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The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were nuclear attacks on the Empire of

Japan during World War II (WWII). The United States and the Allies were fighting against Japan and
slowly winning. Two nuclear bombs were dropped, one on the city of Hiroshima and one on the city
of Nagasaki. U.S. President Harry S. Truman ordered these attacks on August 6 and 9, 1945.[1] This
was near the end of WWII. The atomic bombs had been created through the Manhattan Project.
Nuclear bombs are much more powerful than other kinds of bombs.[2]
By the end of 1945, the bombs had killed as many as 140,000 people in Hiroshima and 80,000 in
Nagasaki.[3][4] (The generals wanted to bomb Kokura instead of Nagasaki, but it was too cloudy over
Kokura that day). In both of the bombed cities, most of the people who died were civilians, people
that are not soldiers.
One reason why the bombs killed so many people is because a lot of Japanese houses were made
of wood. When the bombs exploded, they made a lot of heat. The wooden buildings caught fire,
which spread quickly. The heat from the nuclear bombs and the fires burned many people. There
was also radiation poisoning from the nuclear bombs.
Six days after the explosion over Nagasaki, on August 15, Japan announced that it
was surrendering to the Allied Powers. Japan signed thesurrender paper on September 2. This
officially ended the Pacific War and World War II.
Some people say that the atomic bombs actually saved many lives. Without the bombs, the Allies
would have had to invade Japan to end the war. More people would have been killed on both sides
in a full battle in Japan. Allied generals believed that an invasion of Japan would have killed more
than a million people on each side. Others say that the bombings were evil and were not necessary.
They also call the bombings a war crime because so many civilians were killed, many of them with
slow, painful deaths. People still argue about this. No other nuclear bombs have ever been used to
kill men and children alike.
Partly because of the atomic bombings, after the war Japan adopted Three Non-Nuclear Principles.
These principles said that Japan could not create or try to get nuclear weapons.

Hiroshima Peace Memorial Ceremony
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hiroshima Peace Memorial Ceremony is an annual Japanese vigil.
Every August 6, "A-Bomb Day", the city of Hiroshima holds the Peace Memorial Ceremony to
console the victims of the atomic bombs and to pray for the realization of lasting world peace. The
ceremony is held in front of the Memorial Cenotaph in the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park.
Participants include the families of the deceased and people from all over the world.

21 kilotons or the equivalent of 21. and altered its course to Nagasaki. At 11. alone had killed over a hundred thousand people. caused relatively lesser devastation.200 lb (4. The atom bomb exploded almost directly above the Urakami Cathedral. By the end of May 1945 American fire-bombings of 66 cities of Japan had already decimated Japanese infrastructure. which to a great extent reduced the magnitude of the devastation. though bigger than the Hiroshima bomb of 15 kilotons. killed anywhere between half a million to a million people.02 am the 10. The city nestled in the two narrow elongated river valleys. and made 8.630 kg) plutonium bomb was detonated at 500 metres above ground level. which was the largest cathedral of East Asia of the time.884. The nuclear attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki were absolutely not necessary. where two rivers separated by a mountain flowed.Contents of the ceremony[edit]  Dedication of Water (by the citizen representatives of Hiroshima)  Opening  Dedication of the Register of the Names of the Fallen Atomic Bomb Victims  Address  Dedication of flowers  Silent Prayer and Peace Bell (for one minute from 8:15am)  The bell is rung by one representative of bereaved families and one representative of children  Peace Declaration (by Mayor of Hiroshima)  Release of Doves  Commitment to Peace (by Children's representatives)  Addresses (by Prime Minister of Japan and other visitors)  Hiroshima Peace Song  Closing Bock’s Car flew over the skies of Kokura but abandoned the target because of cloud cover.000 tons of TNT. and was seeking a method for surrender. The nuclear blast annihilated Nagasaki and killed 73. Nagasaki is literally ‘long peninsula’. the 9th of March 1945. because of the geographical features of the city of Nagasaki. Japanese through their contacts in . Fire-bombings of Tokyo in one night. partitioned by the mountain. The yield of the blast.5 million people homeless out of a total Japanese population of 73 million. Japan was already defeated.

” – Dr. so much so that every year the US collects an annual subscription of billions of dollars towards the upkeep of about 50. however. 200. we are not the first. Legacy of the twin tests of terror With these twin tests of terror.076 civilians of their host nation and ally. America colonised Japan for the next 60 years. He lived. lead a life of relative luxury.000 crimes over a period of 50 years averages to 4. acted and inspired by the vision of humanity evolving toward a world of peace and harmony. Jr.the neutral countries of Sweden and Switzerland. with whom Japan had a ‘no war’ pact. had already started discussions to negotiate an acceptable conditional surrender. “How can I make difference so that I may bring peace to this world that I love and cherish so much? A name flickers instantly in my mind. the American desire to demonstrate their military supremacy to the world. During their stay of fifty years between 1952 and 2004.” – Mahatma Gandhi . and the Soviet Union. in 1990/91 when America started the Gulf War to take control of the Middle Eastern oil fields. Gandhi is inescapable. and that is 11 crimes a day. Japan. Moreover.000 American troops (in 2007) stationed in various military bases across Japan. Teachings To Bring About World Peace “If humanity is to progress. However.000 crimes a year. was the reason behind the nuclear attacks. and not on Germany. these American soldiers in Japan have committed over 200. and the present article will justify our claims. American Secretary of War Henry Stimson and the American President were aware of the Japanese desires for surrender. The decision to drop atom bombs on Japan. particularly to their war time communist ally the Soviet Union. they demanded $10 billion from Japan as the Japanese contribution to the war. the American soldiers have developed a habit of raping Japanese teen-age school girls some even as young as 12. These 50. every day of the year for the last 50 years.000 crimes of all descriptions.000 uneducated semi-literate American soldiers who would otherwise be unemployed in the present recession ravaged declining economic environment of their native country. We have made strong statements. and Japan duly obliged. was motivated purely on considerations of race. In this sustained crime wave the American troops have killed 1. thought. Martin Luther King. To add insult to injury.

One is obtained by the fear of punishment and the other by acts of love. diversity. The . — Mahatma Gandhi Teaching # 2: What difference does it make to the dead. the orphans. Power based on love is a thousand times more effective and permanent then the one derived from fear of punishment. and the homeless. the orphans. and the homeless. whether the mad destruction is wrought under the name of totalitarianism or the holy name of liberty and democracy? Teaching # 2: What difference does it make to the dead. and harmony. self-determination. Gandhi.Teaching # 1: Power is of two kinds. whether the mad destruction is wrought under the name of totalitarianism or the holy name of liberty and democracy? Teaching # 4: An eye for an eye will only make the whole world blind — Mahatma Gandhi Teaching #5: We must become the change we want to see in the world. over a period of years. The Gandhi Peace Award is marked by a significant medallion and a certificate with an inscription summing up the work for peace of a distinguished citizen of the world. achieved through cooperative and non-violent means —in the spirit of Gandhi. a significant contribution to the promotion of an enduring international peace founded on justice. with his words “Love Ever Suffers/Never Revenges Itself” cast in bronze. The medallion features the profile of Mohandas K. compassion. — Mahatma Gandhi The Gandhi Peace Award nominees are distinguished by having made.

The Award is presented at a ceremony held approximately once a year. at which a distinguished peacemaker is recognized and given the opportunity to present a message of challenge and hope. He researched Gandhi at the library of the India House in New York City and by 1960 had carved a striking . At the Board of Director’s meeting on March 13. Dr. It is to be awarded “for contributions made in the promotion of international peace and good will. Jerome Davis. 1959. A famous New York sculptor.recipient’s name is added to a weighty carved statue of the Mahatma. he formally proposed that a yearly award be given to persons outstanding in their work for world peace. was commissioned to create a work of art to serve as the symbol of the Award. Don Benaron/Katz. the Gandhi Peace Award was conceived by the organization’s founder. Like all of the perennial activities of Promoting Enduring Peace (PEP).” The Award has always been presented in person to each recipient. in the early nineteen fifties.

and on the other a symbolic plowshare and pruning hook inspired by Isaiah 2:4″ They shall beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks. nation shall not lift up sword against nation. starting with one weapon at a time. “I carved the Gujarati word for peace on one side. He wrote. Beginning in 2012 the Gandhi Peace Award medallion was created by “From War to Peace“. At From War to Peace. neither shall they learn war any more.portrait of the founder of the century’s international movement for nonviolent change. they hope to see a demilitarized world in our lifetime. among them: Veterans for Peace. From War to Peace donates 20% of all profits to peace and social justice organizations committed to transforming our world. and that peace is triumph. They believe that war is failure. American materials that once sent launch signals to the most violent weapons ever created have been transformed to help launch peace in the 21st century. the National Peace Corps Association. . the most precious metal in our world. a California company that uses recycled copper from disarmed nuclear missile systems to create Peace Bronze.

com/info/Peace_Bronze) Excerpted from Peace Heroes: The Gandhi Peace Awards copyright 2002- 2010 by James Clement van Pelt.fromwartopeace.and the International Peace Bureau. . (http://www.