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Water pipes in our homes and the distribution

system

Pipes carry hydraulic fluid to various components

of vehicles and machines

Natural systems of pipes that carry blood

throughout our body and air into and out of our

lungs.

conduits or circular cross section under a certain

pressure gradient.

The pipe flow at any cross section can be

described by:

cross section (A),

elevation (h), measured with respect to a horizontal

reference datum.

pressure (P), varies from one point to another, for a

given cross section variation is neglected

The flow velocity (v), v = Q/A.

3

Pipe flow

The pipe is completely filled

with the fluid being transported.

Open-channel flow

Water flows without

completely filling the pipe.

to be a pressure gradient along

the pipe.

driving force, the water

flows down a hill.

4

Types of Flow

Steady and Unsteady flow

The flow parameters such as velocity (v), pressure (P)

and density (r) of a fluid flow are independent of time

in a steady flow. In unsteady flow they are independent.

For a steady flow

v t x ,y ,z

v t x ,y ,z

average is constant, then the fluid is considered to be

steady

5

A flow is uniform if the flow characteristics at any given

instant remain the same at different points in the

direction of flow, otherwise it is termed as non-uniform

flow.

For a uniform flow

v s t

v s t

Examples:

steady uniform flow.

unsteady uniform flow.

steady non-uniform flow.

unsteady non-uniform flow.

Laminar flow:

The fluid particles move along smooth well defined path or streamlines

that are parallel, thus particles move in laminas or layers, smoothly

gliding over each other.

Turbulent flow:

The fluid particles do not move in orderly manner and they occupy different

relative positions in successive cross-sections.

There is a small fluctuation in magnitude and direction of the velocity of the

fluid particles

transitional flow

The flow occurs between laminar and turbulent flow

8

Reynolds performed a very carefully prepared pipe flow

experiment.

Increasing

flow

velocity

10

Reynolds Experiment

Reynold found that transition from laminar to turbulent

flow in a pipe depends not only on the velocity, but only

on the pipe diameter and the viscosity of the fluid.

This relationship between these variables is commonly

known as Reynolds number (NR)

VDr

VD

Inertial Forces

NR

Viscous Forces

It can be shown that the Reynolds number is a measure of

the ratio of the inertial forces to the viscous forces in the

flow

FV A

FI ma

11

Reynolds number

rVD VD

NR

where V:

D:

r:

:

:

pipe diameter

[L]

density of flowing fluid [M/L3]

dynamic viscosity [M/LT]

kinematic viscosity

[L2/T]

12

13

circular pipes, the critical Reynolds number is about 2000

Flow laminar when NR < Critical NR

Flow turbulent when NR > Critical NR

The transition from laminar to turbulent flow does not always

happened at NR = 2000 but varies due to experiments

conditions..this known as transitional range

14

Laminar flows characterized

by:

by

low velocities

small length scales

high kinematic viscosities

high velocities

large length scales

NR < Critical NR

NR > Critical NR

dominant.

dominant

15

Example 3.1

40 mm diameter circular pipe carries water at 20oC.

Calculate the largest flow rate (Q) which laminar flow can

be expected.

D 0.04m

1106 at T 20o C

NR

VD

2000

Q V . A 0.05

V (0.04)

2000 V 0.05m / sec

6

110

16

Cross section and elevation of the pipe are varied along

the axial direction of the flow.

17

Conservation law of mass

Mass enters the

control volume

control volume

dVol11'

dVol 2 2'

r.

r.

dt

dt

dS1

dS 2

r . A1

r . A2

r . A1.V1 r . A2 .V2 r .Q

dt

dt

Continuity equation for

Incompressible Steady flow

A1.V1 A2 .V2 Q

18

dV M V 2 M V1

F M a M dt

t

P1 A1 P2 A2 Fx Wx

by the wall of the pipe.

Fx r.Q(Vx2 Vx1 )

F

F

r .Q(V y2 V y1 )

r .Q(Vz2 Vz1 )

F r.Q(V

V 1)

Conservation of

moment equation

19

Example 3.2

dA= 40 mm, dB= 20 mm, PA= 500,000 N/m2, Q=0.01m3/sec.

Determine the reaction force at the hinge.

20

Water flow in pipes may contain energy in three

basic forms:

1- Kinetic energy,

2- potential energy,

3- pressure energy.

21

- Water particles at sec.1-1 move to sec. 1`-1` with velocity V1.

- Water particles at sec.2-2 move to sec. 2`-2` with velocity V2.

. on section 1-1

-ve sign because P2 is in the opposite direction to distance traveled ds2

22

Work W .h mg.h

m r .Volume A1 L A1V1dt

1

1

1

2

2

2

M .V2 M .V1 r. A1.V1.dt (V22 V1 )

2

2

2

The total work done by all forces is equal to the change in

kinetic energy:

1

2

P1.Q.dt P2 .Q.dt rg.Q.dt.(h1 h2 ) r.Q.dt (V22 V1 )

2

Dividing both sides by rgQdt

2

V1 P1

V

P

h1 2 2 h2

2g

2g

Bernoulli Equation

Energy per unit weight of water

OR: Energy Head

23

24

V2

P2

H2

h2

2g

Energy =

head

Kinetic

head

+ Pressure

head

Elevation

head

V

P

H1 1 1 h1

2g

Notice that:

In reality, certain amount of energy loss (hL) occurs when the

water mass flow from one section to another.

The energy relationship between two sections can be written

as:

2

2

V1

P1

V2

P2

h1

h2 hL

25

2g

2g

Example 3.4

The tank is being drained through 12 in pipe. The discharge = 3200 gpm, The

Total head loss = 11.5 ft. find the h?

26

Example

In the figure shown:

Where the discharge through the system is 0.05 m3/s, the total losses through

the pipe is 10 v2/2g where v is the velocity of water in 0.15 m diameter pipe,

the water in the final outlet exposed to atmosphere.

Example

In the figure shown:

Where the discharge through the system is 0.05 m3/s, the total losses through the pipe is 10 v2/2g

where v is the velocity of water in 0.15 m diameter pipe, the water in the final outlet exposed to

atmosphere. Calculate the required height (h =?)

below the tank

height (h =?)

below the tank

0.05

2.83m / s

2

4 0.15

Q

A

Q

A

0.05

6.366m / s

2

4 0.10

p1 V12

p2 V22

z1

z 2 hL

rg 2 g

rg 2 g

2

2

6.366

102.83

0 0 (h 5) 0

20

2 * 9.81

h 21.147 m

2 * 9.81

system

30

In General:

When a fluid is flowing through a pipe, the fluid experiences some

resistance due to which some of energy (head) of fluid is lost.

Energy Losses

(Head losses)

Major Losses

loss of head due to pipe

friction and to viscous

dissipation in flowing

water

Minor losses

Loss due to the change of

the velocity of the flowing

fluid in the magnitude or in

direction as it moves

through fitting like Valves,

Tees, Bends and Reducers.

31

Energy loss through friction in the length of pipeline is commonly

termed the major loss hf

This is the loss of head due to pipe friction and to the viscous

dissipation in flowing water.

Several studies have been found the resistance to flow in a pipe is:

- Independent of pressure under which the water flows

- Linearly proportional to the pipe length, L

- Inversely proportional to some water power of the pipe diameter D

- Proportional to some power of the mean velocity, V

- Related to the roughness of the pipe, if the flow is turbulent

turbulent).

33

Darcy-Weisbach Equation

2

L V

8f LQ

hL f

D 2 g g D5 2

Where:

f is the friction factor

L is pipe length

D is pipe diameter

Q is the flow rate

hL is the loss due to friction

rVD e

e

VD e

f F N R , F

, F

,

D

D

D

Renold number

Relative roughness

For Laminar flow: (NR < 2000) [depends only on

Reynolds number and not on the surface roughness]

64

f

NR

For

4000 < NR < 105 is

0.316

f 1/ 4

NR

35

Friction Factor f

The thickness of the laminar sublayer decrease with an increase in NR

laminar flow

NR < 2000

f independent of relative

roughness e/D

Smooth

' 1.7e

pipe wall

64

NR

N f

1

2 log 10 R

f

2.51

transitionally

rough

e

pipe wall

e

1

2.51

D

2 log 10

3.7 N R f

f

Colebrook formula

turbulent flow

f independent of NR

NR > 4000

pipe wall

rough

0.08e

'

1

D

2 log 10 3.7

e

f

Moody diagram

A convenient chart was prepared by Lewis F. Moody and commonly

called the Moody diagram of friction factors for pipe flow,

There are 4 zones of pipe flow in the chart:

A laminar flow zone where f is simple linear function of NR

A critical zone (shaded) where values are uncertain because

the flow might be neither laminar nor truly turbulent

A transition zone where f is a function of both NR and relative

roughness

A zone of fully developed turbulence where the value of f

depends solely on the relative roughness and independent of

the Reynolds Number

38

Laminar

independence

table 3.1

40

Swamee-Jain Equation (1976)

0.25

5.74

e

log10 3.7 D Re 0.9

41

Three types of problems for uniform flow

in a single pipe:

Type 1:

Given the kind and size of pipe and the flow rate

head loss ?

Type 2:

Given the kind and size of pipe and the head loss

flow rate ?

Type 3:

Given the kind of pipe, the head loss and flow rate

size of pipe ?

There are 3 types of problems

Given: L, D, V solve for hf

Compute ks/D, Re then f from moody diagram then

find hf and V

Given: hf, L, D solve for V

2 gh

D

Compute ks/D the value

Then calculate f, V

L

and Q

Given: Q, L, hf solve for D, Iterative solution

3/ 2

moody diagram

Assume new f, calculate V and Re, then check f

Moody Diagram

Smooth pipes

Reynolds number

1/ 2

Resistance Coefficient f

N R f 1/ 2

D3 / 2 2 gh f

Example 1

The water flow in Asphalted cast Iron pipe (e = 0.12mm) has a diameter 20cm

at 20oC. Is 0.05 m3/s. determine the losses due to friction per 1 km

Type 1:

head loss ?

Given the kind and size of pipe and the flow rate

0.05m 3 /s

V

1.59m/s

2

2

/4 0.2 m

T 20o C 1.0110 6 m 2 /s

e 0.12mm

e 0.12mm

0.0006

D 200mm

VD 1.59 0.2

5

NR

314852

3

.

15

10

1.0110 6

2

L V2

1,000 m 1.59

hf f

0.018

2

D 2g

0.20 m 2 9.81 m/s

11.55 m

Moody

f = 0.018

45

Example 2

The water flow in commercial steel pipe (e = 0.045mm) has a diameter 0.5m

at 20oC. Q=0.4 m3/s. determine the losses due to friction per 1 km

Type 1:

Given the kind and size of pipe and the flow rate

head loss ?

Q

0.4

V

2.037 m / s

2

A 0.5

4

497 10 6

497 10 6

6

1

.

006

10

T 42.51.5 20 42.51.5

0.5 2.037

6

NR

1

.

012

10

1.006 10 6

e

0.045

5

10

D 0.5 103

Moody

f 0.013

2

1000 2.037

h f 0.013

5.5 m / km

0.5 2 9.81

Example 3

Cast iron pipe (e = 0.26), length = 2 km, diameter = 0.3m. Determine the

max. flow rate Q , If the allowable maximum head loss = 4.6m. T=10oC

Type 2:

Given the kind and size of pipe and the head loss

flow rate ?

LV

hF f

D 2g

V2

2000

0.3 2 9.81

0.0135

V2

1

f

4.6 f

497 10 6

497 10 6

6

1

.

31

10

T 42.51.5 10 42.51.5

0.3 V

6

NR

2

.

296

10

V

2

6

1.3110

e

0.26

5

8

.

67

10

0.00009

3

D 0.3 10

Trial 1

eq1

f 0.01

V 1.16 m/s

2

eq

N R 2.668 105

e

8.67 10 4

D

Moody

f 0.02

V2

0.0135

1

f

N R 2.296 106V

2

Trial 2

eq1

f 0.02

V 0.82 m/s

2

eq

N R 1.886 105

e

8.67 10 4

D

Moody

f 0.021

Example 3.5

Compute the discharge capacity of a 3-m diameter, wood stave

pipe in its best condition carrying water at 10oC. It is allowed to

have a head loss of 2m/km of pipe length.

Type 2:

Given the kind and size of pipe and the head loss

flow rate ?

Solution 1:

LV2

hf f

D 2g

2ghf 1/ 2 D 1/ 2

V

L f

2

0.12

1000 V

2

2 f

V

f

3 2(9.81)

Table 3.1 : wood stave pipe: e = 0.18 0.9 mm, take e = 0.3 mm

e 0.3

0.0001

D 3

At T= 10oC, = 1.31x10-6 m2/sec N R

VD

3V

6

2

.

29

10

.V

6

1.31 10

Iteration 1:

Assume f = 0.02

0.12

V

V 2.45m / sec

0.02

2

From moody Diagram: f 0.0122

Iteration 2:

update f = 0.0122

V2

0.12

V 3.14m / sec

0.0122

From moody Diagram: f 0.0121 0.0122

Iteration

NR

0.02

2.45

5.6106

0.0122

3.14

7.2106

0.0121

Convergence

V2 3.15 m/s

Solution: Q VA 3.15.

32

22.27 m3 /s

D3 / 2 2 gh f

f

NR

1/ 2

Type 2. Given the kind and size of pipe and the head loss

flow rate ?

Given N R

However, if we know the friction loss hf, we can use the Darcy-Weisbach equation

to write:

1/ 2 1/ 2

LV2

2ghf

D

V

L f

1 D 3 / 2 2ghf 1/ 2

Re 1/ 2

f L

hf f

3/ 2

D 2 gh f

1/ 2

NR f

D 2g

VD

Re

1/ 2

available data

unknowns

Moody Diagram

Smooth pipes

Reynolds number

1/ 2

Resistance Coefficient f

N R f 1/ 2

D3 / 2 2 gh f

Example 3.5

Compute the discharge capacity of a 3-m diameter, wood stave pipe in its best

condition carrying water at 10oC. It is allowed to have a head loss of 2m/km

of pipe length.

Type 2: Given the kind and size of pipe and the head loss

flow rate ?

Solution 2:

At T= 10oC, = 1.31x10-6 m2/sec

D 2 gh f

f

L

3/ 2

NR

1/ 2

(3)3 2

1.31 106

2(9.81)(3)

9.62 105

1000

Table 3.1 : wood pipe: e = 0.18 0.9 mm, take e = 0.3 mm e 0.3 0.0001

D 3

From moody Diagram: f 0.0121

1/ 2

2 gh f

LV

hf f

V

D 2g

L

2

1/ 2

D

f

32

22.27 m3 /s

f = 0.0121

Example (type 2)

1

H = 4 m, L = 200 m, and D = 0.05 m

H

galvanized iron pipe?

2

L

= 10-6 m2/s

We can write the energy equation between the water surface in the reservoir and the

2

2

free jet at the end of the pipe:

p1

h1

V1

p

V

2 h2 2 hL

2g

2g

2

V2

L V

04000

f

2g

D 2g

V2

2g 4

78.5

1 4000 f

L

1 f

D

Example (continued)

Assume Initial value for f : fo = 0.026

Initial estimate for V:

78.5

0.865 m/sec

1 4000 0.026

DV

Iteration

78.5

0.819 m/sec

1 4000 0.029

NR

DV2

= 0.029

NR

0.026

0.865

4.3104

0.029

0.819

4.1104

0.0294

0.814

4.07104

0.0294

V 2 0.814 m/s

Solution:

Convergence

Q VA 0.814

0.05 2

1.60 103 m3 /s

A good initial estimate is to pick the f value that is valid for a fully rough pipe with

the specified relative roughness

fo = 0.026

e/D = 0.003

single pipe

Given the kind of pipe, the head loss and flow rate

Determines

equivalent roughness e

Problem?

size of pipe ?

roughness e/D, NR, or N R f

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Use the Darcy Weisbach equation and guess an initial value for f

Solve for D

Calculate e/D

Calculate NR

Update f

Solve for D

If new D different from old D go to step 3, otherwise done

Example (Type 3)

A pipeline is designed to carry crude oil (S = 0.93, = 10-5 m2/s) with a discharge of 0.10

m3/s and a head loss per kilometer of 50 m. What diameter of steel pipe is needed?

Available pipe diameters are 20, 22, and 24 cm.

From Table 3.1 : Steel pipe: e = 0.045 mm

Darcy-Weisbach:

2

2

L V

hf f

D 2g

16 fLQ

D

2

2

g

h

f

Q

2

2

L A

1 16 fLQ2

L Q 4

hf f

f

5

2

4

D 2g

D 2 g 2

D 2g D

1/ 5

16 1000 0.102

D

2

2

9

.

81

50

fo = 0.015

1/ 5

f 1/ 5 0.440 f 1/ 5

Now we can calculate the relative roughness and the Reynolds number:

e 0.045 103

0.00024

D

D

NR

VD

Q D 4Q D 4Q 1

1

3

3

12

.

7

10

66

.

8

10

A D 2 D

D

update f

f = 0.021

f1 = 0.021

e/D = 0.00024

Example Contd

D 0.440 f 1/ 5

1

D

N R 12.7 103

Solution:

D = 0.203

f1 = 0.021

size:

D = 0.203 m

N R 62.5 103

e

0.00023

D

Iteration

NR

update f

e/D

0.015

0.190

66.8103 0.00024

0.021

0.203

0.021

62.5103 0.00023

Convergence

D = 22 cm

Example 3.6

Estimate the size of a uniform, horizontal welded-steel pipe installed to carry 14

ft3/sec of water of 70oF (20oC). The allowable pressure loss is 17 ft/mi of

pipe length.

Solution 2:

From Table : Steel pipe: ks = 0.046 mm

LV2

Darcy-Weisbach: hL f

D 2g

Q VA

8 f 5280 14

D

2

9

.

81

17

Q

2

L A

L Q 2 42

1 16fLQ 2

hL f

f

D 2g

D 2g 2D 4 D 5 2g 2

8 fLQ 2

D 2

g hL

1

/5

f 1/ 5 4.33 f 1/ 5

1/ 5

e 0.003

0.0012

D

2.5

VD

2.85 * 2.5

NR

6.6 *105

5

1.08 *10

We get f =0.021

values into equation a, which gives

A new iteration provide

V = 4.46 ft/sec

NR = 8.3 x 105

e/D = 0.0015

f = 0.022, and

D = 2.0 ft.

More iterations will produce the same results.

Several formulas have been developed in the past.

Some of these formulas have faithfully been used in

various hydraulic engineering practices.

1. Darcy-Weisbach formula

2. The Hazen -Williams Formula

4. The Chezy Formula

5. The Strickler Formula

64

Empirical Formulas 1

Hazen-Williams

D 5cm V 3.0m / sec

V 1.318CHW Rh0.63S 0.54

British Units

V 0.85CHW Rh

0.54

0.63

SI Units

Simplified

D 2

Rh hydraulic Radius

S

C HW

hf

10.7 L

1.852

Q

1.852

CHW

D 4.87

wetted A

D

4

wetted P

D

4

hf

L

Hazen Williams Coefficien t

SI Units

68

CH

Vo

C Ho

0.081

Where:

CH = corrected value

CHo = value from table

Vo = velocity at CHo

V = actual velocity

69

Empirical Formulas 2

Manning Formula

This formula has extensively been used

for open channel designs

It is also quite commonly used for pipe

flows

70

Manning

1 2 / 3 1/ 2

V Rh S

n

Rh hydraulic Radius

Simplified

wetted A D

wetted P

4

hf

L

n Manning Coefficien t

10.3 L nQ

hf

D 5.33

SI Units

71

1 2/ 3 1/ 2

V Rh S

n

2

Q

h f 10.3n 2 L 16 / 3

D

L 2 2

h f 6.35 1.33 n V

D

n = Manning coefficient of roughness (See Table)

Rh and S are as defined for Hazen-William

formula.

72

73

74

Example

New Cast Iron (CHW = 130, n = 0.011) has length = 6 km and diameter = 30cm.

Q= 0.32 m3/s, T=30o. Calculate the head loss due to friction using:

a) Hazen-William Method

10.7 L

1.852

hf

Q

1.852

CHW

D 4.87

hf

10.7 6000

1.852

0

.

32

333m

1.852

4 .87

130

0.3

b) Manning Method

10.3 L nQ

hf

D 5.33

2

10.3 6000 0.011 0.32

hf

470 m

5 .33

0.3

2

Minor losses

It is due to the change

of the velocity of the

flowing fluid in the

magnitude

or

in

direction [turbulence

within bulk flow as it

moves through and

fitting]

76

Valves

Tees

Bends

Reducers

Valves

And other appurtenances

V2

Q2

hm k L

kL

2g

2 gA2

minor compared to friction losses in long pipelines but,

can be the dominant cause of head loss in shorter pipelines

77

A sudden contraction in a pipe usually causes a marked drop in pressure

in the pipe due to both the increase in velocity and the loss of energy to

turbulence.

Along wall

Along centerline

V2

hc kc

2g

V2

General formula for head loss at the entrance of a pipe is also

expressed in term of velocity head of the pipe

hent K ent

2g

81

(flow leaving a tank)

Reentrant

(embeded)

KL = 0.8

Sharp

edge

KL = 0.5

Slightly

rounded

KL = 0.2

Well

rounded

KL = 0.04

V2

hL K L

2g

82

V 22

hL K L

2g

2

V2

hL 0.5

2g

83

introducing a gradual pipe transition known as a confusor

kc'

2

V2

hc' kc'

2g

(reducer or nozzle)

85

A sudden Expansion in a pipe

(V1 V2 )

hE

2g

larger than in the case of a contraction

abrupt expansion

gradual expansion

V 12

hL K L

2g

A1

K L 1

A2

or :

hL

V1 V2

2g

88

introducing a gradual pipe transition known as a diffusor

V V2

hE' k E'

2g

2

1

(conical diffuser)

hL K L

V2

2g

100

200

300

400

KL

0.39

0.80

1.00

1.06

90

Gibson tests

91

the lip

92

(flow entering a tank)

KL = 1.0

V2

hL

2g

KL = 1.0

KL = 1.0

KL = 1.0

dissipated through viscous effects as the stream of fluid mixes

93

with the fluid in the tank and eventually comes to rest (V2 = 0).

V2

hb kb

2g

R/D

10

16

20

Kb

0.35

0.19

0.17

0.22

0.32

0.38

0.42

94

Miter bends

For situations in which space is limited,

95

(valves, elbows, bends, and tees)

V

hv K v

2g

96

97

98

pipe length

kl D

Le

f

Unless local effects are of particular interests the changes in the EGL and HGL are

often shown as abrupt changes (even though the loss occurs over some distance)

Example

Given: Figure

Find: Estimate the elevation required in the

upper reservoir to produce a water

discharge of 10 cfs in the system. What

is the minimum pressure in the pipeline

and what is the pressure there?

Solution:

V2 p

V2 p

1 1 1 z1 hL b b b zb

2g

2g

V2 p

V2 p

1 1 1 z1 hL 2 2 2 z2

2g

2g

0 0 z1 hL 0 0 z2

Vb2 pb

0 0 z1 hL 1 *

zb

2g

L V 2

hL K e 2 K b K E f

D 2g

pb

Vb2

L V 2

z1 zb

Ke Kb f

2g

D 2g

V

L

430

0.025 *

10.75

D

1

Q

10

12.73 ft / s

A / 4 * 12

12.73

133 ft

2 * 32.2

300 12.73

1 2 * 32.2

1.35 ft

pb 62.4 * ( 1.53) 0.59 psig

Re

VD

12.73 * 1

9 * 105

5

1.14 * 10

Example

In the figure shown two new cast iron pipes in series, D1 =0.6m ,

D2 =0.4m length of the two pipes is 300m, level at A =80m , Q

= 0.5m3/s (T=10oC).there are a sudden contraction between

Pipe 1 and 2, and Sharp entrance at pipe 1.

Fine the water level at B

e = 0.26mm

v = 1.3110-6

Q = 0.5 m3/s

Solution

Z A ZB hf

hL h f 1 h f 2 hent hc hexit

2

L1 V1

L2 V2

V1

V2

V22

hL f1

f2

kent

kc

kexit

D1 2 g

D2 2 g

2g

2g

2g

Q

0.5

Q

0.5

1.77 m/ sec , V2

3.98 m/ sec ,

A1

A2

0.62

0.42

4

4

VD

VD

Re1 1 1 8.1105 ,

Re 2 2 2 1.22 106 ,

0.26

0.00043,

0.00065,

D1 600

D1

V1

moody

f1 0.017

hent 0.5,

moody

f 2 0.018

hc 0.27,

hexit 1

L1 V1

L2 V2

V1

V2

V22

hL f1

f2

kent

kc

kexit

D1 2 g

D2 2 g

2g

2g

2g

2

2

300 1.77

300 3.98

h f 0.017

0.018

.

.

0.6 2 g

0.4 2 g

1.77 2

3.982 3.982

0.27

13.36m

0.5

2g

2g 2g

ZB = 80 13.36 = 66.64 m

Example

A pipe enlarge suddenly from D1=240mm to D2=480mm. the

H.G.L rises by 10 cm calculate the flow in the pipe

Solution

p1 V12

p2 V22

z1

z 2 hL

rg 2 g

rg 2 g

p2

p1

V12 V22

hL

z 2

z1

2g 2g

rg

rg

V12 V22 V1 V2

2g 2g

2g

V1 A1 V2 A2

V1

2

0

.

24

V2

4

V1 4V2

0.1

2

0

.

48

4

2g

2g

2g

0.1

6V2

0.1

2g

V2 0.57 m / s Q V2 A2 0.57 4 0.482 0.103m 3 / s

typical values, actual values will depend

on the make (manufacturer) of the

components.

See:

Catalogs

Hydraulic handbooks !!

109

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