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Ground water occurs when water recharges a

porous subsurface geological formation called

aquifers through cracks and pores in soil and rock

the pore spaces are filled with water.

The area above the water table where the pore

spaces are only partially filled with water is called the

capillary fringe or unsaturated zone.

Shallow water level is called the water table

Recharge

Natural

Precipitation

Melting snow

Infiltration by streams

and lakes

Artificial

Recharge wells

Water spread over

land in pits, furrows,

ditches

Small dams in

stream channels to

detain and deflect

water

Aquifers

Definition: A geological unit which can store and

supply significant quantities of water.

Unconsolidated

Sandstone

Sandstone and Carbonate

Semiconsolidated

Carbonate-rock

Volcanic

Other rocks

unconfined aquifer

Potentiometric Surfaces

Eastern Aquifer

Growndwater

basins

in Jordan

Unconfined Aquifers

GW occurring in aquifers: water fills partly an

aquifer: upper surface free to rise and decline:

or vadose zone

Near surface material not saturated

Water table: at zero gage pressure: separates saturated

and unsaturated zones: free surface rise of water in a

well

Confined Aquifer

Artesian condition

Permeable material overlain by relatively

impermeable material

Piezometric or potentiometric surface

Water level in the piezometer is a measure of

water pressure in the aquifer

Aquifer Confining Layer or Aquitard

A layer of relatively impermeable material which restricts vertical

water movement from an aquifer located above or below.

Typically clay or unfractured bedrock.

Aquifer Characteristics

Porosity

The ratio of pore/void volume

to total volume, i.e. space

available for occupation by air

or water.

Measured by taking a known

volume of material and adding

water.

Usually expressed in units of

percent.

Typical values for gravel are

25% to 45%.

Aquifer Properties

Porosity: maximum amount of water that a rock

can contain when saturated.

Permeability: Ease with which water will flow

through a porous material

Specific Yield: Portion of the GW: draining

under influence of gravity:

Specific Retention: Portion of the GW: retained

as a film on rock surfaces and in very small

openings:

Storativity: Portion of the GW: draining when

the piezometric head dropped a unit depth

Storage Terms

h

b

Unconfined aquifer

Specific yield = Sy

S=V/Ah

S = Ss b

Confined aquifer

Storativity = S

Ss = specific storage

Figures from Hornberger et al. (1998)

Aquifer Characteristics

Hydraulic Conductivity

Measure of the ease with which water can flow through an

aquifer.

Higher conductivity means more water flows through an

aquifer at the same hydraulic gradient.

Measured by well draw down or lab test.

Expressed in units of mm/day, ft/day or gpd/ft2.

Typical values for sand/gravel are 2.5 cm/day to 33 m/day

m1 (1 to 100 ft/day).

Typical values for clay are 0.3 mm/day (0.001 ft/day). That

is why is is an aquifer confining layer.

vertical strip of aquifer (thickness b) of unit width

under a unit hydraulic gradient

Aquifer Characteristics

Hydraulic gradient

Steepness of the slope of the water table.

Groundwater flows from higher elevations to lower elevations

(i.e. downgradient).

Measured by taking the difference in elevation between two

wells and dividing by the distance separating them.

Expressed in units of ft/ft or ft/mi.

Typical values for groundwater are .0001 to .01 m/m.

Aquifer Characteristics

Groundwater Velocity

How fast groundwater is moving.

Calculated by conductivity multiplied by gradient divided by

porosity.

Expressed in units of ft/day.

Typical values for gravel or sand are 0.15 to 16 m/day (1 to 50

ft/day).

Water table: the

surface separating

the vadose zone

from the saturated

zone.

Measured using

water level in well

Fig. 11.1

Ground-Water Flow

Precipitation

Infiltration

Ground-water

recharge

Ground-water flow

Ground-water

discharge to

Springs

Streams and

Wells

Ground-Water Flow

Velocity is

proportional to

Permeability

Slope of the water

table

Inversely

Proportional to

porosity

Slow (e.g., mm per day)

Natural Water

Table Fluctuations

Infiltration

Recharges ground

water

Raises water table

Provides water to

springs, streams

and wells

Reduction of

infiltration causes

water table to drop

Natural Water

Table Fluctuations

Reduction of

infiltration causes

water table to drop

Wells go dry

Springs go dry

Discharge of rivers

drops

Artificial causes

Pavement

Drainage

Effects of

Pumping Wells

Pumping wells

Accelerates flow

near well

May reverse

ground-water flow

Causes water table

drawdown

Forms a cone of

depression

Effects of

Pumping Wells

Pumping wells

Accelerate flow

Reverse flow

Cause water

table drawdown

Form cones of

depression

Gaining

Stream

Water Table

Drawdown

Cone of Dry Spring

Depression

Gaining

Stream Low well

Low river

Pumping well

Low well

Effects of

Pumping Wells

Continued watertable drawdown

May dry up

springs and wells

May reverse flow

of rivers (and

may contaminate

aquifer)

May dry up rivers

and wetlands

Dry well

Losing

Stream

Dry well

Dry well

Dry river

Ground-Water/

Surface-Water

Interactions

Gaining streams

Humid regions

Wet season

Loosing streams

Humid regions, smaller

streams, dry season

Arid regions

Darcy column

h

Q A

x

h

Q K A

x

h/L = grad h

Q is proportional

to grad h

q = Q/A

Figure taken from Hornberger et al. (1998)

Darcys Law

Henry Darcys Experiment (Dijon, France 1856)

Darcy investigated ground water flow under controlled conditions

h1

h2

Q

h

h Slope = h/x

h1

h2

h

x1

A: Cross Sectional Area (Perp. to flow)

K: The proportionality constant is added

to form the following equation:

h : Hydraulic Gradient

h

Q A

x

~ dh/dx

x

x2

Q h, Q 1 x , Q A

h

Q K A

x

K units [L/T]

Law

Q= Vw/t

Q: volumetric flow rate in m3/sec

Vw: Is the volume of water passing through area a during

t: the period of measurement (or unit time).

Q= Vw/t = HWD/t = av

a: the area available to flow

D: the distance traveled during t

v : Average linear velocity

Vw

In a porous medium: a = An

A: cross sectional area (perpendicular to flow)

n: porous For media of porosity

Q = Anv

v = Q/(nA)=q/n

K h

v

n x

Other useful forms of Darcys Law

Volumetric Flow Rate Q K A

Volumetric Flux

(a.k.a. Darcy Flux or

Specific discharge)

Q

A=

dh

dx

dh

q K

dx

Ave. Linear

Q

q

K dh

Velocity A.n = n = v

n dx

Assumptions: Laminar, saturated flow

Volumes of groundwater

flowing during period of

time

Used for calculating

Q given A

average velocity of

groundwater transport

(e.g., contaminant

transport

Linear flow

paths assumed

in Darcys law

Specific discharge

q = Q/A

v = Q/An= q/n

n = effective porosity

Figure from Hornberger et al. (1998)

Radial flow towered wells

Aquifers are homogeneous (properties are uniform)

Aquifers are isotropic (permeability is independent of

flow direction)

Drawdown is the vertical distance measured from the

original to the lowered water table due to pumping

Cone of depression the axismmetric drawdown curve

forms a conic geometry

Area of influence is the outer limit of the cone of

depression

Radius of Influence (ro) for a well is the maximum

horizontal extent of the cone of depression when the well

is in equilibrium with inflows

Steady state is when the cone of depression does not

change with time

Flow to Wells

Cone of Depression

s = drawdown

In a confined aquifer, the drawdown

curve or cone of depression varies with

distance from a pumping well.

For horizontal flow, Q at any radius r

equals, from Darcys law,

Q = -2rbK dh/dr

for steady radial flow to

a well where Q,b,K are

const

Integrating after separation of variables, with

h = hw at r = rw at the well, yields Thiem Eqn

Q = 2Kb[(h-hw)/(ln(r/rw ))]

Note, h increases

indefinitely with

increasing r, yet

the maximum head

is h0.

Near the well, transmissivity, T, may be

estimated by observing heads h1 and h2

at two adjacent observation wells

located at r1 and r2, respectively, from

the pumping well

T = Kb = Q ln(r2 / r1)

2(h2 - h1)

Using Dupuits assumptions and applying Darcys law

for radial flow in an unconfined, homogeneous,

isotropic, and horizontal aquifer yields:

Q = -2Kh dh/dr

integrating,

Q = K[(h22 - h12)/ln(r2/ r1)

solving for K,

K = [Q/(h22 - h12)]ln (r2/ r1)

where heads h1 and h2 are observed at adjacent

wells located distances r1 and r2 from the pumping

well respectively.

Aquifer

Q

Ground surface

Pre-pumping

head

Pumping

well

Drawdown curve

dh

Q = Aq = (2prb)K

dr

dh

Q

=

dr 2pT

Observation

wells

Confining Layer

h0

b

h2

r1

h1

Confined

aquifer

Q

r2

h2 = h1 +

ln( )

2pT r1

hw

r2

Bedrock

Theim Equation

In terms of head (we can write it in terms of drawdown also)

2rw

Q = 400 m3/hr

b = 40 m.

Two observation wells,

Ground surface

Pumping

well

1. r1 = 25 m; h1 = 85.3 m

2. r2 = 75 m; h2 = 89.6 m

Confining Layer

h0

b

h2 = h1 +

Q

r

ln( 2 )

2pT r1

Confine

d

aquifer

r1

hw

h1

Q

r2

Bedrock

r2

75 m

Q

400 m 3 /hr

2

T=

ln =

ln

= 16.3 m /hr

2p ( h2 - h1 ) r1 2p ( 89.6 m - 85.3m) 25 m

2rw

Aquifer

Head

Q r

h( r ) = h0 +

ln

2pT R

Drawdown

s(r) = h0 - h( r )

Q R

s( r ) =

ln

2pT r

Theim Equation

In terms of drawdown (we can write it in terms of head also)

Q

Q = 113 m3/hr

b = 30 m

h0= 40 m

Two observation wells,

1. r1 = 15 m; h1 = 38.2 m

2. r2 = 50 m; h2 = 39.5 m

drawdown in the well

Q R

s( r ) =

ln

2pT

Ground surface

Pumping

well

Drawdown

Confining Layer

h0

r1

Confine

d

aquifer

hw

h1

r2

Bedrock

2rw

r2

50 m

Q

113m 3 /hr

2

T=

ln =

ln

= 16.66 m /hr

2p ( s1 - s2 ) r1 2p (1.8 m - 0.5 m) 15 m

Adapted from Todd and Mays, Groundwater Hydrology

Q

Ground surface

Drawdown

@ well

h2 = h1 +

Confining Layer

h0

b

Confine

d

aquifer

Bedrock

r1

Q

r

ln( 2 )

2pT r1

hw

h1

Q

r2

2rw

Q

rw

113m 3 /hr

0.5 m

hw = h2 +

ln( ) = 39.5 m +

ln(

) = 34.5 m

2

2pT r2

2p *16.66 m /hr 50 m

sw = h0 - hw = 40 m - 34.5 m = 5.5 m

Adapted from Todd and Mays, Groundwater Hydrology

Unconfined Aquifers

Aquifer

dh

Q = Aq = (2prh)K

dr

dh 2

= prK

dr

( )= Q

d h2

h02 - h 2 =

pK

dr

Q R

ln

pK r

(r) = h02

Q r

+

ln

pK R

Unconfined aquifer

Q

Ground surface

Pre-pumping

Water level

Pumping

well

Water Table

Observation

wells

h0

r1

hw

h1

Unconfined

aquifer

r2

Bedrock

2rw

h2 = h1 +

Q

r

ln( 2 )

2pT r1

Confined aquifer

Aquifer

h

(r) = h02

Q r

+

ln

pK R

2 observation wells:

h1 m @ r1 m

h2 m @ r2 m

Q

Ground surface

Prepumping

Water level

Pumping

well

Water Table

Observation

wells

h0

r1

h

2

Q r2

2

2

h2 = h1 +

ln

pK r1

r2

K=

ln

2

2

p h2 - h1 r1

Unconfined

aquifer

Bedrock

hw

h1

Q

r2

2rw

Unconfined Aquifer

Q

Given:

Ground surface

Q = 300 m3/hr

Unconfined aquifer

2 observation wells,

Prepumping

Water level

r1 = 50 m, h = 40 m

r2 = 100 m, h = 43 m

Observation

wells

h0

r1

h

2

Unconfined

aquifer

Find: K

Pumping

well

Water Table

hw

h1

Q

r2

Bedrock

2rw

-5

K=

ln

=

ln

=

7.3x10

m /sec

2

2

2

2

50 m

p h2 - h1 r1 p (43m) - (40 m)

Aquifers

Jacob Method

Cooper and Jacob noted that for small values of

r

and large values of t, the parameter u = r2S/4Tt

becomes very small so that the infinite series

can be

approx. by: W(u) = 0.5772 ln(u) (neglect higher

terms)

Thus s' = (Q/4T) [ 0.5772 ln(r2S/4Tt)]

Further rearrangement and conversion to decimal logs

A plot of drawdown s' vs.

log of t forms a straight line

as seen in adjacent figure.

Semi-log plot

to s' = 0, where t = t0 yields

the following relation:

So, since log(1) = 0, rearrangement yields

S = 2.25Tt0 /r2

Replacing s' by s', where s' is the drawdown

difference per unit log cycle of t:

T = 2.3Q/4s'

The Cooper-Jacob method first solves for T and

then for S and is only applicable for small

values of

u < 0.01

Cooper-Jacob Example

For the data given in the Fig.

t0 = 1.6 min and s = 0.65 m

Q = 0.2 m3/sec and r = 100 m

Thus:

T = 2.3Q/4s = 5.63 x 10-2 m2/sec

T = 4864 m2/sec

Finally, S = 2.25Tt0 /r2

and S = 1.22 x 10-3

Jacob Approximation

Drawdown, s

Q

s ( u) =

W ( u)

4 pT

r 2S

u=

4Tt

e -h

u2

W ( u) =

dh -0.5772 - ln(u) + u - +

2!

u h

Series

approximation of

W(u)

Approximation of s

r 2 S

Q

s(r,t)

-0.5772 - ln

4 pT

4Tt

s(r,t) =

2.3Q

2.25Tt

log10 ( 2 )

4 pT

r S

Jacob Approximation

s=

2.3Q

2.25Tt

log( 2 )

4 pT

r S

0=

2.3Q

2.25Tt

log( 2 0 )

4 pT

r S

1=

2.25Tt 0

S=

r 2S

2.25Tt 0

r2

t0

Jacob Approximation

1 LOG CYCLE

t2

10 *t1

log = log

=1

t1

t1

s2

s

s1

1 LOG CYCLE

t1

S=

2.25Tt 0

r2

t0

t2

Jacob Approximation

t0 = 8 min

s2 = 5 m

s1 = 2.6 m

s = 2.4 m

s2

s

s1

t1

t0

S=

2.25Tt 0

r

= 2.29x10 -5

(1000 m)2

t2

Multiple-Well Systems

For multiple wells with drawdowns that

overlap, the principle of superposition

may be used for governing flows:

drawdowns at any point in the area of

influence of several pumping wells is

equal to the sum of drawdowns from

each well in a confined aquifer

Multiple-Well Systems

Pump

Inject

Multiple-Well Systems

The previously mentioned principles also

apply for well flow near a boundary

Image wells placed on the other side of the

boundary at a distance xw can be used to

represent the equivalent hydraulic condition

The use of image wells allows an aquifer of

finite extent to be transformed into an

infinite aquifer so that closed-form solution

methods can be applied

Multiple-Well Systems

well and a recharging

image well

-indicates a line of

constant head

between the two wells

Three-Wells Pumping

Total Drawdown at A is sum of drawdowns from each well

Q2

Q1

Q3

Multiple-Well Systems

s' at any point (x,y) is given

by:

2

s = (Q/4T)ln

(x + xw) + (y - yw)2

(x - xw)2 + (y - yw)2

locations of the recharge and

discharge wells. For this

case, yw= 0.

Multiple-Well Systems

The steady-state drawdown s' at any point (x,y) is given by

s = (Q/4T)[ ln {(x + xw)2 + y2} ln {(x xw)2 + y2} ]

where the positive term is for the pumping well and the

negative term is for the injection well. In terms of head,

h = (Q/4T)[ ln {(x xw)2 + y2} ln {(x + xw)2 + y2 }] + H

Note how the signs reverse since s = H h

The same principle

applies for well

flow near a

boundary

Example:

pumping near a

fixed head stream

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