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# Hydraulics

## 7.1 Pressure Distribution

The atmospheric pressure is impressed on the free surface boundary. Hence, the
reference pressure on the free surface is taken as zero pressure. The pressure
distribution in free surface flows is governed by the acceleration including gravity. Thus
Euler's equation in s and n directions can be written as

( p + Z ) = as
s

( p + Z ) = an
s

m direction
binormal

rectifying
plane
normal
plane
tangent

s direction

stream line

n direction

osculating
plane.

(Principal normal)

The direction of the normal to s direction is towards the plane Centre of curvature is
considered as positive.

v2
Thus the acceleration an is given by a n =
r
in which v is the velocity of flow along the streamline, r is the radius of curvature of the
streamline.
(i)

If an is zero then (a) v = 0, no flow and (b) r , the streamlines are straight
lines.

(p + z) = 0
s
(a) v = 0, then
p
+ z = constant.

Hydraulics

h =hs

## Hydrostatic pressure distribution in parallel flows

At free surface

= 0 , hence constant = z1

## Therefore, at any point x below the free surface, the pressure px

px
= the distance from the free surface say 'h'

px = h

## Straight Gravity Dam

Ho

P=
Thus, the pressure varies linearly with depth from free surface and is known as
hydro static pressure distribution.

Hydrostatic
y

any
___
g

Hydraulics

## Prof. B.S. Thandaveswara

(ii)

In general, when the flow is in the channel with small slope bed , then the
streamlines are nearly parallel to the bed. The vertical depth and the depth
normal to boundary are nearly same. Hence, one can assume the hydrostatic
pressure distribution to be valid.

(iii) In case of large channel slope, expression for pressure can be written as
Pressure at a pointx can support the weight of the fluid.

Px x = yx cos
or
A'

Px = y cos

A
A'

h = y cos2

y
c

B B'

Pressure distribution
on A'C

## Pressure distribution in parallel flow in channels of large slope

If h is the total depth normal to the boundary, then the vertical depth d can be related
to h = dcos

= h cos = d cos 2

Thus the hydraulic grade line does not match with the water surface.
(iv) Pressure distribution over curved boundaries.
In field situation when the flow has to pass over a spillway, smooth curves are
provided near the crest. Similarly for energy dissipation the buckets are provided.
The streamline have a large curvature. Hence, pressure distribution requires to be
converted. The curves could be either convex or concave. Theoretically this flow is
known as curvilinear flow. The curvature introduce appreciable acceleration
components or centrifugal force normal to the direction of flow. Thus the connection

Hydraulics

## Prof. B.S. Thandaveswara

for the hydrostatic pressure distribution is to be introduced and thus it can be written
as h = h s + c h = h s c for convex.

Hydraulics

c
hs

c
h

c
B'

B B'
h = hs + c

## Convex surface: Centrifugal force

opposing Gravity force
Example: Spillway Crest
Non Hydrostatic Pressure distribution

+z=

an
r + c,
g

h = hs - c

hs

## Concave surface: Centrifugal force

in the same direction of
Gravity force
Example: Flip Bucket
Non Hydrostatic Pressure distribution

for Concave

a
= 1 n

g
p

## For a Concave vertical sec tion

a
= y 1 + n

thus h= h s c in which c =

an
g

v2
v2
c=
In a curvilinear flow a n =
gr
r
If the variation of v w.r.t to r is known, then acceleration could be evaluated.
The following three situations arise in the field
(i) v = constant and equal to mean velocity.
(ii) v = c

(free vortex)
r
(iii) v = rc (forced vortex)
2

v
v
(iv)
=
,
(r + d 2) R 0.5

Hydraulics

Problems:

## Show that for a circular spillway bucket having a radius of

curvature R the effective pressure distribution is
(a) If the velocity is constant over the depth y it can be shown that the
pressure at any point r and is
2

r
v
= ( r R c + y ) cos +
ln

g Rc y
(b) Effective piezometric head.
p

y
1
+ ln
v
y
Rc
1

Rc
= Z2 + y cos +
h
gR c cos
Rc
2

h cp

__
V

1
y

Rc

Flow in a bucket

Hydraulics

## Prof. B.S. Thandaveswara

Example:
Compute the overturning moment due to pressure on a retaining wall
soln: (i) Assume to be small

y
__
3

y
Force acting on the retaining wall, P = Area of pressure triangle.

1
y2
= y y=
2
2
Overturning moment = P * distance from the base at which P is acting

1
1
1
= y 2 * y = y3
2
2
6

(iii)

## If is not negligible, y = ycos2

P=

y cos 2
2

y2
2

cos 4

y2

y y3
over turning moment =
cos * =
cos 4
6
3
6

Hydraulics

## 7.2 Pressure correction coefficients

A

Az = hdA
0

1
hdA
Az 0

but h = ( h s C )
=

1
Az

( hs C ) dA

0
A

1
1
h s dA +
C dA

Az 0
Az 0
A

1
C dA
= 1+
Az 0

Show that

1
1
hvdA = 1 +
cvdA

Qy 0
Qy 0

## in which is the pressure distribution coefficient.

d v2
, d is the depth of flow in the section.
g r
Solution: h=h s +C
c=

## Head recorded in a curve = static pressure correction factor.

pressure = Mass of water * depth
A

= g v dA h
0

Also pressure is yQ g
A

Thus yQ g = g v dA
0

1
1
v dA h =
v dA ( h s + C )
=

Qy 0
Qy 0

1
1
h s v dA +
v dA C

Qy 0
Qy 0
A

1
v dA C
= 1+
Qy 0
for uniform flow

h v dA = Q y.
s