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Pipe

Node

Loop

6/29/2012

Pipe Networks

The equations to solve Pipe network must

satisfy the following condition:

The net flow into any junction must be zero

Q = 0

be zero. The HGL at each junction must have one

and only one elevation

All head losses must satisfy the Moody and

minor-loss friction correlation

6/29/2012

Hydraulic Analysis

After completing all preliminary studies and

layout drawing of the network, one of the

methods of hydraulic analysis is used to

Size the pipes and

Assign the pressures and velocities

required.

6/29/2012

basic hydraulic principles that govern simple and

compound pipes that were discussed previously.

The following are the most common methods used

to analyze the Grid-system networks:

1.

2.

3.

4.

6/29/2012

Sections method.

Circle method.

Computer programs (Epanet,Loop, Alied...)

5

This method is applicable to closed-loop pipe

networks (a complex set of pipes in parallel).

Was originally devised by professor Hardy Cross.

6/29/2012

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

directly from pipes.

The discharge, Q , entering the system will have (+) value,

and the discharge, Q , leaving the system will have (-) value.

Usually neglect minor losses since these will be small with

respect to those in long pipes, i.e.; Or could be included as

equivalent lengths in each pipe.

Assume flows for each individual pipe in the network.

At any junction (node), as done for pipes in parallel,

Qin = Qout

6/29/2012

or

Q = 0

7

6.

Around any loop in the grid, the sum of head losses must

equal to zero:

hf = 0

loop

produce positive head losses; counterclockwise flows are then (-) and

produce negative head losses.

This fact is called the head balance of each loop, and this can be valid

only if the assumed Q for each pipe, within the loop, is correct.

virtually null.

Therefore, to balance the head around each loop, a flow rate

correction () for each loop in the network should be

computed, and hence some iteration scheme is needed.

6/29/2012

7.

loop) , the assumed discharges Q0 are adjusted and another

iteration is carried out until all corrections (values of )

become zero or negligible. At this point the condition of :

h f 0.0

loop

is satisfied.

Notes:

loop and negative in the other.

attention to sign, pipes common to two loops receive both

corrections.

6/29/2012

hF = kQ n

(1)

Q = Qo +

(2)

n = 2 Darcy, Manning

n = 1.85 Hazen William

from 1 & 2

hf = kQ = k (Qo + )

n

n(n 1) n 2 2

n

n 1

= k Qo + nQo +

Qo + ....

2

hf = kQ n = k Qon + nQon 1

n

h

kQ

=

F =0

loop

loop

kQ n = kQon + nkQ (n 1) = 0

6/29/2012

10

kQ on

nkQ o(n 1 )

h

h

n

Q

F

o

used to find the head losses, then

h f = k Q1.85

(n = 1.85) , then

hf

185

.

hf

Q

h f = k Q2

(n = 2) , then

=

6/29/2012

h f

2

hf

Q

11

Example

Solve the following pipe network using Hazen William Method CHW =100

63 L/s

1

24

.6

11.4

12

39

4

2

37.8 L/s

pipe

305m 150mm

25.2

305m 150mm

610m 200mm

457m 150mm

6/29/2012

153m

200mm

25.2 L/s

12

hf =

10.7 L

1.852

Q

C HW = 100, Q = in L/s

1.852

4.87

C HW

D

1.852

10.7 L

Q

hf =

1.852

4.87

1000

C HW

D

D

h f = {K }Q1.852

hF

0.28

1 =

=

= 0.24

hF 1.85(0.64)

n

Qo

6/29/2012

hF

0.45

2 =

=

= 0.57

hF 1.85(0.43)

n

Qo

= 1 2

for pipe 2 in loop 2

13

= 2 1

1 =

hF

0.18

=

= 0.15

hF 1.85(0.64)

n

Qo

6/29/2012

1 =

hF

(0.07 )

=

= 0.09

hF 1.85(0.42)

n

Qo

= 1 2

for pipe 2 in loop 2

= 2 1 14

General Notes

Occasionally the assumed direction of flow will be incorrect. In such

cases the method will produce corrections larger than the original

flow and in subsequent calculations the direction will be reversed.

Even when the initial flow assumptions are poor, the convergence

will usually be rapid. Only in unusual cases will more than three

iterations be necessary.

The method is applicable to the design of new system or to

evaluation of proposed changes in an existing system.

The pressure calculation in the above example assumes points are at

equal elevations. If they are not, the elevation difference must be

includes in the calculation.

The balanced network must then be reviewed to assure that the

velocity and pressure criteria are satisfied. If some lines do not meet

the

suggested criteria, it would be necessary to increase the

6/29/2012

15

diameters of these pipes and repeat the calculations.

Summary

Assigning clockwise flows and their associated head

losses are positive, the procedure is as follows:

Assume values of Q to satisfy Q = 0.

Calculate HL from Q using hf = K1Q2 .

If hf = 0, then the solution is correct.

If hf 0, then apply a correction factor, Q, to all

Q and repeat from step (2).

For practical purposes, the calculation is usually

terminated when hf < 0.01 m or Q < 1 L/s.

A reasonably efficient value of Q for rapid

convergence is given by;

Q =

H

H

2

L

L

L

L

6/29/2012

Q

16

Example

The following example contains nodes with different

elevations and pressure heads.

Neglecting minor loses in the pipes, determine:

The flows in the pipes.

The pressure heads at the nodes.

6/29/2012

17

Assume T= 150C

6/29/2012

18

6/29/2012

19

First Iteration

Loop (1)

Pipe

L

(m)

D

(m)

Q

(m3/s)

hf

(m)

hf/Q

(m/m3/s)

AB

600

0.25

0.12

0.0157

11.48

95.64

BE

200

0.10

0.01

0.0205

3.38

338.06

EF

600

0.15

-0.06

0.0171

-40.25

670.77

FA

200

0.20

-0.10

0.0162

-8.34

83.42

-33.73

1187.89

6/29/2012

33.73

=

= 0.01419 m 3 /s = 14.20 L/s

2(1187.89)

20

First Iteration

Loop (2)

Pipe

L

(m)

D

(m)

Q

(m3/s)

hf

(m)

hf/Q

(m/m3/s)

BC

600

0.15

0.05

0.0173

28.29

565.81

CD

200

0.10

0.01

0.0205

3.38

338.05

DE

600

0.15

-0.02

0.0189

-4.94

246.78

EB

200

0.10

-0.01

0.0205

-3.38

338.05

23.35

1488.7

=

6/29/2012

23.35

= 0.00784 m 3 /s = 7.842 L/s

2(1488.7)

21

14.20

Second Iteration

14.20

14.20

7.84

Loop (1)

14.20

hf

(m)

hf/Q

(m/m3/s)

0.1342

0.0156

14.27

106.08

0.10

0.03204

0.0186

31.48

982.60

600

0.15

-0.0458

0.0174

-23.89

521.61

200

0.20

-0.0858

0.0163

-6.21

72.33

15.65

1682.62

Pipe

L

(m)

D

(m)

Q

(m3/s)

AB

600

0.25

BE

200

EF

FA

6/29/2012

15.65

=

= 0.00465 m 3 /s = 4.65 L/s

2(1682.62)

22

7.84

Second Iteration

14.20

7.84

7.84

Loop (2)

7.84

Pipe

L

(m)

D

(m)

Q

(m3/s)

hf

(m)

hf/Q

(m/m3/s)

BC

600

0.15

0.04216

0.0176

20.37

483.24

CD

200

0.10

0.00216

0.0261

0.20

93.23

DE

600

0.15

-0.02784

0.0182

-9.22

331.23

EB

200

0.10

-0.03204

0.0186

-31.48

982.60

-20.13

1890.60

=

6/29/2012

20.13

= 0.00532 m 3 /s = 5.32 L/s

2(1890.3)

23

Third Iteration

Loop (1)

Pipe

L

(m)

D

(m)

Q

(m3/s)

hf

(m)

hf/Q

(m/m3/s)

AB

600

0.25

0.1296

0.0156

13.30

102.67

BE

200

0.10

0.02207

0.0190

15.30

693.08

EF

600

0.15

-0.05045

0.0173

-28.78

570.54

FA

200

0.20

-0.09045

0.0163

-6.87

75.97

-7.05

1442.26

6/29/2012

7.05

=

= 0.00244 m 3 /s = 2.44 L/s

2(1442.26)

24

Third Iteration

Loop (2)

Pipe

L

(m)

D

(m)

Q

(m3/s)

hf

(m)

hf/Q

(m/m3/s)

BC

600

0.15

0.04748

0.0174

25.61

539.30

CD

200

0.10

0.00748

0.0212

1.96

262.11

DE

600

0.15

-0.02252

0.0186

-6.17

274.07

EB

200

0.10

-0.02207

0.0190

-15.30

693.08

6.1

1768.56

=

6/29/2012

6 .1

= 0.00172 m 3 /s = 1.72 L/s

2(1768.56)

25

6/29/2012

26

pipe

Q

(l/s)

V

(m/s)

hf

(m)

13.79

AB

131.99

2.689

13.79

BE

26.23

3.340

21.35

FE

48.01

2.717

26.16

AF

88.01

2.801

6.52

BC

45.76

2.589

23.85

CD

5.76

0.733

1.21

ED

24.24

1.372

7.09

6/29/2012

6.52

23.85

1.21

21.35

26.16

7.09

27

Node

p/+Z

(m)

Z

(m)

P/

(m)

13.79

70

30

40

56.21

25

31.21

32.36

20

12.36

21.35

6.52

31.15

20

11.15

37.32

22

15.32

63.48

25

38.48

6/29/2012

23.85

26.16

1.21

7.09

28

Example

For the square loop shown, find the discharge in all the pipes.

All pipes are 1 km long and 300 mm in diameter, with a friction

factor of 0.0163. Assume that minor losses can be neglected.

6/29/2012

29

Solution:

Assume values of Q to satisfy continuity equations all

at nodes.

The head loss is calculated using; HL = K1Q2

HL = hf + hLm

But minor losses can be neglected: hLm = 0

Thus

HL = hf

equation

L V2

hf =

D 2g

6/29/2012

30

L V2

HL = hf =

D 2g

1000

V2

H L = 0.0163 x

x

0.3 2 x 9.81

H L = 2.77

Q2

A

= 2.77 x

Q2

2

x 0.3

4

H L = 554Q 2

H L = K' Q 2

K ' = 554

First trial

Pipe

Q (L/s)

HL (m)

HL/Q

AB

60

2.0

0.033

BC

40

0.886

0.0222

CD

AD

-40

-0.886

0.0222

2.00

0.0774

6/29/2012

31

Q =

2

HL

=

= 12.92 L / s

HL

2

x

0

.

0774

2

Q

Second trial

Pipe

Q (L/s)

HL (m)

HL/Q

AB

47.08

1.23

0.0261

BC

27.08

0.407

0.015

CD

-12.92

-0.092

0.007

AD

-52.92

-1.555

0.0294

-0.0107

0.07775

Thus, the discharge in each pipe is as follows (to the nearest integer).

6/29/2012

Pipe

Discharge

(L/s)

AB

47

BC

27

CD

-13

AD

-53

32

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