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population means by examining the variances of samples that are taken.

-ANOVA allows one to determine whether the differences between the samples are

simply due to random error (sampling errors) or whether there are systematic

treatment effects that cause the mean in one group to differ from the mean in

another.

Assumptions of ANOVA:

(i) All populations involved follow a normal distribution.

(ii) All populations have the same variance (or standard deviation).

(iii) The samples are randomly selected and independent of one another.

F - distribution

If two independent samples are selected from two normally distributed populations

in which the population variances are equal (12 = 22) and if the sample variances

s12 and s22 are compared as

s 21

s 22 , the sampling distribution of the variances is

Each member of the F-distribution family is specified by a pair of parameters

called degrees of freedom and denoted df1 and df2.

Characteristics of the F distribution

1 The values of F cannot be negative, because variances are always positive or

2

3

zero.

The mean value of F is approximately equal to 1.

The F distribution is a family of curves based on the degrees of freedom of the

variance of the numerator and the degrees of freedom of the variance of the

denominator.

s

4. F test formula: F= 12 , where s 21 >s 22 regardless of the subscripts.

s2

5. The F test has two values for the degree of freedom: that of numerator , n1 1,

and that of the denominator , n2 -1 where n1 is the sample size from which the

larger variance was obtained.

Critical value for F - test

Eg 1: Find the critical value and the p-value for each of the following:

Critical value

Sol:

(i)

s12 = 128, n1 = 23

s22 = 162, n2 = 16

Two-tailed, = 0.01

(ii)

s12 = 37, n1 = 14

s22 = 89, n2 = 25

Right-tailed, = 0.01

Sol:

(iii)

s12 = 387, n1 = 46

s22 = 232, n2 = 30

Two-tailed, = 0.05

Sol:

Eg 2: Find the p- value interval for each F test value.

(i)

= 14, right-tailed

p-value

Sol:

(ii)

F = 3.32, dfN = 6,

dfD = 12,

two-tailed

Sol:

Sol:

(iii) F = 2.28, dfN = 12,

dfD = 20,

right- tailed

(iv)

= 21, right- tailed

Sol:

State the hypotheses and identify

the claim

Obtain the critical value

1) Find the mean and variance for each sample.

( X 1, s 21) , ( X2 , s22 ) , , ( X k , s 2k )

2) Find the grand mean.

X

X GM =

N

GM )2

Make

ni ( X i X

2

s B = decision

k 1

4) Find the within-group variance.

2

W

( ni1 ) s 2i

=

( n i1 )

s 2B

F= 2

sW

The degree of freedom are

Eg 1: A researcher wishes to see if there is difference in the fuel economy for city

driving for three different types of automobiles: small, sedan and luxury. He

randomly samples four small automobiles, five sedans and three luxury

automobiles. The miles/ litre for each is shown. At = 0.05, test the claim that

there is no difference among the means.

Small

Sedans

Luxury

36

43

29

44

35

25

34

30

24

35

29

40

Sol:

critical value approach

p-value approach

the safety of compact cars, midsize cars, and full-size cars. It collects a sample of

three for each of the treatments (cars types). Using the hypothetical data provided

below, test whether the mean pressure applied to the drivers head during a crash

test is equal for each types of car. Use = 5%.

p-value approach

Eg 3: A pool of participants was randomly divided into FIVE treatment groups. The

groups were administered daily doses of vitamin C over a 12-month period. The

data in the table represents the number of cold and flu viruses reported by the

participant as a function of their vitamin C dosage. Using = .05, analyze the data

using the correct statistical procedure.

0mg

250mg

500mg

Sol:

critical value approach

1000mg

2000mg

p-value approach

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