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Jo urnal of Radiation Research

and Applied Sciences


J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 443-462 (2008)

Tenderness Properties and Microbial Safety of Spent Hen


Meat Treated by Papain and Gamma Irradiation
H. M. Badr
Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Research Center,
Abou Zaabal, P.O .Box 13759
E-mail: heshambadr_aea@yahoo.co.uk
Received: 03/12/2008. Accepted: 28/12/2008.

ABSTRACT
This study was conducted to investigate the tenderness properties and microbial
safety of deboned spent hen breast and leg meat samples treated with papain
solutions at different concentrations followed by gamma irradiation at 3 kGy
dose and refrigeration storage at 41 C. Moreover, the effect of irradiation at
the applied does on the proteolytic activity of the enzyme was also examined.
The results indicated that irradiation at 3 kGy dose improved the microbial
safety of papain-treated spent hen meat samples through the significant great
reduction in the counts of total mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria as well as
the complete elimination of enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria
monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. Papain solutions at the applied
concentrations (10 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml) retained 41.6% and 79.8% of the
enzyme activity, respectively, after irradiation at 3 kGy dose. However, the
observed residual proteolytic activity of papain (after irradiation of the
enzyme-treated meat samples) induced significant increases in the values of
water holding capacity, cooking yield, solubility of sarcoplasmic and
myofibrillar proteins and collagen solubility of spent hen meat samples.
Moreover, cooked samples of irradiated papain- treated spent hen meat (either
Shawirma, that prepared from breast meat, or the roasted leg meat) received
high sensory scores for their tenderness, juiciness and flavor compared to those
of control samples.

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INTRODUCTION
After 10-14 months of egg production, laying hens generally produce
fewer and lower quality eggs than younger birds. These older laying hens are
commercially referred to as being "spent hens". These spent hens are considered
under utilized poultry product due to toughness of their meats, the most
important characteristic contributing to their low consumer acceptability. Eating
satisfaction results from the interaction of tenderness, juiciness and flavor, while
tenderness has been identified as the most important factor affecting consumer
satisfaction and perception of the taste 1,2. Thus increasing the utilization of
spent laying hens, as a by-product of the egg industry, is one of the greatest
needs of the poultry industry. There are several means of tenderizing meat
includes treatment by proteolytic enzymes, being one of the popular methods
for meat tenderization. Proteolytic enzymes derived from plants, such as papain,
have been widely used in most parts of the world 2,3.
On the other hand, food safety is a top priority for authorities and
consumers worldwide as the prevalence of foodborne pathogens and the
reported number of cases and outbreaks is still high, affecting personal lives,
business and countries economies4. Nowadays food industries invest
considerable part of their resources to ensure the quality of their products,
mainly with regard to hygiene 5.
From the hygienic point of view, poultry meat has a special position
among all other food products of animal origin, being one of the main products
involved in foodborne infections due to the presence of pathogens included
Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes and others. Even
under the best conditions, it is impossible to produce poultry meat free of
pathogens, and the high prevalence of Salmonella spp in retail poultry reflects
the continued inability of the industry to effectively prevent its spread in raw
poultry meat 5-9.
The highly effective bactericidal properties of ionizing radiation, along
with the fact that irradiation treatment causes practically no temperature rise in
the product and can be applied to muscle foods without major alteration in their
phsyico-chemical or sensory properties, make it an ideal process for the
decontamination of raw chicken meat. The efficiency of gamma irradiation in

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445

controlling the presence of foodborne pathogens in meat products has been


proven and reported in a series of reviews and articles 4,10 -14.
Irradiation, however, does not completely inactivate the proteolytic
enzymes at doses employed for pasteurization or sterilization of meat and meat
products 15-17. Thus we can hypothesize that spent hen meat may be treated by a
tenderizing enzyme followed by irradiation, in which irradiation plays the
important role in improving the microbial safety and extend the refrigeration
shelf life of the meat without appreciated effects on the tenderization process
during storage and distribution. Therefore, the present work aims at
investigating the possibility of treating spent hen meat with papain followed by
gamma irradiation at 3 kGy dose (the maximum dose approved for irradiating
poultry in many countries18) and studying the tenderness properties and
microbial safety of samples during refrigerated storage.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Residual proteolytic activity of irradiated papain solutions
The effects of irradiation on the proteolytic activity of papain was
determined before starting the experiments of meat tenderization .Solutions of
the papain enzyme (Merck) in distilled water at concentrations of 10 mg/ml and
100 mg/ml were put in a glass tube with screw cap and subjected to gamma
irradiation at doses of 0 and 3 kGy (at room temperature). Then the proteolytic
activity of irradiated and non irradiated papain solutions was assayed using
casein as substrate according to Li et al.19 using triplicate tubes per
determination. The residual activity of papain after irradiation was calculated at
the ratio (%) of the hydrolytic activity of irradiated enzyme to that of non
irradiated one.
Spent hen meat
Spent hens of 16 months of age were obtained from Inshas Farm for
Chicken Production, Agricultural Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture,
Egypt. The obtained hens were slaughtered in a commercial slaughterhouse,
then carcasses were defeathered, eviscerated and cut into four quarters, in which
breasts were collected separately from legs. After the removing of skin, breasts
and legs were hand deboned. Then breasts were sliced into fillets of about 1cm
thickness and short deep cuts (of about 2cm long) were made equally on each

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side of the breast fillet to improve the penetration of the enzyme, while the
deboned legs were separated into thigh and drumstick.
Enzyme treatment and marination
Each of the prepared spent hen meat group of samples (breast fillets, leg
thighs, and leg drumsticks) was divided into three main parts. Samples of the
first part were sprayed with the papain- water solution at concentration of 10
mg/ml, while samples of the second part were sprayed with the enzyme solution
at concentration of 100 mg/ml. Samples of the third part were sprayed with
distilled water as a control. After through mixing by hand, meat samples of each
part were individually aerobically packaged in polyethylene pouches and the
pouches were sealed by heat. Special pouches (containing relatively large
amount of samples) were prepared from each part of samples for using in the
sensory evaluation of the cooked samples. Moreover, appropriate samples were
prepared for the microbiological analysis, in which meat samples were minced
and well-mixed under aseptic conditions before packaging (for the uniformity of
samples) in the polyethylene pouches. Pouches of all papain sprayed samples
were transported immediately in an ice chest for irradiation treatment. In
addition, appropriate pouches of the water sprayed samples were also
transported for irradiation treatment to serve as the control samples in the
sensory evaluation of the cooked meat ( for safety precautions), while the rest of
the water sprayed samples were refrigerated stored at 41 C.
Irradiation treatment
Papain-treated samples as well as some of the water sprayed ones were
exposed to gamma irradiation at dose of 3 kGy at room temperature. All
irradiation treatments in this study were carried out using an experimental
Cobalt-60 source at the National Center for Radiation Research and
Technology, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.
Storage and sampling for analysis
Irradiated as well as non irradiated spent hen meat samples under
investigation were refrigeration stored at 4 1 C and subjected to the periodical
analysis at 2 days intervals. The rejection of samples was based on the detection
of microbial growth or the mushy texture on the surface of samples (R1) and /or
the detection of off-odor (R2), while values of the rejected samples were

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447

discarded after statistical analysis. All analysis in this study were conducted
using three separate pouches (triplicates) and each determination was carried
out in duplicate samples within each replicate.
Analytical methods
Microbial safety
The microbial safety of irradiated and non irradiated raw meat samples of
spent hen meats was assessed during refrigerated storage (41C) throughout
the enumeration of the total mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria,
enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and the
detection of Salmonella. At time of withdrawal from refrigerated storage, the
outer surface of pouches was sterilized before opening using cotton witted by
70% ethanol. Then 20g aliquots of the minced spent hen meat were removed
aseptically from each of the pouches to prepare the initial 1/10 dilution which
was used for the preparation of other serial dilutions in 0.1 % peptone water.
Colony forming units (CFU) for total mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria
were determined by plating on plate count agar medium and incubation at 35 C
for 3 days and 7 C for 7 days, respectively 20. Enterobacteriaceae were
enumerated on violet red bile glucose agar medium after incubation for 20-24 h
at 37 C according to Roberts et al., 21. Staphylococcus aureus was counted
using Baird-Parker RPF medium after incubation at 35 C for 24-48 h 22, then
confirmed by the coagulase tests as described by Collins et al. 23. Enumeration
of Listeria monocytogenes was performed (after enrichment using selective
enrichment medium, Oxoid) on Listeria selective medium after incubation at
35 C for 24-48 h 24. Cultures were examined and colonies were biochemically
confirmed according to Bille and Doyle 25.The detection of Salmonella was
carried out using the most probable number technique 26. The samples were
incubated into buffer peptone for 24 h at 37 C. After enrichment at 37 C for
24h in selenite broth, the cultures were streaked on Brilliant green agar and
incubated at 37 C for 24 h, then colonies were biochemically examined in
triple sugar iron agar (TSI) and lysine decarboxilase broth.
Physico-chemical analysis
Moisture content, pH, water holding capacity (WHC) and cooking yield
Moisture contents were determined according to AOAC official methods27.
The pH was assessed using a pH meter on a homogenate consisting of 5g of

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sample in 50 ml distilled water 28. WHC (%) was determined according to


Rocha-Garza and Zayas 29. The percentage of cooking yield was determined
based on the weigh of sample before and after cooking.
Sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins, collagen content, and collagen solubility
Sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins were extracted according to the
procedures of Joo et al.30. The extracted proteins were determined by the
Kjeldahle method 27 and recorded as a percentage of the total protein which was
also determined by the Kjeldahle method. Collagen content was determined as
described by Naveena et.al. 1. Collagen solubility was determined through the
determination of the soluble hydroxyproline31, then the soluble collagen was
calculated by multiplying the soluble hydroxyproline by 7.14.
Sensory evaluation
The sensory evaluation was carried out for both raw and cooked spent hen
meat samples. Raw meat samples were evaluated for their appearance (for the
detection of microbial growth on the surface of samples as well as the detection
of the mushy texture) and odor. Regarding cooked samples, leg thigh and
drumstick parts were roasted using an electrical grill, while breast fillets were
processed into "Shawirma. The cooked meat samples were evaluated for their
tenderness, juiciness and flavor. In all tests of sensory evaluation, the panelists
consisted of 10 non- expert members of our laboratory and scores were obtained
by rating the quality attributes using a 9- point scores (as described by
Wierbicki 32 ): 9= Excellent, 8= very good, 7= good, 6= below good-above fair,
5= fair, 4= below fair-above poor, 3= poor, 2=very poor, and 1= extremely
poor. Ratings of 5 and above indicated acceptable samples. Ratings of 4
indicated that the sample was of marginal quality, whereas the rating of 3 and
below indicated unacceptable sample.
Statistical analysis
Data were statistically analyzed by using the generalized linear model
procedure of the SAS software 33, and the differences among means (at P <0.05)
were compared by using Duncan's multiple range test. The results observed for
both leg parts of the spent hen under investigation were very similar, thus the
results of the thigh parts were presented.

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449

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Proteolytic activity of papain solutions after irradiation at 3 kGy dose
The effect of gamma irradiation at dose of 3 kGy on the proteolytic
activity of papain solutions was examined before starting the experiments of
meat tenderization. It is apparent that papain solutions at concentrations of
10mg/ml and 100mg/ml retained 41.6% and 79.8 % of their proteolytic activity,
respectively, after irradiation at room temperature (Fig. 1). Increasing the
concentration of papain induced great significant increase (P <0.05) in the
enzyme resistance against the applied dose of gamma irradiation. These results
agree with those reported by Furuta et al., 34.
90

10mg/ml

100mg/ml

Residual activ ity %

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Papain concentration

Fig. 1: Residual proteolytic activity of papain solutions after


irradiation at dose of 3 kGy

Effects of irradiation on the microbial safety of papain-treated spent hen meats


As shown, the control samples of raw spent hen meat parts had a relatively
high initial counts for total mesophilic bacteria, total psychrophilic bacteria and
enterobacteriaceae, in addition to the presence of all determined pathogens
(Tables 1&2). Non irradiated papain- treated samples showed a similar
microbial status (data not shown). It is well documented that all steps of poultry
meat processing acts, from the microbiological point, as a homogenizer of
contamination and the presence of pathogenic bacteria on poultry meat creates a
significant potential public health hazard 7,35.

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Storage
(Days)

Table 1. Effects of gamma irradiation on the total mesophilic bacteria, total


psychrophilic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae during cold storage
(41C) of spent hen meat.
Breast meat
Papain
(10mg/ml)
+ 3kGy

Control

Leg meat (thigh)


Papain
(100mg/ml)
+3kGy

Control

Papain
(10mg/ml)
+ 3kGy

Papain
(100mg/ml)
+3kGy

Total mesophilic bacteria (Main Log 10 cfu /g SD)


0
2
4
6
8
10
12

6.043.70g
6.263.62f
6.573.97e
6.724.17d
R2

3.981.69n
3.991.97n
4.062.10lm
4.102.11l
4.122.27kl
4.142.19l
R1

4.051.70m
4.081.86lm
4.092.13lm
4.112.00kl
R1

6.073.72g
6.273.67f
6.584.03e
6.734.21d
R2

3.951.78o
3.991.67no
n
4.002.10
4.021.98mn
kl
4.132.19
4.142.11kl
4.192.17jk 4.201.94j
4.262.29jhi R1
4.292.26hi
R1

Total psychrophilic bacteria (Main Log 10 cfu /g SD)


0
2
4
6
8
10
12

5.893.40g
5.993.38f
6.263.70e
6.463.96d
R2

3.311.81o
3.411.92m
3.481.66l
3.571.79k
3.691.90j
3.841.79i
R1

3.321.58no
3.421.80m
3.491.69l
3.581.90k
R1

5.903.32g
6.003.47f
6.283.67e
6.484.04d
R2

3.341.74n
3.421.80m
3.491.78l
3.591.83k
3.691.86j
3.861.82i
R1

3.351.69n
3.431.78m
3.511.81l
3.591.86k
R1

Enterobacteriaceae (Main Log 10 cfu /g SD)


g

0
5.362.88
ND
ND
5.282.93g
ND
ND
f
5.683.19
ND
ND
5.633.24f
ND
ND
2
5.963.47e
ND
ND
5.963.41e
ND
ND
4
6.213.89d
ND
ND
6.233.91d
ND
ND
6
R2
ND
R1
R2
ND
R1
8
ND
ND
10
R1
R1
12
cfu: colony forming units. ND: Not detected.
R1 and R2: Rejected based on the appearance and odor of the raw meat, respectively. Means with
different superscript within each determination are differ significantly (p<0.05).

The obtained results clearly show that irradiation of papain-treated spent


hen meats at dose of 3 kGy appeared to be sufficient for improving the
microbial safety of samples. The applied dose induced significant reduction (P
<0.05) in the counts of total mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria and was
effective in the complete elimination of enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus
aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella in all cold stored samples
(Tables 1&2).The sensitivity of these pathogenic bacteria to irradiation at the
applied dose was previously illustrated by other works 11, 12, 36,37.

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451

T able 2. Effects of gamma irradiation on the counts of pathogenic bacteria during

Storage
(Days)

cold storage (4 1 C) of spent hen meat.


Breast meat
Papain
(10mg/ml)
+ 3kGy

Control

Leg meat (thigh)


Papain
(100mg/ml)
+3kGy

Control

Papain
(10mg/ml)
+ 3kGy

Papain
(100mg/ml)
+3kGy

Staphylococcus aureus (Main Log 10 cfu /g SD)


g

0
2
4
6
8
10
12

4.482.00
4.522.04f
4.572.10e
4.621.97d
R2

ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
R1

0
2
4
6
8
10
12

3.321.91g
3.361.73f
3.421.88e
3.481.71d
R1

ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
R2

0
2
4
6
8
10
12

+ve
+ve
+ve
+ve
R2

-ve
-ve
-ve
-ve
-ve
-ve
R1

ND
ND
ND
ND
R1

4.492.05g
4.532.10f
4.582.07e
4.632.13d
R2

ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
R1

ND
ND
ND
ND
R1

Listeria monocytogenes (Main Log 10 cfu /g SD)


ND
ND
ND
ND
R2

3.341.78g
3.371.85f
3.431.77e
3.491.68d
R1

Presence of Salmonella spp


-ve
+ve
-ve
+ve
-ve
+ve
-ve
+ve
R1
R2

ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
R1

ND
ND
ND
ND
R1

-ve
-ve
-ve
-ve
-ve
-ve
R1

-ve
-ve
-ve
-ve
R1

cfu: colony forming units. ND: Not detected. +ve: positive. ve: negative.
R1 and R2: Rejected based on the appearance and odor of the raw meat, respectively.
Means with different superscript within each determination are differ significantly(P <0.05).

Physico-chemical properties of irradiated papain-treated spent hen meats during cold storage
pH, moisture content, WHC, and cooking yield
Control samples of leg meat showed a significant higher pH value than
that of the breast meat (Table 3).These results was in accordance with the
findings of Kondaiah and Panda 38 and may be due to the differences between
light and dark muscles 39. Papain treatment followed by gamma irradiation had
no significant effects (P <0.05) on the values of pH and moisture contents of
raw spent hen meat samples (Table 3). However, samples of irradiated papaintreated spent hen meat revealed significantly higher (P <0.05) WHC and

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452

cooking yield than the control samples during refrigerated storage at 41C
(Table 4).
The muscle pH is highly important and affects the tenderness of meat 40,41.
Moreover, the WHC was found to be very important since many physical
properties such as texture and firmness of raw meat are partially dependent
on the WHC3. The observed results agree with those reported by other
investigators 1, 3, 42.

Storage
(Days)

Table 3. pH values and moisture contents of irradiated papain- treaded spent hen
meat during cold storage (4 1C).
Breast meat
Control

Papain
(10mg/ml)
+ 3kGy

Leg meat (thigh)


Papain
(100mg/ml)
+3kGy

Control

Papain
(10mg/ml)
+ 3kGy

Papain
(100mg/ml)
+3kGy

6.360.2a

pH value
0
2
4
6
8

6.100.02

6.050.01

6.120.02

ab

6.210.03
R2

6.130.02b

6.360.01a

6.340.01a

6.340.01a

6.340.02a

6.360.02a

R1

6.140.03
6.120.01

6.140.02

6.130.02

6.140.03
6.150.02

6.120.2

6.130.01

6.300.02

6.360.01

6.400.03

R1

R2

6.150.02b

10

6.340.01
6.330.02
6.350.02

6.340.01a

R1

12

6.360.03

R1

Moisture content %
0

73.140.32a

72.940.41a

73.000.46a

72.480.44a

72.330.39a

72.460.42a

73.040.41a

73.120.50a

72.930.38a

72.280.46a

72.460.46a

72.380.41a

72.980.38a

73.050.44a

73.120.51a

72.390.38a

72.430.42a

72.410.38a

73.010.44a

73.210.52a

73.010.46a

72.460.41a

72.470.38a

72.390.64a

8
10
12

R2

73.020.39

R1

R2

73.100.41a
R1

72.510.41

R1

72.460.39a
R1

R1 and R2: Rejected based on the appearance and odor of the raw meat, respectively.
Means with different superscript within each determination are differ significantly (P<0.05).

Solubility of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins


The obtained results clearly illustrate that the soluble proteins in control
samples of spent hen meat were much lower than those reported for the muscles
of broiler chickens43,44 indicating the toughness of spent hen meat (Table 5).
Irradiated papain-treated spent hen meats showed a significant gradual increases
(P <0.05) in the solubility of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins during cold

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453

storage compared to control samples, being higher with increasing the


concentration of papain (Table 5). The increase in protein solubility with papain
treatment was also reported in beef by several authors 1,3,45 . It has been
illustrated that the increase in solubility of enzyme-treated meat might be due to
increase in permeability of myofibrils, which will disintegrate easily, while in
control samples, regularly aligned filaments of myofibrils provide a resistance
to extraction 1.

Storage
(Days)

Table 4. WHC and Cooking yield of cold stored (4 1 C) spent hen meats as affected by
papain treatment and gamma irradiation.
Breast meat

Leg meat (thigh)

Control

Papain
(10mg/ml)
+ 3kGy

Papain
(100mg/ml)
+3kGy

40.040.40p
41.300.36o
41.730.42n
41.840.50n
R2

42.410.60m
43.620.42l
45.440.71j
48.130.63g
50.220.81d
51.841.02c
R1

43.650.46l
45.210.51j
47.420.67h
49.830.81e
R1

Control

Papain
(10mg/ml)
+ 3kGy

Papain
(100mg/ml)
+3kGy

35.100.43w
35.260.39v
35.500.44u
35.570.37u
R2

36.880.40s
37.790.43r
39.900.68p
43.510.89l
46.231.00i
48.770.94f
R1

38.040.51q
39.930.76p
42.380.94m
44.601.03k
R1

WHC %
0
2
4
6
8
10
12

Cooking yield %
58.740.81jk 58.910.91jk 59.020.77jk 57.830.91m 58.010.83m 58.040.81lm
0
58.711.01k 59.421.00i 60.330.94gh 57.900.87m 58.430.93l 59.210.86j
2
58.780.92jk 60.041.01h 61.111.02ef 57.911.02m 59.010.71j 60.400.78gh
4
58.910.75jk 60.890.89f 61.880.93d 58.020.94m 60.560.81g 61.120.91ef
6
R2
61.921.00d
R1
R2
61.310.90e
R1
8
b
62.410.94
62.040.78c
10
R1
R1
12
R1 and R2: Rejected based on the appearance and odor of the raw meat, respectively.
Means with different superscript within each determination are differ significantly (P<0.05).

Collagen content and solubility


Treating spent hen meat with papain and gamma irradiation has no
significant effect (P <0.05 ) on the contents of collagen in samples during cold
storage as compared with the controls and leg meat showed a significant higher
collagen content than breast meat (Table 6). Meanwhile, significant increases in
the values of collagen solubility were observed in samples of the irradiated
papain-treated meats compared to control samples, and the increase in collagen
solubility was significantly higher with increasing the enzyme concentration
(Fig. 2).

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In old animals, more intra- and intra- molecular cross- links are formed in
the collagen fibers, and so the amount of solubilization which can occur on
heating is decreased (as in the control samples).Moreover, it has been illustrated
that the enzyme do not attack native collagen and most of the tenderizing occurs
during cooking, between the times when the collagen in the meat melts and the
enzyme is inactivated by heat 46. The observed increase in collagen solubility of
papain-treated samples was consistent with the findings of other authors 1,47.

Storage
(Days)

Table 5. Solubility of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins during cold storage (4 1C) of
spent hen meat as affected by papain treatment and gamma irradiation.
Breast meat
Papain
(10mg/ml)
+ 3kGy

Control

Leg meat (thigh)


Papain
(100mg/ml)
+3kGy

Papain
(10mg/ml)
+ 3kGy

Papain
(100mg/ml)
+3kGy

13.311.12o
14.621.40m
16.711.54j
18.641.48hi
19.761.77g
21.701.94d
R1

13.861.20n
16.101.48k
18.341.51i
20.941.76f
R1

Control

Sarcoplasmic proteins (g/100g protein)


0
2
4
6
8
10
12

12.831.10
12.621.07q
12.601.35q
12.611.40q
R2

12.971.22p
14.581.35m
16.641.63i
18.711.52h
19.861.80g
21.932.03d
R1

13.201.37o
15.911.65l
18.481.57i
21.681.86e
R1

12.911.05p
12.731.11pq
12.601.22q
12.611.40pq
R2

Myofibrillar proteins (g/100g protein)


u
39.861.13s 39.481.10t
39.931.13s 40.711.06r
0
38.251.04w 39.101.31
v
p
l
x
38.861.11 43.611.58 47.171.67 37.811.04
42.881.48q 45.781.61o
2
s
m
i
x
39.871.05 46.772.02 50.632.00 37.801.26
46.122.00n 49.941.88j
4
s
j
f
x
39.821.16 49.821.94 56.331.88 37.821.42
49.201.86k 56.012.10fg
6
g
R2
55.952.11
R1
R2
55.212.14h
R1
8
d
57.872.05
57.182.03e
10
R1
R1
12
R1 and R2: Rejected based on the appearance and odor of the raw meat, respectively.
Means with different superscript within each determination are differ significantly (P<0.05).

Sensory properties
Treatment of spent hen meat with papain followed by gamma irradiation at
3 kGy dose had no significant effects (P <0.05) on the initial sensory attributes
of raw meat samples (Table 7). As shown, similar preference scores were
recorded by the panelists for both treated and control samples indicating that all
samples were highly acceptable as judged by appearance and odor. The same
results show that all samples had an acceptable sensory attributes during

H. M. BADR / J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 1, No. 2. (2008)

455

refrigerated storage until the rejection of samples (Table 7). On day 8 of


storage, a putrid off-odor was detected in the control samples, which scored as
poor samples and rejected by the panelists. Regarding the treated samples, slight
mushy texture started to appear on day 8 and 12 of storage for samples treated
with papain at 100mg/ml and 10 mg/ml, respectively, and samples were rejected
by the panelists.
On the other hand, the panelists recorded low scores of acceptability for all
cooked samples on day zero due to the high toughness and low juiciness of
samples (Table 8).Moreover, cooked samples of cold stored control spent hen
meat showed a continues low scores for acceptability as they were still tough
with low juiciness and flavor. However, cooked samples of cold stored meat
that were treated with papain and gamma irradiation showed a significant high
scores (P <0.05) of acceptability due to the observed improvement in their
tenderness, juiciness and flavor (Table 8).
Table 6. Collagen contents (g/100g dry matter) during cold storage (4 1C) of
spent hen meat as affected by papain treatments and gamma irradiation.
Breast meat

Leg meat (thigh)

Storage
(Days)

Control

Papain
(10mg/ml)
+ 3kGy

4.130.16a

4.140.15a

4.130.16a

4.150.13a

4.130.16a

4.130.14a

6
8

Papain
(100mg/ml)
+3kGy

Papain
(10mg/ml)
+ 3kGy

Papain
(100mg/ml)
+3kGy

4.730.15b

4.750.13b

4.720.15b

4.160.14a

4.750.13b

4.740.16b

4.750.14b

4.160.13a

4.140.16a

4.730.16b

4.760.14b

4.730.16b

4.160.12a

4.150.14a

4.170.13a

4.760.14b

4.780.15b

4.750.14b

R2

4.160.13a

4.750.16b

R1

R1

Control

R2

10

4.150.14a

4.760.14b

12

R1

R1

R1 and R2: Rejected based on the appearance and odor of the raw meat, respectively.
Means with different superscript within each determination are differ significantly (P<0.05).

H. M. BADR / J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 1, No. 2. (2008)

Solubility %

456

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Control

Collagen solubility (Breast meat)

Papain (10mg/ml)
+ irradiation
Papain (100mg/ml)
+ irradiation

10

Storage (Days)

Collagen solubility (Leg thigh meat)

90
80
70
Solubility %

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

10

Storage (Days)

Fig. 2. Collagen solubility during cold storage (4 1C) of spent hen meat as
affected by papain treatments and gamma irradiation at 3 kGy dose.

Eating satisfaction results from the interaction of tenderness, juiciness and


flavor. The observed improvement in eating satisfaction of the cooked treated
samples agree with the observed increases in protein and collagen solubility.
Hydrolyzed collagen derived from the connective tissues has excellent water
binding capacity and is able to improve the tenderness of the cooked meats 48.
Moreover, studies have shown that papain can degrade myosin heavy chains
and actin and improve the muscle fiber tenderness scores 49. Our observed
results agree with those reported by other investigators 1, 49,50.

H. M. BADR / J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 1, No. 2. (2008)

457

Table 7. Mean of sensory scores during cold storage (4 1C) of raw spent hen
meat as affected by papain treatments and gamma irradiation.
Storage
(Days)

Control

Breast meat
Papain
Papain
(10mg/ml)
(100mg/ml)
+ 3kGy
+3kGy

Control

Leg meat (thigh)


Papain
Papain
(10mg/ml)
(100mg/ml)
+ 3kGy
+3kGy

Appearance (Mean SD)


0
2
4
6
8
10
12

8.50.4a
7.9.06ab
8.20.4a
8.40.5a
8.10.4a R2

8.40.3a
8.20.4a
8.30.5a
7.80.3ab
8.10.4a
6.20.3c
4.30.4e R1

0
2
4
6
8
10
12

8.50.4a
8.30.4a
7.40.5b
6.30.3c
3.10.6fgR2

8.60.3a
8.40.4a
8.50.3a
7.90.5ab
8.40.3a
8.20.4a
7.80.5ab R1

8.30.4a
7.80.5ab
8.20.3a
7.50.2b
3.60.4 f R1

7.90.4ab
8.30.5a
8.40.3a
7.80.4ab
5.60.4d R2

8.40.4a
8.30.3a
7.90.5ab
8.10.4a
8.40.3a
7.30.4b
3.4.0.5fg R1

8.20.3a
8.40.4a
7.80.3ab
8.20.4a
3.30.4fg R1

7.90.4ab
8.40.3a
7.80.5ab
8.10.4a
8.30.4a
7.60.5b
7.10.5bc R1

8.30.4a
7.90.5ab
8.20.3a
7.80.4ab
7.40.4b R1

Odor (Mean SD)


8.30.4a
8.20.6a
7.90.5ab
8.30.6a
8.10.4ab R1

8.40.4a
8.10.3a
7.80.3ab
6.30.4c
2.90.4g R2

Table 8. Mean of sensory scores after cooking of cold stored (4 1 C) spent hen meat as
affected by papain treatments and gamma irradiation.
Storage
(Days)

Shawirma (prepared from breast meat)


Control
Papain
Papain
(3kGy)
(10mg/ml)
(100mg/ml)
+ 3kGy
+3kGy

Roasted leg meat (thigh)


Control
Papain
Papain
(3kGy)
(10mg/ml)
(100mg/ml)
+ 3kGy
+3kGy

Tenderness (Mean SD)


0
2
4
6
8
10
12

3.40.3ef
3.50.4ef
3.80.3de
3.70.4de
R2

4.30.4d
5.70.3c
7.10.4b
7.80.5ab
8.50.4a
8.20.5a
R1

0
2
4
6
8
10
12

3.10.4e
3.40.5e
3.60.2de
3.50.3e
R2

4.40.3d
6.30.4c
7.80.4ab
7.90.3ab
7.80.4ab
8.30.4a
R1

0
2
4
6
8
10
12

3.70.3e
4.10.5de
3.90.4e
4.50.3d
R2

4.20.4de
5.90.4c
7.80.3ab
8.00.4ab
8.3.3a
8.40.4a
R1

4.60.3d
7.20.3b
8.10.4ab
8.40.4a
R1

3.10.4f
3.60.3de
3.50.4ef
3.40.3ef
R2

4.10.5d
6.30.4c
7.60.3ab
7.50.4b
8.00.3ab
8.40.4a
R1

4.50.4d
7.40.5b
8.10.4ab
8.30.4a
R1

3.60.5de
5.7.04c
6.60.5bc
7.10.4b
7.90.5ab
8.30.3a
R1

4.70.5d
7.10.4b
7.80.4ab
8.30.3a
R1

4.40.5d
6.80.3bc
7.90.4ab
8.10.3ab
8.00.4ab
8.40.3a
R1

4.60.4d
7.80.4ab
8.30.4a
8.40.3a
R1

Juiciness (Mean SD)


4.50.4d
7.20.5b
8.00.4ab
8.40.5a
R1

3.40.4e
3.20.3f
3.70.5de
3.60.4de
R2

Flavor (Mean SD)


4.70.5d
7.10.4b
7.80.3ab
8.40.3a
R1

3.50.4e
3.80.3e
4.10.3de
3.90.4e
R2

R1 and R2: Rejected based on the appearance and odor of the raw meat, respectively.
Means with different superscript within each determination are differ significantly (P<0.05).

458

H. M. BADR / J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 1, No. 2. (2008)

CONCLUSSION
From these results, it could be concluded that spent hen meat can be
successfully treated with papain solutions at concentrations of 10mg/ml or
100mg/ml followed by irradiation at dose of 3 kGy to produce a highly
acceptable tender and microbiologically safe meat with a possible refrigerated
market life of 10 and 6 days, respectively, based on the papain concentration.
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1 2 (2008) 462 443


3
.
. 3.


enterobacteriaceae Listeria Staphylococcus aureus
monocytogenes . Salmonella spp
10/ 100/ 6 %41
8 % 79 - 3..
) (

.

) (
- .