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1

**The radiator of a steam heating system has a volume of 20 L and is filled
**

with superheated water at vapor at 200 kPa and 150 oC. At this moment

both the inlet and exit valves to the radiator are closed. After a while the

temperature of the steam drops to 40oC as a result of heat transfer to the

room air. Determine the entropy change of the steam during this process in

kJ/K.

If we assume that the radiator does not expand or contract significantly with the temperature

change, we have is a constant volume process. We can find the entropy change from the initial

state, where we are given the temperature and pressure and the final state where we know the

temperature and we also know that the specific volume will be the same as it is at the initial state.

We can also use the information on the radiator volume to find the system mass.

At the initial state of 200 kPa and 150oC, we find the following properties from Table A-6 on page

920: v1 = 0.95986 m3/kg and s1 = 7.2810 kJ/kg∙K. From Table A-4 on page 916, we see that, at

the final temperature T2 = 40oC, the specific volume, v2 = v1 is between vf(40oC) = 0.001008 m3/kg

and vg(40oC) = 19.515 m3/kg. Thus the final state is in the mixed region. We find the final quality

from the following equation.

v 2 v f (40 C )

o

x2

v g (40 C ) v f ( 40 C )

o

o

0.95986 m

19.515 m

3

kg

3

kg

0.001008 m

0.001008 m

3

kg

0.04913

3

kg

We can then use this quality to find the final entropy.

s 2 s f ( 40 o C ) x 2 s fg ( 40 o C )

7.6832 kJ

0.5724 kJ

(0.04913)

kg K

kg K

0.9499 kJ

kg K

To find the total entropy change we have to find the system mass. We can find this from the

radiator volume and the initial specific volume.

m3

20 L

V

1000 L

m

0.02084 kg

v1 0.95986 m 3

kg

0.9499 kJ 7.2810 kJ

kg K

kg K

S m s 2 s1 0.02084 kg

= –0.132 kJ/K

Note that we can have a negative entropy change and still satisfy the second law inequality that

dS ≥ dQ/T because the heat transfer is negative. (We did not actually compute Q, but we know

that heat has to leave the system to change the state from a vapor at 150 oC to a mixture of liquid

and vapor at 40oC.)

**Jacaranda (Engineering) 3519
**

E-mail: lcaretto@csun.edu

Mail Code

8348

**Phone: 818.677.6448
**

Fax: 818.677.7062

2

**A well insulated rigid tank contains 2 kg of a saturated liquid-vapor mixture
**

of water at 100 kPa. Initially, three quarters of the mass is in the liquid

phase. An electrical resistance heater placed in the tank is now turned on

and kept on until all the liquid in the tank is vaporized. Determine the

entropy change of the steam during this process.

In this case the initial state is a pressure of 100 kPa and a quality of 0.25. Because it is a rigid

tank, with a fixed mass, the final state has the same specific volume as the initial state. From

Table A-5 on page 918, we find the properties of the saturated liquid and vapor states at 100 kPa

and use these to compute the initial specific volume and entropy. (Note that ¾ of the mass in the

liquid state is equivalent to a quality of 25%.)

s1 s f (100 kPa ) x1 s fg (100 kPa )

6.0562 kJ

1.3028 kJ

(0.25)

kg K

kg K

v1 v f (100 kPa ) x1 v g (100 kPa ) v f (100 kPa )

2.8168 kJ

kg K

0.001043 m 3

kg

1.6941 m 3 0.001043 m 3

0.4243 m 3

kg

kg

kg

(0.25)

Since we are told that the final state is a saturated vapor and we reasoned that this is a constant

volume process, we have to find the final state as the saturated vapor state where the

temperature (or pressure) is such that vg = v1 = 0.4243 m3/kg. Looking at the vg data in Table A-4,

we see that this final state lies between a temperature of 145 oC where vg = 0.44600 m3/kg, and

150oC, where vg = 0.39248 m3/kg. We can interpolate between these two specific volumes and

the corresponding values of sg to find the final entropy. This interpolation gives the following

result.

s2 s g (145o C )

s g (150 o C ) s g (145o C )

v g (150 C ) v g

o

v

(145 C )

o

6.8371 kJ 6.8827 kJ

6.8827 kJ

kg K

kg K

3

kg K

0.39248 m

0.44600 m 3

kg

kg

2

v g (145o C )

0.4243 m 3 0.44600 m 3

6.8649 kJ

kg

kg

kg K

We can now compute the entropy change.

6.8649 kJ 2.8168 kJ

kg K

kg K

S m s 2 s1 2 kg

3

= 8.10 kJ/K

**A piston-cylinder device contains 2 lbm of refrigerant-134a at 120 psia and
**

100oF. The refrigerant is now cooled at constant pressure until it exists as

a liquid at 50oF. Determine the entropy change of the refrigerant during

this process.

At the initial state of 120 psia and 100oF, we find the entropy s1 = 0.22362 Btu/lbm∙ from Table A13E on page 981. Since the process occurs at constant pressure, the final pressure equals the

initial pressure of 120 psia. At this 120 psia and the final temperature of 50 oF, we have a

compressed liquid because the temperature of 50oF is below the saturation temperature at 120

psia, which is 90.49oF. Here we make the approximation that the entropy of the liquid state

equals the entropy of the saturated liquid at the temperature of 50 oF. From Table A-11E on page

Jacaranda (Engineering) 3519

E-mail: lcaretto@csun.edu

Mail Code

8348

**Phone: 818.677.6448
**

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**978, we find this entropy to be 0.06039 Btu/lb m∙R. Hence we compute the entropy change as
**

follows.

** 0.06039 Btu 0.22362 Btu
**

lbm R

lbm R

S m s 2 s1 2 lbm

= –0.3264 Btu/R

**This is another example of a negative entropy change that presumably satisfies the
**

second law (dS ≥ dQ/T) because dQ < 0 for cooling.)

4

**An insulated piston-cylinder device contains 0.05 m3 of saturated
**

refrigerant 134a vapor at 0.8 MPa pressure. The refrigerant is now allowed

to expand in a reversible manner until the pressure drops to 0.4 MPa.

Determine (a) the final temperature in the cylinder and (b) the work done

by the refrigerant.

Here we assume that the process in our “well-insulated cylinder” is adiabatic. Since we are given

that the expansion is reversible, we have reversible adiabatic process. We know that such a

process is an isentropic (constant entropy) process, so that the final entropy equals the initial

entropy. We can use this fact to find the answers to both parts of this problem.

First we find the data for the initial state. Since this is a saturated vapor at 0.8 MPa, we find the

following saturated vapor properties from Table A-12 on page 930: v 1 = 0.025621 m3/kg, u1 =

246.79 kJ/kg, and s1 = 0.91835 kJ/kg∙K.

We can find the (constant) mass from the initial volume, V1 = 0.05 m3 and the initial specific

volume.

V1

0.05 m 3

m

v1 0.025621 m 3

1.952 kg

kg

**For this closed system, the first law is Q = U + W. Since Q = 0, our first law reduces to W = -U
**

= m(u1 – u2). We can find u2, because we know the pressure P2 = 0.4 MPa and the entropy s2 =

s1 = 0.91835 kJ/kg∙K at the final state. From the data on saturation properties at 0.4 MPa (400

kPa) in Table A-12 on page 930, we see that the value of s 2 lies between the values of sf =

0.24761 kJ/kg∙K and sg = 0.92691 kJ/kg∙K. Thus we know that we are in the mixed region. This

means that T2 = Tsat(P2 = 0.4 MPa) = 8.91oC.

We have to find the quality to determine the final internal energy.

x2

s2 s f (0.4 MPa )

s fg (0.4 MPa )

0.91835 kJ

0.24761 kJ

kg K

kg K

0.9874

0.67929 kJ

kg K

u 2 u f (0.4 MPa ) x 2 u fg (0.4 MPa )

63.62 kJ

171.45 kJ

232.91 kJ

(0.9874 )

kg

kg

kg

We now find the work from the first law.

246.79 kJ

232.91 kJ

kg

kg

= 27.08 kJ

W m(u1 u2 ) (1.952 kg )

**Jacaranda (Engineering) 3519
**

E-mail: lcaretto@csun.edu

Mail Code

8348

**Phone: 818.677.6448
**

Fax: 818.677.7062

5

**A piston-cylinder device contains 1.2 kg of saturated water vapor at 200 oC.
**

Heat is now transferred to the steam and the steam expands reversibly and

isothermally to a final pressure of 800 kPa. Determine the heat transferred

and the work done during this process.

Here, since the process is reversible we know that dS = dQ/T. Since it is isothermal we can

integrate this equation to obtain S = (dQ/T) = (1/T)dQ = Q/T. Thus, the heat transferred in the

process can be found from the equation Q = TS = Tm(s2 – s1). We can find the two entropy

values since we have enough data to specify the initial and final states. Once we know the heat

transfer, we can find the work from the first law, Q = U + W. Solving this equation for the work

gives W = Q – m(u2 – u1).

At the initial state of saturated vapor at 200oC, we find the following properties from Table A-4 on

page 916: s1 = sg(200oC) = 6.4302 kJ/kg∙K and u1 = ug(200oC) = 2594.2 kJ/kg. At the final state

where T2 = T1 = 200oC and P2 = 800 kPa (0.8 MPa), we find the properties from Table A-6 on

page 894: s2 = s(200oC,800 kPa) = 6.8177 kJ/kg∙K and u2 = u(200oC,800 kPa) = 2631.1 kJ/kg.

We use the entropy values to compute the heat transfer at the constant temperature of 200 oC =

473.15 K.)

6.8177 kJ 6.4302 kJ

kg K

kg K

Q TS Tm s 2 s1 ( 473.15 K )1.2 kg

= 220.0 kJ

We now use the first law to find the work.

** 2631.1 kJ 2594.2kJ
**

kg

kg

W Q m u2 u1 220.0 kJ 1.2 kg

6

= 175.7 kJ

**A 50-kg copper block, initially at 80oC, is dropped into an insulated tank
**

that contains 120 L of water at 25oC. Determine the final equilibrium

temperature and the total entropy change for this process.

Here we assume that the total system, consisting of the water and the copper block is isolated to

that there is no heat transfer or work between the tank (with the water and the block) and any

other system. In this case, the first law, Q = U + W becomes U = 0, or U = mCu(uCu,2 – uCu,1) +

mw(uw,2 + uw,1) = 0. We further assume that the change in internal energy can be modeled as the

product of a heat capacity and a temperature difference; i.e., du = cdT, where there is a negligible

difference between cp and cv for liquids and solids. From Table A-3 on page 915 we find the

following data on the heat capacity and density for copper and liquid water: at 25 oC, w = 997

kg/m3 and cw = 4.18 kJ/kg∙oC; at 27oC, cCu = 0.386 kJ/kg∙oC. (Note that we could also have the

following units for the heat capacities: kJ/kg∙K.) Assuming that the heat capacities are constant

we have the following equation for our first law:

mCu(uCu,2 – uCu,1) + mw(uw,2 + uw,1) = mCucCu(TCu,2 – TCu,1) + mwcw(Tw,2 + Tw,1) = 0

The final temperature of the copper and the water will be the same: TCu,2 = Tw,2 = T2. Substituting

T2 for TCu,2 and Tw,2, and solving for T2 gives the following result for the final temperature.

T2

**m w c wT1,w mCu cCu T1,Cu
**

m w c w mCu cCu

We can find the mass of the water from the density and the volume.

**Jacaranda (Engineering) 3519
**

E-mail: lcaretto@csun.edu

Mail Code

8348

**Phone: 818.677.6448
**

Fax: 818.677.7062

m w wVw

997 kg 120 L

120 kg

m 3 1000 L

m3

We now have all the values required to compute T2.

m c T mCu cCu T1,Cu

T2 w w 1,w

mw c w mCu cCu

4.18 kJ

0.386 kJ

( 25o C ) (50 kg )

(80 o C )

kg o C

kg o C

=

4.18 kJ

0.386 kJ

(120 kg )

(50 kg )

kg o C

kg o C

(120 kg )

27oC

We can now compute the entropy change. We assume that each substance undergoes an

internally reversible heat transfer such that dS = dQ/T = mcdT/T. The assumption that each

substance has a constant heat capacity allows us to integrate this equation giving S =

mcln(T2/T1). In this calculation the temperature must be in kelvins. We can apply this equation to

both substances, here using units of kelvins for the heat capacity.

T2

T1,w

S w mw cw ln

(120 kg )

T2

T1,Cu

S Cu mCu cCu ln

(50 kg )

4.18 kJ 300.15

3.335 kJ

ln

kg K

kg K

298.15 K

0.386 kJ 300.15

3.140 kJ

ln

kg K

kg K

253.15 K

The total entropy change is simply the sum of these two entropy changes.

S total S w S Cu

3.335 kJ 3.140 kJ

0.215 kJ

kg K

kg K

kg K

We see that the total entropy change for this isolated system is positive satisfying the second law

of thermodynamics that requires S 0 for an isolated system. However, the entropy change for

the copper, which is cooled in this process, is negative.

7

**An insulated piston-cylinder device contains 0.05 m3 of saturated
**

refrigerant 134a vapor at 0.8 MPa pressure. Find the maximum work that

can be done if the refrigerant expands to a pressure of 0.4 MPa in an

adiabatic process.

The maximum work occurs in a reversible process. If we assume that the “insulated” device has

no heat transfer, we have an adiabatic process so the maximum work will be in a reversible

adiabatic process. In such a process, the entropy is constant. This constant entropy expansion

has already been solved in problem 4 where we found the work. We know that this must be the

maximum work, Wmax = 27.08 kJ

**Jacaranda (Engineering) 3519
**

E-mail: lcaretto@csun.edu

Mail Code

8348

**Phone: 818.677.6448
**

Fax: 818.677.7062

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