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The atmospheric pressure is impressed on the free surface boundary. Hence, the

reference pressure on the free surface is taken as zero pressure. The pressure

distribution in free surface flows is governed by the acceleration including gravity. Thus

Euler's equation in s and n directions can be written as

( p + Z ) = as

s

( p + Z ) = an

s

m direction

binormal

rectifying

plane

normal

plane

tangent

s direction

stream line

n direction

osculating

plane.

(Principal normal)

The direction of the normal to s direction is towards the plane Centre of curvature is

considered as positive.

v2

Thus the acceleration an is given by a n =

r

in which v is the velocity of flow along the streamline, r is the radius of curvature of the

streamline.

(i)

If an is zero then (a) v = 0, no flow and (b) r , the streamlines are straight

lines.

(p + z) = 0

s

(a) v = 0, then

p

+ z = constant.

Hydraulics

h =hs

At free surface

= 0 , hence constant = z1

px

= the distance from the free surface say 'h'

px = h

Ho

P=

Thus, the pressure varies linearly with depth from free surface and is known as

hydro static pressure distribution.

Hydrostatic

y

any

___

g

Hydraulics

(ii)

In general, when the flow is in the channel with small slope bed , then the

streamlines are nearly parallel to the bed. The vertical depth and the depth

normal to boundary are nearly same. Hence, one can assume the hydrostatic

pressure distribution to be valid.

(iii) In case of large channel slope, expression for pressure can be written as

Pressure at a pointx can support the weight of the fluid.

Px x = yx cos

or

A'

Px = y cos

A

A'

h = y cos2

y

c

B B'

Pressure distribution

on A'C

If h is the total depth normal to the boundary, then the vertical depth d can be related

to h = dcos

= h cos = d cos 2

Thus the hydraulic grade line does not match with the water surface.

(iv) Pressure distribution over curved boundaries.

In field situation when the flow has to pass over a spillway, smooth curves are

provided near the crest. Similarly for energy dissipation the buckets are provided.

The streamline have a large curvature. Hence, pressure distribution requires to be

converted. The curves could be either convex or concave. Theoretically this flow is

known as curvilinear flow. The curvature introduce appreciable acceleration

components or centrifugal force normal to the direction of flow. Thus the connection

Hydraulics

for the hydrostatic pressure distribution is to be introduced and thus it can be written

as h = h s + c h = h s c for convex.

Hydraulics

c

hs

c

h

c

B'

B B'

h = hs + c

opposing Gravity force

Example: Spillway Crest

Non Hydrostatic Pressure distribution

+z=

an

r + c,

g

h = hs - c

hs

in the same direction of

Gravity force

Example: Flip Bucket

Non Hydrostatic Pressure distribution

for Concave

a

= 1 n

g

p

a

= y 1 + n

thus h= h s c in which c =

an

g

v2

v2

c=

In a curvilinear flow a n =

gr

r

If the variation of v w.r.t to r is known, then acceleration could be evaluated.

The following three situations arise in the field

(i) v = constant and equal to mean velocity.

(ii) v = c

(free vortex)

r

(iii) v = rc (forced vortex)

2

v

v

(iv)

=

,

(r + d 2) R 0.5

Hydraulics

Problems:

curvature R the effective pressure distribution is

(a) If the velocity is constant over the depth y it can be shown that the

pressure at any point r and is

2

r

v

= ( r R c + y ) cos +

ln

g Rc y

(b) Effective piezometric head.

p

y

1

+ ln

v

y

Rc

1

Rc

= Z2 + y cos +

h

gR c cos

Rc

2

h cp

__

V

1

y

Rc

Flow in a bucket

Hydraulics

Example:

Compute the overturning moment due to pressure on a retaining wall

soln: (i) Assume to be small

y

__

3

y

Force acting on the retaining wall, P = Area of pressure triangle.

1

y2

= y y=

2

2

Overturning moment = P * distance from the base at which P is acting

1

1

1

= y 2 * y = y3

2

2

6

(iii)

P=

y cos 2

2

y2

2

cos 4

y2

y y3

over turning moment =

cos * =

cos 4

6

3

6

Hydraulics

A

Az = hdA

0

1

hdA

Az 0

but h = ( h s C )

=

1

Az

( hs C ) dA

0

A

1

1

h s dA +

C dA

Az 0

Az 0

A

1

C dA

= 1+

Az 0

Show that

1

1

hvdA = 1 +

cvdA

Qy 0

Qy 0

d v2

, d is the depth of flow in the section.

g r

Solution: h=h s +C

c=

pressure = Mass of water * depth

A

= g v dA h

0

Also pressure is yQ g

A

Thus yQ g = g v dA

0

1

1

v dA h =

v dA ( h s + C )

=

Qy 0

Qy 0

1

1

h s v dA +

v dA C

Qy 0

Qy 0

A

1

v dA C

= 1+

Qy 0

for uniform flow

h v dA = Q y.

s

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