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Quantity surveying is the most important part of the construction field. Because that
is directly effect to the future of the construction firm. The role of a construction firm or a
contractor can be expressed as,
 Getting work from right price
 Doing work within that price.
The role of the quantity surveyor is very important. When considering above two facts.
Because the future targets of the contractor can be achieved with help of good quantity
Surveyors accurate & wise thinking. When getting works & doing works. Quantity
Surveyor should have more practical experience about all the works & techniques good
knowledge about the market which is spread around the wide range. And also Quantity
Surveyor should talent enough to create the accurate imaginations about the works even
those are not done early by him.
In a construction firm there are,
Site Quantity Surveyors
Head office Quantity Surveyors
Role of Site Quantity Surveyor

Preparing sub contractors bills
Preparing valuation of the site.
Keep well attention about the construction works.
Maintain records about extra works & variations
Include them to the valuation.

Role of Head Office Quantity Surveyor
 Tendering estimating & costing
 Preparing labour rates for sub contractors according to the BOQ rates.
 Keep attention about the price fluctuations of materials

Before prepare the rate for a new BOQ there are special things to be considered .
Contract period
Present market prices of materials & services
Rate of increasing the prices
Feasibility studie.That is,
 The selected place for the proposed construction
 Access to the site
 What are the extra machinery & equipment have to be used when
preparing site
 Nature of the ground(whether ground have to be cut or fill)
 Tendency to supply materials to the site etc.

With the aid of bills so prepared the contractor prepares the final at the end of the contract to quantify his financial performance in the project.42x6500.00 .833. Generally there are two types of bills prepared by the contractor.00 .82x4800. Generally in a construction contract the contractor is paid in stages.00 - 1.00x 790. Thus the billing of the contractor is an on-going process.00 . The billing is done both at the site and in PIO II.500.00 Labour Mason -1 day u/sk labourer -6 days Rate per 1cube -31269. The contract is a measure and pay basis contract and allows negotiation of rates mentioned in BOQ in certain circumstances.00 0.00 .4200.00 0.33 .00 -18170.0 x 900. .00 1/3 x1500.33 BILLING The ultimate aim of the contractor is to earn a profit.3936.42cube Metal (3/4) -0. Hence the accurate billing is one of the most important areas.82cube 1/3 day hire of mixer 1/3 day hire of vibrator - 23.0 x 700.RATE BREAKDOWN FOR GRADE 25 CONCRETE Per 1 cube of concrete Materials Cement -23cwt Sand -0.2730.00 1/3 x2500.00 .900. In this process he should ensure that his expenses are as low as possible and his income is as high as possible while carrying out his work to the expected standard.  Bills Payable Bills to be paid by the contractor for the services he had obtained and the purchases made.00 6.

Bills Payable These bills are related the subcontractors’ work and payment for material purchases. For this he has to make a claim for the work he had done up to that date. The site quantity surveyors then check this bill and approved amount is sent to the head office for payment. . The bill is then checked and payment is made for 70% of the work approved. Generally material bills are prepared in the PIO II and the subcontractors’ bills are prepared in the site according to the standard quantity surveying methods. The bill submitted by the subcontractor might be a bill prepared according to the SMM or a mere multiplication of the unit rate and related dimensions. A subcontractor is entitled for an advance payment for every month. ØSub contractors payments The subcontractors are generally paid in two stages with the  Advance payment  Final payment 4 Advance payment An advance payment is paid to the subcontractor to cover up his expenses. Final payment Up on the completion of the work the subcontractor should submit a bill for his work. Bills Receivable Bills submitted to the client for the work done by the contractor generally termed as the main bill.

The rates included in the BOQ would be negotiated in the site meetings had there been any unusual fluctuations in the rates applicable.The bill has to be authorized by the consultants before payments. Main Bill The contractor upon the completion of a particular stage of a work item prepares the bill for it. This is a collective effort of the site quantity surveyors and the PIO staff. Using the details of such bills an invoice is prepared on a monthly basis and through the contractor would claim his payments. Retention of 5% is retained for a period of six months. If direct labour has been used in relation to the work of a subcontractor such costs are deducted from the bill. Contents of the Main Bill Ø Summary of value of work done broken down according to the BOQ details ØDetails of the current claim along with the previous claims for the items done during the period ØMaterial at site ØPrice variation details ØSite measurement sheets and related log book entries for any adjustment The amount claimed in the main bill may differ from the relevant BOQ amount due to following reasons . Also in certain instances the subcontractor and a Sierra official would take joint measurements and prepares a site measurement sheet that is used to prepare the bill.Thus as a precautionary practice the details regarding subcontractors’ work are prepared by the supervisors involved which are used in billing.

Price exhalations are significant changes in the price levels and calculated considering the CCPI and other relevant indices. Ex. Approximate values should be taken in such instances. Problems Encountered In Billing The application of the centerline method is theoretically the best method. He then checks the bill and make adjustments if there are any mistakes in those. Theoretically the lengths should be taken in the . The three copies so adjusted are kept with the three parties consultant. contractor and the client. On the receipt of this invoice the client will issue the cheque for the amount due. Several bills checked by me lacked from this mistake. Extra work refers to the additional work which are not mentioned in the BOQ and newly introduced to the contractor. Contractor seeks for new rates in this issue. Variations of work  Extra Work  Price Escalations Variations in work refers to the differences occurred as a result of any adjustments made to the original work by the client or the consultant. But it’s applicability in the site is not possible in certain instances. The monthly bill is prepared by the contractor in four copies and three copies are sent to the quantity surveyor of the consultant. In the billing for plumbing work often the lengths are taken incorrectly. Brick work in a wall with a 45 o has to be done in the centerline method but the centerline cannot be measured physically and the calculation the length is a tedious process and time consuming and not economical.

. It is important to consider the position of the stop boards as the unit rate for formwork is in terms concrete touching area and the stop boards also count. end caps.centerline method and approximations should be done where necessary. cleaning eyes etc. Care should be taken to exclude temporary lines.