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ANOVA

-is a hypothesis-testing technique used to test the equality of three or more

population means by examining the variances of samples that are taken.
-ANOVA allows one to determine whether the differences between the samples are
simply due to random error (sampling errors) or whether there are systematic
treatment effects that cause the mean in one group to differ from the mean in
another.
Assumptions of ANOVA:
(i) All populations involved follow a normal distribution.
(ii) All populations have the same variance (or standard deviation).
(iii) The samples are randomly selected and independent of one another.
F - distribution
If two independent samples are selected from two normally distributed populations
in which the population variances are equal (12 = 22) and if the sample variances
s12 and s22 are compared as

s 21
s 22 , the sampling distribution of the variances is

The shapes of several curves for the F distribution.

Each member of the F-distribution family is specified by a pair of parameters
called degrees of freedom and denoted df1 and df2.
Characteristics of the F distribution
1 The values of F cannot be negative, because variances are always positive or
2
3

zero.
The mean value of F is approximately equal to 1.
The F distribution is a family of curves based on the degrees of freedom of the
variance of the numerator and the degrees of freedom of the variance of the
denominator.

s
4. F test formula: F= 12 , where s 21 >s 22 regardless of the subscripts.
s2

5. The F test has two values for the degree of freedom: that of numerator , n1 1,
and that of the denominator , n2 -1 where n1 is the sample size from which the
larger variance was obtained.
Critical value for F - test
Eg 1: Find the critical value and the p-value for each of the following:
Critical value
Sol:

(i)

s12 = 128, n1 = 23
s22 = 162, n2 = 16
Two-tailed, = 0.01

(ii)

s12 = 37, n1 = 14
s22 = 89, n2 = 25
Right-tailed, = 0.01

Sol:

(iii)

s12 = 387, n1 = 46
s22 = 232, n2 = 30
Two-tailed, = 0.05

Sol:

p value for F test

Eg 2: Find the p- value interval for each F test value.
(i)

F = 2.97, dfN = 9, dfD

= 14, right-tailed

p-value
Sol:

(ii)
F = 3.32, dfN = 6,
dfD = 12,
two-tailed

Sol:

Sol:
(iii) F = 2.28, dfN = 12,
dfD = 20,
right- tailed
(iv)

F = 3.51, dfN = 12, dfD

= 21, right- tailed

Sol:

Procedure for solving hypothesis-testing problem

State the hypotheses and identify
the claim
Obtain the critical value

Compute the test value:

1) Find the mean and variance for each sample.

( X 1, s 21) , ( X2 , s22 ) , , ( X k , s 2k )
2) Find the grand mean.

X
X GM =
N

3) Find the between-group variance.

GM )2
Make
ni ( X i X

2
s B = decision
k 1
4) Find the within-group variance.

2
W

( ni1 ) s 2i

=
( n i1 )

5) Find the F test value.

s 2B
F= 2
sW
The degree of freedom are

Make the decision

Eg 1: A researcher wishes to see if there is difference in the fuel economy for city
driving for three different types of automobiles: small, sedan and luxury. He
randomly samples four small automobiles, five sedans and three luxury
automobiles. The miles/ litre for each is shown. At = 0.05, test the claim that
there is no difference among the means.
Small
Sedans
Luxury
36
43
29
44
35
25
34
30
24
35
29
40
Sol:
critical value approach

p-value approach

Eg 2: Suppose the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) wants to examine

the safety of compact cars, midsize cars, and full-size cars. It collects a sample of
three for each of the treatments (cars types). Using the hypothetical data provided
below, test whether the mean pressure applied to the drivers head during a crash
test is equal for each types of car. Use = 5%.

critical value approach

p-value approach

Eg 3: A pool of participants was randomly divided into FIVE treatment groups. The
groups were administered daily doses of vitamin C over a 12-month period. The
data in the table represents the number of cold and flu viruses reported by the
participant as a function of their vitamin C dosage. Using = .05, analyze the data
using the correct statistical procedure.
0mg

250mg

500mg

Sol:
critical value approach

1000mg

2000mg

p-value approach