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Production of Maleic Anhydride by Catalytic Oxidation

Process from n-Butane

Nomenclatur
e and Units

Production of Maleic Anhydride by Catalytic Oxidation


Process from n-Butane
Symbol

Overall Material Balance Nomenclature


Definition

Bottoms Stream

Distillate Stream

Feed Stream

F1

Feed Stream 1

F2

Feed stream 2

Gas Stream

Liquid Stream

Product Stream

Vapor Stream

Water Stream

V
F

Mole ratio of vapor to feed

Symbol

Energy Balance Nomenclature


Definition

Pi
Pj
x iF
yi
i

Vapor Pressure of theComponent i


Vapor Pressure of the Heavy Key
mole fractionof component i at feed
Mole Fraction
Relative Volatility

H or

Heat of Reaction at 25

Product

Bottoms

Cp

Heat Capacity

Units
kg
hr
kg
hr
kg
hr
kg
hr
kg
hr
kg
hr
kg
hr
kg
hr
kg
hr
kg
hr

Units
Pa
Pa

J
kmol
Mole
hr
Mole
hr
J
kmolK

Production of Maleic Anhydride by Catalytic Oxidation


Process from n-Butane
D

Distillate

Feed

Heat

Lm

Liquid Flowrate at Reboiler

ln

Liquid Flowrate at Condenser

Pressure

Heat

R
T

Reflux Ratio
Temperature

Vm

Vapor Flowrate at Reboiler

Vn

Vapor Flowrate at Condenser

Molar Flowrate

Heat of Vaporization

1
2
b
c
d
f
m
p
v

Subscripts
Inlet
Oulet
Boiler
Condenser
Distillate
Feed
Minimum
Product
Vaporization

Symbol
D
ID
H
Pi
TS

Storage Tank Design Nomenclature


Definition
Outside Diameter of tank
Inside Diameter
Height of the tank
Design Pressure
Tensile Strength

Mole
hr
Mole
hr
J
kmol
Mole
hr
Mole
hr
kPa
J
hr
K
Mole
hr
Mole
hr
Mole
hr
J
kmol

Units
m
m
m
KPa
KPa

Production of Maleic Anhydride by Catalytic Oxidation


Process from n-Butane
ts
f
J
Rc
Rk
Cs
J
th
Hd
D0
D1
Dj

Symbol

Shell thickness
Maximum allowable stress of the material of
construction
Joint efficiency
crown radius
Knuckle radius
Stress concentration
joint factor
Head Thickness
Depth of Head
Outside diameter of inner vessel
Inside Diameter of Jacket
Distance of Vessel diameter to Jacket
Reactor Design Nomenclature
Definition

Effectiveness
Bed Void Fraction

Density of fluid at the shell side

Density of fluid at the tube side

s
t

Viscosity of fluid at the shell side


Viscosity of fluid at the tube side

cp s

Specific Heat of fluid at shellside

cp t

Specific Heat of fluid at tube side

Dcat
f

Diameter of the catalyst


Maximum Stress

F Ao

Mole flowrate of butane

Mole flowrate of Total feed

Gs

Shell Side Mass flux

Gt

Tube Side Mass flux

hi

Heat Transfer Coefficient (Inside)

h IS

Shell Side Dirt Coefficient

mm
KPa
mm
mm
mm
m
mm
mm
mm

Units

kg
m3
kg
m3
Pas
Pas
J
kgK
J
kgK
m
MPa
kmol
hr
kmol
hr
kg
sm2
kg
sm2
W
2
m K
W
2
m K

Production of Maleic Anhydride by Catalytic Oxidation


Process from n-Butane
hit

Tube Side Dirt Coefficient

ho

Heat Transfer Coefficient (Outside)

hs

Heat Transfer Coefficient at shell side

h sd

Fouling Factor at the shell side

htd

Fouling Factor at the tube side

Hs
IDs
IDt
J

Height of the shell


Inside Diameter of the Shell
Inside Diameter of the Tube
Joint Efficiency

kn

Rate Constant Number

ks

Thermal Conductivity of the fluid at shell side

kt

Thermal Conductivity of the fluid at tube side

kw

Thermal Conductivity of the wall of the tubes

Lt
mcat

Length of the Tube


Mass of catalyst

ms

Mass Flowrate of fluid at shell side

mt

Mass Flowrate of fluid at tube side

ND
Nt
NTU
OD s
ODt
tp
ts

Number of Tubes at Bundle Diameter


Number of tubes
Number of transfer unit
Outside Diameter of the Shell
Outside Diameter of the Tube
Tube Pitch
Shell Thickness

Uo

Over-all Heat Transfer Coefficient

xt

Thickness of the tube

vo

Volumetric Flowrate

VR

Volume of Reactor

W
m K
W
2
m K
W
2
m K
W
2
m K
W
2
m K
m
m
m
2

m3
skg cat
W
mK
W
mK
W
mK
m
kg
kg
s
kg
s

m
m
m
m
W
3
m
m
m3
s
m3

Production of Maleic Anhydride by Catalytic Oxidation


Process from n-Butane
Symbol

Gas Absorber Design Nomenclature


Definition

Units
kg
( kmole
)

MW

Molecular Weight

yi

Mole Fraction

Pressure

Temperature

Density

( )

GasConstant

( kmol K )

Liquid Flowrate

Gas Flowrate

F LV

Viscosity
Flow Parameter
Ga s mass velocity per unit column cross
sectional area
Packing Factor
Area
Effective interfacial area of packing per unit
volume

Vw
Fp
A
aw
Lw

Liquid mass velocity

(K)
kg
m3
3
m

( seckg )
( seckg )
(Pa. sec)

(m 2)
m2
m3
kg
m2 s

( )
( )
m2
m3
N
m
N
m

( )

Actual area of packing per unit volume

Critical surface tension for particular packing


material

Liquid surface tension

dp

Packing

Film coefficient

( ms )

Diffusivity

( )

M
P

Molecular masses of components a and b


total pressure

( )
( )
2

m
sec

Production of Maleic Anhydride by Catalytic Oxidation


Process from n-Butane
H

Summation of special diffusion volume


coefficients
Film transfer unit height

Ct

Concentration of solvent

H OG
N OG
Z
P

Height of Transfer Units


Number of Transfer Units
Height of Tower
Pressure Drop

Velocity

ave
g
L
v
a
b
G
T

Subscript
Average
Gas
Liquid
Vapor
Component a
Component b
Gas
Total

vi
a

Symbol
C
De
D1
D VD
DO
E
Fa
Fm
Fs
Fr
Hh
HD
HH
HS
HT
H ME
H LLL

Gas Liquid Separator Design Nomenclature


Definition
Corrosion Allowance
Equivalent Diameter
Inside Diameter
Inside Vessel Diameter
Shell Outside Diameter
Joint Efficiency Factor
Radiographic Factor
Material Factor
Temperature Factor
Stress Relief Factor
Depth of the Heads
Height of Disengagement
Hold-up Height
Surge Height
Total Height of the tank
Height of the Mist Eliminator
Height of the Low Liquid Level

(m)
kmole
3
m
(m)
(m)
(m)

( secm )

Units
mm
m
m
m
m

mm
m
m
m
m
m
m

Production of Maleic Anhydride by Catalytic Oxidation


Process from n-Butane
HLL
HLL
LLL

High Liquid Level


High Liquid at Nozzle
Low Liquid Level

mv

Mass Flowrate of Vapor

NLL
P
Pt

Normal Liquid Level


Internal gauge pressure
Total Pressure

Ql

Volumetric Flowrate of Liquid

Qv

Volumetric Flowrate of Vapor

R
Rc
Rk
S
Su
th
ts
tw

Inside Radius
Crown Radius
Knuckle Radius
Allowable Stress
Minimum Specified Tensile Strength
Head and Bottom Thickness
Shell Thickness
Wall Thickness

Ut

Terminal Velocity of the vapor

VH
VS
VP

Hold-Up Volume
Surge Volume
Vapor Pressure

Symbol
C
De
D1
Dj
DO
E
Fa
Fm
Fs
Fr
Hh
Ht

Dehydrator Design Nomenclature


Definition
Corrosion Allowance
Equivalent Diameter
Inside Diameter
Jacket Diameter
Shell Outside Diameter
Joint Efficiency Factor
Radiographic Factor
Material Factor
Temperature Factor
Stress Relief Factor
Depth of the Heads
Total Height of the tank

kg
hr
psig
psig
3
m
s
3
m
s
m
m
m
psi
psi
inch
m
m
ft
s
ft 3
3
ft
psia

Units
mm
m
m
m
m

mm
m

Production of Maleic Anhydride by Catalytic Oxidation


Process from n-Butane
mv

Mass Flowrate of Vapor

P
Pt
R
Rc
Rk
S
Su
th
ts
tw
VP

Internal gauge pressure


Total Pressure
Inside Radius
Crown Radius
Knuckle Radius
Allowable Stress
Minimum Specified Tensile Strength
Head and Bottom Thickness
Shell Thickness
Wall Thickness
Vapor Pressure

Symbol

Flaker Design Nomenclature


Definition

C
d
D

Viscosity
Corrosion Factor
Total Diameter
Inside Diameter

Number of rotation

N
P

Reynolds Number
Design Pressure

Inlet Volumetric Flowrate

s .g
tw

Specific Gravity
Wall thickness

Over-all Heat Transfer Coefficient

kg
hr
psig
psig
m
m
m
psi
psi
inch
m
m
psia

Units
cp
mm
mm

rev
mins

m3
hr
mm
W
2
m K