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ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03

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CMOS TECHNOLOGY
INTRODUCTION
Classification of Silicon Technology
Silicon IC Technologies

Bipolar

Junction
Isolated

Dielectric
Isolated

Silicon031211-01 Germanium

Bipolar/CMOS

Oxide
isolated

Silicon

MOS

PMOS
(Aluminum
Gate)

CMOS

Aluminum
gate

Silicon
gate

NMOS

Aluminum
gate

Digital Integrated Circuit Design

Silicon
gate
© P.E. Allen - 2003

ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03)

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Components of a Modern CMOS Technology
Illustration of a modern CMOS process:
Metal Layers
0.8µm
M8
NMOS
PMOS
M7
Transistor
Transistor
M6
M5 7µm
Polycide 0.3µm
Polycide
Sidewall Spacers
M4
Salicide
Salicide
M3
Salicide
M2
M1
STI

;

n+
n+
Source/drain
extensions
Deep p-well

STI

;

p+
p+
Source/drain
STI
extensions
Deep n-well

p-substrate
031211-02

In addition to NMOS and PMOS transistors, the technology provides:
1.) A deep n-well that can be utilized to reduce substrate noise coupling.
2.) A MOS varactor that can serve in VCOs
3.) At least 6 levels of metal that can form many useful structures such as inductors,
capacitors, and transmission lines.
Digital Integrated Circuit Design

© P.E. Allen - 2003

ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03)

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CMOS Components – Transistors
fT as a function of gate-source overdrive, VGS-VT (0.13µm):
Typical, 25°C

70
60

NMOS

Slow, 70°C

fT (GHz)

50
Typical, 25°C

40
30

Slow, 70°C

PMOS

20
10
0

0

100

200
300
|VGS-VT| (mV)

400

500
030901-07

The upper frequency limit is probably around 40 GHz for NMOS with an fT in the vicinity
of 60GHz with an overdrive of 0.5V and at the slow-high temperature corner.

Digital Integrated Circuit Design

© P.E. Allen - 2003

ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03)

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FUNDAMENTAL PROCESSING STEPS
Basic steps
• Oxide growth
• Thermal diffusion
• Ion implantation
• Deposition
• Etching
• Epitaxy
Photolithography
Photolithography is the means by which the above steps are applied to selected areas of
the silicon wafer.
Silicon wafer
125-200 mm
(5"-8")

n-type: 3-5 Ω-cm
p-type: 14-16 Ω-cm
Digital Integrated Circuit Design

0.5-0.8mm

Fig. 2.1-1r

© P.E. Allen - 2003

2003 ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 6 Diffusion Diffusion is the movement of impurity atoms at the surface of the silicon into the bulk of the silicon. Fig. Very thin oxides (100Å to 1000Å) are grown using dry oxidation techniques.1-2 Uses: • Protect the underlying material from contamination • Provide isolation between two layers.ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 5 Oxidation Description: Oxidation is the process by which a layer of silicon dioxide is grown on the surface of a silicon wafer. Always in the direction from higher concentration to lower concentration. Allen . 2. Thicker oxides (>1000Å) are grown using wet oxidation techniques. t1 t2 t3 Depth (x) Finite source of impurities at the surface. Allen .E.2003 . Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P. Low Concentration High Concentration Fig. 150-04 Diffusion is typically done at high temperatures: 800 to 1400°C N0 Gaussian ERFC N(x) N0 t1 < t2 < t3 N(x) t 1 < t2 < t3 NB NB t1 t2 t3 Depth (x) Infinite source of impurities at the surface. 150-05 Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P. Original silicon surface tox Silicon dioxide 0.E.44 tox Silicon substrate Fig.

ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 7 Ion Implantation Ion implantation is the process by which impurity ions are accelerated to a high velocity and physically lodged into the target material. This step final resting place is done at 500 to 800°C. Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P. • Can achieve unique doping profile such as buried concentration peak.2003 .E. • Ion implantation is a lower temperature process compared to diffusion. N Fixed Atom Fig. thus it is useful for field-threshold adjustment. Allen . Allen . 150-07 © P.E.2003 Page 8 Deposition Deposition is the means by which various materials are deposited on the silicon wafer. Examples: • Silicon nitride (Si3N4) • Silicon dioxide (SiO2) • Aluminum • Copper • Polysilicon There are various ways to deposit a material on a substrate: • Chemical-vapor deposition (CVD) • Low-pressure chemical-vapor deposition (LPCVD) • Plasma-assisted chemical-vapor deposition (PECVD) • Sputter deposition Material that is being deposited using these techniques covers the entire wafer. Path of impurity atom Fixed Atom Fixed Atom • Annealing is required to activate the impurity atoms and repair the physical Impurity Atom damage to the crystal lattice. N(x) • Can implant through surface layers. 150-06 Concentration peak B 0 Digital Integrated Circuit Design ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Depth (x) Fig.

Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P.Si Si Si Si Si Si Si - Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si + Si Si Si - Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si - Si Si Si Si Si - Si Si Si Si - Si + Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si + Si Si Si Si Fig. the etchant may remove portions or all of: • The desired material • The underlying layer • The masking layer Underlying layer (a) Portion of the top layer ready for etching. A = 1-(lateral etch rate/vertical etch rate) • Selectivity of the etch (film to mask and film to substrate) is defined as.E.2003 . 150-09 Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P. a Selectivity Mask Film c b Selectivity Anisotropy Underlying layer Important considerations: (b) Horizontal etching and etching of underlying layer. Allen . There are basically two types of etches: • Wet etch which uses chemicals • Dry etch which uses chemically active ionized gases. When etching is performed. Fig. typically 1-20 microns Gaseous cloud containing SiCL4 or SiH4 Si + Si + Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si . Allen . • It is done externally to the material as opposed to diffusion which is internal • The epitaxial layer (epi) can be doped differently. even oppositely.ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 9 Etching Mask Film Etching is the process of selectively removing a layer of material. of the material on which it grown • It accomplished at high temperatures using a chemical reaction at the surface • The epi layer can be any thickness. 150-08 • Anisotropy of the etch is defined as.2003 ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 10 Epitaxy Epitaxial growth consists of the formation of a layer of single-crystal silicon on the surface of the silicon material so that the crystal structure of the silicon is continuous across the interfaces. film etch rate Sfilm-mask = mask etch rate A = 1 and Sfilm-mask = ∞ are desired.E.

Remove photoresist (solvents) Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P. Expose the photoresist to UV light through a mask 4.. 150-10 Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P. Allen . Types of printing include: • Contact printing • Proximity printing • Projection printing UV Light Photomask Photoresist Polysilicon Fig. oxide) Positive photoresist Areas exposed to UV light are soluble in the developer Negative photoresist Areas not exposed to UV light are soluble in the developer Steps 1. Hard bake ( ≈ 100°C) 6.E.2003 .g. Apply photoresist 2.ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 11 Photolithography Components • Photoresist material • Mask • Material to be patterned (e. Soft bake (drives off solvents in the photoresist) 3. Allen .2003 ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 12 Illustration of Photolithography . Develop (remove unwanted photoresist using solvents) 5.Exposure The process of exposing Photomask selective areas to light through a photo-mask is called printing.E.

E.2003 ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 14 Illustration of Photolithography .Positive Photoresist Develop Polysilicon Photoresist Etch Photoresist Polysilicon Remove photoresist Polysilicon Fig.Negative Photoresist (Not used much any more) Photoresist Underlying Layer Photoresist SiO2 Underlying Layer SiO2 SiO2 Underlying Layer Digital Integrated Circuit Design Fig. Allen . 150-12 © P.2003 .ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 13 Illustration of Photolithography .E. Allen . 150-11 Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P.

) Sidewall spacer 7.E.. vias and protective oxide Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P.) Bottom metal.) Shallow trench isolation 3.) Heavily doped drains and sources 8.) Higher level metals.ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 15 TYPICAL DSM CMOS FABRICATION PROCESS Major Fabrication Steps for a DSM CMOS Process 1. tungsten plugs.) Thin oxide and gate polysilicon 5.) Siliciding (Salicide and Polycide) 9.2003 .E.) p and n wells 2.) Threshold shift 4. Allen . Gate Ox Oxide Substrate p+ Digital Integrated Circuit Design p p- n- n n+ Poly Salicide Polycide Metal 031231-13 © P. yy . tungsten plugs/vias.) Lightly doped drains and sources 6. and oxide 10.2003 ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 16 Step 1 – Starting Material The substrate should be highly doped to act like a good conductor. and oxide 11.) Top level metal. Allen .

n and p wells These are the areas where the transistors will be fabricated .NMOS in the p-well and PMOS in the n-well.2003 .E. Allen . Gate Ox Oxide p well implant and diffusion n-well p-well Substrate p+ p p- n- n n+ Poly Salicide Polycide Digital Integrated Circuit Design Metal 031231-12 © P. Done by implantation followed by a deep diffusion.ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 17 Step 2 ..E. n well implant and diffusion yy . Allen ..2003 ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 18 Step 3 – Shallow Trench Isolation The shallow trench isolation (STI) electrically isolates one region/transistor from another. Gate Ox Oxide Shallow Trench Isolation n-well Shallow Trench Isolation p-well Substrate p+ Digital Integrated Circuit Design p p- n- n n+ Poly Salicide Polycide Metal 031231-11 © P. Shallow Trench Isolation yy .

Gate Ox Oxide Shallow Trench Isolation n-well Shallow Trench Isolation p-well Substrate p+ p p- n- n n+ Poly Salicide Polycide Digital Integrated Circuit Design Metal 031231-10 © P.. Allen . n+ anti-punch through implant p+ anti-punch through implant n threshold implant n threshold implant Shallow Trench Isolation yy .. Step 5 – Thin Oxide and Polysilicon Gates A thin oxide is deposited followed by polysilicon.ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 19 Step 4 – Threshold Shift and Anti-Punch Through Implants The natural thresholds of the NMOS is about 0V and of the PMOS is about –1.2V. . These layers are removed where they are not wanted.E. Also an implant can be applied to create a higher-doped region beneath the channels to prevent punch-through from the drain depletion region extending to source depletion region. Thin Oxide Shallow Trench Isolation yy .2003 ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 20 .2003 . An nimplant is used to make the NMOS harder to invert and the PMOS easier resulting in threshold voltages balanced around zero volts. Gate Ox Oxide Shallow Trench Isolation n-well Shallow Trench Isolation p-well Substrate p+ Digital Integrated Circuit Design p p- n- n n+ Poly Salicide Polycide Metal 031231-09 © P. Allen .E.

Gate Ox Oxide Shallow pImplant Shallow nImplant Shallow nImplant Shallow Trench Isolation n-well Shallow Trench Isolation p-well Substrate p+ p p- n- n n+ Poly Salicide Polycide Digital Integrated Circuit Design Metal 031231-08 © P.2003 ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 22 Step 7 – Sidewall Spacers A layer of dielectric is deposited on the surface and removed in such a way as to leave “sidewall spacers” next to the thin-oxide-polysilicon-polycide sandwich. Gate Ox Oxide Sidewall Spacers Shallow Trench Isolation n-well Shallow Trench Isolation p-well Substrate p+ Digital Integrated Circuit Design p p- n- n n+ Poly Salicide Polycide Metal 031231-07 © P. Allen . . . These sidewall spacers will prevent the part of the source and drain next to the channel from becoming heavily doped. Allen . Shallow pImplant Shallow Trench Isolation yy . Sidewall Spacers Shallow Trench Isolation yy . ...2003 . Step 6 – Lightly Doped Drains and Sources A lightly-doped implant is used to create a lightly-doped source and drain next to the channel of the MOSFETs.E.ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 21 .E.

etc.. on top of the diffusions. Gate Ox Oxide Salicide p+ p+ Shallow Trench Isolation Polycide Salicide n+ n+ p+ Shallow Trench Isolation n-well Shallow Trench Isolation p-well Substrate p+ Digital Integrated Circuit Design p p- n- n n+ Poly Salicide Polycide Metal 031231-05 © P. WSi2. Step 8 – Implantation of the Heavily Doped Sources and Drains Note that not only does this step provide the completed sources and drains but allows for ohmic contact into the wells and substrate. . p+ implant n+ implant p+ n+ Sidewall p+ Spacers p+ implant implant yy . . Gate Ox Oxide n+ implant p+ implant n+ n+ p+ p+ p+ Shallow Trench Isolation n+ implant Shallow Trench Isolation n-well Shallow Trench Isolation p-well Substrate p+ p p- n- n n+ Poly Salicide Polycide Digital Integrated Circuit Design Metal 031231-06 © P. Allen .2003 . . Allen . TaSi2.E.E..2003 ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 24 Step 9 – Siliciding Siliciding and polyciding is used to reduce interconnect resistivity by placing a lowresistance silicide such as TiSi2. Sidewall Spacers Salicide Salicide p+ n+ yy .ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 23 .

wells and substrate to the first-level metal. Allen . Sidewall Spacers Tungsten Plug Salicide n+ n+ p+ Shallow Trench Isolation n-well First Level Metal Shallow Trench Isolation p-well Substrate p+ Digital Integrated Circuit Design p p- n- n n+ Poly Salicide Polycide Metal 031231-03 © P.E. Oxide Polycide Salicide p+ p+ Shallow Trench Isolation Gate Ox .2003 .First-Level Metal Tungsten plugs are built through the lower intermediate oxide layer to provide contact between the devices. . Intermediate Oxide Layer Salicide Salicide p+ n+ yy .ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 25 Step 10 – Intermediate Oxide Layer An oxide layer is used to cover the transistors and to planarize the surface. Intermediate Oxide Layers Tungsten Plugs Salicide p+ Salicide n+ yy . Oxide Polycide Salicide p+ p+ Shallow Trench Isolation Gate Ox .2003 ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 26 Step 11. Sidewall Spacers Salicide n+ n+ p+ Shallow Trench Isolation n-well Shallow Trench Isolation p-well Substrate p+ p p- n- n+ n Salicide Polycide Poly Digital Integrated Circuit Design Metal 031231-04 © P.. .. Allen .E.

.2003 ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 28 Completed Fabrication After multiple levels of metal are applied. .E. Allen . Note that metal is used for the upper level metal vias. the fabrication is completed with a thicker toplevel metal and a protective layer to hermetically seal the circuit from the environment. Allen . The chip is electrically connected by removing the protective layer over large bonding pads.ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 27 Step 12 – Second-Level Metal The previous step is repeated to from the second-level metal. Oxide Salicide Tungsten Plug Salicide p+ p+ Shallow Trench Isolation Gate Ox . Intermediate Oxide Layers Tungsten Plugs Tungsten Plugs Salicide p+ Salicide n+ yy . Protective Insulator Layer Metal Vias Intermediate Oxide Layers Tungsten Plugs Tungsten Plugs Salicide p+ Metal Via Tungsten Plugs Polycide Sidewall Spacers Salicide n+ Salicide p+ p+ Shallow Trench Isolation Top Metal Tungsten Plug Salicide n+ n+ p+ Shallow Trench Isolation n-well Second Level Metal First Level Metal Shallow Trench Isolation p-well Substrate Gate Ox Oxide p+ Digital Integrated Circuit Design p p- n- n n+ Poly Salicide Polycide Metal 031231-01 © P.2003 . . Tungsten Plugs Polycide Sidewall Spacers n+ n+ p+ Shallow Trench Isolation n-well Second Level Metal First Level Metal Shallow Trench Isolation p-well Substrate p+ p p- n- n n+ Poly Salicide Polycide Metal Digital Integrated Circuit Design 031231-02 © P. .E.

2.2003 ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 30 Scanning Electron Microscope Showing Metal Levels and Interconnect Metal 3 Aluminim Vias Metal 2 Tungsten Plugs Metal 1 Transistors Digital Integrated Circuit Design Fig. Allen .ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 29 Scanning Electron Microscope of a MOSFET Cross-section Tungsten Plug TEOS SOG Polycide Sidewall Spacer TEOS/BPSG Poly Gate Fig.2003 .E.8-20 Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P. Allen .180-11 © P.E.

.) Epitaxy The complexity of a process can be measured in the terms of the number of masking steps or masks required to implement the process.) Lightly doped drains and sources 6. tungsten plugs.E. vias and protective oxide Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P.. and oxide 10..) Ion implantation 4.) Siliciding (Salicide and Polycide) 9. Polysilicon gate L W Active area drain/source Metal 1 Fig.. • Minimize the area of the source and drain to reduce bulk-source/drain capacitance.6-04 Comments: • Make sure to contact the source and drain with multiple contacts to evenly distribute the current flow under the gate. .) Threshold shift 4.) Top level metal.E.ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) • • • • Page 31 SUMMARY Fabrication is the means by which the circuit components. Allen . tungsten plugs/vias.) Heavily doped drains and sources 8.) Shallow trench isolation 3. .) Bottom metal.. 2.) Deposition 5. both active and passive. . and oxide 11.) Higher level metals.) Thin oxide and gate polysilicon 5. Major Processing Steps for DSM CMOS: 1.2003 .) Etching 6. Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P.) p and n wells 2.) Thermal diffusion 3. Allen .2003 ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 32 INTEGRATED CIRCUIT LAYOUT MOS Transistor Layout Example of the layout of a single MOS transistor: Metal FOX Active area drain/source Contact Cut FOX . are built as an integrated circuit..) Oxide growth 2. Basic process steps include: 1.) Sidewall spacer 7.

2003 .E. Allen .45 1. 2.ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 33 Resistor Layout Direction of current flow W T Area. 2.6-16 Corner corrections: 0.5 1. A L Fig. Allen .6-15 Resistance of a conductive sheet is expressed in terms of ρL ρL R = A = W T (Ω) where ρ = resistivity in Ω-m Ohms/square:  ρ L L R = T W = ρS W (Ω) where ρS is a sheet resistivity and has the units of ohms/square Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P.6-16B Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P.2003 ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 34 Example of Resistor Layouts Metal Metal FOX FOX FOX Substrate Active area (diffusion) FOX Active area (diffusion) Well diffusion Active area Contact FOX Substrate Active area or Polysilicon W Well diffusion W Contact Cut Cut L Metal 1 Diffusion or polysilicon resistor Metal 1 L Well resistor Fig.25 Fig. 2.E.

ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 35 Example 1 .E. N. and the resistance value. Allen . the number of squares of resistance.8µm and L=20µm. Allen .2003 Page 36 Design Rules Design rules are geometrical constraints that guarantee the proper operation of a circuit implemented by a given CMOS process.Extensions . lambda can be scaled or reduced as the process matures. Solution First calculate ρs. lack of continuity. 9 × 10-4 Ω-cm ρ ρs = T = 3000 × 10-8 cm = 30 Ω/❑ The number of squares of resistance. Ignore any contact resistance.Widths . Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P. is 20µm L N = W = 0. etc. metal fracturing.Separations . Assume that ρ for polysilicon is 9 × 10-4 Ω-cm and polysilicon is 3000 Å thick. calculate ρs (in Ω/❑). • Minimum resolution of the design rules is typically half lambda. • In most processes.Overlaps • Design rules typically use a minimum feature dimension called “lambda”.E. Lambda is usually equal to the minimum channel length.8µm = 25 giving the total resistance as R = ρs × Ν = 30 × 25 = 750 Ω Digital Integrated Circuit Design ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) © P. These rules are necessary to avoid problems such as device misalignment.2003 .Resistance Calculation Given a polysilicon resistor like that drawn above with W=0. Design rules are expressed in terms of minimum dimensions such as minimum values of: .

..5V) White Metal Poly p-well n-substrate vout .E.... Buried n+ layer 2..ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 37 Example of the Physical Design Process CIRCUIT n+ p+ +5V Ground M2 vout (2.. Nitride passivation 12.... ... n-well 18. . . Poly 1 23.2003 ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 38 BiCMOS TECHNOLOGY Typical 0. Allen . . yy yy . . Allen . Metal 3 11.5µm BiCMOS Technology Masking Sequence: 13... . ...... ....... TEOS = Tetro-Ethyl-Ortho-Silicate.. A chemical compound used to deposit conformal oxide films.... .... Base oxide/implant 21. Collector tub 15. . ..E.. . p+ source/drain 4. .. Via 1 8. Active area 16. during the field oxidation. n+ source/drain 3. . PMOS lightly doped drain 1... FABRICATION LAYOUT Blue Green Black Red Orange .. Silicide protection 5... p-well 19...2003 . .. ... NMOS lightly doped drain Notation: BSPG = Boron and Phosphorus doped Silicate Glass (oxide) Kooi Nitride = A thin layer of silicon nitride on the silicon surface as a result of the reaction of silicon with the HN3 generated. ... .. Emitter implant 22... .5V) M1 M2 vin (2. Via 2 10.. Collector sinker 17... Emitter window 20.. Buried p+ layer 14. . Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P.. . Metal 2 9. . Metal 1 7.... . p+ M1 p+ n+ n+ p-well n-substr ate 031113-01 5V vin Digital Integrated Circuit Design n -s u b s a tr te © P. . Contacts 6.

ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 39 n+ and p+ Buried Layers Starting Substrate: 1µm p-substrate BiCMOS-01 5µm n+ and p+ Buried Layers: NPN Transistor n+ buried layer p+ buried layer PMOS Transistor NMOS Transistor n+ buried layer p+ buried layer 1µm p-substrate BiCMOS-02 5µm Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P.E. • In addition. Allen . Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P.E. Allen .2003 . it assumes the doping level of the substrate beneath it.2003 ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 40 Epitaxial Growth NPN Transistor n-well p-well n+ buried layer p+ buried layer PMOS Transistor NMOS Transistor n-well p-well n+ buried layer p-type Epitaxial Silicon p+ buried layer 1µm p-substrate BiCMOS-03 5µm Comment: • As the epi layer grows vertically. the high temperature of the epitaxial process causes the buried layers to diffuse upward and downward.

E. Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P.2003 ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 42 Active Area Definition NPN Transistor PMOS Transistor NMOS Transistor Nitride α-Silicon Collector Tub n+ buried layer p-well p+ buried layer n-well n+ buried layer p-well p-type Epitaxial Silicon p+ buried layer 1µm p-substrate BiCMOS-05 5µm Comment: • The silicon nitride is use to impede the growth of the thick oxide which allows contact to the substrate • α-silicon is used for stress relief and to minimize the bird’s beak encroachment Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P. Allen .ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 41 Collector Tub NPN Transistor Original Area of CollectorTub Implant PMOS Transistor Collector Tub n+ buried layer p-well p+ buried layer n-well n+ buried layer NMOS Transistor p-well p-type Epitaxial Silicon p+ buried layer 1µm p-substrate BiCMOS-04 5µm Comment: • The collector area is developed by an initial implant followed by a drive-in diffusion to form the collector tub.E. Allen .2003 .

Allen .E.e. Allen .E.2003 ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 44 Collector Sink and n-Well and p-Well Definitions FOX NPN Transistor Collector Sink FOX Collector Tub n+ buried layer PMOS Transistor Anti-Punch Through Threshold Adjust Field Oxide Field Oxide Field Oxide n-well p-well p+ buried layer NMOS Transistor Anti-Punch Through Threshold Adjust n+ buried layer p-well p-type Epitaxial Silicon p+ buried layer 1µm p-substrate BiCMOS-07 Digital Integrated Circuit Design 5µm © P.2003 . metal) from the substrate Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P.ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 43 Field Oxide FOX NPN Transistor FOX PMOS Transistor Field Oxide Collector Tub p-well n+ buried layer p+ buried layer NMOS Transistor Field Oxide n-well Field Oxide p-type Epitaxial Silicon p-well n+ buried layer p+ buried layer 1µm p-substrate BiCMOS-06 5µm Comments: • The field oxide is used to isolate surface structures (i.

Allen . Allen .E.2003 ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 46 Definition of the Emitter Window and Sub-Collector Implant NPN Transistor PMOS Transistor NMOS Transistor FOX FOX Sacrifical Oxide Field Oxide Field Oxide Field Oxide n-well p-well p-well Sub-Collector n+ buried layer p+ buried layer n+ buried layer p-type Epitaxial Silicon p+ buried layer 1µm p-substrate BiCMOS-09 Digital Integrated Circuit Design 5µm © P.2003 .ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 45 Base Definition FOX NPN Transistor FOX PMOS Transistor Field Oxide Collector Tub Field Oxide p+ buried layer Field Oxide n-well p-well n+ buried layer NMOS Transistor p-well n+ buried layer p-type Epitaxial Silicon p+ buried layer 1µm p-substrate BiCMOS-08 5µm Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P.E.

Allen . Allen .ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 47 Emitter Implant FOX NPN Transistor Emitter Implant FOX PMOS Transistor Field Oxide Collector Tub NMOS Transistor Field Oxide Field Oxide n-well p-well p-well Sub-Collector n+ buried layer p+ buried layer n+ buried layer p-type Epitaxial Silicon p+ buried layer 1µm p-substrate BiCMOS-10 5µm Comments: • The polysilicon above the base is implanted with n-type carriers Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P.E.2003 ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 48 Emitter Diffusion FOX FOX NPN Transistor PMOS Transistor Field Oxide NMOS Transistor Field Oxide Field Oxide n-well p-well p-well Emitter n+ buried layer p+ buried layer n+ buried layer p-type Epitaxial Silicon p+ buried layer 1µm p-substrate BiCMOS-11 5µm Comments: • The polysilicon not over the emitter window is removed and the n-type carriers diffuse into the base forming the emitter Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P.E.2003 .

Allen .E.2003 .ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 49 Formation of the MOS Gates and LD Drains/Sources FOX NPN Transistor FOX PMOS Transistor Field Oxide Field Oxide p+ buried layer Field Oxide n-well p-well n+ buried layer NMOS Transistor n+ buried layer p-well p-type Epitaxial Silicon p+ buried layer 1µm p-substrate BiCMOS-12 5µm Comments: • The surface of the region where the MOSFETs are to be built is cleared and a thin gate oxide is deposited with a polysilicon layer on top of the thin oxide • The polysilicon is removed over the source and drain areas • A light source/drain diffusion is done for the NMOS and PMOS (separately) Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P.2003 ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 50 Heavily Doped Source/Drain FOX FOX NPN Transistor PMOS Transistor Field Oxide Field Oxide p+ buried layer Field Oxide n-well p-well n+ buried layer NMOS Transistor n+ buried layer p-well p-type Epitaxial Silicon p+ buried layer 1µm p-substrate BiCMOS-13 5µm Comments: • The sidewall spacers prevent the heavy source/drain doping from being near the channel of the MOSFET Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P. Allen .E.

Allen .2003 ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 52 Contacts Tungsten Plugs FOX FOX Tungsten Plugs TEOS/BPSG/SOG Field Oxide Field Oxide p+ buried layer n+ buried layer TEOS/BPSG/SOG Field FieldOxide Oxide n-well p-well n+ buried layer Tungsten Plugs TEOS/BPSG/SOG p-well p-type Epitaxial Silicon p+ buried layer 1µm p-substrate BiCMOS-15 5µm Comments: • A dielectric is deposited over the entire wafer • One of the purposes of the dielectric is to smooth out the surface • Tungsten plugs are used to make electrical contact between the transistors and metal1 Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P.E.E.ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 51 Siliciding FOX NPN Transistor Silicide TiSi2 FOX PMOS Transistor Silicide TiSi2 Field Oxide Field Oxide p+ buried layer Field Oxide n-well p-well n+ buried layer NMOS Transistor Silicide TiSi2 n+ buried layer p-well p-type Epitaxial Silicon p+ buried layer 1µm p-substrate BiCMOS-14 5µm Comments: • Siliciding is used to reduce the resistance of the polysilicon and to provide ohmic contacts to the base. sources and drains Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P.2003 . collector. Allen . emitter.

2003 ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 54 Metal1-Metal2 Vias FOX FOX Tungsten Plugs TEOS/BPSG/SOG TEOS/BPSG/SOG Field Oxide Field Oxide p+ buried layer n+ buried layer TEOS/BPSG/SOG Field FieldOxide Oxide n-well p-well n+ buried layer Oxide/ SOG/ Oxide p-well p-type Epitaxial Silicon p+ buried layer 1µm p-substrate BiCMOS-17 Digital Integrated Circuit Design 5µm © P.E. Allen . Allen .E.2003 .ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 53 Metal1 FOX Metal1 FOX Metal1 TEOS/BPSG/SOG TEOS/BPSG/SOG Field Oxide Field Oxide p+ buried layer n+ buried layer TEOS/BPSG/SOG Field FieldOxide Oxide n-well p-well n+ buried layer Metal1 p-well p-type Epitaxial Silicon p+ buried layer 1µm p-substrate BiCMOS-16 5µm Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P.

E. Allen .ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 55 Metal2 Metal 2 FOX FOX Oxide/ SOG/ Oxide TEOS/BPSG/SOG TEOS/BPSG/SOG Field Oxide Field Oxide n+ buried layer p+ buried layer Field FieldOxide Oxide n-well p-well n+ buried layer TEOS/BPSG/SOG p-well p-type Epitaxial Silicon p+ buried layer 1µm p-substrate BiCMOS-18 5µm Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P.E. Allen .2003 .2003 ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 56 Metal2-Metal3 Vias TEOS/ BPSG/ SOG FOX FOX Oxide/ SOG/ Oxide TEOS/BPSG/SOG TEOS/BPSG/SOG Field Oxide Field Oxide n+ buried layer p+ buried layer Field FieldOxide Oxide n-well p-well n+ buried layer TEOS/BPSG/SOG p-well p-type Epitaxial Silicon p+ buried layer 1µm p-substrate BiCMOS-19 5µm Comments: • The metal2-metal3 vias will be filled with metal3 as opposed to tungsten plugs Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P.

2003 Page 58 SUMMARY • This section has illustrated the major process steps for a 0.13µm BiCMOS. Allen .E.63V λP ≈ 0.072 K’ = 34µA/V2 • Although today’s state of the art is 0.64V λN ≈ 0. n-channel FET: K’ = 127µA/V2 VT = 0. • The performance of the active devices are: npn bipolar junction transistor: βF = 100-140 BVCEO = 7V fT = 12GHz.5micron BiCMOS technology.25µm to 0.060 p-channel FET: VT = -0. the processing steps illustrated above approximate that which is done in a smaller geometry.E.2003 . Allen . Digital Integrated Circuit Design © P.ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) Page 57 Completed Wafer Nitride (Hermetically seals the wafer) Oxide/SOG/Oxide Metal3 Metal3 Vias TEOS/ BPSG/ SOG Oxide/ SOG/ Oxide TEOS/BPSG/SOG Field Oxide Field Oxide FOX FOX TEOS/BPSG/SOG n+ buried layer p+ buried layer Field FieldOxide Oxide n-well p-well n+ buried layer TEOS/BPSG/SOG p-well p-type Epitaxial Silicon p+ buried layer 1µm p-substrate BiCMOS-20 Digital Integrated Circuit Design ECE 4420 – CMOS Technology (12/11/03) 5µm © P.