. 6. The output of Phase Lock Loop (PLL) is clock signal of same frequency as that of the output of double squaring circuit and output of Divide by four (÷ 4) is clock signal of frequency four times less than the output of PLL signal. 4. Connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘I’ output of QPSK demodulator on ST2157 then connect CH2 one by one to output of low pass filter. output of PLL. 11. 15.

QPSK modulation waveforms Scientech Technologies Pvt.2 49 . A low pass filter removes high frequency component from demodulated QPSK signal and it makes the signal smooth as shown in the figure 6. Ltd. Figure 6. to recover Data correctly potentiometer adjustment is necessary and recovered Data. 8.ST2156 &ST2157 7.3. The variation in reference voltage potentiometer affect the Data.

The Quadrature Phase Shift Keying modulation is correct for different Data pattern and also correct for clock and carrier frequencies. 50 . Ltd. Scientech Technologies Pvt.3 Conclusion: 1.ST2156 &ST2157 QPSK demodulation waveforms Figure 6.

On ST2156. 2 mm Banana cable 3 Oscilloscope Caddo 802 or equivalent Circuit diagram: Refer the figure 7. connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Clock In’ and CH2 to ‘Data In’ and observe the waveforms. 7. 5. Connect the power supplies of ST2156 and ST2157 but do not turn on the power supplies until connections are made for this experiment.1. Equipments Needed: 1 ST2156 and ST2157 Trainers. 3.1 for the connection diagram for Experiment 7. On ST2156 connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Clock Out’ and CH2 one by one to ‘Sine’ and ‘Cosine’ output of 960 KHz and observe the waveforms. Switch 'ON' the power. 8. On ST2156. 2. 6. connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Q Data’ output of serial to parallel converter and connect CH2 to ‘Output’ of differential encoders (ll) and observe the waveforms. Now connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘I Data’ output of serial to parallel converter on ST2156 and connect CH2 to ‘Output’ of differential encoder (l) on ST2156 and observe the waveforms. Connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Data In’ and connect CH2 one by one to ‘I Data’ and ‘Q Data’ outputs and observe the waveforms. Ltd.ST2156 &ST2157 Experiment 7 Objective: Study of Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying. 4. 51 . Scientech Technologies Pvt.1 Procedure: 1. Figure 7. Make the connections as shown in the figure 7.

Ltd. 20. On ST2157. 52 . 10. output of Comparator on ST2157 and observe the waveforms. ‘Carrier In’ and ‘Output’ of modulator circuit (l) on ST2156 and observe the waveforms. Connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Data In’ then connect CH2 output to Bit decoder and observe the waveforms. ‘Carrier In’ and ‘Output’ of modulator circuit (ll) on ST2156 and observe the waveforms. Now connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Output’ of differential encoder (ll) on ST2156 and connect CH2 one by one to ‘Signal In’. 11. Now on ST2157 connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Input’ of QPSK demodulator and connect CH2 one by one to output of double squaring circuit.1 to ‘Data In’ on ST2156 and CH2 to ‘Output’ of Summing Amplifier and observe the waveforms. connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘I’ output of QPSK demodulator and CH2 to ‘Q’ output of QPSK demodulator and observe the waveforms. Now vary the phase adjust potentiometer and observe its effects on the demodulated signal waveforms. output of Divide by four (÷ 4) observe the wave forms. Now connect oscilloscope CH. Now try to match the LED sequence by once pressing the reset switch on ST2156. 13. output of Comparator on ST2157 and observe the waveforms. Connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘I’ output of QPSK demodulator on ST2157 then connect CH2 one by one to output of low pass filter.ST2156 &ST2157 9. Also compare the output of differential decoders on ST2157 with the output ‘I Data’ and ‘Q Data’ on ST2156 respectively. 15. Connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Output’ of P/S Converter on ST2157 and CH2 to ‘Data In’ on ST2156. If both data does not matches then try to match it by varying the phase adjust potentiometer on QPSK Demodulator. Scientech Technologies Pvt. Set equal amplitude levels of the output signals of Modulator Circuit (1) and Modulator Circuit (ll) by varying the ‘Gain’ potentiometers of Modulator Circuits. Compare the output of comparators on ST2157 with the outputs of differential encoders on ST2156 respectively. 17. 21. 14. 16. 12. 18. output of PLL. Now connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Output’ of differential encoder (l) on ST2156 and connect CH2 one by one to ‘Signal In’. 19. Connect oscilloscope CH1 to ‘Q’ output of QPSK demodulator on ST2157 then connect CH2 one by one to output of low pass filter.

The Phase Adjust potentiometer matches the phase of regenerated clock and carrier with input clock and carrier signal respectively.2. The ‘I Data’ and ‘Q Data’ output are even and odd bit sequence of input data sequence and bit duration is double of input data sequence as shown in the figure 7.2.2. The output at ‘Data In’ is repeating sequence of bits generated by Data Source.2. Scientech Technologies Pvt. The output of QPSK demodulator is a signal having group of positive half cycles and group of negative half cycles of the carrier signal as shown in the figure 7. The ‘Output’ of Modulator Circuit (l) and Modulator Circuit (ll) are Phase Shift Keying modulated signals as shown in the figure 7. 6.2.ST2156 &ST2157 Observations: 1. Ltd. 7. A low pass filter removes high frequency component from demodulated QPSK signal and it makes the signal smooth as shown in the figure 7. The recovered data does not find inverted after demodulation. 8. 2. 4. 3. 53 . The output of Phase Lock Loop (PLL) is clock signal of same frequency as that of the output of double squaring circuit and output of Divide by four (÷ 4) is clock signal of frequency four times less than the output of PLL signal. 5. and summation of these two signals are Quadrature Phase Shifted signal as shown in the figure 7.

54 . Ltd.2 Scientech Technologies Pvt.ST2156 &ST2157 DQPSK modulation waveforms Figure 7.

55 . Ltd. Scientech Technologies Pvt. The differential encoding and decoding process has an advantage that data will not find inverted after demodulation.3 Conclusion: 1.ST2156 &ST2157 DQPSK demodulation waveforms Figure 7. The Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying modulation is correct for different Data pattern. 2.

ST2156 &ST2157 Warranty 1) We guarantee this product against all manufacturing defects for 24 months from the date of sale by us or through our dealers.... 2) The guarantee will become void.......................... serial number of the product and date of purchase etc....... 4 Nos..... 1 No. Consumables like dry cell etc......... provided the product is dispatched securely packed and insured...................... Patch Cord 16"........ Scientech Technologies Pvt... 56 ....... 2 No................................ Power Supply...................................... Ltd.. List of Accessories 1.... Learning Material (CD) ........... are not covered under warranty....... 3) The non-working of the product is to be communicated to us immediately giving full details of the complaints and defects noticed specifically mentioning the type..... d) Any attempt is made to service and modify the instrument.......... 2.................... 30Nos......................... The transportation charges shall be borne by the customer....................................... Patch Cord 32” ....... 3.. c) The customer resells the instrument to another party.................. 4) The repair work will be carried out... 4.......... if a) The product is not operated as per the instruction given in the Learning Material b) The agreed payment terms and other conditions of sale are not followed...........................................