You are on page 1of 75

Hydrologic cycle

Occurrence of Ground Water


Ground water occurs when water recharges a
porous subsurface geological formation called
aquifers through cracks and pores in soil and rock

it is the water below the water table where all of


the pore spaces are filled with water.
The area above the water table where the pore
spaces are only partially filled with water is called the
capillary fringe or unsaturated zone.
Shallow water level is called the water table

Groundwater Basics Definitions

Recharge
Natural
Precipitation
Melting snow
Infiltration by streams
and lakes

Artificial
Recharge wells
Water spread over
land in pits, furrows,
ditches
Small dams in
stream channels to
detain and deflect
water

Aquifers
Definition: A geological unit which can store and
supply significant quantities of water.

Principal aquifers by rock type:


Unconsolidated
Sandstone
Sandstone and Carbonate
Semiconsolidated
Carbonate-rock
Volcanic
Other rocks

Example Layered Aquifer System

Bedient et al., 1999.

Other Aquifer Features

Groundwater occurrence in confined and


unconfined aquifer

Potentiometric Surfaces

Eastern Aquifer

Growndwater
basins
in Jordan

Unconfined Aquifers
GW occurring in aquifers: water fills partly an
aquifer: upper surface free to rise and decline:

UNCONFINED or water-table aquifer: unsaturated


or vadose zone
Near surface material not saturated
Water table: at zero gage pressure: separates saturated
and unsaturated zones: free surface rise of water in a
well

Confined Aquifer
Artesian condition
Permeable material overlain by relatively
impermeable material
Piezometric or potentiometric surface
Water level in the piezometer is a measure of
water pressure in the aquifer

Groundwater Basics Definitions


Aquifer Confining Layer or Aquitard
A layer of relatively impermeable material which restricts vertical
water movement from an aquifer located above or below.
Typically clay or unfractured bedrock.

Aquifer Characteristics
Porosity
The ratio of pore/void volume
to total volume, i.e. space
available for occupation by air
or water.
Measured by taking a known
volume of material and adding
water.
Usually expressed in units of
percent.
Typical values for gravel are
25% to 45%.

Typical Values of Porosity

Bedient et al., 1999.,

Aquifer Properties
Porosity: maximum amount of water that a rock
can contain when saturated.
Permeability: Ease with which water will flow
through a porous material
Specific Yield: Portion of the GW: draining
under influence of gravity:
Specific Retention: Portion of the GW: retained
as a film on rock surfaces and in very small
openings:
Storativity: Portion of the GW: draining when
the piezometric head dropped a unit depth

Storage Terms

h
b

Unconfined aquifer
Specific yield = Sy

S=V/Ah
S = Ss b

Confined aquifer
Storativity = S

Ss = specific storage
Figures from Hornberger et al. (1998)

Aquifer Characteristics
Hydraulic Conductivity
Measure of the ease with which water can flow through an
aquifer.
Higher conductivity means more water flows through an
aquifer at the same hydraulic gradient.
Measured by well draw down or lab test.
Expressed in units of mm/day, ft/day or gpd/ft2.
Typical values for sand/gravel are 2.5 cm/day to 33 m/day
m1 (1 to 100 ft/day).
Typical values for clay are 0.3 mm/day (0.001 ft/day). That
is why is is an aquifer confining layer.

Transmissivity (T = Kb) is the rate of flow through a


vertical strip of aquifer (thickness b) of unit width
under a unit hydraulic gradient

Aquifer Characteristics
Hydraulic gradient
Steepness of the slope of the water table.
Groundwater flows from higher elevations to lower elevations
(i.e. downgradient).
Measured by taking the difference in elevation between two
wells and dividing by the distance separating them.
Expressed in units of ft/ft or ft/mi.
Typical values for groundwater are .0001 to .01 m/m.

Aquifer Characteristics
Groundwater Velocity
How fast groundwater is moving.
Calculated by conductivity multiplied by gradient divided by
porosity.
Expressed in units of ft/day.
Typical values for gravel or sand are 0.15 to 16 m/day (1 to 50
ft/day).

The Water Table


Water table: the
surface separating
the vadose zone
from the saturated
zone.
Measured using
water level in well

Fig. 11.1

Ground-Water Flow
Precipitation
Infiltration
Ground-water
recharge
Ground-water flow
Ground-water
discharge to
Springs
Streams and
Wells

Ground-Water Flow
Velocity is
proportional to
Permeability
Slope of the water
table

Fast (e.g., cm per day)

Inversely
Proportional to
porosity
Slow (e.g., mm per day)

Natural Water
Table Fluctuations
Infiltration
Recharges ground
water
Raises water table
Provides water to
springs, streams
and wells

Reduction of
infiltration causes
water table to drop

Natural Water
Table Fluctuations
Reduction of
infiltration causes
water table to drop
Wells go dry
Springs go dry
Discharge of rivers
drops

Artificial causes
Pavement
Drainage

Effects of
Pumping Wells
Pumping wells
Accelerates flow
near well
May reverse
ground-water flow
Causes water table
drawdown
Forms a cone of
depression

Effects of
Pumping Wells
Pumping wells
Accelerate flow
Reverse flow
Cause water
table drawdown
Form cones of
depression

Gaining
Stream

Water Table
Drawdown
Cone of Dry Spring
Depression
Gaining
Stream Low well

Low river

Pumping well

Low well

Effects of
Pumping Wells
Continued watertable drawdown
May dry up
springs and wells
May reverse flow
of rivers (and
may contaminate
aquifer)
May dry up rivers
and wetlands

Dry well

Losing
Stream

Dry well

Dry well
Dry river

Ground-Water/
Surface-Water
Interactions
Gaining streams
Humid regions
Wet season

Loosing streams
Humid regions, smaller
streams, dry season
Arid regions

Dry stream bed

Darcy column
h
Q A
x

h
Q K A
x

h/L = grad h

Q is proportional
to grad h
q = Q/A
Figure taken from Hornberger et al. (1998)

Darcys Law
Henry Darcys Experiment (Dijon, France 1856)
Darcy investigated ground water flow under controlled conditions

h1

h2

Q
h
h Slope = h/x
h1
h2

h
x1

Q: Volumetric flow rate [L3/T]


A: Cross Sectional Area (Perp. to flow)
K: The proportionality constant is added
to form the following equation:
h : Hydraulic Gradient

h
Q A
x

~ dh/dx

x
x2

Q h, Q 1 x , Q A

h
Q K A
x

K units [L/T]

Calculating Velocity with Darcys


Law
Q= Vw/t
Q: volumetric flow rate in m3/sec
Vw: Is the volume of water passing through area a during
t: the period of measurement (or unit time).

Q= Vw/t = HWD/t = av
a: the area available to flow
D: the distance traveled during t
v : Average linear velocity

Vw

In a porous medium: a = An
A: cross sectional area (perpendicular to flow)
n: porous For media of porosity

Q = Anv
v = Q/(nA)=q/n

K h
v
n x

Darcys Law (cont.)


Other useful forms of Darcys Law
Volumetric Flow Rate Q K A

Volumetric Flux
(a.k.a. Darcy Flux or
Specific discharge)

Q
A=

dh
dx

dh
q K
dx

Ave. Linear
Q
q
K dh
Velocity A.n = n = v
n dx
Assumptions: Laminar, saturated flow

Used for calculating


Volumes of groundwater
flowing during period of
time
Used for calculating
Q given A

Used for calculating


average velocity of
groundwater transport
(e.g., contaminant
transport

True flow paths

Linear flow
paths assumed
in Darcys law
Specific discharge
q = Q/A

Average linear velocity


v = Q/An= q/n
n = effective porosity
Figure from Hornberger et al. (1998)

Steady Flow to Wells in Confined Aquifers


Radial flow towered wells
Aquifers are homogeneous (properties are uniform)
Aquifers are isotropic (permeability is independent of
flow direction)
Drawdown is the vertical distance measured from the
original to the lowered water table due to pumping
Cone of depression the axismmetric drawdown curve
forms a conic geometry
Area of influence is the outer limit of the cone of
depression
Radius of Influence (ro) for a well is the maximum
horizontal extent of the cone of depression when the well
is in equilibrium with inflows
Steady state is when the cone of depression does not
change with time

Horizontal and Vertical Head Gradients

Freeze and Cherry, 1979.

Flow to Wells

Steady Radial Flow to a WellConfined


Cone of Depression
s = drawdown

Steady Radial Flow to a WellConfined


In a confined aquifer, the drawdown
curve or cone of depression varies with
distance from a pumping well.
For horizontal flow, Q at any radius r
equals, from Darcys law,
Q = -2rbK dh/dr
for steady radial flow to
a well where Q,b,K are
const

Steady Radial Flow to a WellConfined


Integrating after separation of variables, with
h = hw at r = rw at the well, yields Thiem Eqn
Q = 2Kb[(h-hw)/(ln(r/rw ))]
Note, h increases
indefinitely with
increasing r, yet
the maximum head
is h0.

Steady Radial Flow to a WellConfined


Near the well, transmissivity, T, may be
estimated by observing heads h1 and h2
at two adjacent observation wells
located at r1 and r2, respectively, from
the pumping well
T = Kb = Q ln(r2 / r1)
2(h2 - h1)

Steady Radial Flow to a WellUnconfined

Steady Radial Flow to a WellUnconfined


Using Dupuits assumptions and applying Darcys law
for radial flow in an unconfined, homogeneous,
isotropic, and horizontal aquifer yields:
Q = -2Kh dh/dr
integrating,
Q = K[(h22 - h12)/ln(r2/ r1)
solving for K,
K = [Q/(h22 - h12)]ln (r2/ r1)
where heads h1 and h2 are observed at adjacent
wells located distances r1 and r2 from the pumping
well respectively.

Steady Flow to a Well in a Confined


Aquifer
Q
Ground surface
Pre-pumping
head
Pumping
well

Drawdown curve

dh
Q = Aq = (2prb)K
dr

dh
Q
=
dr 2pT

Observation
wells
Confining Layer

h0
b

h2

r1
h1

Confined
aquifer

Q
r2
h2 = h1 +
ln( )
2pT r1

hw

r2

Bedrock

Theim Equation
In terms of head (we can write it in terms of drawdown also)

2rw

Steady Flow to a Well in a Confined Aquifer

Example - Theim Equation

Q = 400 m3/hr
b = 40 m.
Two observation wells,

Ground surface

Pumping
well

1. r1 = 25 m; h1 = 85.3 m
2. r2 = 75 m; h2 = 89.6 m

Find: Transmissivity (T)

Confining Layer

h0
b

h2 = h1 +

Q
r
ln( 2 )
2pT r1

Confine
d
aquifer

r1

hw

h1
Q

r2

Bedrock

r2
75 m
Q
400 m 3 /hr
2
T=
ln =
ln
= 16.3 m /hr
2p ( h2 - h1 ) r1 2p ( 89.6 m - 85.3m) 25 m

2rw

Steady Flow to a Well in a Confined Aquifer

Steady Radial Flow in a Confined


Aquifer
Head
Q r
h( r ) = h0 +
ln
2pT R

Drawdown
s(r) = h0 - h( r )
Q R
s( r ) =
ln
2pT r
Theim Equation
In terms of drawdown (we can write it in terms of head also)

Steady Flow to a Well in a Confined Aquifer

Example - Theim Equation


Q

1-m diameter well


Q = 113 m3/hr
b = 30 m
h0= 40 m
Two observation wells,
1. r1 = 15 m; h1 = 38.2 m
2. r2 = 50 m; h2 = 39.5 m

Find: Head and


drawdown in the well
Q R
s( r ) =
ln
2pT

Ground surface

Pumping
well

Drawdown

Confining Layer

h0

r1

Confine
d
aquifer

hw

h1

r2

Bedrock

2rw

r2
50 m
Q
113m 3 /hr
2
T=
ln =
ln
= 16.66 m /hr
2p ( s1 - s2 ) r1 2p (1.8 m - 0.5 m) 15 m
Adapted from Todd and Mays, Groundwater Hydrology

Steady Flow to a Well in a Confined Aquifer

Example - Theim Equation


Q
Ground surface

Drawdown
@ well

h2 = h1 +
Confining Layer

h0
b

Confine
d
aquifer
Bedrock

r1

Q
r
ln( 2 )
2pT r1

hw

h1
Q

r2

2rw

Q
rw
113m 3 /hr
0.5 m
hw = h2 +
ln( ) = 39.5 m +
ln(
) = 34.5 m
2
2pT r2
2p *16.66 m /hr 50 m

sw = h0 - hw = 40 m - 34.5 m = 5.5 m
Adapted from Todd and Mays, Groundwater Hydrology

Steady Flow to Wells in


Unconfined Aquifers

Steady Flow to a Well in an Unconfined


Aquifer
dh
Q = Aq = (2prh)K
dr
dh 2
= prK
dr

( )= Q

d h2

h02 - h 2 =

pK

dr

Q R
ln
pK r

(r) = h02

Q r
+
ln
pK R

Unconfined aquifer

Q
Ground surface
Pre-pumping
Water level
Pumping
well

Water Table
Observation
wells

h0

r1

hw

h1

Unconfined
aquifer

r2

Bedrock

2rw

h2 = h1 +

Q
r
ln( 2 )
2pT r1

Confined aquifer

Steady Flow to a Well in an Unconfined


Aquifer
h

(r) = h02

Q r
+
ln
pK R

2 observation wells:
h1 m @ r1 m
h2 m @ r2 m

Q
Ground surface
Prepumping
Water level
Pumping
well

Water Table
Observation
wells

h0

r1

h
2

Q r2
2
2
h2 = h1 +
ln
pK r1
r2
K=
ln
2
2
p h2 - h1 r1

Unconfined
aquifer
Bedrock

hw

h1
Q

r2

2rw

Steady Flow to a Well in an Unconfined Aquifer

Example Two Observation Wells in an


Unconfined Aquifer
Q

Given:

Ground surface

Q = 300 m3/hr
Unconfined aquifer
2 observation wells,

Prepumping
Water level

r1 = 50 m, h = 40 m
r2 = 100 m, h = 43 m

Observation
wells

h0

r1

h
2

Unconfined
aquifer

Find: K

Pumping
well

Water Table

hw

h1
Q

r2

Bedrock

2rw

r2 300 m 3 /hr / 3600 s /hr 100 m


-5
K=
ln
=
ln
=
7.3x10
m /sec

2
2
2
2
50 m
p h2 - h1 r1 p (43m) - (40 m)

Pump Test in Confined


Aquifers
Jacob Method

Cooper-Jacob Method of Solution


Cooper and Jacob noted that for small values of
r
and large values of t, the parameter u = r2S/4Tt
becomes very small so that the infinite series
can be
approx. by: W(u) = 0.5772 ln(u) (neglect higher
terms)
Thus s' = (Q/4T) [ 0.5772 ln(r2S/4Tt)]
Further rearrangement and conversion to decimal logs

Cooper-Jacob Method of Solution


A plot of drawdown s' vs.
log of t forms a straight line
as seen in adjacent figure.

Semi-log plot

A projection of the line back


to s' = 0, where t = t0 yields
the following relation:

0 = (2.3Q/4T) log[(2.25Tt0)/ (r2S)]

Cooper-Jacob Method of Solution

Cooper-Jacob Method of Solution


So, since log(1) = 0, rearrangement yields
S = 2.25Tt0 /r2
Replacing s' by s', where s' is the drawdown
difference per unit log cycle of t:
T = 2.3Q/4s'
The Cooper-Jacob method first solves for T and
then for S and is only applicable for small
values of
u < 0.01

Cooper-Jacob Example
For the data given in the Fig.
t0 = 1.6 min and s = 0.65 m
Q = 0.2 m3/sec and r = 100 m

Thus:
T = 2.3Q/4s = 5.63 x 10-2 m2/sec

T = 4864 m2/sec
Finally, S = 2.25Tt0 /r2
and S = 1.22 x 10-3

Indicating a confined aquifer

Pump Test Analysis Jacob Method

Jacob Approximation
Drawdown, s

Q
s ( u) =
W ( u)
4 pT

r 2S
u=
4Tt

e -h

Well Function, W(u)

u2
W ( u) =
dh -0.5772 - ln(u) + u - +
2!
u h

Series
approximation of
W(u)

W (u) -0.5772 - ln(u)

Approximation of s

for small u < 0.01

r 2 S
Q
s(r,t)
-0.5772 - ln

4 pT
4Tt

s(r,t) =

2.3Q
2.25Tt
log10 ( 2 )
4 pT
r S

Pump Test Analysis Jacob Method

Jacob Approximation
s=

2.3Q
2.25Tt
log( 2 )
4 pT
r S

0=

2.3Q
2.25Tt
log( 2 0 )
4 pT
r S

1=

2.25Tt 0

S=

r 2S
2.25Tt 0
r2
t0

Pump Test Analysis Jacob Method

Jacob Approximation
1 LOG CYCLE

t2
10 *t1
log = log
=1
t1
t1

s2
s
s1
1 LOG CYCLE

t1

S=

2.25Tt 0
r2

t0

t2

Pump Test Analysis Jacob Method

Jacob Approximation
t0 = 8 min
s2 = 5 m
s1 = 2.6 m
s = 2.4 m

s2
s
s1
t1

t0

S=

2.25Tt 0
r

= 2.29x10 -5

2.25(76.26 m 2 /hr)(8 min*1 hr /60 min)


(1000 m)2

t2

Multiple-Well Systems
For multiple wells with drawdowns that
overlap, the principle of superposition
may be used for governing flows:
drawdowns at any point in the area of
influence of several pumping wells is
equal to the sum of drawdowns from
each well in a confined aquifer

Multiple-Well Systems

Injection-Pumping Pair of Wells

Pump

Inject

Multiple-Well Systems
The previously mentioned principles also
apply for well flow near a boundary
Image wells placed on the other side of the
boundary at a distance xw can be used to
represent the equivalent hydraulic condition
The use of image wells allows an aquifer of
finite extent to be transformed into an
infinite aquifer so that closed-form solution
methods can be applied

Multiple-Well Systems

A flow net for a pumping


well and a recharging
image well
-indicates a line of
constant head
between the two wells

Three-Wells Pumping
Total Drawdown at A is sum of drawdowns from each well
Q2
Q1

Q3

Multiple-Well Systems

The steady-state drawdown


s' at any point (x,y) is given
by:
2
s = (Q/4T)ln

(x + xw) + (y - yw)2
(x - xw)2 + (y - yw)2

where (xw,yw) are the


locations of the recharge and
discharge wells. For this
case, yw= 0.

Multiple-Well Systems
The steady-state drawdown s' at any point (x,y) is given by
s = (Q/4T)[ ln {(x + xw)2 + y2} ln {(x xw)2 + y2} ]

where the positive term is for the pumping well and the
negative term is for the injection well. In terms of head,
h = (Q/4T)[ ln {(x xw)2 + y2} ln {(x + xw)2 + y2 }] + H

Where H is the background head value before pumping.


Note how the signs reverse since s = H h

7.5 Aquifer Boundaries


The same principle
applies for well
flow near a
boundary
Example:
pumping near a
fixed head stream

well near an impermeable boundary