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Reinforced concrete is a composite material use where one single material cannot
achieve the design requirements. Concrete is strong in compression but weak in tension.
Hence, so that concrete to be good in construction, their should have a strengthening in
the concrete. This strengthening (reinforcing) material is known as fibers.



It must have tensile strength.
It must be able to achieve this tensile strength without undue strains.
the material must be able to easily bent into any required shape
Its surface must be capable of developing an adequate bond between the concrete and
the reinforcement to ensure that the required design tensile strength is obtain.
5. It must de available at reasonable cost.
The material which meets all the above requirements is steel in the form of bars, and
is supplied
in two basic types.
1. mild steel
2. high-yield steel

The characteristic strength of mild steel is 250 N/mm2 and 460 N/mm. the surface
of mild steel provides adequate bond but the bond of high- yield bars, being more critical
with the higher stresses developed ,is generally by rolling on to the surface of the bar
longitudinal or transverse ribs.
The reinforcement in concrete may be simple bar or series of bars, bend to a given
schedule which known as bar schedule and tied according to the reinforcement drawings
with stirrups. The normal diameters of bars used at this site are 6, 10,12,16,20 and 25.
Steel bars are available in various brands in the market some are locally manufactured
and some are imported brands. Whatever brand is used by the contractor he should
submit test reports for tensile strength, elongation.

The general bar schedule includes following details 1. of bars for the given category . 3. 7. bending is done by skilled person and he should be given the required bar schedule prepared according to the reinforcement drawings. No. 5. The diameter of the bar.2 BAR SHEDULE PREPARATION Bar schedule is a special scheduling of steel bars which includes whole the details of each bar of a particular member required for bending the bar. . In some bar schedules the weight of each category and total weight is indicated for the ease of billing. Total length of the each category.BAR BENDING Steel bars should cut and bend to the required shape so that they are fabricate bind and place them within the form work . The general shape of the bar. 4. The length of the bar. 2.

But in practice we would need bars longer than 6m. and other bending. in this site. In such cases we have to lap two bars as no failure occurs and as it produce its original strength. When lapping two bars of different diameters. the special features such as Cranks and its length. LAPPING TWO STEEL BARS Steel bars manufactures are of 6m lengths.In the pictorial rough sketch. BAR NOTAIONS IN DRAWINGS The general bar notation includes the followings 4 Y 25 03 225C/C B1  Bar location (top or bottom)  Center to center distance  Bar mark  Diameter of the bar  Type of bar  Number of Bars The above notation says the lawer bar of bottem net which has the bar mark 03 should be @ 225mm center to center distance from 25mm diameter high yield steel of four numbers. the lap length is considered as 50 times the smallest diameter. the recommended lap lengthy is 50 times the bar diameter if both bars are of same diameter. Lapping two bars 50 D . lap length. positions and their locations are clearly shows.

Then stirrups required to the starter potion of column are placed and bind them to the starters at given interval as in the drawing and then place the other stirrups. chemical attacks. Cover blocks are made prepared using 1:2 cement and fine sand motor mixture at site premises. which want to the new adding bars on the top of the fixed stirrups. Hence before concreting. Size of a cover block = 50 x 50 x "required height of the cover” is as specified Stools are generally used in slab reinforcement to produce required covering and stop both the top layer net and bottom layer net touching together (top bottom net separation). Before formwork the consultant engineer have to give the approval for the . After that the unfixed stirrups. Finally place the cover blocks around the column to make the column on the correct marking.Lap length = 50 * smallest diameter CLEAR COVER The purpose of providing cover is to protect reinforcement from harmful conditions such as whether. Then new bars are lapped and bind which are the starters for the next floor. if not should be taken in to the correct position. heat and electricity that may reinforcement could be corroded. 7. The stool height and type is designed according to the slab thickness. we should be careful weather sufficient numbers of covers are provided so that evsure the protection of reinforcement. the starters which come from the last floor should be checked whether they are within the set out markings. which are on the fixed stirrups. Usually clear cover can be provided by using cover blocks and stool.3 COLUMN REINFORCEMENT Prior to fixing column reinforcement. are fixed according to the correct centers (spacing). There are two types of stools.

The lapped bars length is cut at the yard according to the schedule. shear reinforcement at supports are more closer than at mid spans . top bar requires larger bars while bottom bar requires smaller bars 4. at supports top bar diameters are lager than bottom bar 3.reinforcement fixing.4 BEAM REINFORCEMENT For both bar binding and preparing bar schedule it is extremely necessary to follow the reinforcement detail drawings and binding is done strictly according to the drawings. at mid spans bottom bar requires larger diameters while top bars are relatively smaller. 2. General features in beam reinforcement are as follows 1. In this case the safety is very important Reinforcement for columns 7. For continuous beams. Normally lager diameters are place at the bottom and relatively smaller diameters are used in top for simply supported beams. For cantilever beams.

One way slabs span to one direction. top net should be provided to all four ends.Reinforcement for beams 7. Then place the bottom second (b2. distribution) layer at the correct spacing and fix them by binding wires to the b1 layer. First bottom layer (b1. In one way slabs. main reinforcement) is placed in according to the structural drawing at correct spacing. And two way slabs span to both direction. top net should be provided to two ends of the slab and in two-way slabs. .5SLAB REINFORCEMENT Slabs may be either one-way or two-way.

In my site I checked two types of replacement bars.Stools are placed on the bottom a layer at the 1. If the cutting bars are B1 replacing bars should also be B1. distribution layer of top layer) layer is placed on the stools. If the cutting bars are B2 replacing bars should be B2. .The calculation of length of replacing bars are given below. When there bottom covering is not enough the bottom bars should be cranked (drogue) by using equipment or a tool called drogue. Reinforcement for slab Replacing of bars near a duct When there is a duct on the slab we have to cut bottom net reinforcement and replace that bars by another bars with lap length.0 m ~ 1. Finally place the top first (t1. main reinforcement of top layer) in correct spacing on the t2 and fix them together.5 m spacing and top second (t2. Some times we have to put diagonal bars also if the duct size is large. Cover blocks place for make the required covering. In this case the bottom bars anchorage should be in the beam and bottom bars should pass the beam centerline.

Beam .