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Final Review

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1.Ê ÷issouri Compromise- popular sovereignty decides whether territory applying for
statehood below 36 30 line will allow slavery.
2.Ê Wilmot Proviso- Wilmot proposes that no slavery should be allowed in all western lands
(÷exican Cession). WP passes in House of Representatives, but does not pass in Senate.
WP does not become law.
3.Ê Compromise of 1850
a.Ê Issue: California wants to be a free state. John Calhoun of South Carolina
threatens to secede from Union.
b.Ê Solution:
i.Ê California will be a free state.
ii.Ê The rest of the land from the ÷exican Cession will be divided into
territories where issue of slavery will be decided by popular sovereignty.
iii.Ê Slave trading is forbidden in D.C. Slavery is allowed there, though.
iv.Ê Texas gives a strip of land to New ÷exico for $10 million.
Ê &#"" '$()*+,
1.Ê Helping a runaway slave is federal crime
2.Ê Anyone helping runaway slave- fined
3.Ê People returning slave- rewarded
4.Ê Suspected runaway slaves can͛t testify/couldn͛t get a jury.
a.Ê Reaction of North:
i.Ê ͞Personal liberty laws͟ to make enforcement of
Fugitive Slave Law difficult.
1.Ê State officials do not have to cooperate in
the capture of fugitives
2.Ê State officials don͛t have to allow the use of
local jails.
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oÊ Harriet Tubman- ͚conductor͛ of the railroad from 1850-1860
oÊ Nurse
oÊ scaped from a plantation in ÷aryland in 1849
oÊ Personally took 19 trips and saved 300 slaves
oÊ She was known as the ÷oses of her People
oÊ Tubman was a spy for the federal forces in SC during the civil war
oÊ Underground Railroad was a network of houses where slaves could stay on their journey
oÊ Railroad saved 100,000 slaves

% c$.0-"a novel by Harriet Beecher Stowe

oÊ Stowe- African American, was born in 1811 in Connecticut
oÊ Published in 1852
oÊ Book is about a slave who wants to run away because her owner wants to get rid of her
oÊ Book describes poor treatment of slaves in South
oÊ Book had strong effect on Northerners- some became abolitionists

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oÊ Nat Turner was an A.A. (African American) slave
oÊ Lived in Virginia
oÊ August 1831- gathered supporters and started rebellion against slavery based on a
dream where God told him to do so.
oÊ The rebels killed slave-owners, including Turner͛s
oÊ Blacks and Whites were killed in and as a result of the rebellion
oÊ Turner then hid, was caught, and hung
oÊ ÷ore laws came prohibiting certain types of prayer and education of A.A.͛s as a result.
oÊ Considered first moderately successful rebellion against slavery.

oÊ Written by Senator Stephen Douglas to ease the sectional tensions
oÊ Douglas wanted a railroad from Illinois to west coast, through Kansas and Nebraska.
oÊ What: Douglas proposed ÷issouri Compromise repealed, Kansas and Nebraska settled,
and eventually, Kansas Nebraska Act was passed.
oÊ Created Kansas AND Nebraska territories
oÊ Repealed ÷issouri Compromise
oÊ Created popular sovereignty in Kansas and Nebraska. Before this, slavery would not be
allowed there.

oÊ Result: caused more harm than good:

ïÊ North was aggravated
ïÊ People moved out to new territory and fought for their causes (mostly in Kansas)

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oÊ People moved to Kansas: slave-owners and abolitionists- established two separate
oÊ Abolitionists wanted to arrest slave-owners on charges of treason.
oÊ Pottawatomie ÷assacre
ïÊ John Brown, abolitionist, came to Kansas.
ïÊ He wanted to ͚fight fire with fire͛
ïÊ Brown and men killed 5 pro-slavery leaders.
ïÊ ÷assachusetts Senator Charles Sumner criticized pro-slavery leaders, and a
relative of his, Preston Brooks, almost killed him (only injured him).
ïÊ Southerners supported Brooks
ïÊ Northerners called him ͞Bully Brooks͟
oÊ Border Ruffians- troublemakers hired by slave-owners to attack abolitionists on free soil
oÊ Abolitionists form Free Soil Party.

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oÊ Dred Scott- slave
oÊ He moved with his master North of 36 30 line, claimed that slavery is illegal there, so he
was free
oÊ Army ordered master to go to move first to ÷issouri, then to Louisiana, so he brought
him there.
oÊ ÷aster died
oÊ Scott was helped by abolitionist lawyers to sue for his freedom from master͛s widow
oÊ Went to Supreme Court in 1857
oÊ Supreme Court says:
ïÊ Blacks aren͛t citizens
ïÊ Blacks can͛t sue in federal court
ïÊ Slaves are property and Congress can͛t deprive a person of their right to take
their property anywhere.
ïÊ Therefore, ÷issouri Compromise is UNCONSTITUTIONAL.

oÊ Written by pro-slavery supporters in Lecompton-designated capitol of Kansas at the
oÊ Written in an attempt for Kansas to join U.S. as a slave state.
oÊ Was 2nd out of 4 constitutions written for Kansas to join U.S.
oÊ Allowed slavery and disallowed free blacks in Kansas.
oÊ It was boycotted by Free-Soilers
oÊ Vote to make it the constitution was declared invalid
oÊ Congress rejected it, as did Kansas voters
oÊ ventually, Kansas became a free state.

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oÊ 7 debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas for the open Illinois Senate
oÊ Lincoln gave the ͚House Divided͛ speech. He talked about how the U.S. could not
survive being divided into two over whatever issue.
oÊ ͞A house divided against itself cannot stand.͟
oÊ Stephen Douglas- it is ͞the right of the people in each state and territory to decide for
themselves their domestic institution͟- popular sovereignty.
oÊ Debates would open with an hour long speech. Then the other speaks for an hour and a
half. Rebuttal.
oÊ Douglas spoke first 4/7 times.
oÊ ÷ain topic of debates- slavery and how it was being extended and spread throughout
western territories.
oÊ First Debate- August 1858
oÊ Last Debate- October 1858
oÊ Second Debate- Freeport, Illinois
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ùÊ Douglas͛ view on slavery:
Ê Dred Scott makes slavery legal in all new territories, but the
people in their territories can pass their own laws outlawing
slavery (popular sovereignty).
oÊ Douglas was reelected to Senate.
oÊ Lincoln became popular and gained a large following.

oÊ By this election, the country was divided on issues of states͛ rights and slavery.
oÊ Republicans were dominant in the North. They were, for the most part, an anti-slavery
party. They DID NOT want TRU equality.
oÊ Democrats united behind POPULAR SOVRIGNTY.
oÊ In ÷ay 1960, the Republicans gathered in Chicago for their 2nd national convention as a
party. They nominated Abraham Lincoln, a former U.S. Representative from Illinois, for
President, and Hannibal Hamlin for VP.
oÊ At the Democratic National Convention, a conflict arose and some delegates marched
oÊ There would be 2 DNC͛s.
oÊ The Northern Democrats nominated Stephen Douglas for Prez and Herschel Johnson for
oÊ The Southern Democrats nominated John Breckinridge for Prez and Joseph Lane for VP.
oÊ The Constitutional Union Party, nominated John Bell for Prez and dward verett for VP.
oÊ The campaign really was like there were 2 separate elections going on; in the North,
Lincoln and Douglas vied for victory, while in the South, the contest was between
Breckinridge and Bell. Breckinridge didn't get very much support in the North and
Lincoln did not even appear on ballots in most Southern states.
oÊ Lincoln stated that blacks had the rights to "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."
He said that he was against Negro suffrage. He did not say they had a right to complete
equality with white American citizens.
oÊ Breckinridge ran on a pro-slavery platform.
oÊ Douglas probably denounced slavery in private, but in political life he generally
defended the institution.
oÊ Although Bell was a large slave-owner, he opposed efforts to expand slavery and voted
against the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854).
oÊ In the end, Lincoln won the election by carrying 17 free states, while Breckinridge won
in 11 slave states. Neither captured a single state in the opposite section. Bell and
Douglas trailed far behind.
oÊ Lincoln would be a minority President, gaining only about 40% of the popular vote.

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CONO÷Y ÷anufacturing/factories Agriculture/farming

WORK FORC Cheap labor: slaves
oÊ Women
oÊ Children
oÊ Immigrants who came to U.S.
because of
ïÊ Poverty
ïÊ Religious persecution
ïÊ Famine/disease
ïÊ War
ïÊ dictatorship
HIGHST SOCIAL CLASS Upper class: bankers Planters who
Own 50-200 slaves on
ON STP DOWN ÷iddle Class: Factory owners, Yeomanry
merchants, professionals Own 10-40 slaves on
Largest social class in South.
ON STP DOWN Working Class: factory workers, store Poor whites who
clerks Rent farms
Have no slaves
ON STP DOWN Lower Class: immigrants, poor blacks Free A.A.͛s
Free A.A.͛s Could not: Could not
1.Ê vote 1.Ê vote
2.Ê serve on a jury 2.Ê serve on a jury
3.Ê be elected to public office 3.Ê be elected to public
4.Ê sit with whites in public office
transportation 4.Ê sit with whites in
public transportation
Have to:
1.Ê wear special tags
2.Ê pay extra taxes
3.Ê live in separate areas
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oÊ South fears that Lincoln will try to abolish slavery
oÊ December 1860- SC secedes
oÊ February 1861- Six other states secede, six most southern states:
ïÊ Alabama
ïÊ Florida
ïÊ Georgia
ïÊ Louisiana
ïÊ ÷ississippi
ïÊ Texas
oÊ They meet in Alabama and form the $(! $(."%.
oÊ Jefferson Davis- Prez of Confederacy
oÊ They write a Constitution modeled after U.S. one, but allow slavery
oÊ James Buchanan, U.S. Prez, does nothing.

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oÊ Federal Fort located in harbor off Charleston, SC
oÊ Lincoln sends unarmed supply ships to Fort Sumter
oÊ Confederacy attacks
oÊ Civil War begins
oÊ 4 states secede:
ïÊ North Carolina, Tennessee, Arkansas, Virginia
oÊ No more states ever secede

oÊ States below 36 30 line who haven͛t yet seceded.

oÊ Secedes from Virginia because they want to stay with Union, while Virginia secedes from

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oÊ Border state
oÊ VRY important to Union that ÷aryland DOS Not SCD, because Washington, D.C. is
on border of ÷aryland and Virginia.
oÊ If ÷aryland secedes, D.C. will be completely out of reach of Union.
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oÊ General Robert . Lee leads Confederate Army
oÊ ͞turning point in war͟= last time the Confederate troops cross over into North
oÊ Union wins Battle of Gettysburg
oÊ ÷ANY casualties on both sides
oÊ Gettysburg cemetery opened to bury dead
oÊ Lincoln gives famous speech at dedication of cemetery
oÊ ͞four score and seven years ago͟- refers to Revolutionary War
oÊ ͞government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from this

oÊ 23 states- larger population
oÊ Industry to manufacture weaponry, clothing, and supplies.
oÊ Transport troops and supplies via extensive railroad system
oÊ ÷oney to finance war
oÊ Superior navy
oÊ Fighting to maintain the Union

oÊ Better army
oÊ Better military leaders-
ïÊ ͚Stonewall͛ Jackson
ïÊ Robert . Lee
oÊ Fighting defensive war
oÊ Home turf
oÊ Better at outdoor activities, including riding and hunting
oÊ Fighting to maintain way of life, which included slavery

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oÊ Lincoln͛s decision to end slavery
oÊ Gives South a chance to rejoin Union and KP their slaves
oÊ As of January 1st, 1863, slaves in seceded states are declared free

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oÊ Lee surrenders to Ulysses S Grant
oÊ At Appomattox Courthouse- outside Richmond
oÊ Lincoln killed 5 days later in D.C.
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ïÊ 538 electors (today), 100 senators, 3 electors from D.C., 435 Reps in House of
Reps. lectors vote in elections based on votes from their states.

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ïÊ First 10 Constitutional Amendments
ïÊ Federalists promise Anti-Federalists if Constitution is ratified, they will amend it
to include a Bill of Rights

1.Ê First Amendment

Freedom of
a.Ê Religion
i.Ê stablishment clause- congress cannot make a national religion
ii.Ê Free exercise clause- Congress cannot interfere with a person͛s right to
practice their religion
b.Ê Speech
i.Ê citizens can express their ideas and views without fear of punishment
ii.Ê Limitations:
1.Ê Slander- a lie meant to damage someone͛s reputation
2.Ê libel- published slander
3.Ê create a dangerous situation
4.Ê time and place of speech
5.Ê obscene language
c.Ê Press
i.Ê citizens can publish things in the press without fear of punishment
d.Ê Assembly
i.Ê Citizens may gather together to conduct business or discuss issues
without government interference. Gathering must be peaceful.
e.Ê Petition
i.Ê Any American can present a petition to a government official. They can
show dissatisfaction with laws or propose new laws.

Second Amendment

a.Ê Bear arms

b.Ê ÷ilitia
c.Ê Government can impose rules on bear arms

Third Amendment

a.Ê No forced quartering of soldiers (response to Quartering Act)

Fourth Amendment

a.Ê No ͞unreasonable search and seizure͟

a.Ê Search warrant- judicially sanctioned license giving permission based on
probable cause- a reason it is probable that the search will lead to evidence
i.Ê Search warrants will be specific for place to be searched and things to
be searched for
b.Ê Any evidence found during a search without a warrant CANNOT be used in court
c.Ê xpectation of privacy
d.Ê minent Domain- property may be seized for public benefit

Fifth Amendment

a. Double Jeopardy- can͛t be tried for same crime twice, if you͛re found not guilty, it͛s

b.Ê Right to Remain Silent- can͛t be forced to testify against yourself and bring up self-
incriminating evidence
c.Ê Grand Jury- in the case of a serious crime, the government presents their evidence to
the grand jury, who decides if there is good reason to accuse this person. If there is,
they INDICT. They are NOT deciding guilty/ not guilty.
d.Ê Due process- be fair, follow rules in Bill of Rights
Sixth Amendment

a.Ê Speedy Trial

b.Ê Public Trial
c.Ê Lawyer
d.Ê Confrontation Clause- Question/interrogate witnesses/bring your own
e.Ê Right to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation against him
f.Ê Impartial Jury

Seventh Amendment

a.Ê Right to a jury in civil cases(non-criminal cases)

b.Ê Guarantees a jury trial in federal civil court cases. This type of case is normally no longer
heard in federal court.

ighth Amendment
a. Bail

i.Ê ÷ust be a reasonable amount for charged crime

b. No ͞cruel and unusual punishment͟

i. Punishment should fit the crime

ii.Ê death penalty is allowed, it is not ͞cruel and unusual͟ in and of itself, but
death sentence must be executed in a way that is not ͞cruel and unusual͟

Ninth Amendment

a.Ê The Ninth Amendment is simply a statement that other rights aside from those listed
may exist, and just because they are not listed doesn't mean they can be violated.

Tenth Amendment

a. Federalism = division of power between federal government and the states.

i.Ê If a power is not delegated to federal government, and not reserved for
state government, it belongs to TH STATS.
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oÊ ÷ajority of ACH house of Congress must vote in favor of it. 

oÊ President can veto it, or sign it.
oÊ If signed, it becomes law.
oÊ If vetoed, you need 2/3 of Congress to override the veto.


Ê 2/3 of Congress must vote in favor of amendment

Ê 3/4 of states must ratify amendment

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)Ê xecutive
"Ê President- 4 year terms
""Ê Vice President- 4 year terms
"""Ê Cabinet- comes with President
-Ê Presidential Powers:
"Ê Commander in Chief of armed forces
""Ê ÷ake treaties- must be approved by Senate
"""Ê Appoint Supreme Court justices as needed, all federal judges,
ambassadors- must be approved by Senate
"Ê Veto laws
Ê Grant reprieves- pardon people who are in prison for federal crimes
;Ê Judicial
"Ê District Courts
""Ê Court of Appeals
"""Ê Supreme Court
)Ê 9 Justices, one of which is the
2.Ê Chief Justice

9Ê Legislative
"Ê Congress
)Ê House of Representatives (435 Reps)- 2 year terms
2.Ê Senate (100 senators)- 6 year terms

-Ê Powers:
"Ê Provide and maintain navy
""Ê Borrow money on U.S. credit
"""Ê Coin money
"Ê Tax
Ê Declare war
"Ê Postal system
""Ê Regulate commerce with other countries and between states
"""Ê Raise army
"<Ê Spend money for ͞general welfare͟
<Ê stablish courts below Supreme Court
<"Ê ÷ake laws

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Ê ÷ain author- Thomas Jefferson

Ê Parts:
ïÊ Preamble
ùÊ Introduction
ïÊ Statement of belief
ùÊ ͞all men are created equal͟
ùÊ Unalienable rights
Ê ͞life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness͟
ùÊ Governments exist to protect rights
ùÊ If government doesn͛t do its job, abolish/change government
ïÊ List of grievances
ïÊ Declaration of Independence
Ê Signatures:
ïÊ FIRST: John Hancock
ùÊ He is the president of 2nd Continental Congress
ïÊ N T: rest of representatives at Congress
ùÊ North to South

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Ê First National Constitution

Ê Written by Committee of 13, appointed by 2nd Continental Congress
Ê Committee of 13 wants state power and distrusts a strong central government
Ê Creates one branch of government- CONGRSS
ïÊ ach state gets one vote
Ê The federal government is too weak to respond to Shays͛ Rebellion, which shows need
for change in Articles of Confederation.
Ê People find that the government created under the Articles of Confederation is too
weak. Articles of Confederation are rewritten into a full Constitution at the
Constitutional Convention.

Ê Location:
ïÊ Rocky ÷ountains to Pacific Ocean
ïÊ 42 degree line of latitude (border between Oregon and California today) and 54
40 degree line of latitude.
ïÊ Land includes Oregon Washington Idaho and pieces of other states in the area
Ê Both Britain and U.S. claim ownership
ïÊ Both had sent explorers there
ïÊ Both had fur trading companies there
Ê lection 1844- James K. Polk- ͞54 40 or fight!͟- campaign slogan
ïÊ Polk wins presidency
Ê Polk backs off campaign slogan, and makes
Ê Treaty of 1846
ïÊ Between U.S. and Britain
ïÊ Decision: above 49 degree line of latitude- BRITAIN
Below 49 degree line latitude- U.S.
(Below 42 degree line latitude- SPAIN)

Ê ÷exico becomes independent from Spain (they declare themselves independent

in 1810, not recognized by Spain until 1821)
Ê ÷exico offers cheap land to white settlers who
ïÊ Become ÷exican citizens
ïÊ Obey ÷exican law
ïÊ Convert to Catholicism
Ê ÷exican officials wanted settlers to move to Texas because they wanted to
populate the land. At that point, Texas was mostly inhabited by natives and the
÷exican government wanted people to move there so that they would become
citizen. As a result, these new Texans would pay taxes to ÷exico, increase the
population, and better the economy.
Ê ÷any Americans move to Texas but bring slaves which is against ÷exican law
Ê Texans become dissatisfied with ÷exican rule and rebel
Ê Battle of Alamo (1836)- Texans are defeated by ÷exicans
Ê Battle of San Jacinto (1836) - using slogan ͞Remember the Alamo͟ as
encouragement, Texans, lead by Sam Houston, defeat ÷exicans. General Santa
Anna (÷exican president/dictator) led ÷exicans.
Ê Texans declare independence (1836) = Republic of Texas or Lone Star Republic
Ê The Republic of Texas offered land grants to settlers to come there for the same
reason ÷exico offered land to American settlers in Texas: to increase
population. With an increased population, Texas would be able to collect high
taxes, and even build up an army, in case ÷exico or natives decided to attack
them. In addition, having an increased population would give them a chance of
possibly being annexed by the U.S.
Ê Texans apply for statehood in U.S.
Ê Texas becomes state (1845)
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Ê California and New ÷exico Territories- not just states, but whole territory.
Ê ÷  

ïÊ Causes of war:
ùÊ ÷exico angry with U.S. for annexing Texas- they had intended to
recapture it
ùÊ U.S. angry that ÷exico refused offer to buy ÷exican Cession for $30
ùÊ Border dispute: 
Ê U.S.- Rio Grande is Texas/÷exico border
Ê ÷exico- Nueces River is Texas/÷exico border
Ê Clash between U.S. and ÷exico in disputed territory- 11 U.S.
soldiers killed
ùÊ Polk declares war
ùÊ ÷exico is defeated
Ê Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)
ïÊ nds the war
ïÊ Rio Grande is declared border between Texas and ÷exico
ïÊ ÷exico gives up California and New ÷exico TRRITORIS (÷exican Cession)
ïÊ U.S. pays ÷exico $15 million (1/2 the original price offer)
Ê Gadsden Purchase
ïÊ Narrow strip of land in southern Arizona and New ÷exico
ïÊ Reason: southern businessmen want to build cross-country railroad from
Charleston to Sand Diego
ïÊ Bought from: ÷exico
ïÊ Price: $10 million