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FUNDAMENTALS OF

GEOMETRICAL OPTICS

VIRENDRA N. MAHAJAN

FUNDAMENTALS OF
GEOMETRICAL OPTICS

Virendra N. Mahajan

FUNDAMENTALS OF
GEOMETRICAL OPTICS

Virendra N. Mahajan
THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION
AND
COLLEGE OF OPTICAL SCIENCES - THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

SPIE PRESS
Bellingham, Washington USA

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Mahajan, Virendra N.
Fundamentals of geometrical optics / Virendra N. Mahajan.
pages cm
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-8194-9998-1
1. Geometrical optics--Study and teaching. 2. Optical instruments--Reliability--Study
and teaching. 3. Diffraction--Study and teaching. I. Title.
QC382.M34 2014
535'.32--dc23
2014010949

Published by
SPIE
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Copyright © 2014 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any
form or by any means without written permission of the publisher.
The content of this book reflects the work and thought of the author(s). Every effort has
been made to publish reliable and accurate information herein, but the publisher is not
responsible for the validity of the information or for any outcomes resulting from reliance
thereon.
Printed in the United States of America.
Second printing

To my wife

SHASHI PRABHA

FOREWORD
We are living in the most exciting time, so far, in the use and application
of the phenomenon of light, as we understand it. Optics is now an
important subject in many disciplines, and so competence in optics is at
issue. This volume provides the interested reader with a solid resource to
embark on learning about geometrical optics, which is the foundation of
imaging and non-imaging optics. Professor Virendra N. Mahajan provides
a clear and detailed discussion of essential topics for the understanding of
image formation.
Dr. Mahajan has significant experience teaching and writing about the
subject. He is well known in the optics community and has traveled
around the world, lecturing about optical imaging and aberrations; one of
his favorite topics is the use of Zernike polynomials in optics.
I have known Dr. Mahajan ever since he started teaching at the College of
Optical Sciences in 2005. He flew back and forth from Los Angeles to
Tucson every week to share his knowledge with students. I have also
enjoyed noticing the fine interest and polite interaction he has with his
optics colleagues.
From interacting with Dr. Mahajan over the years, it is apparent that
he is concerned with clearly connecting topics in geometrical optics to
provide students with a solid foundation. One example is his detailed
style in describing and deriving, say, the laws of geometrical optics and ray
tracing in 3D, and the evolution of Gaussian optics from them. Another
example is his insightful explanation of how the individual primary
aberration coefficients of a system of surfaces can be added directly
to form the overall system’s coefficients.
I wish that readers will benefit from Vini Mahajan's Fundamentals of
Geometrical Optics and treasure it as a favorite reference.
May 2014

José Sasián
College of Optical Sciences
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona

vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

FUNDAMENTALS OF
GEOMETRICAL OPTICS
Preface ............................................................................................................................ xix
Acknowledgment............................................................................................................ xxi
Symbols and Notation.................................................................................................. xxiii

CHAPTER 1: FOUNDATIONS OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS
1.1

Introduction ..............................................................................................................3

1.2

Sign Convention ....................................................................................................... 4

1.3

Fermat’s Principle....................................................................................................5

1.4

Rays and Wavefronts............................................................................................... 8

1.5

Laws of Geometrical Optics ..................................................................................10
1.5.1
1.5.2
1.5.3
1.5.4
1.5.5

1.6

Rectilinear Propagation ............................................................................. 10
Refraction in 2D ........................................................................................10
Reflection in 2D ........................................................................................12
Refraction in 3D ........................................................................................13
Reflection in 3D ........................................................................................15

Exact Ray Tracing ................................................................................................. 17
1.6.1
1.6.2
1.6.3
1.6.4
1.6.5
1.6.6
1.6.7
1.6.8
1.6.9
1.6.10

Ray Incident on a Spherical Surface..........................................................17
Rectilinear Propagation from the Object Plane to the
First Refracting Surface............................................................................. 18
Refraction of a Ray by a Spherical Refracting Surface............................. 19
Rectilinear Propagation from the First Refracting Surface to the Second 20
Reflection of a Ray by a Spherical Reflecting Surface ............................. 21
Conic Surface and Surface Normal ..........................................................22
Refraction of a Ray by a Conic Refracting Surface ..................................22
Reflection of a Ray by a Conic Reflecting Surface................................... 23
Tracing a Tangential Ray ..........................................................................24
Determining Wave and Ray Aberrations ..................................................24

L[

1.7

Paraxial Ray Tracing............................................................................................. 24
1.7.1
1.7.2
1.7.3
1.7.4
1.7.5
1.7.6
1.7.7
1.7.8

1.8

Gaussian Approximation and Imaging ................................................................28
1.8.1
1.8.2
1.8.3
1.8.4

1.9

Snell’s Law ................................................................................................25
Point on a Spherical Surface ......................................................................25
Distance between Two Points....................................................................25
Unit Vector along a Surface Normal ......................................................... 26
Unit Vector along a Ray ............................................................................26
Transfer of a Ray ....................................................................................... 26
Refraction of a Ray ....................................................................................27
Reflection of a Ray ....................................................................................27

Gaussian Approximation ........................................................................... 28
Gaussian Imaging by a Refracting Surface ............................................... 29
Gaussian Imaging by a Reflecting Surface................................................31
Gaussian Imaging by a Multisurface System ............................................34

Imaging beyond Gaussian Approximation ..........................................................34

1.10 Summary of Results ............................................................................................... 36
1.10.1
1.10.2
1.10.3
1.10.4

1.10.5
1.10.6

Sign Convention ........................................................................................36
Fermat’s Principle......................................................................................36
Laws of Geometrical Optics ......................................................................36
Exact Ray Tracing ..................................................................................... 37
1.10.4.1 Transfer Operation..................................................................... 37
1.10.4.2 Refraction Operation ................................................................. 37
1.10.4.3 Reflection Operation..................................................................38
1.10.4.4 Ray Tracing a Conic Surface..................................................... 39
1.10.4.5 Tracing a Tangential Ray ..........................................................39
Paraxial Ray Tracing ................................................................................. 39
Gaussian Optics ......................................................................................... 39
1.10.6.1 Gaussian Imaging by a Refracting Surface ............................... 39
1.10.6.2 Gaussian Imaging by a Reflecting Surface................................40

References ........................................................................................................................41
Problems ........................................................................................................................... 42

CHAPTER 2: REFRACTING SYSTEMS
2.1

Introduction ............................................................................................................45

2.2

Spherical Refracting Surface ................................................................................46
2.2.1
Gaussian Imaging Equation....................................................................... 46
2.2.2
Object and Image Spaces........................................................................... 50
2.2.3
Focal Lengths and Refracting Power ........................................................51
2.2.4
2.2.5
2.2.6

Magnifications and Lagrange Invariant..................................................... 53
Graphical Imaging ..................................................................................... 59
Newtonian Imaging Equation ....................................................................61
x

2.3

Thin Lens ................................................................................................................61
2.3.1
Gaussian Imaging Equation....................................................................... 61
2.3.2
Focal Lengths and Refracting Power ........................................................62
2.3.3
Magnifications and Lagrange Invariant..................................................... 66
2.3.4
Graphical Imaging ..................................................................................... 68
2.3.5
Newtonian Imaging Equation ....................................................................68
2.3.6
Image Throw..............................................................................................69
2.3.7
Thin Lens Not in Air..................................................................................71
2.3.8
Thin Lenses in Contact ..............................................................................73

2.4

General System....................................................................................................... 73
2.4.1
Introduction................................................................................................73
2.4.2
Cardinal Points and Planes ........................................................................75
2.4.3
Gaussian Imaging, Focal Lengths, and Magnifications ............................77
2.4.4
Nodal Points and Planes ............................................................................80
2.4.5
Newtonian Imaging Equation ....................................................................81
2.4.6
Graphical Imaging ..................................................................................... 81
2.4.7
Reference to Other Conjugate Planes ........................................................82
2.4.8
Comparison of Imaging by a General System and a Refracting Surface
or a Thin Lens ............................................................................................84
2.4.9
Determination of Cardinal Points ..............................................................85

2.5

Afocal Systems ........................................................................................................90
2.5.1
Introduction................................................................................................90
2.5.2
Lagrange Invariant for an Infinite Conjugate ............................................91
2.5.3
Imaging by an Afocal System....................................................................91

2.6

Plane-Parallel Plate ................................................................................................93
2.6.1
Introduction................................................................................................93
2.6.2
Imaging Relations ......................................................................................94

2.7

Petzval Image..........................................................................................................96
2.7.1
Spherical Refracting Surface ..................................................................... 96
2.7.2
General System ..........................................................................................98
2.7.3
Thin Lens ................................................................................................... 99

2.8

Misaligned Surface............................................................................................... 101
2.8.1
Decentered Surface ..................................................................................101
2.8.2
Tilted Surface ..........................................................................................102
2.8.3
Despaced Surface ....................................................................................104

2.9

Misaligned Thin Lens ..........................................................................................105
2.9.1
Decentered Lens ......................................................................................105
2.9.2
Tilted Lens ............................................................................................... 106
2.9.3
Despaced Lens ......................................................................................... 106

2.10 Anamorphic Imaging Systems ............................................................................107

[L

2.11 Summary of Results ............................................................................................. 109
2.11.1 Imaging Equations ................................................................................... 109
2.11.1.1 General System ........................................................................109
2.11.1.2 Refracting Surface ................................................................... 111
2.11.1.3 Thin Lens ................................................................................. 111
2.11.1.4 Afocal System..........................................................................112
2.11.1.5 Plane-Parallel Plate ..................................................................112
2.11.2 Petzval Image ..........................................................................................112
2.11.3 Misalignments..........................................................................................113
2.11.3.1 Misaligned Surface ..................................................................113
2.11.3.2 Misaligned Thin Lens ..............................................................113
2.11.4 Anamorphic Imaging Systems ................................................................113
Problems ......................................................................................................................... 115

CHAPTER 3: REFLECTING SYSTEMS
3.1

Introduction ..........................................................................................................119

3.2

Spherical Reflecting Surface (Spherical Mirror) ..............................................119
3.2.1
Gaussian Imaging Equation..................................................................... 119
3.2.2
Focal Length and Reflecting Power ........................................................121
3.2.3
Magnifications and the Lagrange Invariant............................................. 123
3.2.4
Graphical Imaging ................................................................................... 127
3.2.5
Newtonian Imaging Equation ..................................................................127

3.3

Two-Mirror Telescopes ....................................................................................... 129

3.4

Beam Expander ....................................................................................................133

3.5

Petzval Image........................................................................................................133
3.5.1
Single Mirror ........................................................................................... 133
3.5.2
Two-Mirror System ................................................................................. 135
3.5.3
System of k Mirrors ................................................................................. 136

3.6

Misaligned Mirror................................................................................................136
3.6.1
Decentered Mirror ................................................................................... 136
3.6.2
Tilted Mirror ............................................................................................137
3.6.3
Despaced Mirror ......................................................................................138

3.7

Misaligned Two-Mirror Telescope ..................................................................... 139
3.7.1
Decentered Secondary Mirror..................................................................139
3.7.2
Tilted Secondary Mirror ..........................................................................139
3.7.3
Despaced Secondary Mirror ....................................................................139

3.8

Summary of Results ............................................................................................. 141
3.8.1
Imaging by a Mirror ................................................................................141
3.8.2
Imaging by a Two-Mirror Telescope ......................................................142

Problems ......................................................................................................................... 144
xii

CHAPTER 4: PARAXIAL RAY TRACING
4.1

Introduction ..........................................................................................................147

4.2

Refracting Surface ............................................................................................... 148

4.3

General System..................................................................................................... 152
4.3.1
Determination of Cardinal Points ............................................................152
4.3.2
Combination of Two Systems ................................................................. 154

4.4

Thin Lens ..............................................................................................................155

4.5

Thick Lens ............................................................................................................159

4.6

Two-Lens System ................................................................................................. 162

4.7

Reflecting Surface (Mirror) ................................................................................165

4.8

Two-Mirror System ............................................................................................. 168
4.8.1
Focal Length ............................................................................................168
4.8.2
Obscuration ..............................................................................................170

4.9

Catadioptric System: Thin-Lens–Mirror Combination ................................... 172

4.10 Two-Ray Lagrange Invariant ............................................................................. 174
4.11 Summary of Results ............................................................................................. 177
4.11.1 Ray-Tracing Equations ............................................................................177
4.11.2 Thick Lens ............................................................................................... 179
4.11.3 Two-Lens System ....................................................................................180
4.11.4 Two-Mirror System ................................................................................. 180
4.11.5 Two-Ray Lagrange Invariant ..................................................................181
Problems ......................................................................................................................... 182

CHAPTER 5: STOPS, PUPILS, AND RADIOMETRY
5.1

Introduction ..........................................................................................................187

5.2

Stops, Pupils, and Vignetting ..............................................................................188
5.2.1
Introduction..............................................................................................188
5.2.2
Aperture Stop, and Entrance and Exit Pupils ..........................................188
5.2.3
Chief and Marginal Rays ......................................................................... 193
5.2.4
Vignetting ................................................................................................194
5.2.5
Size of an Imaging Element ....................................................................197
5.2.6
Telecentric Aperture Stop ........................................................................197
5.2.7
Field Stop, and Entrance and Exit Windows ........................................... 198

5.3

Radiometry of Point Object Imaging ................................................................. 200
5.3.1
Flux Received by an Aperture ................................................................. 200
5.3.2
Inverse-Square Law of Irradiance ........................................................... 201
5.3.3
Image Intensity ........................................................................................202

5.4

Radiometry of Extended Object Imaging ..........................................................204
5.4.1
Introduction..............................................................................................204
5.4.2
Lambertian Surface..................................................................................205
[LLL

5.4.3
5.4.4
5.4.5
5.4.6
5.4.7
5.4.8
5.4.9
5.4.10
5.4.11

Illumination by a Lambertian Disc ..........................................................206
Flux Received by an Aperture ................................................................. 208
Image Radiance ....................................................................................... 211
Image Irradiance: Aperture Stop in front of the System..........................213
Image Irradiance: Aperture Stop in back of the System ..........................216
Telecentric Systems ................................................................................. 218
Throughput ..............................................................................................218
Interrelations among Invariants in Imaging ............................................218
Concentric Systems ................................................................................. 219

5.5

Photometry ........................................................................................................... 220
5.5.1
Photometric Quantities and Spectral Response of the Human Eye......... 220
5.5.2
Imaging by the Human Eye ..................................................................... 223
5.5.3
Brightness of a Lambertian Surface ........................................................223

5.6

Summary of Results ............................................................................................. 224
5.6.1
Stops, Pupils, Windows, and Field of View ............................................224
5.6.2
Radiometry of Point Object Imaging ......................................................225
5.6.3
Radiometry of Extended Object Imaging ................................................226
5.6.3.1 Illumination by a Lambertian Disc............................................226
5.6.3.2 Image Radiance ......................................................................... 226
5.6.3.3 Image Irradiance........................................................................227
5.6.4
Visual Observations................................................................................. 228

References ......................................................................................................................229
Problems ......................................................................................................................... 230

CHAPTER 6: OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS
6.1

Introduction ..........................................................................................................235

6.2

Eye ......................................................................................................................... 235
6.2.1
Anatomy and Structure ............................................................................235
6.2.2
Paraxial Models ....................................................................................... 237
6.2.3
Accommodation ......................................................................................238
6.2.4
Visual Acuity ........................................................................................... 240
6.2.5
Spectacles (or Eyeglasses)....................................................................... 242

6.3

Magnifier ..............................................................................................................249

6.4

Microscope ............................................................................................................251

6.5

Telescope ............................................................................................................... 253

6.6

Ocular....................................................................................................................259

6.7

Telephoto Lens and Wide-Angle Camera ..........................................................259

6.8

Resolution ............................................................................................................. 261
6.8.1
Introduction..............................................................................................261
6.8.2
Airy Pattern..............................................................................................261
6.8.3
Rayleigh Criterion of Resolution............................................................. 263
[LY

6.8.4
6.8.5
6.8.6
6.8.7
6.9

Resolution of an Imaging System ............................................................266
Resolution of the Eye ..............................................................................268
Resolution of a Microscope ..................................................................... 269
Resolution of a Telescope........................................................................270

Pinhole Camera ....................................................................................................273

6.10 Summary of Results ............................................................................................. 275
6.10.1 Eye ........................................................................................................... 275
6.10.2 Magnifier ................................................................................................. 275
6.10.3 Microscope ..............................................................................................275
6.10.4 Telescope ................................................................................................. 276
6.10.5 Resolution ................................................................................................276
6.10.6 Pinhole Camera........................................................................................276
References ......................................................................................................................277
Problems ......................................................................................................................... 278

CHAPTER 7: CHROMATIC ABERRATIONS
7.1

Introduction ..........................................................................................................281

7.2

Refracting Surface ............................................................................................... 281

7.3

Thin Lens ..............................................................................................................285

7.4

Plane-Parallel Plate ..............................................................................................288

7.5

General System..................................................................................................... 292

7.6

Doublet ..................................................................................................................295
7.6.1
Lenses of Different Materials ..................................................................296
7.6.2
Lenses of the Same Material....................................................................297
7.6.3
Doublet with Two Separated Components ..............................................301
7.6.4
Thin-Lens Doublet................................................................................... 302

7.7

Summary of Results ............................................................................................. 305
7.7.1
General System ........................................................................................305
7.7.2
Thin Lens ................................................................................................. 306
7.7.3
Plane-Parallel Plate ..................................................................................307
7.7.4
Doublet ....................................................................................................307

References ......................................................................................................................310
Problems ......................................................................................................................... 311

CHAPTER 8: MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS
8.1

Introduction ..........................................................................................................315

8.2

Wave and Ray Aberrations ................................................................................. 316
8.2.1
Definitions ............................................................................................... 316
8.2.2
Relationship between Wave and Ray Aberrations ..................................320
[Y

8.3

Wavefront Defocus Aberration ..........................................................................322

8.4

Wavefront Tilt Aberration ..................................................................................325

8.5

Aberrations of a Rotationally Symmetric System............................................. 326
8.5.1
Explicit Dependence on Object Coordinates........................................... 326
8.5.2
No Explicit Dependence on Object Coordinates ..................................... 329

8.6

Additivity of Primary Aberrations ..................................................................... 331
8.6.1
Introduction..............................................................................................331
8.6.2
Primary Wave Aberrations ......................................................................332
8.6.3
Transverse Ray Aberrations ....................................................................335
8.6.4
Off-Axis Point Object ..............................................................................336
8.6.5
Higher-Order Aberrations........................................................................337

8.7

Strehl Ratio and Aberration Balancing ............................................................. 337
8.7.1
Strehl Ratio ..............................................................................................337
8.7.2
Aberration Balancing............................................................................... 338

8.8

Zernike Circle Polynomials................................................................................. 340
8.8.1
Introduction..............................................................................................340
8.8.2
Polynomials in Optical Design ................................................................341
8.8.3
Polynomials in Optical Testing ............................................................... 345
8.8.4
Characteristics of Polynomial Aberrations ..............................................349
8.8.4.1 Isometric Characteristics ........................................................... 349
8.8.4.2 Interferometric Characteristics ..................................................350

8.9

Relationship between Zernike Polynomials and Classical Aberrations ......... 352
8.9.1
Introduction..............................................................................................352
8.9.2
Wavefront Tilt Aberration ....................................................................... 352
8.9.3
Wavefront Defocus Aberration................................................................353
8.9.4
Astigmatism............................................................................................. 353
8.9.5
Coma ........................................................................................................354
8.9.6
Spherical Aberration ................................................................................355
8.9.7
Seidel Coefficients from Zernike Coefficients ........................................355

8.10 Aberrations of an Anamorphic System ..............................................................356
8.10.1 Introduction..............................................................................................356
8.10.2 Classical Aberrations ............................................................................... 357
8.10.3 Polynomial Aberrations Orthonormal over a Rectangular Pupil ............358
8.10.4 Expansion of a Rectangular Aberration Function in Terms of
Orthonormal Rectangular Polynomials ................................................... 360
8.11 Observation of Aberrations ................................................................................363
8.11.1 Primary Aberrations ................................................................................364
8.11.2 Interferograms..........................................................................................364
8.11.3 Random Aberrations ................................................................................369
8.12 Summary of Results ............................................................................................. 370
8.12.1 Wave and Ray Aberrations ......................................................................370
8.12.2 Wavefront Defocus Aberration................................................................370
[YL

8.12.3
8.12.4
8.12.5
8.12.6

8.12.7
8.12.8

Wavefront Tilt Aberration ....................................................................... 370
Primary Aberrations ................................................................................371
Strehl Ratio and Aberration Balancing ....................................................371
Zernike Circle Polynomials ..................................................................... 371
8.12.6.1 Use of Zernike Polynomials in Wavefront Analysis ............... 371
8.12.6.2 Polynomials in Optical Design ................................................371
8.12.6.3 Zernike Primary Aberrations ................................................... 372
8.12.6.4 Polynomials in Optical Testing ............................................... 373
8.12.6.5 Isometric and Interferometric Characteristics ......................... 374
Relationship between Zernike and Seidel Coefficients ........................... 374
Aberrations of an Anamorphic System....................................................374

Appendix: Combination of Two Zernike Polynomial Aberrations with the
Same n Value and Varying as cos mqq and sin mqq ................................. 376
References ......................................................................................................................377
Problems ......................................................................................................................... 378

CHAPTER 9: SPOT SIZES AND DIAGRAMS
9.1

Introduction ..........................................................................................................381

9.2

Theory ................................................................................................................... 381

9.3

Application to Primary Aberrations ..................................................................384
9.3.1
Spherical Aberration ................................................................................384
9.3.2
Coma ........................................................................................................391
9.3.3
Astigmatism and Field Curvature ............................................................394
9.3.4
Field Curvature and Depth of Focus........................................................402
9.3.5
Distortion ................................................................................................. 404

9.4

Balanced Aberrations for the Minimum Spot Sigma ....................................... 408

9.5

Spot Diagrams ......................................................................................................410

9.6

Aberration Tolerance and a Golden Rule of Optical Design ........................... 415

9.7

Summary of Results ............................................................................................. 416
9.7.1
Spherical Aberration ............................................................................... 416
9.7.2
Coma ....................................................................................................... 416
9.7.3
Astigmatism and Field Curvature ........................................................... 416
9.7.4
Field Curvature and Defocus ................................................................... 417
9.7.5
Distortion ................................................................................................418
9.7.6
Aberration Tolerance ............................................................................... 418
9.7.7
A Golden Rule of Optical Design............................................................418

References ......................................................................................................................419
Problems ......................................................................................................................... 420

[YLL

.........................426 E4...........................................................................................................................430 E9 Aberration Tolerance and a Golden Rule of Optical Design ...........................................................433 Bibliography........ 423 E4 Gaussian Optics ................................................................................................427 E6..............................................................................................................424 E4...........................................................430 E8 Anamorphic Imaging Systems ..........................EPILOGUE E1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................424 E4...........................................................................429 E6.....................................................................................................................3 Cardinal Points .......................................5 Lagrange Invariant.................3 Spot Size and Aberration Balancing ..................428 E6...........................................................................................................2 Primary Aberrations .............................................423 .............429 E7 Reflecting Systems................7 Petzval Image ..............................................431 References ....................1 Wave and Ray Aberrations ...... E3 Ray Tracing: Exact and Paraxial .......6 Matrix Approach to Gaussian Imaging............................................................... 426 E4.................................................... 425 E4...............423 E2 Principles of Geometrical Optics and Imaging................................................................................................................ 437 [YLLL .........................8 Field of View .....................................426 E4............. 435 Index ...........................1 Tangent Plane or Paraxial Surface .2 Sign Convention .............424 E4.........................................................................................................................9 Chromatic Aberrations ............................424 E4.......................427 E6 Image Quality .........426 E5 Image Brightness .................................. 427 E6....................................................................................................... 431 E10 General Comments .............4 Graphical Imaging ............................................................................................................................................ 425 E4..............................................4 Strehl Ratio and Aberration Balancing ..........................................................................................

and Part III: Wavefront Analysis). The most common and interesting among them is the eye. A brief discussion of photometry is also given. Imaging by reflecting systems is discussed in Chapter 3. ray tracing. and spot diagrams.” all published by SPIE Press. The resolution of such common optical instruments is discussed based on Rayleigh’s criterion of resolution. vignetting of rays by them for off-axis point objects. and contains some new material. Stops. How to determine the aperture stop of a system and its images in the object and image spaces.PREFACE Portions of this book have their origin in the author’s lectures given as an adjunct professor in the electrical engineering/electrophysics department of the University of Southern California from about 1984 to 1998. The primary aberrations of simple systems. Geometrical optics is fundamental to optical imaging. In Chapter 2. Some of the familiar optical instruments such as the eye. which is discussed in detail. optical aberrations. magnifier. i. The imaging equations obtained in Chapters 2 and 3 are rederived in Chapter 4 by using the paraxial ray-tracing equations. and those for paraxial ray tracing are obtained from them as an approximation. pupils. radiometry. such as a thin lens or a two-mirror telescope. invariance of the radiance of a ray bundle as it is refracted or reflected. states the Fermat’s principle. the entrance and exit pupils. Afocal systems. It is a precursor to the author’s “Optical Imaging and Aberrations books (Part I: Ray Geometrical Optics. as applied to astronomical telescopes. and obscurations in mirror systems. The intensity of the image of a point object. The book can be used as a textbook for a senior undergraduate or a firstyear graduate class. Imaging by an anamorphic system is briefly considered. The focus is on Gaussian imaging. and derives the three laws of geometrical optics from it. and radiometry are discussed in Chapter 5. microscope. Also discussed is how the Gaussian image is displaced due to a misalignment of a surface or a thin lens. and for a general imaging system. and telephoto and wide-angle camera lenses are discussed. It is an expanded yet simplified version of some of the material from Part I. and the irradiance distribution of the image of an extended object in terms of its radiance distribution are discussed. These laws are used to obtain the equations for exact ray tracing. thus [L[ .e. is described. Part II: Wave Diffraction Optics. The latter equations are used to obtain the basic equations of Gaussian optics. The Petzval image describing the defocus error of the Gaussian image of an off-axis point object is considered. The equations thus obtained are applied to derive the imaging equations for a thin lens. telescope. and pinhole camera are addressed in Chapter 6. It starts with the sign convention of Cartesian geometry. including Gaussian imaging by two-mirror telescopes. Chapter 1 lays out its foundations. that are derived in Part I are not discussed here.. basic optical instruments. the Gaussian and Newtonian imaging equations are derived for a refracting surface using the small angle approximation of Snell’s law. These ray-tracing equations are also used to determine the size of the imaging elements.

California Virendra N. which are an integral part of the book. and the golden rule of optical design is described. i. The wave and ray aberrations are introduced. which gives a summary of the imaging process. They help develop and test how to apply the results obtained in a chapter to practical situations. El Segundo. The aberrations are also discussed in terms of the Zernike circle polynomials because of their widespread use in optical design and testing.necessitating a brief discussion of the aberration-free diffraction image of a point object. This section is written to be comprehensive enough that it can be read on its own without reading the whole chapter. and outlines the next steps within and beyond geometrical optics. and the balancing of wave aberrations to minimize their variance is discussed. The book ends with an epilogue. The aberration tolerances for primary aberrations based on their spot radius are derived. The chromatic aberrations of a system are discussed in Chapter 7. The monochromatic aberrations of a system with an emphasis on primary aberrations are considered in Chapter 8. The spot sizes and diagrams for primary aberrations are addressed in Chapter 9. a plane-parallel plate. the Airy pattern. and a simple derivation of the relationship between them is given.. The Strehl ratio of an image as a measure of its quality is introduced. A refracting surface. Each chapter ends with a set of problems. a thin lens. Mahajan April 2014 [[ . and a doublet are considered as simple examples of systems. The content of each chapter is summarized in its last section.e. The aberrations of an anamorphic imaging system are also discussed. Aberration balancing for minimum standard deviation of the ray distribution of an image spot is discussed.

Pantazis Mouroulis and Brian Stone. I had useful discussions about the human eye with my son. who is a retina surgeon. I am pleased to acknowledge the generous support I have received over the years from my employer. Shashi Prabha. and two anonymous reviewers. Swantner for his advice on this work. in preparing this book. My special thanks go to Professor José Sasián for writing the Foreword. William H. [[L . for tolerating my time away from her while I was busy writing this book.ACKNOWLEDGMENT Once again. Vinit Bharati. Finally. My thanks to Drs. and I dedicate it to her. The Aerospace Corporation. for reading a draft of the book and providing useful feedback. I do not have enough words to thank my wife. Scott has meticulously upgraded some of the figures. Of course. This is the last of my five books on optical imaging and aberrations. I am the only one responsible for any shortcomings or errors in the book. xxv was provided by Professor Sally Sutherland of the University of California at Berkeley. I thank SPIE Press Editor Scott McNeill and Press Manager Tim Lamkins for their quality support in bringing this book to publication. The Sanskrit verse on p. including the color figures on chromatic aberrations. I am grateful to my former classmate Dr.

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SYMBOLS AND NOTATION a radius of exit pupil q shape factor ai aberration coefficient R radius of curvature of a surface or reference sphere Ai peak aberration coefficient AS aperture stop CR chief ray e eccentricity EnP entrance pupil EnW entrance window ExP exit pupil ExW exit window Rnm (ρ) Zernike radial polynomial s entrance-pupil distance s′ exit-pupil distance S object distance S′ image distance t thickness V Abbe number.θ polar coordinates of a point K power of a system λ optical wavelength L image distance from exit pupil (ξ. y) a normalized rectangular coordinates m pupil-image magnification M object-image magnification ρ = r / a normalized radial coordinate in the pupil plane MR marginal ray n refractive index OA optical axis p ray or field angle σF standard deviation of figure errors σs ray spot sigma σW standard deviation of wave aberration position factor Φ phase aberration P point object ψ angular deviation of ray P′ Gaussian image point (−) x numerically negative quantity x xxiii . focal point. y rectangular coordinates of a point z sag. η) = ( x. object or observation distance z′ image distance f focal length F focal ratio or f-number. spectral response W wave aberration x. flux GR general ray h object height h′ image height ∆R longitudinal defocus H principal point r.

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gunasannipate . as the moon’s dark spot is lost among its rays. kiranesvivankah .3 [[Y . . The snow does not diminish the beauty of the Himalayan mountains which are the source of countless gems. one flaw is lost among a host of virtues.Anantaratnaprabhavasya yasya himam . Kalidasa Kumarasambhava 1. Indeed. na saubhagyavilopi jatam ˙ . Eko hi doso nimajjatindoh.

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..........................................................3 1..................................................22 Refraction of a Ray by a Conic Refracting Surface ...10 Reflection in 2D .27 Reflection of a Ray ........25 Unit Vector along a Surface Normal ......................................................... 10 Refraction in 2D .................... 18 Refraction of a Ray by a Spherical Refracting Surface..........................7..............8 Snell’s Law ...10 1.....25 Distance between Two Points...................6............6.......................................................... 8 1...2 1....3 Fermat’s Principle.22 Reflection of a Ray by a Conic Reflecting Surface.......................3 1........ 26 Unit Vector along a Ray ....5 1...........9 1...........25 Point on a Spherical Surface .......................................................................CHAPTER 1 FOUNDATIONS OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS 1....................................7................6 Exact Ray Tracing ...6................7 Rectilinear Propagation ....7 1.... 4 1............................................. 23 Tracing a Tangential Ray ............ 21 Conic Surface and Surface Normal .............5...........................5................................26 Transfer of a Ray ....................7......................................................15 Ray Incident on a Spherical Surface...........5.................................................................4 1..............7...........4 1... 26 Refraction of a Ray .....................................................6 1..........................7........................................................4 1........................................6 1..................5 1.............................................................1 Introduction .........................................2 1..................3 1...........................7....6.......6.........................................................4 Rays and Wavefronts....................10 1.5 Laws of Geometrical Optics ............................. 19 Rectilinear Propagation from the First Refracting Surface to the Second 20 Reflection of a Ray by a Spherical Reflecting Surface ........5........6.................6..................................................................................................................1 1...........5..............................................................................8 1..........7...........................................................................................................................................6......... 24 1.................................................................................................................3 1. 17 1....2 1...........1 1...........................................................................6.............13 Reflection in 3D .....17 Rectilinear Propagation from the Object Plane to the First Refracting Surface .....................2 Sign Convention ..........................................1 1...5 1..........................6..................24 Paraxial Ray Tracing...........................................................................................24 Determining Wave and Ray Aberrations ........5 1..................12 Refraction in 3D ..............7 1.............................7..................27 1 .....

......3 Reflection Operation.......10...............................................................3 1.2 1......4 1.......28 1.....................................................39 Paraxial Ray Tracing ...10................................................10..................4 1.............................................4.....................2 Refraction Operation .....................2 1...... 42 ....6 Sign Convention ..........................................................8................38 1.....................................10........................36 Fermat’s Principle............ 39 1..............................................................................................1 1.......4.......36 Exact Ray Tracing .....10............41 Problems ...........................8 FOUNDATIONS OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS Gaussian Approximation and Imaging .10 Summary of Results . 36 1.............10...........................2 1...........................................................................8..................................10..........4.............40 References ................. 29 Gaussian Imaging by a Reflecting Surface.............................................................3 1.........5 Tracing a Tangential Ray ..1 1...31 Gaussian Imaging by a Multisurface System ........1 Transfer Operation....................................... 37 1..................................................10.......................................8..................8.............6......................... 28 Gaussian Imaging by a Refracting Surface ................................................4...............4 Ray Tracing a Conic Surface.......... 37 1....................34 1...............2 Gaussian Imaging by a Reflecting Surface.................1 Gaussian Imaging by a Refracting Surface ...............................................34 Imaging beyond Gaussian Approximation ..............................10..................................................................4..........................................................................5 1..9 Gaussian Approximation ............................................................... 37 1... 39 1...........10.............36 Laws of Geometrical Optics .10. 39 1............6.........10............................................ 39 Gaussian Optics ..............10...........

We discuss Fermat’s principle that the optical path length of a ray from one point to another is stationary. Their direction of propagation indicates the direction of the flow of light energy. light is described by rays that propagate according to three laws: rectilinear propagation. and any diagonal distances are approximated by the corresponding axial distances. The assumption or approximation of small angles is referred to as the Gaussian or the paraxial (meaning near the optical axis) approximation. refraction. Gauss gave an extremely useful approximation to the exact theory. Because of the rotational symmetry. For rays and normals to the refracting and reflecting surfaces making small angles with the optical axis. The rays traced in this approximation are called paraxial rays and the corresponding method of ray tracing is referred to as paraxial ray tracing. the sines and tangents of the angles of the rays with the optical axis are replaced by the angles. A distinction is made sometimes between Gaussian and paraxial optics in that paraxial optics is a limiting case of Gaussian optics in which the angles are infinitesimal quantities.1 INTRODUCTION In geometrical optics. The purpose of exact ray tracing is to determine the aberrations of a system consisting of a series of refracting and/or reflecting surfaces that generally have a common axis of rotational symmetry called the optical axis. The image of an object obtained according to geometrical optics in the Gaussian approximation is called the Gaussian image. They are not a physical entity in the sense that we cannot isolate a ray. or refraction or reflection of the ray by the surface. only rays lying in the plane containing the optical axis and the point object under consideration need to be considered to determine the Gaussian image. Its surfaces bend light rays from an object according to the three laws to form its image. These laws are used to obtain ray-tracing equations representing the propagation of a ray exactly from a certain point to a point on a refracting or a reflecting surface. Such a system is called a centered or a rotationally symmetric system. Such a plane is called the tangential (or 3 . Gaussian optics or imaging relates the object distance and size to the image distance and size through the parameters of the imaging system such as the radii of curvature of the surfaces and refractive indices of the media between them. and propagation of the refracted or reflected ray to the next surface. refraction by a refracting surface. We begin this chapter with a brief introduction of the Cartesian sign convention for the distances and heights of the object and image points. They are normal to a wavefront. and the angles of incidence and refraction or reflection and slope angles of the rays. and derive the laws of rectilinear propagation in a homogeneous medium. yet they are very convenient for describing the process of imaging by a system. In this approximation.Chapter 1 Foundations of Geometrical Optics 1. and reflection. and reflection by a reflecting surface (first in 2D and then in 3D).

and rays lying in this plane are called tangential (or meridional) rays. which shows the imaging of an object by a refracting surface of radius of curvature R separating media of refractive indices n and n ¢ . 1.4 FOUNDATIONS OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS meridional) plane. R is numerically positive in Figure 1-1. The angles q and q ¢ of the incident and refracted rays P0 Q and QP¢0 from the surface normal QC are both positive in Figure 1-1. The object distance S and image height h ¢ are numerically negative in Figure 1-1. regardless of whether the object or the image is real or virtual. Klein and Furtak [5]. However. A designer must choose the shapes and materials of the imaging elements that balance their chromatic and monochromatic aberrations to produce an image of acceptable quality across the field of view of the system.2 SIGN CONVENTION Although there is no universally accepted standard sign convention. we will use the Cartesian sign convention [1]. The radius of curvature of a surface is treated as the distance of its center of curvature from its vertex. 2. The role of an optical designer is to design an imaging system so that it can form an image of a certain size at a certain location. 4. Distances to the right of and above (left of and below) a reference point are positive (negative). They are illustrated with the aid of Figure 1-1. by Jenkins and White [4]. the angles f and b ¢0 of the surface normal and the refracted ray from the optical axis OA are both numerically negative. for example. Its rules. and Hecht and Zajac [6].e. . i. Given the radiance of an extended object or the intensity of a point object. Thus. is the expected quality of the image. 1. given the object size and location. but a design must satisfy. Light is incident on an imaging system from left to right. The acute angle of a ray from the optical axis or from the surface normal is positive (negative) if it is counterclockwise (clockwise). The object P0 P has a height of h and lies at a distance S from the surface. 3. A quantity of paramount interest that is beyond Gaussian optics.. and object height h and image distance S ¢ are numerically positive. Our sign convention is the same as that used by Mouroulis and Macdonald [2] and Welford [3]. It has the advantage that there are no special rules to remember other than those of a right-handed Cartesian coordinate system. it is positive (negative) when the center of curvature lies to the right (left) of the vertex. Its image P0¢P ¢ has a height of h ¢ and lies at a distance S ¢ . the designer chooses the sizes of the imaging elements that yield an image of some prescribed irradiance or intensity. Those rays that intersect this plane are called skew rays. but it is different from the sign convention used. as they apply to the quantities encountered in Gaussian optics. are listed below. Gaussian optics is also used to determine the extent of the object that can be imaged. it is used to determine the field of view of the system.

Throughout the book. 5. the refractive index of a medium is the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to its corresponding value in the medium. respectively. Gaussian imaging by a convex spherical refracting surface of radius of curvature R separating media of refractive indices n and n ¢ . Because the time taken by a ray is inversely proportional to the speed of light in a medium. The angles q and q ¢ are the angles of the incident and refracted rays P0 Q and P0¢Q . 1. the principle may also be stated as follows: The optical path length of a ray in traveling from one point to another along its actual path is stationary. where the optical path length is equal to the geometrical path length multiplied by the refractive index. The negative distance is consistent with the sign convention for the distance. The optical path length is stationary in the sense that any deviation of the path from the actual that is of first order in small quantities produces a deviation in the optical path length that is at least of second order in small quantities. and a negative refractive index results from the negative wave velocity. By definition. from the surface normal QC at the point of incidence Q. then the refractive index and the spacing between two adjacent surfaces are given a negative sign.3 FERMAT’S PRINCIPLE Fermat’s principle states that the time a ray takes in traveling from one point to another along its actual path is stationary with respect to small changes of that path. The off-axis point object P lies at a height h from the optical axis. Numerically negative quantities are indicated by a negative parenthetical sign (–). where V is the vertex of the surface and C is its center of curvature. .) .1. such as when it is reflected by an odd number of mirrors. VC is the optical axis OA of the surface.3 Fermat’s Principle n 5 n¢ Q q P (–)f h b0 q¢ (–)b¢0 V P0 OA C P¢0 (–)h¢ P¢ R (–)S S¢ Figure 1-1. which in turn is inversely proportional to its refractive index. The slope angles of these rays from the optical axis are  0 and  ¢0 . any quantities that are numerically negative are indicated in the figures by a parenthetical negative sign ( . Its image P ¢ lies at a height h ¢ . The axial point object P0 lies at a distance S. where n ¢ > n. and its image P0¢ lies at a distance S ¢ from V. When light travels from right to left.

(1-1b) where ds and ds¢ are the differential elements of path length along the actual and neighboring virtual rays. so that the two paths deviate by no more than a small quantity  . (1-1b) that ( ) ∂W lim  Æ 0 ∂ = 0 . as indicated in Figure 1-2. This may be seen from the properties of an ellipse (or ellipsoid). (1-2b) P1 where d indicates a differential variation. (1-2a) Equation (1-2a) may also be written P2 d Ú nds = 0 . as illustrated in Figure 1-3.Ú nds ( ) = O 2 . n is the corresponding refractive index. It is clear from Eq. respectively. and O  2 indicates a function that depends on  through  2 and/or higher powers of  . . The actual path is indicated by a solid line. and the two paths deviate from each other by no more than a small quantity  at any point along the path. the two optical path lengths are equal. or all of the rays may have equal optical path lengths. Thus. up to the first order in  . An ellipse has the property (see Figure 1-3a) that the sum of the distances of a ' P2 ds¢ ds P1 Figure 1-2.6 FOUNDATIONS OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS If we consider the actual and neighboring paths of a ray in going from a point P1 to a point P2 . The actual and virtual paths of a ray in going from a point P1 to a point P2 . The optical path length of an actual ray compared to those of the neighboring virtual rays may be a maximum or a minimum. then the difference in their optical path lengths is given by P2 P2 P1 P1 (1-1a) W ( ) = Ú nds¢ .

for a plane mirror that is a tangent to the ellipse at the point P. where the square brackets indicate an optical path length. Stationarity of optical path length. [ F1 PF2 ] = [ F1QF2 ] . for example. according to the law of reflection derived later in this section. the optical path length [ F1 PF2 ] of the actual ray will be a minimum compared with any neighboring optical path length. (a) [ F1 PF2 ] = [ F1 QF2 ] for the ellipsoidal mirror. Thus. . Moreover. such as [ F1 RF2 ] .1. However. (b) [ F1 PF2 ] is a maximum for the concave mirror.3 Fermat’s Principle R 7 P Q qr (–)qi (a) F1 F2 N Q P R (b) F1 F2 Q (c) F1 R P F2 Figure 1-3. point P on it from its geometrical foci F1 and F2 is independent of its location. and their optical path lengths are equal to each other. if we place a point source at the focus F1 of an ellipsoidal mirror. the angles made by the lines F1 P and F2 P with the normal PN to the ellipse at P are equal. [ F1 PF2 ] is a minimum for the plane mirror. (c) [ F1 PF2 ] is a minimum for the convex mirror. Thus. all of the rays from it pass through F2 after reflection by the mirror.

the optical path length [ AQA¢ ] of the virtual ray AQA¢ may be written [ AQA¢ ] ( ) = [ AVA ¢ ] + O 2 . it is a surface of constant phase. Their direction of propagation indicates the direction of flow of the light energy. light is described by rays that propagate according to three laws discussed in the next section: rectilinear propagation. In this case. Using Fermat’s principle. Accordingly. having a common tangent with the ellipse at the point P. and reflection. if we consider the concave mirror shown dashed in Figure 1-3b so that it has a common tangent and therefore a common normal with the ellipse at the point. then the optical path length of the actual ray F1 PF2 is a minimum compared with the neighboring virtual rays. we obtain [ AQA¢ ] ( ) = [ BQB ¢ ] + O 2 . we have [ AVA ¢ ] = [ BQB¢ ] . a wavefront W ¢ is obtained. (1-4) where V and Q are the points of incidence of two neighboring rays PAV and PBQ. refraction. (1-5a) into Eq.4 RAYS AND WAVEFRONTS In geometrical optics. In a uniform medium. then the optical path length of the actual ray F1 PF2 is a maximum compared with the neighboring virtual (in the sense of fictitious) rays. yet they are very convenient for describing the process of imaging by a system. Because BQ is perpendicular to the wavefront W at the point B. (1-4). We note. When these rays are refracted by a refracting surface S so that they all travel equal optical path lengths. (1-5b) . They are not a physical entity in the sense that we cannot isolate a ray. Substituting Eq. The optical path length of a ray in a certain medium is equal to its geometrical path length times the refractive index of the medium. (1-3a) Moreover. Let W be a spherical wavefront of rays emanating from a point object P. which states that a set of rays that are orthogonal to a wavefront remains so after refraction by a refracting surface. the rays are orthogonal to the wavefront at the points of their intersection. From Fermat’s principle. we derive the Malus–Dupin theorem. that [ F1 RF2 ] < [ F1QF2 ] = [ F1 PF2 ] . By definition of the wavefronts. (1-5a) where  = VQ is a small quantity. for example. A surface passing through the end points of rays that have traveled equal optical path lengths from a point object is called an optical wavefront. [ F1 RF2 ] > [ F1QF2 ] = [ F1 PF2 ] .8 FOUNDATIONS OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS Similarly. if we consider a convex mirror as in Figure 1-3c. as illustrated in Figure 1-4. (1-3b) 1.

It should be noted that although the incident wavefront W is spherical with its center of curvature at P. (1-5b). If the wavefront W ¢ is not spherical. showing that rays such as BQ that are perpendicular to the wavefront W remain perpendicular to the wavefront W ¢ after refraction. For example. and the points P and P ¢ are called a Cartesian pair or perfect conjugates. and the distances of the points of intersection of the rays from P ¢ in an image plane passing through it are called the transverse ray aberrations. mutually balancing their aberrations to yield wavefronts in the image space that are close to being spherical over a wide region of the object space. If W ¢ is spherical with its center of curvature at P ¢ . (1-6b) or the ray QB¢ is perpendicular to the wavefront W ¢ at the point B¢. the refracted wavefront W ¢ may or may not be spherical. an ellipsoidal mirror is a Cartesian surface for a point object placed at one of its two geometrical focii (see Problem 1. The distribution of rays in the image plane is called a spot diagram.1). an alternative definition of a perfect image is that all of the rays pass through the image point P ¢ . we are generally interested in forming images of extended objects. The task of a lens designer is to design systems with as few surfaces as possible. then S is called a Cartesian surface. an ellipsoidal refracting surface with an eccentricity e = n n¢ separating media of refractive indices n and n ¢ is a Cartesian surface for a collimated beam (see Problem 1. Because the rays are perpendicular to the wavefront. [ AQ] ( ) = [ BQ] + O  2 . .4 Rays and Wavefronts n 9 n¢ Q B¢ B A P A¢ V P¢ W¢ W S Figure 1-4. (1-6a) from Eq. If the wavefront W ¢ is refracted by another refracting surface. Subtracting Eq. not of just point sources.1. the refracted rays and the wavefront produced by it can again be shown to be orthogonal to each other. its deviations from a corresponding spherical surface are called the wave aberrations. (1-6a) where AB is of the same order of magnitude as VQ. Similarly.2). In practice. Refraction of a spherical wavefront W by a surface S separating media of refractive indices n and n ¢. we obtain [QA¢] ( ) = [QB¢] + O  2 . depending on the shape of the refracting surface S.

1 Rectilinear Propagation In a homogeneous medium... and O 2 represents terms with powers of  greater than or equal to two.2 Refraction in 2D Consider refraction of a ray at an interface between two media of refractive indices n and n ¢ . as indicated in Figure 1-5.( P1 A + AP2 )˝ ÍÎ 2( AP2 ) ÔÓ ÍÎ 2( P1 A) Ô˛ ˚˙ ˚˙ ( ) = O 2 . We note from Figure 1-5 that the difference in optical path lengths of a virtual (or fictitious) path P1 BP2 and the actual path P1 AP2 is given by [ ] W ( ) = n ( P1 B + BP2 ) . refraction at an interface between two homogeneous media.5. the value of x changes B ' P1 P2 A Figure 1-5. as illustrated in Figure 1-6. It is self-evident because a ray propagating from one point to another in a straight line joining the two points propagates along a path of the shortest optical path length. rectilinear propagation in a homogeneous medium. thus. namely. n is the refractive index of the homogeneous medium. we derive from Fermat's principle the three laws of geometrical optics. ( ) 1.( P1 A + AP2 )˝ ˛ ÏÔ È ¸Ô È ˘ ˘ 2 2 Í ˙ ˙ = n Ì P1 AÍ1 + 2 + .10 FOUNDATIONS OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS 1. This law is referred to as the law of rectilinear propagation. . 1. the derivative of W ( ) with respect to  in the limit of  Æ 0 is zero.5. one of uniform refractive index.. a light ray propagates in a straight line. The optical path length of a ray in propagating from a point P to another point P ¢ after refraction at a point A is given by [ PAP ¢ ] ( = n a2 + x2 )1/ 2 + n¢ [(b . and reflection at an interface. (1-8) If we displace the point A by a small amount along the interface. Rectilinear propagation of a ray from a point P1 to a point P2 . . there is no linear term in .x) 2 + c 2 ] 1/ 2 .e.. i.( P1 A + AP2 ) [ 2 Ï = n Ì ( P1 A) +  2 Ó 1/ 2 ] + [( AP ) 2 2 + 2 ] 1/ 2 ¸ . (1-7) where  = AB is a small deviation of the virtual path from the actual.5 LAWS OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS In this section. + AP2 1 + 2 + . As expected. We first derive them in 2D and then generalize them in 3D..

5 Laws of Geometrical Optics n¢ n P¢ Refracted Ray c q¢ x Surface Normal 11 A b. [ ] . PA is a ray incident on a planar surface separating media of refractive indices n and n ¢ at an angle q with the surface normal. and AP¢ is the corresponding refracted ray at an angle q ¢ .1. as illustrated in Figure 1-7. The angle of refraction increases as the angle of incidence increases. is the law of refraction. also called Snell’s law. (1-8) with respect to x.5 and n ¢ = 1 in Eq.n ¢ sin q ¢ . by that amount. it is reflected at the interface according to the law of reflection. then the angle of refraction q ¢ is also zero. This angle of incidence is called the critical angle. Equating to zero the derivative of the right hand side of Eq.x) 2 + c2 ] 1/ 2 = n sin q . discussed below. Equation (1-9).n¢ b-x [(b . According to Fermat’s principle. (1-9) where q and q ¢ are the angles of incidence and refraction of the incident and refracted rays from the surface normal at the point of incidence. When light is incident at an angle that is larger than the critical angle.x b a Incident Ray q P Figure 1-6. the angle of refraction reaches its maximum value of 90˚ corresponding to an angle of incidence of sin -1 (n ¢ n) . or n ¢ sin q¢ = n sin q . Such a prism is used in optical systems to deviate the path of a beam by 90˚. along with coplanarity of the rays and the surface normal. The incident ray. the derivative of the optical path length with respect to x is zero. Its diagonal face acts like a mirror because the rays are incident on it at angle of 45˚ and undergo a total internal reflection. When light is incident from a medium of higher refractive index n to a medium of lower index n ¢ . called total internal reflection. This phenomenon. Refraction of a ray. as may be seen by letting n = 1. is used in a right-angle reflecting prism. we obtain 0 = n x (a 2 +x 2 1/ 2 ) . Its value for a glass-to-air interface is 41. (1-9).8˚. When light is incident normally on a surface so that the angle of incidence q is zero. the reflected ray. and the surface normal are coplanar.

The optical path length of a ray in propagating from a point P to another point P ¢ after reflection at a point A is given by [PAP¢ ] = n ( PA . Equating to zero the derivative of the right-hand side of Eq. as in the case of refraction. A parallel beam incident on it is reflected from its diagonal face as if it were a mirror. 1. PA is a ray incident on a planar reflecting surface at an angle q with the surface normal. Reflection of a ray. A right-angle reflecting prism.x) + c 2 Ó 1/ 2 ] . as illustrated in Figure 1-8.AP ¢) [ 2 = n ÏÌ (b . (1-10) with respect to x. and AP¢ is the corresponding reflected ray at an angle q ¢ . we obtain Reflected P¢ Ray a b x (–)q¢ Surface Normal b-x Incident Ray A q P c Figure 1-8. .12 FOUNDATIONS OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS 45∞ 45∞ Figure 1-7.(a 2 + x2 )1/ 2 ¸˝˛ .5. (1-10) where the refractive index associated with the reflected ray is -n because of its backward propagation.3 Reflection in 2D Now consider the reflection of a ray from a reflecting surface.

1. and PA and AP¢ are the corresponding nearby virtual rays. where u is the length of this curve from A0 .n because the reflected ray lies in the same medium as the incident ray but travels backward compared to the incident ray. Refraction of a ray by a surface separating media of refractive indices n and n ¢ . Given the incident ray PA0 . The angle q¢ in Figure 1-8 is numerically negative. we want to determine the refracted ray A0 P ¢ . the reflected ray. and so we have inserted a minus sign in Eq.5. at a point A0 and passing through a point P ¢ ( r ¢ ) after refraction by the surface.x) 2 + c2 ] 1/ 2 = sin q¢ + sin q . consider a ray originating at a r point P( r ) incident on a refracting surface. (1-9) by letting n ¢ = .q . (1-11) where q and q ¢ are the angles of incidence and reflection that the incident and reflected rays make with the surface normal at the point of incidence.1. separating media of refractive indices n and r n ¢ . . The optical path length of the ray from point P to point P ¢ → P (r) ∧ e → → f (u) – r θ u n n A A0 → → r – f (u) θ ∧ ∧ e → P (r ) Figure 1-9. and the surface normal are coplanar.5 Laws of Geometrical Optics 0 = x (a 2 +x 2 1/ 2 ) + 13 b-x [(b . The incident ray. q and q ¢ are the angles the rays make with the surface normal. Imagine the vector rOA to move on the surface along a curve through A0 that obeys the equation OA = f ( u) .4 Refraction in 3D As illustrated in Figure 1-9. vˆ is a unit vector along the normal to the surface at point A0 . called the angles of incidence and refraction. (1-11). Let A be some point on the surface (not necessarily in the plane of the paper) in the vicinity of A0 . PA0 and A0 P ¢ are the actual incident and refracted rays. respectively. It can be obtained from Eq. This equation along with the coplanarity of the rays is the law of reflection. which is not in a plane. No approximation is involved in Eq. respectively. or q¢ = . (1-11). r r where r and r ¢ are the position vectors of the respective points with O (not shown in the figure) as an arbitrary origin of coordinates.

i. (1-15) where eˆ is a unit vector along the ray PA given by r r f -r eˆ = r r f -r .r + n ¢ r ¢ .f ( u) ˝ = 0 . and therefore as u varies. From Fermat’s principle. Substituting Eqs. (1-13).14 FOUNDATIONS OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS through the point A is given by [ PAP¢ ] = nPA + n ¢AP ¢ r r r r = n f ( u) .r + n ¢ r ¢ . the true path is obtained by letting the optical path length be stationary. Ì du Ó ˛ u =0 [ ] (1-13) Now.r = du r r r df f -r ◊ r r du f -r ) r df = eˆ ◊ du . (1-15) and (1-17) into Eq.e. we obtain (1-18) . (1-17) where eˆ¢ is a unit vector along the reflected ray AP¢ given by r r¢ eˆ¢ = r r¢ - r f r f . (1-16) Similarly.r = r r r ( f ◊ f + rr ◊ rr . by letting r r r r Ïd ¸ n f ( u) . (1-12) As the point A moves. ( d r r f (u) .2 f ◊ rr)1 2 . r r f (u) .f ( u) du r r r¢ .f ( u) . (1-14) Therefore.e¢ ◊ du ) r df ◊ r du f . a whole family of paths is generated. d r r r ¢ .f = r r¢ - ( r r df = ..

(1-20) with vˆ . (1-23) into Eq.n ¢eˆ¢ ◊ vˆ = b . Í ne . Let A be . respectively.n cos q) vˆ .5 Laws of Geometrical Optics r È df ˘ ˆ ˆ ( ) = 0 . Taking a dot product of both sides of Eq. (1-22) yields the value of eˆ¢ according to n ¢eˆ¢ = neˆ + ÈÍ n ¢ 2 . the incident and refracted rays.n ¢eˆ¢ must be parallel to the surface normal vˆ at A0 . a ray incident at an angle q is refracted at an angle q¢ such that the refracted ray lies in the plane of incidence.5 Reflection in 3D 12 )1 2 . Given the incident ray PA0 . (1-21) into Eq.n ¢eˆ¢ ¥ vˆ = 0 . defined as the plane containing the unit vectors eˆ and vˆ . known as the angles of incidence and refraction. and the surface normal at the point of incidence.n 2 sin 2 q Î ( 1. Thus. we obtain n ¢eˆ¢ = neˆ + ( n ¢ cos q¢ . Because eˆ¢ is a linear combination of eˆ and vˆ . like Figure 1-9. taking a vector product with vˆ . are coplanar. Thus.n ¢eˆ¢ = bvˆ . we want to determine the reflected ray A0 P ¢ . u =0 Accordingly. as in Figure 1-10. (1-21) where q and q¢ are the angles the incident and refracted rays make with the surface normal. we obtain neˆ ◊ vˆ .n ¢ cos q¢ . (1-23) Equation (1-23) and coplanarity of the incident and refracted rays and the surface normal is the law of refraction. (1-24) r Consider a ray originating at a point P( r ) . is also not in a plane. Substituting for cos q¢ from Eq. neˆ . Thus. we can write ( ) neˆ . with O as an arbitrary origin of coordinates. it must lie in the plane of incidence. or b = n cos q . Substituting for b from Eq. This figure. (1-20). incident on a reflecting r surface at a point A0 and passing through a point P ¢ ( r ¢ ) after reflection by the surface. (1-22) Similarly. or n ¢ sin q¢ = n sin q . or Snell’s law in 3D. (1-20) where b is a constant. we obtain neˆ ¥ vˆ .5.n ¢e¢ ◊ ˙ du ˚ Î u= 0 15 (1-19) r The vector df du is a tangent to the curve at A0 but otherwise arbitrary.n cos q ˘˙˚ vˆ .1.

AP ¢) r r r r = n f ( u) . is given by [ PAP¢ ] = n( PA . Í e + e¢ ◊ ˙ du ˚ Î u= 0 where eˆ and eˆ¢ are unit vectors along the incident and reflected rays. Imagine that the vector r OA moves on the surface along a curve through A0 that obeys the equation OA = f ( u) . i. and therefore as u varies. vˆ is a unit vector along the normal to the surface at point A0 . The optical path length of the ray from point P to point P ¢ . q and q ¢ are the angles the rays make with the surface normal. a whole family of paths is generated. where u is the length of this curve from A0 .r ¢ . PA0 and A0 P ¢ are the actual incident and reflected rays. (1-25) where the optical path length of the reflected ray AP¢ is negative due to the negative refractive index associated with it.r ¢ . we obtain r È df ˘ ˆ ˆ ( ) = 0 . the true path is obtained by letting the optical path length be stationary. Ì Ó du ˛ u =0 [ ] (1-26) Substituting Eqs.f ( u) ˝ = 0 .f ( u) [ ] . Reflection of a ray by a reflecting surface in a medium of refractive index n. (1-15) and (1-17) into Eq. (1-27) . some point on the surface in the vicinity of A0 .r .r . As A moves. by letting r r r Ïd r ¸ f ( u) . through the point A in a medium of refractive index n. called the angles of incidence and reflection. respectively. From Fermat’s principle. and PA and AP¢ are the corresponding nearby virtual rays.. (1-26).16 FOUNDATIONS OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS → P (r) → P (r ) → → r – f (u) → → f (u) – r → a ∧ u n (-)θ θ A e ∧ A0 e ∧ Figure 1-10.e.

Thus. as in Figure r 1-11. paraxial ray tracing.R1 ) 2 = R12 (1-30) or z1 = R1 . therefore. 1. have the same length. 1. and thereby the spot sizes and diagrams.1 Ray Incident on a Spherical Surface Consider a ray with a unit vector eˆ0 and direction cosines (k0 . leads to Gaussian optics. are coplanar. Thus. Substituting for a into Eq. originating at a point object A0 with position vector r0 and coordinates ( x 0 . or eˆ + eˆ¢ must be along the normal vˆ to the tangent plane at A0 .x12 . Therefore. l 0 . (1-31) . defined as the plane containing eˆ and vˆ . where q is the angle of incidence of the ray. Eqs. (1-29) Because eˆ and eˆ¢ are unit vectors and.eˆ + 2vˆ cos q . the approximations that are implicit in paraxial ray tracing remain hidden. (1-28) where a is a constant. Otherwise. we obtain eˆ¢ = . Because A1 lies on the spherical surface with the origin at its vertex V1. y 0 . therefore. We discuss such ray tracing here to illustrate its differences from the so-called paraxial ray tracing. Of course.6. and the surface normal at the point of incidence. and the aberrated diffraction images. (1-22) and (1-29). x12 + y12 + (z1 . they intersect eˆ + eˆ¢ and.g.. z1 ) on a spherical refracting surface of radius of curvature R1 separating media of refractive indices n 0 and n1 .R12 . eˆ + eˆ¢ must be perpendicular to all tangents to the surface at A0 . we find that a = 2 cos q. we can write ( ) eˆ + eˆ¢ = avˆ .6 Exact Ray Tracing 17 r The vector df du lies along the tangent to the curve at A0 .1. the incident and reflected rays. or imaging in the paraxial approximation. vˆ at the same angle. discussed in the next section. e. Let the distance between the object plane and the vertex V1 of the surface be D01 so that z 0 = .6 EXACT RAY TRACING Exact ray tracing is used to determine the wave and ray aberrations.D01 . as may be seen by comparing the corresponding equations. Thus we obtain the law of reflection that the reflected ray makes the same angle with the surface normal at the point of incidence as the incident ray and lies in the plane of incidence. and conclude that eˆ¢ must lie in the plane of incidence.y12 . From the triangle A0 A1 A2 in Figure 1-10. The curve is u =0 arbitrary so long as it passes through A0 and stays on the surface. The reflection of a ray can be treated as a special case of refraction by letting n ¢ = -n . (1-27). m0 ) . z 0 ) v incident at a point A1 with a position vector r1 and coordinates ( x1 . y1 .

y1. z1) ∧ θ0 e ∧ θ1 e0 R1 V1 z1 D01 1 ∧ A2(x2. respectively. 1. The sign of S01 is the same as that of D01 + z1 . where the ray meets a spherical refracting surface of radius of curvature R2 . The angles of incidence and refraction of the ray are q 0 and q 1 . y2. y0.y 0 ) + (D01 + z1 ) 2 12 ] (1-33) is the distance between A0 and A1 . The z coordinate z1 of a point on the surface represents the sag of the surface at that point. y1) of A1 can be written x1 = x 0 + S01k0 (1-34a) and y1 = y 0 + S01l 0 . The transverse coordinates ( x1. as may be seen by considering a ray incident at the vertex V1. refraction of the ray at point A1 .18 FOUNDATIONS OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS A0(x0.x ) 1 0 2 2 + ( y1 . (1-32) where S01 = [(x . z0) x S01 n0 y A1(x1.6. z1 and z 2 are the sags of the two surfaces.2 Rectilinear Propagation from the Object Plane to the First Refracting Surface r v It is evident from Figure 1-11 that the position vectors r1 and r0 are related to each other according to r v r1 = r0 + S01eˆ0 . toward the center of curvatures C1 and C 2 . and propagation of the refracted ray from point A1 to a point A2 . (1-34b) . Propagation of a ray from a point A0 to a point A1 on a spherical refracting surface of radius of curvature R1 separating media of refractive indices n1 and n1¢ . and vˆ1 and vˆ 2 are unit vectors along their surface normals at the points of incidence. z2) S12 1 R2 n1 C1 V2 z2 ∧ 2 C2 n2 z D12 Figure 1-11. respectively.

y1l 0 + R12 .z1) R1 = 1 Ê . which itself depends on them through Eq. Substituting Eqs. (1-34a) and (1-34b) yields the transverse coordinates ( x1.n 0 cos q 0 ) x1 R1 y1 R1 . along with Eq. cos q 0 = eˆ0 ◊ vˆ1 (1-37a) or cos q 0 = 1 Ê . (1-36a) .l 02 ˆ¯ .x12 .k 02 . (1-36b) and n1m1 = n 0 m0 + (n1 cos q1 .y12 R1 .(n1 cos q1 . (1-35) Substituting Eq. R1 .y1.n 0 cos q 0 ) R12 . .1.x . (1-37b) . we obtain the direction cosines (k1 .x12 . (1-33). (1-23)].3 Refraction of a Ray by a Spherical Refracting Surface The ray is refracted at A1 by the refracting surface. R1 Ë 1 0 and from Snell’s law [see Eq.6 Exact Ray Tracing 19 We note that to determine the coordinates ( x1 . m1 ) of the refracted ray with a unit vector eˆ1 : n1k1 = n 0 k0 . these equations are coupled and must be solved simultaneously. we need S01 . (1-22). y1) of the ray at A1 .n 0 cos q 0 ) n1l1 = n 0 l 0 .y1 . (1-34). . 1. (1-36c) where q 0 and q1 are the angles of incidence and refraction.6. (1-22). (1-33). we obtain a quadratic equation in S01 in terms of the known quantities. according to Eq. (1-31) and (1-34). R12 . respectively. (1-33). Solving this equation and substituting the value thus obtained into Eqs. y1 ) from Eqs.x k .x1.(n1 cos q1 . (1-31) and (1-34) into Eq.y12 ˆ¯ R1 Ë 1 .y12 1 . The transfer operation of the ray in propagating from point A0 to point A1 is described by Eqs. (1-35) into Eq. Thus. l1 .x12 . The unit vector vˆ1 along its normal at A1 is given by vˆ1 = A1C1 R1 = 1 (.

z1 + z 2 ) 2 12 ] (1-41) is the distance between the points A1 and A2 . (1-41) and (1-42) are coupled and have to be solved simultaneously. (1-40) where S12 = [(x 2 2 2 . as may be seen by considering a ray incident on the vertex V2 . y 2 ) of point A2 where the ray meets the second surface are given by x 2 = x1 + S12 k1 (1-42a) y 2 = y1 + S12 l1 . (1-41).sin 2 q1 [ )1 2 2 = 1 . The transverse coordinates ( x 2 .y 22 .R22 .(n 0 n1) sin 2 q 0 12 ] (1-38a) or cos q1 = 1 2 n .n 02 .20 FOUNDATIONS OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS ( cos q1 = 1 . (1-38b) Equations (1-36) through (1-38) describe the refraction operation of the ray at point A1 . The sign of S12 is the same as that of D12 .n 02 cos 2 q 0 n1 1 ( )1 2 .4 Rectilinear Propagation from the First Refracting Surface to the Second The refracted ray propagates in a straight line until it reaches a point A2 . (1-42b) and Equations (1-39) and (1-42).x 22 . 1. along with Eq.z1.6. describe the transfer operation of the ray from point A1 to point A2 .x1 ) + ( y 2 . The sag z 2 of the surface is given by z 2 = R2 . Again. Eqs. (1-39) r The position vector r2 of point A2 is given by r v r2 = r1 + S12eˆ1 .y1 ) + (D12 . The straight line propagation of the ray from point A1 to point A2 can be obtained in a manner similar to the ray propagation from point A0 to point A1 . with a r position vector r2 on the next spherical refracting surface of radius of curvature R2 with its vertex V2 at a distance D12 from the vertex V1 separating media of refractive indices n1 and n 2 . .

l 0 . Consider a ray incident at a point ( x1 . z1 ) on a reflecting surface of radius of curvature R1 with a unit vector eˆ0 and direction cosines (k0 . and cos q 0 = eˆ0 ◊ vˆ1 is given by Eq. (1-43c) where q 0 is the angle of incidence of the ray. where q 0 is the angle of incidence of the ray. Equations (1-43). (1-37). the direction cosines (k1. From Eqs. Reflection of a ray A0 A1 by a reflecting spherical surface of radius of curvature R1 at the point of incidence A1 . y1 . as illustrated in Figure 1-12. m0 ) . (1-37). can be treated in a similar manner. along with Eq. . (1-43a) . m1) of the reflected ray with a unit vector eˆ1 are given by k1 = . (1-43b) and m1 = .y12 R1 . z1) z1 ∧ 1 C1 z Figure 1-12.n1 . y1. l1. l0 . These equations can be obtained from the corresponding Eqs. z1 is the sag of the surface.1.2 cos q 0 y1 R1 . describe the reflection operation of the ray at point A1 .m0 + 2 cos q 0 R12 .x12 .5 Reflection of a Ray by a Spherical Reflecting Surface The tracing of a ray reflected by a reflecting surface.2 cos q 0 x1 R1 l1 = .k 0 . and vˆ1 is a unit vector along the surface normal at the point of incidence toward the center of curvature C . A2 ∧ e1 (–)θ 0 x A0 ∧ e0 θ0 R1 V1 y A1 (x1.6 Exact Ray Tracing 21 1.6. (1-36) for a refraction operation by letting n 0 = 1 = . (1-29) and (1-35).

1 . the point of incidence ( x1 . and Eq. (1-35) for a spherical surface.2z = 0 . ∂F ∂z ) [(∂F ∂x) 2 2 + (∂F ∂y ) + (∂F ∂z ) 2 12 ] z˘ 1 È -x -y . namely.(1 .e 2 1 . is given by z = (x2 + y2) R 1 + [1 .e 2 (z R) 2 12 ] . z) = 1 2 x + y 2 + 1 . y1 . y.e2. z ) can be written vˆ = = -(∂F ∂x .6.7 Refraction of a Ray by a Conic Refracting Surface When a ray with a unit vector eˆ0 and direction cosines (k0 . as for a sphere. (1-34). (1-48) Letting e = 0. 1 . y .2Rz + 1 .e 2 ) ( x 2 + y 2 ) R2 ] 1/ 2 .e 2 z 2 = 0 . (1-44) where ( x . (1-45). l 0 . z1 ) is still given by Eqs. (1-44) and (1-45) reduce to the corresponding equations (1-30) and (1-31) for a spherical surface. z 0 ) is incident on a conic surface of eccentricity e1 and vertex radius of curvature R1 .e2 ˙ . R [ ) ] ( (1-46) The unit vector along the normal to the surface at the point ( x .22 FOUNDATIONS OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS 1. is given by . y 0 . In lens design. 1.e2 z 2 . it is quite common to use the curvature c in place of 1 R and Schwarschild constant k in place of . (1-45) If we let e = 0. the z coordinate. Í VÎR R R˚ ( ) (1-47) where the minus sign in the first equation represents the fact that the surface normal is toward the vertex center of curvature. z ) are the coordinates of a point on its surface with its origin at its vertex. Eqs.6 Conic Surface and Surface Normal The equation of a conic surface (conicoid) of eccentricity e and vertex radius of curvature R is given by [1] ( ) x 2 + y 2 . The conic equation (1-44) can also be written in the form F (x. ∂F ∂y . . it can be seen that V Æ 1.6. respectively. m0 ) originating at a r point with a position vector r0 and coordinates ( x 0 . The sag of the surface. following Eq. and [ ( ) V = 1 + 2e 2 (z R) . (1-47) reduces to the unit vector given by Eq. except that the sag value. y .

e12 1 ˙ . Ì . (1-50a) . (1-51) cos q 0 = eˆ0 ◊ vˆ1 .6. l1 . 1.2 cos q 0 x1 V1R1 y1 V1R1 .n 0 cos q 0 ) x1 V1R1 y1 V1R1 .e12 1 . m0 ) originating at a r point with a position vector r0 and coordinates ( x 0 . l 0 .n 0 cos q 0 ) n1l1 = n 0 l 0 .e12 1 ˙ ˝ . (1-47) into Eq.2 cos q 0 l1 = .k02 .1 . Í V1 Î R1 ˚ ( ) (1-50c) where. .e12 (z1 R1) 2 12 ] . (1-53a) (1-53b) .1.k0 R1 R1 R1 ˚ Ô˛ ÔÓ Î ( ) (1-52b) and cos q1. z 0 ) is reflected by a conic reflecting surface of eccentricity e1 and vertex radius of curvature R1 .k 0 . (1-52a) or cos q 0 = 1 V0 Ï È x1 y z ˘¸ .l 02 Í1 . Substituting Eq.l 0 . (1-48). is given by Eq.(1 .(n1 cos q1 . (1-33) for the distance S01 between the two points. (1-38).n 0 cos q 0 ) 1 È z ˘ 1 .e12 ) ( x12 + y12 ) R12 .8 Reflection of a Ray by a Conic Reflecting Surface When a ray with a unit vector eˆ0 and direction cosines (k0 . we obtain the direction cosines of the refracted ray: n1k1 = n 0 k0 . 1/ 2 ] 23 (1-49) Equation (1-49) is substituted into Eq. the direction cosines (k1 . (1-29)] k1 = . m1 ) of the reflected ray with a unit vector eˆ1 are given by [see Eq. following Eq. (1-50b) and n1m1 = n 0 m0 + (n1 cos q1 .6 Exact Ray Tracing z1 = ( x12 + y12 ) R1 1 + [1 . V1 is given by [ ( ) V1 = 1 + 2e12 (z1 R1) . y 0 .(n1 cos q1 . (1-22). obtained from Snell’s law.l 0 1 + 1 .1 .

respectively. called a tangential ray. The difference in the optical path lengths of the rays from some reference ray. the ray-tracing equations are modified by letting the radius of curvature of the last surface approach infinity and its sag approach zero. (1-52).24 FOUNDATIONS OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS and m1 = . (1-36b) and (1-43b). and the refracted or reflected ray. The ray intercepts in the image plane from some reference point.9 Tracing a Tangential Ray The plane passing through a point object and the optical axis is called the tangential (or the meridional) plane. This result is simply a consequence of the coplanarity of the incident ray. Similarly. and cos q 0 = eˆ0 ◊ vˆ1 is given by Eq. Accordingly. The ray tracing performed under such assumptions is called . The distribution of the rays in an observation plane is called the ray spot diagram. 1. As a result. a tangential ray remains tangential after refraction or reflection. y ) of a point on a surface are much smaller than its radius of curvature.1 . For a ray incident in this plane.2 cos q 0 1 È z ˘ 1 . often the Gaussian image point.2 [see Eq. the rays are traced up to the image plane.m0 . Of course. often the ray that passes through the center of the exit pupil and called the chief ray. 1. are the wave aberrations for the point object under consideration. which is discussed in Section 8. 1. The center of curvature of the reference sphere lies at the Gaussian image point and passes through the center of the exit pupil of the system. To determine the transverse ray aberrations. R1 ˚ V1 ÍÎ ( ) (1-53c) where q 0 is the angle of incidence of the ray. When the rays end on a planar surface. we can approximate its diagonal distance from another point by the corresponding axial distance. as may also be seen from Eq. For a point object lying on the x axis. the rays originating at a point object are traced through the system by repeating the process of transfer and refraction and/or reflection operations until the rays reach a reference sphere.e12 1 ˙ . as may be seen from Eqs. if the transverse coordinates ( x .6. we can approximate their sines and tangents with the angles themselves. (1-34b).2. both y 0 and l 0 are equal to zero. are the transverse ray aberrations.7 PARAXIAL RAY TRACING If the rays make small angles with the optical axis and surface normals.10 Determining Wave and Ray Aberrations Exact ray tracing is used to determine the wave and transverse ray aberrations of a system. the surface normal at this point also lies in this plane. Note that because the point of incidence of the tangential ray lies in the tangential plane. To determine the wave aberrations. the direction cosine l1 of the refracted or reflected ray is also equal to zero. The y coordinate y1 of the point of incidence of this ray on a refracting or a reflecting surface is also zero. (8-5)]. the wave and ray aberrations can be obtained from each other because of the relationship between them. and ending on the reference sphere. the zx plane is the tangential plane.6. surface normal.

y1 ) + (D12 .R 2 . z) = ÊË x .. 2 12 ] (1-56a) (1-56b) Thus.z1 + z 2 ) ~ D12 . it is approximated by the distance between their vertices. Thus.7. (1-54b) Of course. a spherical surface is replaced by a planar surface.1 Snell’s Law The angles of incidence and refraction are assumed to be small so that their sines are equal to the respective angles. y . 0) (1-55a) . Snell’s law. .1.7. the incident and refracted rays. 1. (1-55b) The point is assumed to be close to the optical axis so that the sag z of the point on the surface is negligible. 1. called the tangent plane or the paraxial surface. and the surface normal at the point of incidence on the refracting surface. we write the exact equation followed by its paraxial or approximate form to highlight their differences.. y.x 2 . i. sin q ~ q and sin q¢ ~ q¢ . R . are coplanar.e.7 Paraxial Ray Tracing 25 paraxial ray tracing. y . In each case.y 2 ˆ¯ ~ ( x.3 Distance between Two Points Replace the diagonal distances. n ¢ sin q¢ = n sin q . z ) of a point on a spherical surface of radius of curvature R : ( x.7. we first list the relevant assumptions and then the consequent paraxial ray-tracing equations. y.e. such as S12 between two points on two surfaces in Figure 1-11. (1-54a) is approximated by n ¢q ¢ ~ nq .2 Point on a Spherical Surface Coordinates ( x . In this section. It has the implication that the ray between two points is nearly parallel and close to the optical axis. i. with the corresponding axial distance D12 : S12 = [(x 2 2 2 . Therefore. the distance between the two points is replaced by the distance between the two tangent planes. passing through the surface vertex. 1.x1 ) + ( y 2 .

5 Unit Vector along a Ray The unit vector (k . l 0 .7.7. as in Figure 1-11.6 Transfer of a Ray Transfer of a ray with direction cosines (k0 . which is the optical axis. . (1-33) and (1-34).y. the transfer. for example. R (1-57a) (1-57b) Thus.l 2 ˆ¯ (1-58a) ~ (k. (1-60a) (1-60b) Approximating the distance S01 between two points by their axial distance D01 decouples. (1-58b) Thus. .4 Unit Vector along a Surface Normal Unit vector vˆ along the surface normal at a point ( x . the ray is assumed to be practically parallel to the z axis. y1) at a distance S01 .R 2 . l . m0 ) from a point A0 ( x .26 FOUNDATIONS OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS 1. . approximated by the corresponding axial distance D01 : x1 = x 0 + S01k0 ~ x 0 + D01k0 . R .x. y ) to a point A1( x1. (134). m) = ÊË k .x . 1. and reflection operation Eqs. 0) . With these approximations.x 2 .7.y 2 ˆ¯ RË ~ 1 (.k 2 . l . z ) on a spherical surface of radius of curvature R: vˆ = 1Ê . the direction cosines x R and y R are very small so that the normal is practically parallel to the z axis.y . (1-36). Eqs. l . (1-59a) (1-59b) and y1 = y 0 + S01l 0 ~ y 0 + D01l 0 . and (1-43) are simplified as follows. 1) . 1 . l . y . m) along a ray is: (k. 1. refraction.

n 0 ) x1 .l 0 . 1. as in Figure 1-12: k1 = . m1 ) . y1 ) to a reflected ray with direction cosines (k1 . (1-61a) (1-61b) R1 and n1l1 = n 0 l 0 . l 0 . m1 ) . R1 y1 R1 (1-62a) (1-62b) where the angles of incidence and refraction q 0 and q1 are small so that cos q1 ~ 1 ~ cos q 0 .(n1 cos q1 .(n1 .2 y1 . are assumed to be small so that their cosine is unity. l1 . as in Figure 1-11: n1k1 = n 0 k0 .7 Refraction of a Ray Refraction of a ray with direction cosines (k0 . m 0 ) by a spherical reflecting surface of radius of curvature R1 at a point ( x1 .2 x1 . the angles of incidence and reflection. (1-63a) (1-63b) R1 and l1 = .2 cos q 0 x1 R1 ~ .7.(n1 . . which are equal to each other in magnitude.n 0 cos q 0 ) x1 R1 ~ n 0 k0 .k 0 . l1 . m0 ) by a spherical refracting surface of radius of curvature R1 separating media of refractive indices n 0 and n1 at a point ( x1.7.1. l 0 .n 0 cos q 0 ) ~ n 0 l 0 .l 0 . R1 y1 R1 (1-64a) (1-64b) Again.k 0 .2 cos q 0 ~ .7 Paraxial Ray Tracing 27 1.n 0 ) y1 .(n1 cos q1 . y1) to a refracted ray with direction cosines (k1 .8 Reflection of a Ray Reflection of a ray with direction cosines (k 0 .

Eqs. k) and ( y. contrary to the standard Cartesian convention as the angle with the x axis. (1-59b) and (1-61b)]. the polar angle q of a pupil point is accordingly defined as the angle made by its position vector with the y axis.1 Gaussian Approximation We have seen that for rays and surface normals to refracting and reflecting surfaces making small angles with the optical axis. thus making the yz plane the tangential plane [2. Thus. and reflection. the Gaussian image formed by a conic surface of some vertex radius of curvature is exactly the same as that formed by a spherical surface of the same radius of curvature. thus making the zx plane the tangential plane. which is the first-order approximation. It is used to determine the image location and size in terms of the object location and size. is then expressed as x x 2 + y 2 instead of as y x 2 + y 2 . is called Gaussian optics. Because the sine of an angle is replaced by the angle itself. Accordingly. Moreover. l ) pairs of variables are coupled with each other [see. Choosing a point object along the x axis. equivalently. for example. the projections of a skew ray in the zx and yz planes propagate independently of each other. remains in the zx plane after refraction or reflection. . we can replace the sines and tangents of the angles of the rays with the optical axis by the angles. the aberrations of an image are neglected. the larger the angles and sizes are. and the process of determining the image in this manner. unlike in exact ray tracing where the ( x. The approximation of small angles is also called the Gaussian approximation. The coma aberration. It is quite common in optics literature to consider a point object along the y axis when imaged by a rotationally symmetric optical system. the coordinates of a point and the direction cosines of a ray depend linearly on each other. we will assume a point object along the x axis and trace rays in the tangential plane zx. the image is assumed to be aberration free.3]. it has the consequence that we need to trace rays only in one of these planes. Eqs. (1-36a) and (137b)].8 GAUSSIAN APPROXIMATION AND IMAGING 1. ray tracing in this approximation is referred to as first-order optics. They are completely independent of the y and l values. yielding poorer image quality due to the larger aberrations. and any diagonal distances between two points by the corresponding axial distances. A ray in the zx plane. regardless of the magnitude of the angles and sizes. for example. or.28 FOUNDATIONS OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS 1. refraction. the x and k values at a point depend only on the x and k values at other points [see. ( ) ( ) In Gaussian optics. the coarser the approximation.8. In the following chapters. To maintain symmetry of the aberration function about this plane. It is important to note that in paraxial ray-tracing equations of transfer. Because of the rotational symmetry. for example. However. for example. removes this difficulty. Gaussian imaging depends only on the vertex radius of curvature. The image is referred to as the Gaussian image.

In the paraxial approximation. we use Eq. Evidently.g. For small slope angles. as a result of which the incident ray refracts toward the surface normal (resulting in a smaller angle of refraction compared to the angle of incidence). e. originating at a point object A0 at a height x 0 with direction cosine k 0 incident at a point A1 at an axial distance D01 at a height x1 on the tangent plane V1 A1 of a refracting surface of vertex radius of curvature R1 separating media of refractive indices n 0 and n1 . to determine the location and size of the Gaussian image of an object. It should be noted that the Gaussian imaging of an object depends only on the vertex radius of curvature. where a + b = p 2. .1. The ray is refracted at a slope angle b 1 . The numerically negative quantities are indicated by a parenthetical minus sign (–).8. Therefore. Therefore. sin b ~ b . as in Figure 1-13. respectively.2 Gaussian Imaging by a Refracting Surface Consider a ray in the zx plane. forming the Gaussian image at a point A2 at a height x 2 . Let the ray make an angle b with the z axis. (1-61b) to obtain the direction cosine k1 of the refracted ray. we can write the ray-tracing equations (1-59b) and (1-61b) as x1 = x 0 + D01b 0 x (1-65) A1 A0 b0 x0 V1 n0 (-) b1 x1 n1 C1 (-) x 2 z A2 R1 D01 D12 Figure 1-13.8 Gaussian Approximation and Imaging 29 1. if b 0 and b1 are the slope angles of the incident and the refracted rays. with its center of curvature C1 and separating media of refractive indices n 0 and n1 . and thus. A ray from a point object A0 at a height x 0 is incident at a slope angle b 0 at a point A1 at a height x1 on the tangent plane V1 A1 of a refracting surface of vertex radius of curvature R1 . (1-59b) to obtain the height x1 of the point of incidence and Eq. spherical or conic. then its direction cosine k = cos a . called its slope angle. it is not necessary to specify the shape of the surface. cos a = sin b .. cos a ~ b. where n1 > n 0 . If a ray makes an angle a with the x axis. Gaussian imaging by a refracting surface.

n1) n1R1 0 (1-72b) . (1-68) must be zero. (1-68) In order that the point A2 be the image of the point object A0 . all of the rays originating at the point object and incident on the refracting surface must pass through the image point after refraction. Because of Eq.30 FOUNDATIONS OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS and n1b1 = n 0b 0 . the height x 2 of a point A2 on the refracted ray at an axial distance D12 is given by x 2 = x1 + D12b1 . Thus.n1)˙b 0 n1 n1R1 Î n1R1 ˚ Î ˚ . Eq. (1-67) Both b1 and x 2 are numerically negative in Figure 1-13. Therefore. Thus. Similarly. we obtain È ˘ È ˘ D n D D x 2 = Í1 + 12 (n 0 .n0 + 1 = 1 D01 D12 R1 . x 2 must be independent of b 0 .n 0 ) x1 R1 . or the coefficient of b 0 in Eq. The ratio of x 2 to x 0 is called the transverse magnification of the image. n1 n1R1 (1-69) Equation (1-69) can be rearranged and written in the form n0 n n . (1-71) which gives the height x 2 of the image of an object of height x 0 . (1-70) This equation is called the Gaussian imaging equation for the refracting surface. Substituting for x1 and b1 from Eqs. (1-65) and (1-66). (1-66) where b 0 and b1 are the slope angles of the incident and the refracted rays. (1-69). It gives the distance D12 of the image from the surface in terms of the distance D01 of the surface from the object.(n1 .n1 )˙ x 0 Î n1R1 ˚ . Eq. respectively.n1 )˙ x 0 + Í D01 + 0 D12 + 01 12 (n 0 . (1-68) reduces to D01 + n0 D D D12 + 01 12 (n 0 . (1-68) reduces to È ˘ D x 2 = Í1 + 12 (n 0 .n1 ) = 0 . Mx = x2 x0 =1+ (1-72a) D12 (n .

(1-62b) to obtain the direction cosine k1 of the reflected ray.n1 +Á 0 + 0 D01 ˜ b 0 n1R1 Ë n1 ¯ . Equations (1-70) and (1-72) describe the location and size of the image in terms of the corresponding quantities for the object. we obtain (n 0 . we use Eq. (1-59b) to obtain the height x1 of the point of incidence. 1. (1-65) into Eq. Equation (1-74) gives the angular magnification of the rays. and Eq. (1-70) in the last step.3 Gaussian Imaging by a Reflecting Surface Consider a ray in the zx plane. as in Figure 1-14. respectively. the corresponding angular subtense Db1 of the cone of rays converging to the image point can be obtained by differentiating Eq. we may write . (1-66). (1-70) in the last step. (1-73) If we consider a cone of rays of angular subtense Db 0 diverging from the point object and incident on the surface. n1 n1R1 (1-74b) or Mb = - D01 D12 .n1) x b1 = n1R1 0 Ên ˆ n .n1 + D01 .8 Gaussian Approximation and Imaging 31 or Mx = - n 0 D12 n1 D01 . In the paraxial approximation.8. (1-72c) where we have used Eq. (1-75) which is independent of the object and image distances.1. (1-74c) where we have again used Eq. It illustrates that a large transverse magnification is accompanied by a small angular magnification. The product of the transverse and angular magnifications is given by M xMb = n0 n1 . Again using the slope angles b 0 and b1 of the incident and the reflected rays. originating at a point object A0 at a height x 0 with direction cosine k 0 incident at a point A1 at an axial distance D01 at a height x1 on the tangent plane V1 A1 of a reflecting surface of vertex radius of curvature R1 . (1-73): Mb = = ∂b1 ∂b 0 (1-74a) n 0 n 0 . Substituting for x1 from Eq.

all of the rays originating at the point object and incident on the reflecting surface must pass through the image point after reflection. The ray is reflected at a slope angle b 1 .b 0 . or the coefficient of b 0 in Eq. we obtain Ê Ê 2D ˆ 2D01D12 ˆ x 2 = Á 1 . x1 = x 0 + D01b 0 (1-76) and b1 = . (1-79) In order that the point A2 be the image of the point object A0 .12 ˜ x 0 + Á D01 . x 2 must be independent of b 0 . Therefore. (1-77) where b1 is numerically negative. . (1-78) Substituting for x1 and b1 from Eqs. (1-79) must be zero. Thus. the height x 2 of a point A2 on the reflected ray at an axial distance D12 is given by x 2 = x1 + D12b1 . (1-76) and (1-77).32 FOUNDATIONS OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS (-) b1 A0 b0 A1 x1 x0 x2 A2 V1 C1 R1 D01 D12 Figure 1-14. Similarly. with its center of curvature C1 . Gaussian imaging by a reflecting surface. A ray from a point object A0 at a height x 0 is incident at a slope angle b 0 at a point A1 at a height x1 on the tangent plane V1 A1 of a reflecting surface of vertex radius of curvature R1 . forming the Gaussian image at a point A2 at a height x 2 .D12 ˜b R1 ¯ R1 ¯ 0 Ë Ë .2 x1 R1 .

Equations (1-81) and (1-83) describe the location and size of the image in terms of the corresponding quantities for the object. it is not real. The image does not lie on the ray. Substituting for x1 from Eq. R1 33 (1-80) Equation (1-80) can be rearranged and written in the form 1 1 2 = D12 D01 R1 . but virtual. (1-83c) where we have used Eq. (1-77).12 ˜ x 0 R1 ¯ Ë . R1 R1 Ë ¯ (1-84) If we consider a cone of rays of angular subtense Db 0 diverging from the point object and incident on the surface. (1-81) in the last step. (1-80).1. (1-81) This equation is called the Gaussian imaging equation for the reflecting surface. we obtain b1 = - Ê ˆ 2 2 x 0 . (1-76) into Eq. but lies instead on its extension. Mx = x2 x0 = 1- (1-83a) 2 D12 R1 (1-83b) or Mx = D12 D01 . Thus.D12 - 2D01D12 = 0 . (1-82) which gives the height x 2 of the image of an object of height x 0 . Because of Eq. Accordingly. (1-84): Mb = ∂b1 ∂b 0 (1-85a) . Eq.8 Gaussian Approximation and Imaging D01 . The ratio of x 2 to x 0 is called the transverse magnification of the image. the corresponding angular subtense Db1 of the cone of rays converging to the image point can be obtained by differentiating Eq. (1-79) reduces to Ê 2D ˆ x 2 = Á 1 . It gives the distance D12 of the image from the surface in terms of the distance D01 of the surface from the object.Á1 + D01˜ b 0 .

Equation (1-85) gives the angular magnification of the rays.Á1 + R1 Ë ¯ (1-85b) or Mb = - D01 D12 . The image thus formed by the last surface is the image formed by the system. the image formed by the first surface becomes the object for the second surface. We develop the imaging relationships of Gaussian optics of refracting systems in Chapter 2.. some imaging characteristics of simple optical instruments can be discussed. as in Chapter 6. Gaussian imaging by a refracting system is developed in Chapter 2. the field of view of the system. (1-85c) where we have again used Eq. and determine the obscuration of light beams and vignetting of the rays. (1-86) which is independent of the object and image distances. These can be easily combined to treat imaging by a general imaging system consisting of refracting and reflecting surfaces. and those of reflecting systems in Chapter 3.4 Gaussian Imaging by a Multisurface System In a multisurface imaging system. .9 IMAGING BEYOND GAUSSIAN APPROXIMATION Gaussian optics is based on paraxial rays. The product of the transverse and angular magnifications is given by M xMb = -1 . including the stops and pupils. the image irradiance or intensity can be determined. (1-81) in the last step.e. as in the case of imaging by a refracting surface. the Gaussian image is an exact replica of the object. Gaussian optics is also used to determine the extent of the object that can be imaged.8. once the location of two principal planes and two focal points of a system are determined. the Gaussian image of an object formed by the system can be determined in one step. is used to size the imaging elements. and that by a reflecting system in Chapter 3. and so on. Paraxial ray tracing. It determines the location and size of the image in terms of the corresponding quantities of the object. Except for its size.34 FOUNDATIONS OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS Ê ˆ 2 D01 ˜ = . It is shown in Chapter 2 that it is not necessary to perform Gaussian imaging by each surface to obtain the image formed by a system. It illustrates that. discussed in detail in Chapter 4. With such knowledge. Given the radiance of an extended object or the intensity of a point object. Instead. 1. as discussed in Chapter 5. i. 1. a large transverse magnification is accompanied by a small angular magnification. for the succeeding surfaces of the system.

An imaging system must convert a diverging spherical wavefront originating at the point object into a spherical wavefront converging to the Gaussian image point. it makes no distinction between a spherical and an aspheric (e. namely.8. The possible aberrations of a system with an axis of rotational symmetry are discussed in Chapter 8. The Gaussian imaging properties of a nonspherical surface are. In the presence of aberrations. because only the vertex radius of curvature of an aspheric surface is used in the Gaussian imaging and paraxial ray-tracing equations. A designer must choose the shapes of the imaging elements so as to balance their aberrations to yield an image of acceptable quality across the field of view of the system. The Gaussian image. conic) surface. is aberration free. is given in Section 6. the light in the diffraction image spreads even more [7].9 Imaging beyond Gaussian Approximation 35 A quantity of paramount interest that is beyond Gaussian optics but that a design must satisfy is the expected quality of the image.. the quality of the images formed by these surfaces may be quite different due to the differences in their shapes.e.2. the Airy pattern. Even if the rays from a point object all converge to its Gaussian image point. are discussed in Chapter 9.. the spot diagrams. the wavefront exiting from an imaging system is rarely spherical. However. the rays intersect the image plane in the vicinity of the Gaussian image point. The characteristics of the ray distribution in the image plane for the various aberration types. When the wavefront is not spherical. The image of a point object is aberration free only if the rays emanating from a point object travel exactly the same optical length in traversing the imaging system and reaching the Gaussian image point. A lens designer resorts to using nonspherical surfaces to reduce or eliminate the aberrations over a certain field of view. Because the image distance and transverse magnification depend on the refractive indices of the materials of the elements of an imaging system. For example. the same as those of the corresponding spherical surface because they are determined by its vertex radius of curvature. its observed image is not a point. a paraboloidal mirror focuses the rays from an axial point object at infinity to a point. but a corresponding spherical mirror does not. of course. . which depends on the aberrations. The converging beam of the imaging light spreads due to its diffraction as it propagates to the image plane. The monochromatic wave aberrations introduced by an imaging system are completely neglected in Gaussian or paraxial optics. which depend on the wavelength of the object radiation. In practice. Exact ray tracing is needed to determine the quality of an image. as discussed in Chapter 7.1. i. An optical designer strives to select materials so that the chromatic aberrations they introduce cancel each other as much as possible. Its deviations from being spherical represent its wave aberrations. the images formed suffer from chromatic aberrations. by definition. the image of a white point object is not white.g. A brief discussion of the diffractionbased aberration-free image. For example.

In a homogenous medium. or P2 d Ú nds = 0 . 1. and the surface normal.10. When a ray is incident on a reflecting surface at an angle q from the surface normal. and the surface normal are coplanar. . heights. (1-89) Once again. (1-87) P1 where ds is a differential element of path length along the ray. Their direction of propagation indicates the direction of the flow of light energy.10.3 Laws of Geometrical Optics The rays propagate according to three laws: 1.n because the reflected ray lies in the same medium as the incident ray. They are normal to a wavefront. Moreover. the incident and refracted rays. The law of reflection can be obtained from the law of refraction by letting n ¢ = . The negative sign represents the backward propagation of the reflected ray. This is referred to as the law of rectilinear propagation. discussed in Section 1.10. 1. light consists of rays. A ray incident at an interface separating media of refractive indices n and n ¢ is refracted according to Snell’s law. 3. which is a surface of constant phase. which states that n ¢ sin q¢ = n sin q .36 FOUNDATIONS OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS 1. 2. or a whether refracting or a reflecting surface is convex or concave to the light incident on it. n is the refractive index of the medium as a function of the path. and angles is the Cartesian sign convention. are coplanar. and d represents a differential variation. Fermat’s principle states that the optical path length of a ray in traveling from a point P1 to another point P2 is stationary.2 Fermat’s Principle In geometrical optics. the incident and the reflected rays. regardless of whether the object or the image is real or virtual. it is reflected at an angle q¢ = . (1-88) where q and q ¢ are the angles of incidence and refraction from the surface normal at the point of incidence.q .1 Sign Convention Our sign convention for distances.2. It has the advantage that there are no special rules to remember other than those of a right-handed Cartesian coordinate system.10 SUMMARY OF RESULTS 1. a ray propagates in a straight line.

For an incident ray with direction cosines (k0 . as in Figure 1-11. y1 .10. and thereby the quality of an image. l 0 . the direction cosines (k1. (1-90c) by virtue of the fact that A1 lies on the surface. in which a ray propagates from a certain point to a point on a refracting or a reflecting surface. m0 ) originating at a point object A0 with coordinates ( x 0 . which describes its refraction or reflection by the surface. its rectilinear propagation from A0 to the point A1 where it meets the surface is referred to as the transfer operation. and a refraction or reflection operation. (1-90a) y1 = y 0 + S01l 0 (1-90b) .10.x12 . y1 . m0 ) incident on a point A1 of a refracting surface of radius of curvature R1 with coordinates ( x1 .y 0 ) + (D01 + z1 ) 2 12 ] (1-91) is the distance between A0 and A1 . Equations (1-90) and (1-91) are coupled and must be solved simultaneously to obtain the transverse coordinates ( x1. l1. l 0 . (1-90c) where S01 = [(x .x ) 1 0 2 2 + ( y1 .y12 . is incident on a spherical refracting surface of radius of curvature R1 separating media of refractive indices n 0 and n1 at a distance D01 . 1.4 Exact Ray Tracing The exact ray tracing consists of a transfer operation. z1 ) of A1 are given by x1 = x 0 + S01k0 . z 0 ) . 1.10.1. its refraction is referred to as the refraction operation. separating media of refractive indices n 0 and n1 . as in Figure 1-11.2 Refraction Operation When a ray is incident on a refracting surface. y1 ) of the ray at A1 .4. The origin of the coordinates lies at the vertex V1 of the surface. The coordinates ( x1 . z1 ) .R12 . Once these coordinates are known. Equation (1-90c) represents the fact that A1 lies on the surface.D01 . the z1 coordinate is determined from Eq. m1) of the refracted ray are given by .10 Summary of Results 37 1. and thus z 0 = . y 0 .1 Transfer Operation When a ray with direction cosines (k0 . Such ray tracing is used primarily to determine the aberrations of a system with the aid of computer software. and z1 = R1 .4.

n 0 cos q 0 ) x1 R1 . (1-94) Once the direction cosines (k1 .(n1 cos q1 .x12 .l 0 . as in Figure 1-12.y1l 0 + R12 .n 0 cos q 0 ) n1l1 = n 0 l 0 . the direction cosine m1 can be obtained from the relation k12 + l12 + m12 = 1 . the direction cosines (k1 .38 FOUNDATIONS OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS n1k1 = n 0 k0 . The reflection operation can be obtained from the corresponding refraction operation by letting n 0 = 1 = .n 02 .2 cos q 0 x1 R1 l1 = .l 02 ˆ¯ R1 Ë 1 0 cos q1 = 1 2 n . z1 ) .x12 . (1-95b) and m1 = . its reflection is referred to as the reflection operation. (1-92c) where q 0 and q1 are the angles of incidence and refraction.n 0 cos q 0 ) R12 .k 0 .n1 .m0 + 2 cos q 0 R12 . l 0 .y12 R1 . y1 .n1 . m1 ) of the reflected ray can be obtained from the corresponding direction cosines of a refracted ray by letting n 0 = 1 = . cos q 0 = 1 Ê . . (1-95c) where q 0 is the angle of incidence of the ray given by Eq.(n1 cos q1 . (1-95a) . (1-93) and ( )1 2 .10. (1-93). m0 ) incident on a point A1 of a reflecting surface of radius of curvature R1 with coordinates ( x1 . For an incident ray with direction cosines (k0 .3 Reflection Operation When a ray is incident on a reflecting surface. (1-92b) and n1m1 = n 0 m0 + (n1 cos q1 .x k . 1.x12 .k 02 .2 cos q 0 y1 R1 . l1 . l1 ) are known.4.y12 R1 .y12 1 .n 02 cos 2 q 0 n1 1 . y1 R1 (1-92a) . They are given by k1 = . respectively.

The corresponding ray tracing is referred to as the paraxial ray tracing. we can approximate their sines and tangents with the angles themselves. Moreover. or the image is assumed to be aberration free.8.10 Summary of Results 39 1. (1-47)]. if the transverse coordinates ( x .5 Tracing a Tangential Ray The plane containing the point object and the optical axis of a system is called the tangential plane. Similarly.1 Gaussian Imaging by a Refracting Surface The imaging equation for a refracting surface of vertex radius of curvature R1 separating media of refractive indices n 0 and n1 .6. y ) of a point on a surface are much smaller than its radius of curvature. The differences for a conic surface compared to a spherical surface result from their sag [see Eq.6. is given by n0 n n .7 and 1. called the tangent plane or the paraxial surface. The image is referred to as the Gaussian image. A ray incident in the tangential plane remains in this plane after its refraction or reflection by an element of the system. paraxial ray tracing is utilized.6.4. for a rotationally symmetric imaging system. 1.n0 + 1 = 1 D01 D12 R1 .10. is called Gaussian optics. In Gaussian optics. and therefore by the entire system. 1. and the refracting or the reflecting surface is replaced by a planar surface passing through its vertex. as in Figure 1-13. relating the object and image distances D01 and D12 from the vertex of the surface.10.6 Gaussian Optics The approximation of small angles is called the paraxial or the Gaussian approximation.10. 1.1. the projections of a skew ray in the zx and yz planes propagate through a system independently of each other. 1. (1-45)] and the surface normal differences [see Eq. Consequently.4 Ray Tracing a Conic Surface The ray-tracing equations for conic refracting and reflecting surfaces are given concisely in Sections 1. regardless of the magnitude of the angles and sizes. It is used to determine the image location and size in terms of the object location and size. Such assumptions yield equations for the transverse coordinates that are no longer coupled.5 Paraxial Ray Tracing When the rays make small angles with the optical axis and surface normals. The aberrations of an image are completely neglected.10. The plane of choice is generally the tangential plane zx. we need to trace rays only in one of these planes. and the process of determining the image in this manner.10. (1-96) .4. we can neglect the sag of a refracting or reflecting surface and approximate the diagonal distance between two points by the corresponding axial distance.

The imaging equations for a reflecting surface can be obtained from the corresponding equations for a refracting surface by letting n 0 = 1 = . we will consider it from the vertex of the imaging surface. as in Figure 1-14. . (1-100) (1-101) . the object distance D01 is measured from the object to the surface. respectively. However.n 0 . . in Chapter 2. thus changing its sign. the refractive index of the medium for imaging by a reflecting surface is unity. Thus. 1.n1 .2 Gaussian Imaging by a Reflecting Surface The Gaussian imaging equations for a reflecting surface of vertex radius of curvature R1 . we may write 1 1 2 = D12 D01 R1 Mx = D12 D01 Mb = - D01 D12 .6. The product of the linear and angular magnifications is given by M xMb = n0 n1 . (1-103) and Generally.40 FOUNDATIONS OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS The transverse magnification of the image and the angular magnification of the rays originating at a point object and converging to its Gaussian image point are given by Mx = - n 0 D12 n1 D01 (1-97) Mb = - D01 D12 (1-98) and . can be obtained from those for a corresponding refracting surface by letting n1 = . (1-99) We point out that in ray tracing.10. The minus sign with n1 represents the backward propagation of the reflected ray compared to that of the incident ray. (1-102) M xMb = -1 .

Mahajan. V. 4th ed. 5. V. 6. F. Klein and T. N. Mouroulis and J. Part I: Ray Geometrical Optics. . Geometrical Optics and Optical Design. Section 1. T.ch1]. E. Bellingham. WA (1998) [doi:10.References 41 REFERENCES 1. New York (1988). P. 2. SPIE Press. John Wiley & Sons. McGraw-Hill. Oxford. Welford.6. 3. Furtak. 2nd ed. Academic Press. 4th ed. San Francisco (2002). Mahajan.. Optical Imaging and Aberrations. Jenkins and H. A. WA (2011) [doi: 10. Fundamentals of Optics.1117/3. Optics. Hecht. 4. M. New York (1976).265735. SPIE Press. E. V. N.898443]. New York (1997). 7. Part II: Wave Diffraction Optics. W. E. Macdonald. Aberrations of the Symmetrical Optical System. New York (1974).1117/3. White... Bellingham. Addison-Wesley. Optics. Optical Imaging and Aberrations.

The refractive index of the lens is n. .42 FOUNDATIONS OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS PROBLEMS 1. and the radii of curvature of its two surfaces are R1 and R2 .3 Determine the focal length of a thin lens by considering an object at infinity. 1. 1.1 Show that an ellipsoidal refracting surface with an eccentricity e = n n¢ separating media of refractive indices n and n ¢ is a Cartesian surface for a collimated beam incident on it.2 Show that an ellipsoidal mirror is a Cartesian surface for a point object placed at one of its two geometrical focii.

...........3..........................................62 2..4..3......1 Gaussian Imaging Equation.91 2...........................8 Thin Lenses in Contact ..68 2......................................................93 2..............................................................................4.................................................................5....6 Graphical Imaging ..........2 Lagrange Invariant for an Infinite Conjugate ........................................................................75 2....................................1 Introduction...3...................................................4.................5...........................................................................3 Focal Lengths and Refracting Power ............. 50 2...................................................................3........61 2....93 2.............90 2.4..1 Introduction ............7 Thin Lens Not in Air.............................................................1 Gaussian Imaging Equation................................................................................................................................9 Determination of Cardinal Points ..........................................5 Graphical Imaging ...........................6.......................................51 2..................73 2.4.........................7 Reference to Other Conjugate Planes ..........6 Plane-Parallel Plate ..............................91 2.............................. 68 2....4............................................4...........5 Newtonian Imaging Equation ...............................................4 Magnifications and Lagrange Invariant................................3........................................................................81 2..............77 2.................3 Gaussian Imaging........6.....2 Spherical Refracting Surface ................................................4 Nodal Points and Planes .....61 2................ 61 2..8 Comparison of Imaging by a General System and a Refracting Surface or a Thin Lens .......3 Imaging by an Afocal System.........2........ 46 2.........85 2........5 Newtonian Imaging Equation ...............................4 General System...............90 2.............................................................................................................................2 Imaging Relations .................4........................................................3....2 Object and Image Spaces...................... 66 2........................................................................1 Introduction............2............................................CHAPTER 2 REFRACTING SYSTEMS 2.1 Introduction.........................2 Focal Lengths and Refracting Power .......................................................................................................2...........5.............3....................69 2.3 Thin Lens ....2.........................................2.....................................6 Image Throw...............................................................94 43 .............4 Graphical Imaging ..........................................3............73 2...........2 Cardinal Points and Planes ................................................... 81 2...4.......................3 Magnifications and Lagrange Invariant.........................................................................46 2........... 53 2.....................................................2...80 2. and Magnifications ..45 2.......................................5 Afocal Systems ................. Focal Lengths....................................................... 73 2...... 59 2.6 Newtonian Imaging Equation ............82 2...71 2................................84 2.....................................................

....................... 101 2.........................11.................113 2.....................................4 Afocal System...........10 Anamorphic Imaging Systems ......11.3 Despaced Surface ...................11 Summary of Results ...............................1................................3 Misalignments..............................113 2..........8...................2 General System .................................................................................104 2...1......................... 111 2................9.. 106 2.............1 General System ......3 Thin Lens .........7 Petzval Image............................5 Plane-Parallel Plate ............................11.................................................................2 Refracting Surface ..................................1...109 2..............113 Problems .. 99 2....................................4 Anamorphic Imaging Systems ........................................................7......7..............105 2..........................................8.............................................................. 109 2.....................................1..............................11....................................1 Misaligned Surface ............11............................................................................................107 2.......................................................................................2 Tilted Lens ................................3 Despaced Lens ..............................9..............................................112 2.......8........1...............................................................3 Thin Lens .......................11..........96 2.............................................112 2....................................1 Imaging Equations ..................3...........105 2...............11.........................11....113 2.......2 Misaligned Thin Lens ......................................................................... 106 2........9 Misaligned Thin Lens .......................................... 96 2.......102 2..........1 Decentered Surface ..................................11...................................................................98 2..........2 Petzval Image .........................................9.............................8 Misaligned Surface.............1 Spherical Refracting Surface ............ 111 2...............11........2 Tilted Surface ....1 Decentered Lens .101 2................................................................ 115 ............44 REFRACTING SYSTEMS 2...11................... 109 2...............................................................................................................................................................112 2...........3.................................7..............................................................................

The principal. How to determine the image graphically is also considered. We showed that. This introduces a small focus error that increases quadratically with the height of a point object. Both the Gaussian and Newtonian forms of the imaging equations are given.e. Next.. the size and the location of the image in terms of the size and location of the object and the parameters of the imaging system.6. and nodal points. depending only on the refractive index and the thickness of the plate. in the paraxial approximation. provided the object and image distances are measured from the respective principal points of the system in the Gaussian form. the curved surface could be replaced by a planar surface that is a tangent to the surface at its vertex. How this image is determined is discussed briefly.1 INTRODUCTION In Section 1. thus yielding a rectangular image of a square object. collectively called the cardinal points of such systems. The concept of the Lagrange invariant is discussed in each case. we showed how to trace rays exactly from one surface to the next. i.Chapter 2 Refracting Systems 2. These equations are used to obtain the corresponding equations for a thin lens. Finally. the object and image distances are measured along the optical axis. are discussed. We then considered paraxial ray tracing.e. Imaging by a plane-parallel plate is considered. The imaging equations for a multisurface refracting system are derived next. are also discussed. Consequently.e. i. we briefly discuss imaging by an anamorphic system with different transverse magnifications in two orthogonal symmetry planes. or the object and its image both lie at infinity. which represents imaging equations for obtaining the image of an object. and it is shown that the distance between the object and its image is independent of the object location. i. In Gaussian imaging. focal. We use standard notation suitable for a multisurface imaging system. We begin this chapter by rederiving the imaging equations for a refracting surface by assuming small angles of incidence and refraction and small slope angles of the rays (as in Section 1. 45 . The radius of curvature of this surface is independent of the object or the image distance. Afocal systems. an error-free image of a plane object is formed on a spherical surface.. when the rays make small angles with the surface normals and the optical axis. those for which a parallel beam of light incident on them emerges as a parallel beam of light. It is shown that simple imaging equations. called the tangent plane or the paraxial surface.2). how an image is displaced because of a slight misalignment of an imaging element is discussed. called the Petzval image surface. and from the focal points in the Newtonian form of the imaging equations. similar to those for a single refracting surface. are obtained.8. The approximation led to Gaussian optics. even when they are located off the axis.. and when they are refracted or reflected by a refracting or a reflecting surface.

. the angles of the incident and refracted rays from the surface normal QC at the point of incidence Q) be q and q ¢ .2 SPHERICAL REFRACTING SURFACE In this section. it does not have a unique vertex. The line VC joining its vertex V and center of curvature C defines its optical axis OA. from the surface normal QC at the point of incidence Q. where n ¢ > n. Similarly. showing that a large transverse magnification of an image is accompanied by a small angular magnification of the rays so that the product of the two magnifications is a constant. n n¢ Q q q¢ x b0 (–)f V (–)b¢0 OA P0 C P¢0 R (–)S S¢ Figure 2-1. respectively. consider a spherical refracting surface of a radius of curvature R separating media of refractive indices n and n ¢ . An object ray P0 Q incident at a point Q on the surface at a height x from the optical axis is refracted as a ray QP¢0 intersecting the optical axis at a point P0¢ at a distance S ¢ from V. and C is its center of curvature. where n ¢ > n. respectively. However. Let the angles of incidence and refraction (i.e. We first consider the imaging of an axial point object P0 lying at a distance S from V. respectively.1 Gaussian Imaging Equation As indicated in Figure 2-1.. VC is the optical axis OA of the surface. The numerically negative quantities are indicated by a parenthetical negative sign (–). Imaging by a convex spherical refracting surface of radius of curvature R separating media of refractive indices n and n ¢ . the central point of the surface defines its vertex. Because the surface is spherical. The slope angles of these rays are  0 and  ¢0 . The angles q and q ¢ are the angles of the incident and refracted rays P0 Q and QP¢0 .2. we derive equations that describe the imaging of an object by a spherical refracting surface. The concept of Lagrange invariance is introduced. let the slope angles of the rays from the optical axis be 0 and ¢0 . The distances from V of the axial point object P0 and its Gaussian image P0¢ are S and S ¢ . where V is the vertex of the surface. 2.46 REFRACTING SYSTEMS 2.

a spherical wave of radius of curvature S diverging from the point object P0 is incident on the refracting surface. The curvature of a wavefront is called its vergence. When multiplied . (2-3a) ¢0 = . such as P0 .n = S¢ S R . we may write 0 = . (2-1) The rays propagating according to this approximation are called paraxial rays. Imaging can also be considered in terms of waves. (2-3) into Eqs. (2-4) We note that Eq. Now the tangent of a small angle is approximately equal to the angle in radians. (2-3b) f = -x R . A point object..e. we note that q ¢ = ¢0 . all rays incident on the surface pass through P0¢ after being refracted by it. (2-2a) where the angle f of the surface normal from the optical axis is numerically negative. for small angles).f . A point source emanates spherical waves. and its corresponding Gaussian image point P0¢ are called the conjugate points. Equation (2-4) is called the Gaussian imaging equation. The refracting surface converts this wave into a spherical wave of radius of curvature S ¢ converging to the image point P0¢ .2. (2-3c) and where the object distance S is numerically negative because P0 lies to the left of V.2 Spherical Refracting Surface 47 In the Gaussian approximation of Snell's law (i. spherical in this case. Thus. from triangle CP0¢Q .x / S . Thus. as illustrated in Figure 2-2. we obtain n¢ n n¢ . (2-1). (2-4) is independent of the height x of the point of incidence Q of the ray. (1-54b)] n ¢q ¢ = nq . Thus. we note that q = 0 .x / S ¢ . the angles of incidence and refraction are related to each other according to [see Eq. (2-2) and substituting the results thus obtained into Eq. It gives the position of the image point for a given position of the object point.f . From the triangle P0 CQ . in the Gaussian approximation. is called a wavefront. (2-2b) where ¢0 is numerically negative. The reference point for the object and image distances is the vertex V of the refracting surface.. A wave surface with a constant phase. It is applicable to any conic surface with a vertex radius of curvature R. Similarly. Substituting Eqs.

V = K . if the center of curvature C of the refracting surface lies to the left of its vertex V . but does not actually pass through it. it is called the optical (or reduced) vergence. Similarly. The image can also be virtual if R is numerically negative. In terms of the vergences of the wavefronts and the power of the refracting surface.e. V = n S is the optical vergence of the incident wavefront. Imaging in terms of wavefronts. (2-4) is called the refracting power K of the surface. Thus. and V ¢ = n ¢ S ¢ is the optical vergence of the refracted wavefront.n) . the imaging equation can be written V¢ . where it is shown that an object ray P0 Q from an object point P0 is refracted such that an extension of the refracted ray intersects the optical axis on the object side at P0¢ . the image point P0¢ is real in the sense that the refracted rays actually pass through it. as the object moves closer to the refracting surface such that S < nR (n ¢ . by the refractive index of the medium in which the wavefront lies. The object distance S is numerically negative. and the virtual image becomes a real object for it.48 REFRACTING SYSTEMS n n¢ C P0 P0¢ R (–)S S¢ Figure 2-2. we note from Eq. then the rays incident on it are real. indicating that the image lies on the left-hand side of the refracting surface. which is the image of P0 . The straight lines are the corresponding incident and refracted rays. Spherical wavefronts originate at the object point P0 and converge to the image point P0¢ after refraction by a surface with its center of curvature at C. As shown later [see Eq. then S ¢ is numerically negative. (2-4) that. The image in this case is virtual in the sense that any refracted ray appears to come from it. or if n ¢ < n. the point object P0 is real in the sense that the object rays actually originate from it. This is illustrated in Figure 2-3. . (2-7)]. i. If there is another imaging element to the right of the refracting surface. However. In Figure 2-1.. (2-5) The vergence of a wavefront is numerically positive or negative. the right-hand side of Eq. depending on whether it is converging or diverging. and the image distance S ¢ is numerically positive.

This is the case. Virtual image P0¢ of a real point object P0 . where S < nR (n ¢ . Because light is traveling backward. The object may be the image of some other object formed by another imaging system preceding the refracting surface. and the image lies in a medium of index n. Imaging of a virtual point object P0 by a refracting surface. as in Figure 2-5. such as P0 Q . if a real point object lies on the right-hand side of V at a distance S so that light initially travels from right to left. If a beam of rays converging to a point on the right-hand side of the vertex V is incident on the refracting surface. However. then the object lies in a medium of refractive index n ¢ . the signs of the refractive n¢ n OA P¢0 C P0 S¢ R S Figure 2-4. and its distance S from the surface is numerically positive. as in Figure 2-4. The real image lies at P0¢ .n) . when considering the image of one element of a system by another that precedes it. An object ray.2 Spherical Refracting Surface n 49 n¢ Q V P¢0 P0 OA C R (–)S (–)S¢ Figure 2-3.2. the corresponding point object P0 is considered virtual. for example. . is refracted by the refracting surface such that the refracted ray appears to come from the image P0¢ .

Similarly. S is numerically positive. reverse the sign of R. Its object space is the space that contains all of the physical objects lying to its left and all of the points that are conjugate to any physical objects lying to its right. we let S ¢ equal the numerically positive object distance in Eq. A numerically positive value of S implies that the actual image lies on the right-hand side of V.2 Object and Image Spaces Any imaging system is associated with its object and image spaces. in which S is numerically negative in a medium of index n ¢ . (2-4). and rotate the system back to its original configuration. (2-6) Of course. Thus. Thus.n = S S¢ R .. Eq.50 REFRACTING SYSTEMS n n¢ Q V OA P¢0 C P0 R (–)S¢ S Figure 2-5. every object is associated with an image. one can also mentally rotate the system 180 degrees about a vertical line passing through V. Accordingly. However. lying on either side of the system. Imaging of a real point object P0 lying to the right of a refracting surface. they become negative quantities. both the object and image spaces extend from infinity on the left of the system to infinity on its right.e. determine S ¢ in a medium of index n. the two spaces are superimposed on each other. (2-4) and determine the value of S. Therefore. i. such as Eq. its image space is the space that contains all of the physical objects lying to its right and all of the points that are conjugate to any physical objects lying to its left. 2. Of course. (2-4) does not change. Of course. the two spaces are conjugates of each other. indices are reversed. A distinction is made between the two spaces by considering the rays before entering the system as lying in its object space and those . Now. which may be real or virtual.2. use an equation. as may be seen by reversing the signs of n and n ¢ . One can use an alternative and perhaps a simpler approach that treats the real object on the right-hand side of V as an image and determines its conjugate object as the actual image. and a numerically positive value of S ¢ implies that the image point lies on the right-hand side of V. the imaging equation in this case becomes n¢ n n¢ .

(b) Object-space focal point F . The portion of the object space lying to the left of a system is called its real object space. the object distance S ∫ VF = f . for which the image lies n n¢ V F¢ f¢ (a) n n¢ V F (–)f (b) Figure 2-6. (a) Image-space focal point F ¢ . 2. Similarly. Focal points of a refracting surface. then the corresponding image distance S ¢ ∫ VF ¢ = f ¢ . refraction of the rays takes place at the tangent plane passing through the vertex of the surface.• . Rays incident on the surface parallel to its optical axis are focused at F ¢ after being refracted by it. i. and the portion of the image space lying to its right is called its real image space..2. if S = . The remaining portions are correspondingly called virtual object and image spaces.3 Focal Lengths and Refracting Power If an object lies at infinity. as illustrated in Figure 2-6a.2. The point F ¢ is called the image-space focal point of the surface. . a distinction is made between a real and a virtual space. In Gaussian optics.e. where f ¢ is called the image-space focal length of the refracting surface. Sometimes.2 Spherical Refracting Surface 51 emerging from it as lying in its image space.

S ¢ = • ). so can the focal point of an imaging system. Similarly. they will be focused at F after being refracted by it. This is illustrated in Figure 2-7. Of course. are given by f¢ = n¢ R n¢ . (2-8) If f ¢ is numerically positive. By their definitions.e. where F is called the object-space focal point. Just as the image of an object can be virtual. if rays parallel to the optical axis are incident on the surface from right to left. related to each other according to f ¢ = . as in Figure 2-6b. The planes passing through the focal points F and F ¢ that are perpendicular to the optical axis are called the object-space and image-space focal planes. and an extension of the refracted ray intersects the axis at the virtual focal point F ¢ . therefore. n ¢ > n. (2-4). as in Figure 2-6b.( n ¢ n) f . As in Figure 2-1. but n ¢ < n. as in Figure 2-6a. the focal point is virtual if R is numerically positive. n¢ n C F¢ (–)R (–)f¢ Figure 2-7.n (2-7a) and f = - n R . Virtual focal point F ¢ of a refracting surface. A ray incident parallel to the optical axis is bent away from the axis. . n¢ .52 REFRACTING SYSTEMS at infinity (i. It should be evident from Figure 2-6 that the focal points F and F ¢ are not conjugate points. then f is numerically negative. where the radius of curvature of the refracting surface is numerically negative. is called the object-space focal length. The two focal lengths are.. obtained from Eq. Rays originating at F and incident on the surface are made parallel by it. but R is numerically negative. the image-space and object-space focal lengths of the refracting surface. The focal points F and F ¢ lie on the opposite sides of the vertex V at different distances from each other. respectively.n (2-7b) respectively. and F lies to the left of V.

respectively. from the optical axis. Substituting . the shorter the distance at which the refracted beam is focused. and h ¢ are all numerically negative. (2-4) is called the refracting power K of the surface. Substituting Eqs. we may write K = n¢ . (2-9) The power K and the equivalent focal length fe are positive if n ¢ . (2-4) may be written n¢ n n¢ n 1 = K = = = S¢ S fe f¢ f .e. which is measured in m–1. the higher the power of the refracting surface. the unit of power is called a diopter (D). Note that q .2. Such a surface is called a positive or a converging surface. (2-10) When the focal length is measured in meters. the equivalent focal length represents the image-space focal length when the refractive index n ¢ of the image space is unity..n and R have the same sign. are shown in the figure passing through the vertex V. Both the object and the image planes are mutually parallel and perpendicular to the optical axis. The incident and the refracted rays PV and VP¢ . (211) into the Snell's law equation (2-1). Its reciprocal is called the equivalent or effective focal length fe of the surface. Eq. K and fe are negative if n ¢ . are given by q = h/S (2-11a) q¢ = h¢ / S ¢ . (2-11b) and respectively. The image lies at the point P ¢ . where the refracted ray VP¢ intersects the image plane passing through P0¢ . as illustrated in Figure 2-8. Thus. (2-12a) It should be evident that the image of an extended object lying in the object plane is uniformly magnified so that the image is geometrically similar to the object. 2. i.4 Magnifications and Lagrange Invariant Now we consider the imaging of an off-axis point object P lying at a height h from the optical axis in the object plane passing through P0 .e.2 Spherical Refracting Surface 53 The quantity on the right-hand side of Eq.2. q ¢ . We also note that fe = f ¢ if n ¢ = 1. Such a surface is called a negative or a diverging surface. we find that the transverse magnification of the image is given by Mt ∫ h¢ nS ¢ = h n ¢S .. In terms of the refracting power and focal lengths. It is evident from the figure that the angles of incidence and refraction from the surface normal at V. Similarly.n and R have opposite signs.n 1 = R fe . It is a measure of the ability of the refracting surface to convert a parallel beam into a converging beam. i.

and the Gaussian image point P ¢ lies on it. The image is virtual in this case. The ray angular magnification. Mt Æ • . and an object ray is refracted parallel to the optical axis. the image is inverted. An object ray is refracted toward the optical axis. (2-12a). Mt < 0 . is given by M = ¢0 / 0 = S / S ¢ . Mt = 0 . As the object approaches the surface. (2-13) .R . for n ¢ S ¢ from Eq. the image also approaches it with Mt = 1. R-S (2-12c) For an object lying at infinity ( S = . Mt > 0 .e. For an object lying between the object-space focal plane and the surface. For an object lying between infinity and the object-space focal plane. and the ray remains undeviated when refracted by the surface. The ray PACP¢ is exact. representing the ratio of the angular divergence of the rays from P0 to their angular convergence to P0¢ (see Figure 2-9). Imaging of an off-axis point object P lying at a height h from the optical axis. The image point P ¢ lies at a height h ¢ . or the image is erect.54 REFRACTING SYSTEMS n n′ P A h (–)θ C (–)θ′ V P0 P′0 (–)h′ P′ R (–)S S′ Figure 2-8.. Because the angle of incidence of this ray is zero. (2-12b) Another equation for magnification can be obtained by considering an object ray PA incident in the direction of the center of curvature C.•). i. It is seen from similar triangles P0 CP and P0¢CP ¢ that the magnification of the image is given by Mt = - S¢ . as illustrated in Figure 2-3. (2-10) into Eq. As the object approaches the object-space focal plane. the magnification can be written in terms of the object distance S and the focal length f ¢ : Mt = nf ¢ nf ¢ + n ¢S . its angle of refraction is also zero.

the transverse magnification of the image can also be written Mt = nb 0 n ¢b¢0 . (2-12a) and (2-13). (2-14) which depends only on the ratio of the refractive indicex of the object space to that of the image space.2. we find that the product of the transverse and angular magnifications is given by Mt Mb = n / n ¢ .e. it can be obtained from the slope angles of the incident and refracted rays for an axial object point. From Eqs. (2-12) and (2-14). Lagrange invariant nh0 of a refracting surface. it does not depend on the object and image distances. namely. (2-11).. From Eqs. a large transverse magnification of the image can be obtained only with a correspondingly small angular magnification of the rays. (2-16) i.. From Eqs. the ratio of the angular sizes q ¢ and and qq¢ of the image P0¢P ¢ and the object P0 P subtended at the vertex V in Figure 2-8 is given by n n′ P B h β0 (–)β′0 V P0 C P′0 (–)h′ P′ R (–)S S′ Figure 2-9. subtended at V in Figure 2-8. (2-14) can also be written n ¢h ¢¢0 = nh0 . by having a much smaller angular divergence of the rays at the image than at the object. respectively. i. (2-15) showing that the quantity nh0 does not change upon refraction (see Figure 2-9). . From the definitions of the magnifications. In particular.2 Spherical Refracting Surface 55 Note that Mb is not the ratio of the angular sizes q ¢ and q of the image P0¢P ¢ and the object P0 P .e. Consequently. Eq. (2-12a) and (2-13). Eqs. This quantity is called the Lagrange (or the Smith–Helmholtz) invariant.

the image moves farther from the surface. (2-4).. for example.e. if the object moves closer to the refracting surface. the longitudinal magnification Ml is always positive. Eqs. Differentiating both sides of Eq. we find that Ml ∫ D S ¢ D S = ( n n ¢)( S ¢ S) 2 = ( n ¢ n) Mt2 = Mt Mb . Thus. (2-18) Whether the transverse magnification Mt is positive or negative. As an axial point object moves from P0 to P1 by a small amount S . The ratio  S ¢  S is called the longitudinal magnification Ml because it represents the magnification of the image of a small axial object.. Thus. the image moves in the same direction from P0¢ to P1¢ by an amount  S ¢ . For a small change S in the object distance. We should then be able to obtain Eq. that if the object distance S increases (from a larger negative value to a smaller one). (2-18). (2-17) from Eq.56 REFRACTING SYSTEMS Mq ∫ q ¢ q = h¢ S S¢ h = Mt M = n n¢ . (2-13) by replacing 0 by q and ¢0 by q ¢ . (2-12a) and (2-13) yield the result Mq = n n ¢ . i. the image n n¢ V P0 P1 C P¢0 P¢1 DS DS¢ R (–)S S¢ Figure 2-10. indicating. (2-17) Suppose we treat the angles q and q ¢ as the angular divergences of the rays from an object and its image located at V. Longitudinal magnification. The longitudinal magnification D S ¢ D S of the image is given by Eq. This is indeed the case because Mt = 1 for the conjugates located at the vertex. let the corresponding change in the image distance be D S ¢ . i.e. . as illustrated in Figure 2-10. then the image distance S ¢ also increases (from a smaller positive value to a larger one).

as illustrated in Figure 2-12. let S0 and S1 be the object distances of P0 and P1 .(2-18) is valid only for infinitesimal values of DS . As illustrated by the arrows P0 z and P0¢z ¢ . For a finite value of DS . if the object is fixed and the refracting surface is displaced by an amount D . (2-18) that. Eq.2 Spherical Refracting Surface 57 moves in the same direction as the object. In this equation.3.2. 3D image of a 3D object. The transverse image is reversed. as illustrated by the reversal of arrows in the x and y directions. the longitudinal and transverse magnifications are not equal. Because the value of Mt varies with the position of the object. The corresponding image distances S0¢ and S1¢ are given by n¢ n = K S0¢ S0 (2-19a) n¢ n = K . unless Mt = ± 1. Ml also varies with it. yielding a positive longitudinal magnification.n ¢ M 2 n D . Therefore. and the 3D image of a 3D object is accordingly geometrically different from the object. the longitudinal image points in the same direction as the object. as shown in Section 2. S1¢ S1 (2-19b) and z¢ y¢ P¢0 n¢ F¢ x¢ n V F x z P0 y Figure 2-11. as illustrated by the reversal of the arrows P0¢x ¢ and P0¢y ¢ compared to the arrows P0 x and P0 y . This is illustrated in Figure 2-11.8. ( ) We note from Eq. indicating a positive longitudinal magnification. and D S ¢ represents the image displacement corresponding to an object displacement DS . The z arrows point in the same direction. The magnification of the transverse image is negative. the refracting surface is assumed to be fixed. then the corresponding displacement of the image is given by 1 . However. .

Subtracting (2-19a) from (2-19b).S0¢ L¢ = 1 L S1 . The longitudinal magnification L ¢ L of the image is given by Eq. Image P0¢P1¢ of a longitudinal object P0 P1 . so is Ml .˜ = n Á .˜ . we obtain n¢ n n¢ n = S1¢ S1 S0¢ S0 . the longitudinal magnification is given by Ml = S ¢ . respectively. for example. S S S S ¢ ¢ Ë 1 Ë 1 0¯ 0¯ (2-20) Accordingly.5 that for an afocal system. . (2-21).58 REFRACTING SYSTEMS n n¢ V P0 P1 P¢0 C L P¢1 L¢ R (–)S0 S0¢ S1¢ (–)S1 Figure 2-12. The pyramid becomes approximately a rectangular parallelepiped if the cube is infinitesimal in size. n (2-21) where M0 = nS0¢ n ¢S0 and M1 = nS1¢ n ¢S1 are the transverse magnifications of the images lying in image planes passing through P0¢ and P1¢ . therefore. Mt is independent of the position of the object and. the image of a cube is a truncated pyramid.S0 = n S0¢ S1¢ n ¢ S0 S1 = n¢ M0 M1 . or Ê1 Ê1 1ˆ 1ˆ n¢ Á . Thus. as illustrated in Figure 2-13. It is shown in Section 2.

Moreover. a ray 3 incident passing through this point is refracted parallel to the optical axis. 1. A hypothetical ray incident parallel to it (shown by . for example. This is because the angle of incidence of the ray is zero.2 Spherical Refracting Surface 59 D C P0 B A H G n P1 n¢ F E O L D¢ (–) S H¢ C¢ G¢ P¢0 S¢ B¢ A¢ P¢1 F¢ L¢ E¢ Figure 2-13. as shown. and therefore the angle of refraction is also zero.2.2. The image is a truncated pyramid owing to different transverse magnifications of the images of objects lying in different object planes. Extension of one or more of these rays may be necessary for them to intersect each other. 2. Image of a cube. in Figures 2-9 and 2-14. By definition of the object-space focal point F. By definition of the image-space focal point F ¢ . a ray 1 incident parallel to the optical axis passes through this point after refraction. Ray 2 incident in the direction of the center of curvature C of the refracting surface is refracted by it without any deviation. The Gaussian image P0¢ of an on-axis point object P0 can be determined independently (rather than as the point of intersection of the optical axis and the line that is perpendicular to it and passes through P ¢ ) as follows: Consider a ray P0 E incident on the surface. as shown in Figure 2-15. 3. 2. in Gaussian optics. as illustrated in Figure 2-14. any refraction (or reflection) at a surface takes place at the plane that is a tangent to it at its vertex. which is based on the paraxial rays.5 Graphical Imaging The location of the Gaussian image point P ¢ can be determined graphically as the point of intersection of any two of the following three conveniently drawn rays from the point object P.

refraction of the object rays takes place at the tangent plane AVB. The refracted ray corresponding to the incident ray P0 E passes through the point D and intersects the optical axis at the Gaussian image point P0¢ . The parallel rays P0 E and CD are focused by the refracting surface at the point D in the focal plane. n n¢ E D V C F P0 (–)z (–)S F¢ P0¢ z¢ S¢ Figure 2-15. .60 REFRACTING SYSTEMS a dashed line) and passing through C intersects the image-space focal plane at a point D. Graphical imaging to determine the image P0¢P ¢ of an object P0 P by a refracting surface. Graphical imaging to determine the image P0¢ of an axial point object P0 . In the Gaussian approximation. The point D may also be determined by considering a hypothetical parallel ray passing through the objectspace focal point F. n n¢ 1 P B 1 2 h 3 V 2 F P0 (–)h¢ C A (–)f (–)z P0¢ F¢ P¢ 3 R z¢ f¢ (–)S S¢ Figure 2-14. It is refracted as a ray parallel to the optical axis intersecting the focal plane at the point D.

and (2-23). (2-22) where z (like f ) is numerically negative because P0 lies to the left of the reference point F. In the Newtonian imaging equation. and its image by the second surface yields the image formed by the lens.e. We derive simple imaging equations for a thin lens such that it is not necessary to apply the imaging equations for each surface to determine the image of an object..3 THIN LENS It should be evident that the image formed by a lens consisting of two refracting surfaces can be obtained by a repeated application of the imaging equation for a refracting surface. Thus. with their centers of curvature at C1 and C2 . The imaging equations when the media on the two sides of a thin lens are different. we note that the transverse magnification may be written Mt ∫ h ¢ h = . relating the longitudinal and transverse magnifications. we show that it is possible to determine the image of an object without determining the image formed by its two surfaces sequentially. (2-8). (2-24) It is evident from Eq. From similar triangles P0 FP and FVA in this figure. the object and image distances S and S ¢ . respectively. respectively. Let the radii of curvature of its two surfaces be R1 and R2 . from similar triangles VF ¢B and F ¢P0¢ P ¢. implying that an object and its image lie on the opposite sides of the corresponding focal points. The image formed by the first surface becomes the object for the second.3. Similarly. as indicated in Figure 2-14. For example. (2-24) and using Eqs.(n n ¢) f ¢ 2 .6 Newtonian Imaging Equation In the Gaussian imaging equation (2-4).1 Gaussian Imaging Equation Consider a thin lens in air made of a material of refractive index n. as illustrated in Figure 2-16. The line joining C1 and C2 defines the . we obtain the Newtonian imaging equation: zz ¢ = f f ¢ = . 2. In this section. are also given. Finally.2. (2-22).z ¢ f ¢ . we consider imaging by a thin lens in air.f z . then the image lies to the right of F ¢ . let z and z ¢ be the object and image distances from the focal points F and F ¢. Differentiating both sides of Eq. (2-18). respectively. (2-23) Equating the right-hand sides of these equations. are measured from the vertex V of the refracting surface. it may also be written Mt = . Thus. they are measured from the respective focal points F and F ¢ . it is shown that the power a system consisting of thin lenses in contact is equal to the sum of the powers of the individual lenses. (2-24) that z and z ¢ must have opposite signs. if the object lies to the left of F. one for which the spacing between its two surfaces is negligible. we obtain Eq. i.3 Thin Lens 61 2.2. 2.

Consider an axial point object P0 lying at a distance S1 from the lens. (2-4). f ¢ i s given by . (2-27) where we have let S1 = S and S2¢ = S ¢ be the object and final image distances. that. and P0¢¢ is the image of the virtual object P0¢ formed by the second surface. 2. C is the center of the lens. The lens surfaces have radii of curvature of R1 and R2 . according to Eq.• . S1¢ S1 R1 (2-25) A ray from P0 is refracted by the surface intersecting the optical axis at P0¢ . Equation (2-27) is the Gaussian imaging equation relating the object and image distances. image-space focal length f ¢ represents the image distance when the object lies at infinity.˜ S¢ S Ë R1 R2 ¯ .. It lies at a distance S2 = S1¢. Its image P0¢ formed by the first surface lies at a distance S1¢ that.2 Focal Lengths and Refracting Power By definition. S ¢ = f ¢ when S = . The line O A connecting their centers of curvature C1 and C2 defines the optical axis of the lens.e. This image is a virtual object for the second surface because the rays associated with it appear to converge to it rather than actually diverge from it. as indicated in Figure 2-16.1) Á . Imaging of an axial point object P0 by a thin lens of refractive index n. (2-26) Adding Eqs. (2-27). we obtain Ê 1 1 1 1ˆ = (n .62 REFRACTING SYSTEMS n P0 P0¢¢ OA F1¢ P0¢ C1 F¢ C2 R1 (–)R2 S¢1 = S2 (–)S1 ∫ S S2¢ ∫ S ¢ Figure 2-16. optical axis OA of the lens. is given by n 1 n -1 = . (2-4).3. from Eq. is given by n 1 1. P0¢ is the image of P0 formed by the first surface. according to Eq. (2-24) and (2-25). Therefore. i.n = S2¢ S1¢ R2 . Its image P0¢¢ formed by the surface lies at a distance S2¢ .

A ray from the object-space focal point F incident on the lens emerges from it parallel to its optical axis upon refraction. (2-31b) F¢ F C f¢ (a) C (–)f (b) Figure 2-17.1) Á . (2-29) The right-hand side of Eq.3 Thin Lens Ê 1 1 1ˆ = ( n . a ray incident on the lens parallel to its optical axis is refracted by the first surface intersecting the optical axis at F1¢ at a distance nR1 (n . Similarly. It should be evident that the focal points F and F ¢ . which is the image-space focal point. In effect.1) Á . f represents the object distance that yields an image at infinity. (2-27) represents the refracting power K of the lens. The imaging equation (2-27) can be written in terms of the focal length f ¢ as 1 1 1 = S¢ S f¢ . Both focal points are real in that parallel rays converge to F ¢ . Thus. as illustrated in Figure 2-17a. as illustrated in Figure 2-16. (a) Image-space focal point F ¢ .C 2 ) . (2-28) Thus. where f = . S ¢ = • when S = f . the parallel ray incident on the lens is refracted by it passing through F ¢ . Focal points of a positive thin lens with its center C. Thus. we may write K = 1 1 = fe f¢ (2-30) Ê 1 1ˆ = ( n .˜ f¢ Ë R1 R2 ¯ 63 .2. are not conjugates of each other. which lie on the opposite sides of the lens. and rays actually originating from F form a parallel beam after refraction by the lens.˜ Ë R1 R2 ¯ (2-31a) = ( n . (b) Object-space focal point F. by definition of the objectspace focal length. This ray is refracted by the second surface intersecting the optical axis at F ¢ . .f ¢ . as illustrated in Figure 2-17b. Its reciprocal is called the equivalent or effective focal length fe of the lens.1) (C1 .1) .

A lens with the curvatures of its two surfaces having the same magnitude but opposite signs is referred to as an equiconvex lens. in which case the lens is called planoconvex or planoconcave. i.. This is. not correct because a lens of zero thickness cannot be fabricated. (2-33b) We note that the focal length or the power of a lens depends on the difference in the curvatures of its surfaces but not on the curvatures themselves. as illustrated in Figure 2-19.n R2 (2-33a) and . as in Figure 2-20a. is used in reducing its aberrations. that if a beam converging to F ¢ is incident on a positive lens. one of the surfaces may be planar. It should be noted. a virtual point object P0 at F ¢ . however. . is called a converging or a positive lens. A lens whose first surface has a negative curvature and second surface has a positive curvature of the same magnitude as the first is referred to as an equiconcave lens. (4-41) for a thick lens (described in Chapter 4). (2-32) where K1 = n -1 R1 K2 = 1. The equation (2-31) for the focal length of a thin lens. Unless it is surrounded by a medium of higher refractive index. K = K1 + K 2 . depending on the curvature of the other surface.e. if the curvatures of the lens surfaces are changed by the same amount. The surfaces refract a ray incident on the lens toward the optical axis. are refracted by it. Thus. This name should instead be associated with Eq.. as illustrated in Figure 2-17. This degree of freedom. Similarly. has traditionally been called the lens maker’s formula. Similarly. illustrating its focal points. or f ¢ is called a diverging or a negative lens. however. appearing to diverge from the image-space focal point F ¢ . Of course. a real image is formed at P0¢ . a lens with a negative value of K. It can be positive or negative. in terms of its refractive index and the curvatures of its surfaces. Parallel rays incident on the lens. i. or f ¢ . as in Figure 2-18a. a lens that is thick at the center compared to its edges is positive. We note that the refracting power of the lens is equal to the sum of the refracting powers K1 and K 2 of its two surfaces. its shape changes without changing its Gaussian properties.e. and a lens that is thin at the center is negative. fe . A lens with a positive value of K ..64 REFRACTING SYSTEMS where C = 1 R is the curvature of a surface. It is shown in Figure 2-18. rays converging to the virtual object-space focal point F are refracted by the lens into a parallel beam. fe . A lens with surface curvatures of the same sign is called a meniscus lens. called the bending of the lens. as illustrated in Figure 2-18b.

Both focal points are virtual in that parallel rays appear to diverge from F ¢ .2.3 Thin Lens 65 C F¢ F C (–)f¢ (–)f (a) (b) Figure 2-18. and lower for a negative meniscus. P¢0 C f¢ S¢ F¢ F¢ P0 P0 P 0¢ C (–)f ¢ (–)S ¢ Figure 2-20. The radii of curvature of their surfaces have the same sign. Virtual point object P0 at the real focus F ¢ of a positive lens. (b) Real point object P0 at the virtual focus F of a negative lens. The image point P0¢ is real. Focal points of a negative thin lens. (b) Object-space focal point F. The image point P0¢ is virtual. or rays appearing to converge to F form a parallel beam after refraction by the lens. The lens thickness at the center is higher compared to that at the edges for a positive meniscus. (a) (b) Figure 2-19. (a) Image-space focal point F ¢ . (a) Positive and (b) negative meniscus lens. .

if a point object is placed at the focal point F ¢ of a negative lens. the transverse magnification of the final image P0¢¢P ¢¢ of the object P0 P formed by the lens as a whole is given by (2-36) Mt = M1 M2 = h2¢ h1 = S2¢ S1 .3 Magnifications and Lagrange Invariant The transverse magnification of the image formed by the lens can be obtained by applying Eq. or Mt ∫ h ¢ h = S ¢ S . a real point object P0 at F ¢ . The dotted line simply shows that the final image P ¢¢ lies on the line joining P ¢ and C2 . . (2-12) to the images formed by its two surfaces. (2-37a) P n h1 ≡ h P0 F′ OA C1 C2 P′′0 F1′ ′ 2 ≡ h′ (–)h P0′ (–)h′1 ≡ h2 P′′ P′ (–)R2 R1 (–)S1 ≡ S S1′ = S2 S2′ ≡ S ′ Figure 2-21.3.e. The magnification of the erect image P0¢¢P ¢¢ of the object P0¢P ¢ formed by the second surface is given by M2 ∫ h2¢ / h2 = h2¢ / h1¢ = nl S2¢ S1¢ (2-35a) . as in Figure 2-20b. The magnification of the inverted image P0¢P ¢ of the object P0 P formed by the first surface is given by M1 ∫ h1¢ / h1 = S1¢ nS1 (2-34a) . A ray from an off-axis point object P passing through the center of curvature C1 of the first surface is shown in Figure 2-21 intersecting the image plane at its image P ¢ ..66 REFRACTING SYSTEMS Similarly. i. a virtual image is formed at P0¢ . in turn. Imaging of an off-axis point object P. The image distance in both cases is given by half the corresponding focal length. which. is refracted by the second surface passing through the focal point F ¢ of the lens and intersecting the final image plane at the image point P ¢¢ . (2-35b) Therefore. (2-34b) A parallel ray from P is refracted by the first surface passing through its focal point F1¢ . 2. as expected.

(2-40) showing that the quantity h0 is invariant upon refraction by the lens. (2-29) into Eq. (2-41) i. (2-39) can also be written h ¢¢0 = h0 . it is given by the ratio of the slope angles of the incident and refracted rays for an axial point object. we obtain the longitudinal magnification of the image: Ml ∫ D S ¢ D S = ( S ¢ S ) 2 = Mt2 = Mt Mb . the transverse magnification of the image can also be written Mt = 0 ¢0 . [It is shown in Section 5.10 that the object flux entering the lens is proportional to its square.3 Thin Lens 67 where we have let h = h1 and h ¢ = h2¢ be the object and final image heights. (2-27). Substituting for S ¢ from Eq. (2-40). This quantity is called the Lagrange invariant.e. (2-38) From Eqs. (2-42) P h (–)β′0 β0 P0 P′0 (–)h′ C P′ (–)S Figure 2-22. (2-37) and (2-38). Eq. S′ ..2. the magnification can also be written in terms of S and f ¢ : Mt = f¢ f¢+ S .4. Differentiating both sides of Eq. (2-39) From the definitions of the magnifications. (2-37b) The angular magnification of a ray bundle diverging from the axial point object P0 and converging toward its image P0¢ (see Figure 2-22) is given by M = ¢0 0 = S S ¢ . we find that the product of the transverse magnification of the image and the angular magnification of the ray bundle for a thin lens is given by Mt M = 1 . (2-37a). Lagrange invariant h0 for imaging by a thin lens.] From Eq. respectively.

(2-42). they are measured from the respective focal points. (2-47) and (2-44). From Eqs. and D S ¢ represents the displacement of the image corresponding to a displacement DS of the object. except that a ray through the center of curvature of the surface is replaced by one through the center of the lens. if the object is fixed and the lens is displaced by an amount D .3. as indicated in Figure 2-23. the third ray provides a good check on the correctness of the drawing. The intersection of these two rays locates the image point P ¢ . (2-43) Similarly.3. let z and z ¢ be the object and image distances from the focal points F and F ¢ .5 for the case of a refracting surface. are measured from the lens center.3. From similar triangles P0 FP and FCA. Thus. showing that a ray incident in the direction of the center C of the lens passes through it undeviated. Only two of the three rays from an off-axis point object. parallel to the axis.f z . The transverse magnification given by Eq. The ray passing through F determines the image height h ¢ . (2-18) apply to Eq. and in the direction of the center. the lens is assumed to be fixed in position.z ¢ f ¢ . a ray from an object point P incident parallel to the optical axis of the lens emerges from it passing through its image-space focal point F ¢ .4 Graphical Imaging The Gaussian image of a point object can be located graphically. then the corresponding displacement of the image is 1 . the object and image distances S and S ¢ .Mt2 D . namely. (2-43) and (2-44) has been introduced because Mt in Figure 2-23 is numerically negative due to h ¢ being numerically negative. from similar triangles CF ¢B and P0¢F ¢P ¢ .2. respectively. In the corresponding Newtonian imaging equation.5 Newtonian Imaging Equation In the Gaussian imaging equation (2-27). the image is displaced in the same direction as the object. and a ray incident in the direction of its object-space focal point F emerges parallel to the optical axis. respectively.68 REFRACTING SYSTEMS The comments made following Eq. are needed to determine the image point. ( ) 2. in the same manner as in Section 2. Thus. we note that the transverse magnification of the image can be written Mt ∫ h ¢ h = . we obtain z z¢ = f f ¢ = . as shown in Section 2. However. (2-44) The negative sign on the right-hand sides of Eqs. in the direction of the object-space focal point. Figure 2-23 is similar to Figure 2-16 except that the two-step imaging (one for each surface) has been replaced by single-step imaging. (2-42) as well. as illustrated in Figure 2-23. (2-45) . when the object is displaced longitudinally. for example. 2. Of course. (237) dictates similarity of the triangles P0 CP and P0¢CP ¢ . Thus.9. In Eq. it may also be written Mt = .f ¢2 .

(2-47) and 0 = = ∂L ∂S S( S + 2 f ¢ ) ( S + f ¢)2 . we obtain Eq. (2-43) and (2-44). Compared with Figure 2-15. . implying that an object and its image lie on opposite sides of the corresponding focal points.6 Image Throw The distance L between an object and its image is called the throw (see Figure 2-24). which is the Newtonian imaging equation.3 Thin Lens 69 B P n h F¢ P0 F C P¢0 (–)h¢ A P¢ z¢ (–)z (–)f (–)S f¢ S¢ Figure 2-23.2. It is clear from this equation that z and z ¢ must have opposite signs. (2-46) or L = - S2 S + f¢ . (2-39) and using Eqs. Differentiating both sides of Eq. 2. Imaging by a lens of refractive index n and focal length f ¢ . Its minimum value for real conjugates may be obtained by letting S ¢ = L + S in Eq. Therefore.3. (229) and setting the differential of L with respect to S equal to zero. (2-48) We discard the solution S = 0 because it implies an object and its image both located at the lens. Thus. the two-step imaging (one for each surface) has been replaced by single-step imaging. 1 1 1 = L+S S f¢ . (2-42) relating the transverse and longitudinal magnifications.

The magnification of the image in that case is .S (2-51) d = . Lmin = S ¢ .S = 4f¢ . Image throw L of a lens representing the distance between an object and its image. as illustrated in Figure 2-25.70 REFRACTING SYSTEMS P h P′0 (–)h′ C P0 P′ (–)S S′ L Figure 2-24. By interchanging the (magnitudes of the) object and image distances. (2-52) and Solving for S and S ¢ . We note from the figure that L = S¢ . we obtain S = - L+d 2 (2-53a) and S¢ = L-d 2 .1. Eq. the minimum throw of a thin lens for real conjugates is equal to 4 f ¢ .(S ¢ + S ) . Accordingly. The focal length of a lens can be determined accurately from the throw of an image and the spacing d between the lens positions. (2-53b) . (2-29) is equal to 2 f ¢ . (2-29) shows that a pair of conjugates is obtained for two positions of the lens. (2-50) Thus. (2-49) The corresponding value of S ¢ from Eq. S = -2f¢ .

and they are reciprocal of each other.d 2 4L .m f¢ f (2-56c) . (2-54) The magnifications of the two images are given by M1 ∫ h¢ S¢ L-d = = h S L+d (2-55a) M2 ∫ h ¢¢ S 1 = = h S¢ M1 (2-55b) and . (2-29).3.nm nm¢ . then it can be shown that the following imaging equations are obtained: n . we obtain the focal length of the lens: f¢ = L2 .7 Thin Lens Not in Air If the media on the object and image sides of a thin lens of refractive index nl have the refractive indices nm and nm¢ .nl nm¢ n . Two lens positions for a pair of conjugates. Substituting Eqs. (2-53) into Eq. as illustrated in Figure 2-26.2. The object and image distances are interchanged as the lens is moved from one position to the other.m = l + S¢ S R1 R2 (2-56a) = K1 + K 2 (2-56b) = nm¢ n = .3 Thin Lens 71 P h P0′ P0 (–)h′ C P′ (–)h′′ d P′′ (–)S S′ –S – S′ L Figure 2-25. 2.

(2-57c) M = ¢0 0 = S S ¢ . the focal length of a thin lens in air may be written . Imaging by a thin lens with different media on its two sides. However. the object. (2-56d) Mt ∫ h ¢ h = nm S ¢ nm¢ S (2-57a) = nm0 nm¢ ¢0 (2-57b) = .z¢ f ¢ = . we note that the power K of the lens is again equal to the sum of the powers K1 and K 2 of its surfaces. although the power of each surface is now different from that before. (2-62) Comparing these equations with those for a thin lens in air. as illustrated in Figure 2-26. unlike the case of a thin lens in air. 1 fe = K = .and image-space focal lengths have different magnitudes.72 REFRACTING SYSTEMS nm n′m P nl h (–)β′0 P′0 (–)h′ P′ C β0 P0 F′ F z′ (–)z (–)f f′ S′ (–)S Figure 2-26. (2-56a) and (2-56b). (2-60) M l ∫ D S ¢ D S = (n m n ¢m )(S ¢ S) 2 = (n ¢m n m )M t2 = M t M b . (2-61) and z z ¢ = f f ¢ = .(nm nm¢ ) f ¢ 2 . a ray incident in the direction of the lens center does not pass through it undeviated. . A ray incident toward its center deviates upon refraction.f z . Moreover. From Eqs. (2-58) Mt M = nm nm¢ (2-59) nm¢ h ¢¢0 = nm h0 .

4. the power of the doublet is equal to the sum of the powers of its two lenses. 2.1 Introduction If an imaging system consists of a thick lens such that the spacing between its two surfaces is not negligible. 2. which forms its image at a distance f ¢ that is the focal length of the doublet. The above reasoning can be extended to three or more thin lenses. yielding the result that the power of a system consisting of any number of thin lenses in contact is equal to the sum of the powers of the individual lenses. This image is the object for the second lens. The fact that the . we now show that the power of a doublet consisting of two thin lenses in contact is given by the sum of the powers of the thin lenses. consider two thin lenses L1 and L2 of focal lengths f1¢ and f2¢ in contact. The image of an object formed by the first lens acts as the object for the second lens. It is a universal practice in optical design to specify the refractive index of a lens material relative to that of the air (instead of vacuum). (2-64) Thus. because the power of a lens is equal to the inverse of its focal length. except that the imaging equation for a surface is replaced by that of a lens. where n is the specified index of the lens material. To determine the focal length of the doublet. It shows that. The refractive index of air is approximately equal to 1.1˜ Á ˜ f¢ Ë na ¯ Ë R1 R2 ¯ . Of course.2. 73 (2-63) where na is the refractive index of air. as in the case of a thin lens.8 Thin Lenses in Contact The image of an object formed by two or more thin lenses in contact can be obtained in the same manner as for the two surfaces of a thin lens.0003. the image formed by it can be obtained by sequentially applying the imaging equation for a refracting surface.3. Eq. the inverse of the focal length of the doublet is equal to the sum of the inverse of the focal lengths of its two lenses. Letting nl na = n . The image formed by the first surface becomes the object for the second. The first lens forms its image at F1¢ at a distance f1¢ .4 GENERAL SYSTEM 2. (2-63) reduces to Eq. Just as we showed that the power of a thin lens is given by the sum of the powers of its surfaces. As illustrated in Figure 2-27. we consider an object lying at infinity. according to 1 1 1 = + f¢ f1¢ f2¢ . the approximation involved in neglecting the thickness of the lenses becomes increasingly coarser as the number of lenses increases. showing that the index of air may be assumed to be unity when the index of the lens is specified with respect to it. (2-31a).4 General System Ên ˆÊ 1 1 1ˆ = Á l .

equal to the distance of the focal point from the vertex of the last surface of the system (which is called the image-space focal distance). It should be evident. Doublet consisting of two thin lenses in contact.) Similarly. The size of the image formed in each case can also be obtained by a sequential application of the magnification equation. although the focal point of a general system can also be determined in the same manner as for a thick lens or a doublet. The principal points of a . of which only three are independent. called the cardinal points. regardless of its complexity.e.. as the case may be. Of course. though. that the imaging equation will become increasingly complex as the number of imaging elements of a system increases. The two nodal points correspond to unity angular magnification. The object and image distances are measured from the respective principal points. it is not clear how its focal length should be defined and determined. Similarly. (The vertices of the two surfaces were assumed to be coincident when the thickness of the lens was neglected in Section 2. i. the focal lengths represent the distances of the focal points from the respective principal points.74 REFRACTING SYSTEMS L1 L2 F¢ F1¢ f¢ f1¢ Figure 2-27. It is not. which correspond to planes of unity transverse magnification. the image formed by a doublet consisting of two thin lenses separated by some distance can be obtained by sequentially applying the imaging equation for a thin lens. Once they are known. the system can be replaced by them. the imaging equation for any imaging system can be reduced to one similar to that for the refracting surface. for example. The focal length of the doublet is f ¢ . the image formed by a general system consisting of many imaging elements can be obtained in a similar manner by a sequential application of the imaging equation for a refracting surface and or a thin lens. it is the point where the rays incident parallel to the optical axis are focused after refraction by the system.3. Moreover. There are six cardinal points. The focal point of a thick lens or a doublet is simply the image point corresponding to an axial point object lying at infinity. The thin lens is a special case in which the principal (and nodal) points coincide with its center. We show that by defining suitable reference points. lens is thick means that the distance of this image from the vertex of the second surface becomes the object distance for this surface.

The planes normal to the optical axis and passing through these points are correspondingly called principal planes.4 General System 75 refracting surface coincide with its vertex. focal planes. Principal and focal points of an imaging system. The rays behave as if all of their deviation takes place at the principal plane. shown in Figure 2-28b. i. The rays converging toward F ¢ when extended backward intersect the incident parallel rays in a plane called the image-space principal plane. only the incident and exit segments of the ray are shown. Similarly. and two nodal points.4. The imagespace focal point F ¢ of a system is defined as the point through which rays incident parallel to its optical axis from the left pass after being refracted by it. Similarly.2 Cardinal Points and Planes A general imaging system is characterized by six cardinal points: two principal points.. its intermediate segments are not shown. illustrating the focal length f ¢ .e. The rays originating from F when extended n n n¢ H¢ F¢ f¢ (a) n¢ F H (–)f (b) Figure 2-28. This plane intersects the optical axis at a point H ¢ called the image-space principal point. is defined as the axial point such that the rays originating from it and incident on the system emerge from it parallel to the optical axis after being refracted by it. (a) The image-space focal point F ¢ and principal point H ¢ . . The system consisting of many surfaces is shown schematically by its first and last surfaces only. and nodal planes.2. A ray is shown incident parallel to the optical axis of the system in Figure 2-28a. only the incident and the exit segments of the ray are shown. and its nodal points coincide with its center of curvture. It exits from the system intersecting the axis at F ¢ . illustrating the focal length f. The object-space focal point F. (b) The objectspace focal point F and principal point H . The distance H ¢F ¢ of the focal point F ¢ from the principal point H ¢ is called the image-space focal length f ¢. The location of the principal and focal points is sufficient to describe Gaussian imaging by the system. 2. Only the first and the last surfaces of the system are shown schematically in the figure. two focal points.

Unity transverse magnification of principal planes. By definition. A¢ . This may be seen from Figure 2-29. The distance HF of the focal point F from the principal point H is called the object-space focal length f. they are conjugate planes of unity (positive) transverse magnification. Because HQ = H ¢Q ¢ . A second ray 2 incident on the system passing through F emerges from it in the direction Q ¢A¢ parallel to the optical axis. the incident parallel rays and the corresponding exit rays do not generally intersect at points lying in a plane. 1 A Q 2 Q¢ 2 1 H F (–)f H¢ F¢ f¢ Figure 2-29. In reality. the principal planes HQ and H ¢Q ¢ are conjugate planes. and vice versa. Similarly. This plane intersects the optical axis at a point H called the object-space principal point. where a system with focal points F and F ¢ is considered. i. the principal planes are planes of unity transverse magnification. and the extensions of the incident and emergent rays intersect at a point Q ¢ on the image-space principal plane H ¢Q ¢ . Thus.e. Q and Q ¢ are conjugate points. It should be understood that all of the rays incident parallel to the optical axis pass through F ¢ after emerging from the system only in the Gaussian approximation. A ray 1 incident in the direction AQ parallel to the optical axis emerges from the system passing through F ¢.. The image-space principal plane H ¢Q ¢ is the Gaussian approximation of a nonplanar surface.76 REFRACTING SYSTEMS forward intersect the emergent parallel rays in a plane called the object-space principal plane. and the extensions of the incident and emergent rays intersect at a point Q on the object-space principal plane HQ. The rays behave as if all of their deviation takes place at the principal plane. Q ¢ is an image of Q. they generally intersect the focal plane at various points in the vicinity of F ¢ . Similarly. the two rays initially directed toward Q emerge in directions that intersect at Q ¢. Thus.

If n and n ¢ are the refractive indices of the object and image spaces of the system. Because of the unity magnification of the principal planes. Similarly. the ray 1 incident parallel to the optical axis emerges from the system passing through the focal point F ¢ . H′ P′0 (–)h′ 3 R′ 2 f′ S′ P′ z′ . (2-67) n′ n 1 P Q 3 h 2 F1 Q′ (–)β′ 1 F′1 4 4 F′ (–)β P0 H F R (–)z (–)f (–)S Figure 2-30. making an angle  with the optical axis. (2-65) where Mt is the transverse magnification of the image.4. for the principal planes. and Magnifications Figure 2-30 illustrates imaging by a general optical system represented by its principal planes. the emergent ray appears to come from Q ¢ on the image-space principal plane. Moreover. n ¢¢ = n . (2-15) for a refracting surface yields for the system Mt Mb = n n ¢ . Thus.2.4 General System 77 2. the ray 2 incident in the direction of F emerges parallel to the optical axis such that the point of emergence R¢ is at the same height as the point of incidence R. the Gaussian image of a point object formed by it can be determined graphically in the same manner as in the case of a refracting surface. a ray incident in the direction of H emerges as if it were coming from H ¢. Because Mt = 1 for the principal planes.3 Gaussian Imaging. except that the center of curvature of the surface is replaced by the nodal points of the system discussed later (see Figure 2-32). Imaging by a general imaging system. which is at the same height as the point of incidence Q on the object-space principal plane. and appearing to emerge from H ¢ . making an angle ¢ . then repeated application of Eq. is given by M = ¢  (2-66) = n n¢ . Focal Lengths. the angular magnification of a ray 3 incident in the direction of H . This ray determines the image height h ¢ . Given the cardinal points of a system. Thus. and Mb is the corresponding angular magnification of the ray bundle from the axial point object.

we find that h¢ f nf ¢ = = h S. we note that  = FF1 f . (2-69) Noting that h = S and h ¢ = ¢ S ¢ . the transverse magnification of the image P0¢P ¢ of the object P0 P is given by Mt ∫ h¢ nS ¢ = h n ¢S . because FF1 = H ¢F1¢. similar to Eq. as illustrated in Figure 2-31. Comparing Eqs. and ray 4 passes through F ¢ after being refracted by the system. (2-68) into Eq. we obtain the Gaussian imaging equation n¢ n n¢ n = = S¢ S f¢ f . Thus. The image of F1 is formed at infinity.78 REFRACTING SYSTEMS Note that both  and ¢ are numerically negative in Figure 2-30.e. (2-67). Its reciprocal represents the equivalent or effective focal length fe . Now consider a ray 4 such that it and ray 3 leave the object-space focal plane from the same point F1 . (2-68b) where we have introduced a negative sign on the right-hand side because ¢ is numerically negative. where the negative sign is due to h ¢ being numerically negative. (2-70) Considering similar triangles P0 FP and FHR. and using Eq. (2-72) The ratio of the image-/object-space refractive index to the image-/object-space focal length is called the refracting power K of the system. the emergent rays F1¢ F ¢ and H ¢ P ¢ are parallel to each other. we obtain a relationship between the focal lengths f and f ¢ . (2-70) and (2-71). we find from triangle H ¢F ¢F1¢ that ¢ = . (2-67). is given by . i. (2-73) The angular magnification of a ray bundle diverging from the axial point object P0 and converging to its image point P0¢ after refraction by the system. Eq.f nf ¢ + n ¢S (2-71) . Note that f and S are both numerically negative.. Substituting Eqs. (2-72) may be written n¢ n n¢ n 1 = = =K = S¢ S f¢ f fe . (2-8) for a single refracting surface: n¢ n = f¢ f . From the triangle FHF1 .FF1 f ¢ . (2-68a) Similarly.

(2-75) thus demonstrating the Lagrange invariance for the entire system. (2-65) may also be written n ¢h ¢¢0 = nh0 . Lagrange invariant nh0 of an imaging system.4 General System 79 n n′ Q P Q′ h (–)β′0 β0 P0 H H′ P′0 (–)h′ P′ (–)S S′ Figure 2-31. (2-76) i. the image is also displaced in the same direction.7. . It is closely related to the conservation of energy in the imaging process. (2-75). From Eqs. (2-65). and the focal length of the system. (2-72). (2-18) also apply to Eq. (2-70) and (2-74). Thus.e. we find that the longitudinal magnification of the image is given by Ml ∫ D S ¢ D S = (n n ¢ )( S ¢ S ) 2 = (n ¢ n) Mt2 = Mt Mb . (2-74) where we have used the fact that HQ = H ¢Q ¢ by virtue of unity magnification of the principal planes. (2-77). Eq. From Eq.2. (2-77) The comments made following Eq. for example. Differentiating Eq. Mb = ¢0 / 0 = S / S ¢ . it can be obtained from the slope angles of an axial incident ray and the corresponding refracted ray in the image space of the system. the product of the transverse and angular magnifications is given by Eq. as illustrated by Problem 5. the transverse magnification of the image can also be written Mt = n0 n ¢¢0 . From the definitions of the magnifications.. It may be noted that only three parameters are needed to determine the location and size of the image of an object: the locations of the two principal points. if the object is displaced longitudinally. as expected.

Unity angular magnification of nodal points N and N¢ of an imaging system. From the congruent triangles HFB and F ¢N ¢B¢. (2-80) However. from the congruent triangles NHA and N ¢H ¢A ¢ .e. it emerges parallel to the optical axis in the direction BB¢. the distance between the nodal points is equal to the distance between the principal points. F ¢H ¢ + H ¢N ¢ = HN + NF . we note that NN ¢ = AA¢ = HH ¢ ... . Thus. as illustrated in Figure 2-32. From the parallelogram AA¢NN ¢. Also from the congruent triangles HFB and F ¢N ¢B ¢ .4 Nodal Points and Planes The nodal points N and N ¢ correspond to unity ray angular magnification. (2-81) n n¢ H F N¢ H¢ F¢ N A¢ A N1 B B¢ N1¢ (–)f f¢ f¢ (–)f Figure 2-32. a ray incident in the direction of N emerges parallel to it as if coming from N ¢. (2-78) i. the distance of the image-space nodal point N ¢ from the corresponding focal point F ¢ is equal to the object-space focal length f.80 REFRACTING SYSTEMS 2. If we consider a second ray F B parallel to the first but passing through F. (2-79) i.e.4. H ¢N ¢ = HN . we find that F ¢N ¢ = HF = f .

but the emergent ray is obviously not parallel to the incident ray. we note that the nodal planes are conjugate planes with a transverse magnification of n n¢ . The extension of the emergent ray intersects the incident ray at N1¢ . an object ray incident in the direction of the object-space focal point F emerges parallel to .4. relating the longitudinal and transverse magnifications.f z = . we obtain F ¢H ¢ = NF . 2. It emerges from the system passing through F ¢ . and H ¢F ¢Q ¢ and F ¢P0¢P ¢ . zz ¢ = f f ¢ = .6 Graphical Imaging The Gaussian image point P ¢ of a point object P at a height h can also be determined graphically in a manner similar to that for imaging by a refracting surface or by a thin lens. or FN = H ¢F ¢ = f ¢ . we find from similar triangles P0 FP and FHR. (2-83) Accordingly.4. respectively. It is evident from this equation that z and z ¢ must have opposite signs. The transverse magnification of the image given by N ¢N1¢ NN1 is equal to n n¢ .. (2-82) i. (2-84). Letting Mb = 1 in Eq. the other conjugate points in the nodal planes do not have this property. that Mt ∫ h ¢ h = . in Figure 2-32. then f = . For example. By differentiating both sides of Eq. (2-81) into Eq. as illustrated in Figure 2-30. (2-84) which is the Newtonian imaging equation. (2-80). When n = n ¢ . a ray incident in the direction of N1 emerges as if it is coming from N1¢ . As in Figure 2-30. the distance of the object-space nodal point N from the corresponding focal point F is equal to the image-space focal length f ¢ . It should be noted that only the nodal points N and N ¢ have the property of unity ray angle magnification.f ¢ . Thus. (2-70) by considering the nodal points as Gaussian conjugates with S ∫ HN and S ¢ ∫ H ¢N ¢ . (2-65). and therefore N and H coincide.e. 2.z ¢ f ¢ . we obtain Eq.(n ¢ n) f ¢ 2 . (2-77). implying that an object and its image lie on the opposite sides of the corresponding focal points. N1 and N1¢ are conjugate points in the nodal planes. an object ray incident parallel to the optical axis of the system passes through the image-space focal point F ¢ after emerging from the system.5 Newtonian Imaging Equation If we measure the object and image distances z and z ¢ from the focal points F and F ¢.4 General System 81 Substituting Eq. Similarly. This may also be seen directly from Eq. and N ¢ and H ¢ coincide. as may be seen by considering a ray from N1 incident parallel to the axis.2.

The Newtonian imaging equation for determining the location of the P0¢ . F and F ¢ are the object. of course. Let z be the distance of Q0 from the object-space focal point F. Consider two object planes with axial points P0 and Q0 separated by a distance L. and let z ¢ be the distance of Q0¢ from the image-space focal point F ¢ . We now derive a generalized imaging equation where the object and image distances are measured with respect to an arbitrary pair of conjugate planes. as illustrated in Figure 2-33. respectively. As stated earlier. The object and image distances of the conjugates P0 and P0¢ are referred to the conjugates Q0 and Q0¢ . Let the corresponding image planes with axial points P0¢ and Q0¢ be separated by a distance L ¢ . The rays intersect the image plane in the vicinity of the Gaussian image point. It should be understood that.and image-space focal points. This third ray is not shown in Figure 2-30. this does not generally happen. The intersection of the these two rays in the image space determines the location of P ¢ .4. but the quality of the image depends on its aberrations. in Gaussian imaging.82 REFRACTING SYSTEMS the optical axis. In reality. then a principal point coincides with its corresponding nodal point. but it provides a check on the graphical construction. 2. as illustrated in Figure 2-32. all of the object rays transmitted by the system pass through the Gaussian image point. Object and image distances referred to conjugate planes other than the principal planes.7 Reference to Other Conjugate Planes So far we have used the principal planes as the reference planes for defining the object and image distances in the Gaussian imaging equation. The deviation of a ray from the Gaussian image point is called its ray aberration (discussed in Chapter 8).and Q0¢ -image planes yields zz ¢ = f f ¢ (2-85) and n¢ n P0 Q0 F (–)z (–)L Q 0¢ F¢ P¢0 z¢ L¢ Figure 2-33. The Gaussian approximation helps determine the location of the image point. . This ray determines the height h ¢ of the image point P ¢ . if the refractive indices of the object and image spaces are equal. The distribution of the rays in the image plane is called the spot diagram (discussed in Chapter 9). A ray incident in the direction of the object-space nodal point N emerges from the system in a parallel direction passing through the image-space nodal point N ¢ .

. Therefore. (2-86) into Eq. (2-90) Equation (2-90) is a generalized imaging equation wherein L and L ¢ are the object and image distances referred to the corresponding conjugate planes with a transverse magnification of MQ . may also be used as reference planes by letting MQ equal the pupil magnification. (2-90) and (2-91) reduce to Eqs. it is not essential that the object and image distances be referred to the principal planes. (2-90). The magnification of the image in the P0¢ plane is given by MP = - = z¢ + L¢ f¢ nL ¢ 1 n ¢L MQ . (2-88) and for L ¢ f ¢ from Eq. Letting MQ = n n ¢ for the nodal planes. (2-87). (2-73) and (2-70). However. Eqs. (2-93) respectively. (2-89) becomes n ¢ MQ L¢ - n n¢ = L MQ f¢ .4 General System ( z + L) ( z ¢ + L ¢) = f f¢ . we may write f ¢ MQ f + = 1 . As expected. if we let MQ = 1 for the principal planes. (2-69). we obtain z L ¢ + z ¢L + L L ¢ = 0 . discussed in Chapter 5. (2-91) where we have substituted for z ¢ f ¢ from Eq. (2-85). (2-87) The magnification MQ of the image in the Q0¢ -plane is given by f z¢ = z f¢ MQ = - . (2-88) Substituting for z and z ¢ in terms of MQ into Eq. 83 (2-86) Substituting Eq. L MQ L¢ (2-89) Substituting for f in terms of f ¢ from Eq. they reduce to n n¢ n¢ = L¢ L f¢ (2-92) and MP = L¢ L . The entrance and exit pupils.2. respectively. Eq.

respectively. (2-78) and (2-81). because the principal points are not utilized in this equation. in a laboratory. respectively. where the medium for the object and image spaces of the system is air. a ray incident in the direction of object-space nodal point N emerges from the system in a parallel direction as if coming from the image-space nodal point N ¢ . Let the refractive indices of the object and image spaces for the ith surface be ni and ni¢ .8 Comparison of Imaging by a General System and a Refracting Surface or a Thin Lens Comparing the imaging equations for a general optical system with those for a single refracting surface. When the media on its two sides have different refractive indices. and its nodal points coincide with its center of curvature. A ray incident in the direction of the center of curvature is refracted without any deviation because both the angles of incidence and refraction are zero. For a general system.5 is indeed its principal plane. the principal points coincide with its vertex. the nodal points are the same as the corresponding principal points. Consider. For a single refracting (or reflecting) surface. In each case. The Newtonian imaging equation for a general system is the same as for a single refracting surface or a thin lens. 2. It should be evident that the principal and nodal points of a thin lens in air (or any other medium) coincide at its center.84 REFRACTING SYSTEMS it is convenient to use them because of their unity magnification and the resulting simplicity of the associated graphical construction of imaging. then the principal points still coincide at its center. The only significant difference is that. we find that they are indeed similar to each other. for example.2.4. A ray incident in the direction of the center in this case is refracted with deviation according to Snell's law. a ray incident parallel to the optical axis emerges passing through the image-space focal point F ¢ . because air is the medium of the object and image spaces in most applications. 2.9 Determination of Cardinal Points The cardinal points of a system can be determined from its design parameters by a sequential application of the imaging equations for its elements. However. and a ray incident in the direction of the object-space focal point F emerges parallel to the optical axis. where ni¢ = ni +1 [because the image space for the ith surface is the object space for the (i + 1) th surface]. and it is more convenient to determine the former based on a property of the latter. The location of the nodal points can then be determined by using Eqs. a system consisting of a series of j refracting surfaces.4. in the case of the former. the principal points are coincident with the corresponding nodal points. the object and image distances are measured from the principal points H and H ¢. We show how to calculate the location of principal and focal points. Of course. Let the object and image distances for the ith surface be . The tangent plane or the paraxial refracting surface referred to in Section 2. but the nodal points coincide at a distance f ¢ + f from it. A ray incident in the direction of the center is refracted without any deviation.

(2-96) Equating the right-hand sides of Eqs. respectively. the magnification of the image formed by it is given by Mi = = hi¢ hi ni Si¢ . ni¢Si (2-94) The magnification M of the final image is given by M= = h ¢j h1 h ¢j h1¢ h2¢ ◊◊◊ h1 h2 hj = M1 M2 ◊◊◊ M j = n j S ¢j n1S1¢ n2 S2¢ ◊◊◊ n1¢S1 n2¢ S2 n ¢j S j = S ¢j n1 S1¢ S2¢ ◊◊◊ n ¢j S1 S2 Sj . It is called the image-space focal distance.4 General System 85 Si and Si¢ . If hi and hi¢ are the heights of the object and image for this surface. respectively. where hi¢ = hi +1 [because the image for the ith surface is the object for the (i + 1) th surface]. we obtain S ¢j S¢ S¢ S¢ = 1 2 ◊◊◊ S S1 S2 n ¢j S j . Therefore.2. and S ¢ and S1¢ become the image-space focal lengths f ¢ and f1¢ of the system and the first surface. (2-95) If S and S ¢ are the object and final image distances from the principal points of the system. (2-98) The image distance S ¢j in this case locates the image-space focal point F ¢ of the system from the vertex of the jth surface. The focal length f ¢ locates the image-space principal point H ¢ . (2-95) and (2-96). the magnification of the image is also given by M = n1S ¢ n ¢j S . because F ¢ lies at a distance f ¢ . we may write f ¢ = f1¢ S ¢j S2¢ ◊◊◊ S2 n ¢j S j . both S and S1 are equal to infinity. (2-97) For an object lying at infinity.

(2-69). the object-space focal length f can be obtained from Eq. (2-101) Equating the right-hand sides of Eqs. (2-28) for the focal length of a thin lens.86 REFRACTING SYSTEMS from it. The effect of its thickness can be determined by comparing it with Eq. we consider a system consisting of a series of j thin lenses in air. However. where hi¢ = hi +1 [because the image height for the ith lens is the object height for the (i + 1) th lens]. for example. Once f ¢ is known. (2-100) If S and S ¢ are the object and final image distances from the corresponding principal points of the system. we may write . respectively. Therefore. respectively. the magnification of the image is also given by M= S¢ S . Si (2-99) The magnification M of the final image is given by M = = h ¢j h1 h ¢j h1¢ h2¢ ◊◊◊ h1 h2 hj = M1 M2 ◊◊◊ M j = S ¢j S1¢ S2¢ ◊◊◊ S1 S2 Sj . the magnification of the image formed by it is given by Mi = = hi¢ hi Si¢ . Let the object and image distances for the ith lens be Si and Si¢ . can be determined in this manner. The focal length of a thick lens. we obtain S ¢j S¢ S¢ S¢ = 1 2 ◊◊◊ S S1 S2 Sj . As another example. (2-102) For an object at infinity. both S and S1 are equal to infinity. If hi and hi¢ are the heights of the object and image for this lens. and S ¢ and S1¢ become the image-space focal lengths f ¢ of the system and the first lens. (2-100) and (2-101). the object-space focal point F and the principal point H have to be determined separately by considering an object at infinity in the image space and determining its image in the object space.

(2-69). (2-103) The image distance S ¢j is the image-space focal distance and locates the image-space focal point F ¢ of the system from the center of the jth lens. Once f ¢ is known. Image-space focal point F ¢ of two thin lenses separated by a distance t. However. Therefore. (2-103). S1¢ = f1¢ . we obtain L1 L2 H¢ F¢ F1¢ S2¢ t S2 f¢ S1¢ ∫ f1¢ Figure 2-34. S2 = f1¢ .2. we proceed as follows: S1 = • . The focal point F ¢ is the image of an axial object at infinity.t ) f1¢ + f2¢ . S2¢ = f2¢( f1¢ .t . we determine the image-space focal point F ¢ and the principal point H ¢ of a system consisting of two thin lenses L1 and L2 of focal lengths f1¢ and f2¢ separated by a distance t. (2-104) From Eq. 1 1 1 = S2¢ S2 f2¢ . Thus. because F ¢ lies at a distance f ¢ from it.t . the object-space focal length can be obtained from Eq. . the object-space focal point F and the principal point H have to be determined separately by considering an object at infinity in the image space and determining its image in the object space.4 General System f ¢ = f1¢ S ¢j S2¢ ◊◊◊ S2 Sj 87 . As an example of a simple application. The focal length f ¢ locates the image-space principal point H ¢ . as illustrated in Figure 2-34.

(2-64) for the case when the two lenses are in contact. we write Eq. Its focal length can be determined by finding the image of a point object and using the Newtonian imaging equation (2-84). Similarly. Thus. because M = f ¢ z . (2-64) as t approaches zero. its object-space focal point can be determined by shining the beam from the other direction. when the lenses are confocal (i. it is . Eq. Afocal systems are discussed in more detail in Section 2. The two focal lengths are related to each other by the refractive indices of the object and image spaces. (2-105a) The image distance S2¢ represents the image-space focal distance and locates the focal point F ¢ . (2-105a) in the form t 1 1 1 = + f¢ f1¢ f2¢ f1¢f2¢ . The long focal length gives a large image. which is a device that permits rotation of the lens about an axis that lies on the optical axis and is perpendicular to it. The nodal points of a lens system can also be determined in a laboratory by placing it on a nodal slide. (2-79) and (2-82). (2-83) when n = n ¢ . Once the focal lengths are known.t . a positive lens L1 is combined with a negative lens L2 to yield a long focal length f ¢ while keeping the focal distance S2¢ short. The axis of rotation is changed by sliding the lens on the slide. its image-space focal point F ¢ can be determined in a laboratory by shining a collimated beam on it and locating the point where the beam is focused. in turn. When a collimated beam is incident on the lens parallel to its axis. Several examples are also discussed there. (2-105b) reduces to Eq. Such a system is called afocal and forms the basis of a beam expander (or a reducer when used in reverse) or a telescope. according to Eq. the nodal points by using Eqs. when they have a common focus). In a telephoto lens. (2-68).88 REFRACTING SYSTEMS f ¢ = f1¢( S2¢ S2 ) = f1¢f2¢ f1¢ + f2¢ . For comparison with Eq. The determination of the image-space focal point F ¢ of a system as the image of an object at infinity is equivalent to tracing a ray incident parallel to the optical axis and finding its intersection with the axis in the image space of the system. Determination of the cardinal points in this manner from the design parameters of the system is discussed in Chapter 4 on paraxial ray tracing. a telephoto lens. according to Eq. then both S2¢ and f ¢ approach infinity. (2-105a) that if t = f1¢ + f2¢ . and the short focal distance keeps the camera length to a manageable size.5.e. Given a lens system. A beam expander. The principal point H ¢ is located by using the fact that H ¢F ¢ = f ¢ . and a telescope are all discussed in more detail in Chapter 6. a parallel beam incident on the systems emerges from it as a parallel beam.. We also note from Eq. (2-105b) Of course. the principal points can be located with respect to the focal points and.

all of the Gaussian characteristics of the image of an object can be determined. the beam focus stays at P0¢ . the other nodal point N can be determined. (c) When the system is rotated about the nodal point N ¢ . then the principal points coincide with the corresponding nodal points. If the refractive indices n and n ¢ of the object and image spaces are equal. the beam focus stays at N ¢ . the focus of the beam is displaced. When the lens is rotated about a point on its axis. In Figure 2-35b. When the principal points of a system are located and its focal lengths are determined.4 General System 89 focused at its focal point F ¢ . . A ray incident in the direction of N emerges from the system parallel to the incident ray as if coming from N ¢ . The beam focus P0¢ coincides with the focal point F ¢ . as illustrated in Figure 2-35a. (b) When the lens is rotated about a point Q. In Figure 2-35c. except when the rotation is about the nodal point N ¢ . By turning the lens around (so that its front and back are interchanged) and repeating the process. resulting in a displacement of the beam focus to a point P0¢¢ . as would be the case in a laboratory measurement. but it passes through the nodal point N ¢ in the same direction as the incident ray. although the focal point F ¢ has been displaced.2. a ray passing through the nodal point N is displaced. where the rotation is about N ¢ . This figure is drawn for the general case when the refractive indices of the object and image space are not equal. so that the focal points are located. Determination of nodal points of a lens system. the lens has been rotated about a point Q lying between N and N ¢ . n n¢ n N Q P¢0 N N¢ n¢ F¢ P¢0 P¢0¢ N¢ F¢ (a) (b) n n¢ N P¢0 N¢ F¢ (c) Figure 2-35. (a) A parallel beam is focused at N ¢ coincident with the focal point F ¢ . In this case. the beam focus is displaced to P0¢¢ .

e.. we note that x 0¢ = . principal points.S ¢¢0 and h ¢ = S ¢ .x 0¢ ¢ . Examples of afocal systems (such as a beam reducer or expander). A plane-parallel plate.. One may say that the corresponding principal and focal points lie at infinity on opposite sides of the system and that the focal length is infinity as well. we find that h0 = . and ¢0 is the slope angle of the axial ray in the image space. the axial ray is incident parallel to the optical axis at a height x 0 ).S0 . If the object is moved to infinity. Consider the imaging of an object P0 P of height h lying at a distance S.5 AFOCAL SYSTEMS 2. but h0 remains finite and equal to . is an example of an afocal system with unity transverse magnification. or without focal length) optical imaging system is one that forms the image at infinity of an object at infinity. 0 Æ 0 (i. An axial ray making an angle 0 with the optical axis is incident on the system at a height x 0 = . the concepts of focal points. or the focusing power K = 0 .e.2 Lagrange Invariant for an Infinite Conjugate When an object lies at infinity at a certain angle  from the optical axis of a system. As the image moves to infinity. i.10 from a two-ray Lagrange invariant. (2-106) where h ¢ is the image height. Similarly. Because the object lies at infinity. the image-space Lagrange invariant becomes indeterminate because h ¢ Æ • and ¢0 Æ 0 . we obtain h ¢¢0 = .x 0 . We start with a discussion of the Lagrange invariant for an object or its image at infinity. the objectspace Lagrange invariant nh0 equals . if the image is formed at infinity. This result is rederived in Section 4. Considering the image P0¢P ¢ . 2.• . as in Figure 2-36b. An afocal system is characterized by its transverse magnification. and h Æ • . and a telescope. then S Æ . the product h ¢¢0 remains finite and equal to . the Lagrange invariant becomes indeterminate because h Æ • and 0 Æ 0 . where h = S . and therefore. focal lengths lose their meanings for such a system. discussed in the next section. However. Because an emerging ray does not intersect the optical axis or the corresponding incident ray. Thus.nx 0.5. which is independent of the object distance.x 0. Eliminating S ¢ .1 Introduction An afocal (or without focus. we now show that the product h0 remains finite.5. its image is formed in the focal plane and the Lagrange invariant equation (2-75) is replaced by n ¢h ¢¢0 = .90 REFRACTING SYSTEMS 2. The point object P lies at an angle  from the optical axis. as illustrated in Figure 2-36a.x 0¢ ¢ . The corresponding Lagrange . telephoto and wide-angle camera lenses. and show that an afocal system images objects with transverse and longitudinal magnifications that are independent of the object distance. as when an object lies in the front focal plane (see Figure 2-36c). a parallel beam of light incident on such a system emerges from it as a parallel beam.nx 0 . Eliminating S from the two expressions. are considered in Chapter 6.

(a) Imaging of an object P0 P of height h lying at a distance S. (c) Imaging of an object lying in the front focal plane.n ¢x0¢¢ . (b) Imaging of an object lying at infinity. The object-space Lagrange invariant is . .2.5 Afocal Systems 91 n n′ Q P Q′ x 0′ x0 h β0 P0 H P′0 (–)β′0 (–)β (–)β′ H′ (–)h′ P′ (–)S S′ (a) n n′ Q Q′ x 0′ x0 (–)β (–)β′0 H′ H P′0 (–)β′ (–)h′ P′ f′ (b) n n′ Q P Q′ x0 h β0 x 0′ (–)β P0 H H′ (–)β′ (–)f (c) Figure 2-36.nx0. The image-space Lagrange invariant is .

rays parallel to the axis). x 0 and x 0¢ are the heights of the axial conjugate rays (i. . The distance S ¢ of its image Q0¢ Q ¢ from the image P0¢P ¢ can be determined as follows. (2-111) Because the transverse magnification is independent of the object position. the image distance S ¢ is given by S ¢ = h ¢ ¢0 = n ¢h ¢ 2 nh0 .2. the corresponding angle ¢0 of the emerging ray may be obtained from the Lagrange invariant equation (2-75). as illustrated in Figure 2-37b.5. (2-110) Substitutuing h = 0 S . (2-108) where n and n ¢ are the refractive indices of the object and image spaces. Thus. If we consider a ray P0 Q incident on the system at an angle 0 . Consider another object Q0 Q at a distance S from P0 P. the longitudinal magnification S ¢ S is also constant. for example. Consider. as may be seen from the figure. Its image P0¢P ¢ has a height of h ¢ that can be obtained by determining the image formed successively by each surface of the system.3 Imaging by an Afocal System In Section 2. the imaging of an object P0 P of height h by an afocal system. the transverse magnification h ¢ h is independent of the position of the object. Because the system is afocal. Therefore.5. (2-107) 2. as illustrated in Figure 2-37a.e. For an afocal system working at infinite conjugates. we discussed the Lagrange invariant for an object lying at infinity.. the ray angular magnification is given by nx0 ¢ =  n ¢x0¢ . and  and ¢ are the slope angles of conjugate rays from an off-axis point object. (2-109) Now we consider how afocal systems form images of objects located at finite distances. the ratio of the conjugate distances is given by S¢ n ¢h ¢ 2 n¢ 2 = = Mt S n nh 2 . the Lagrange invariant equation (2-75) becomes n ¢x 0¢ ¢ = nx 0 .92 REFRACTING SYSTEMS invariant equation is given by nh0 = .n ¢ x 0¢ ¢ .

a plane-parallel plate is not used for imaging per se.1 Introduction A plane-parallel plate. It is a thick lens whose two surfaces have infinite radii of curvature.2. .6. as discussed below. We show that the distance between an object and its image formed by the plate is independent of the object position. Thus.6 PLANE-PARALLEL PLATE 2. as its name implies. The imaging equations for such a plate cannot be obtained from those for a thin lens by letting the radii of curvature of its two surfaces approach infinity because the thickness of the lens is neglected by its definition. but it is often used in imaging systems as a beam splitter or a window. Conceptually. However. a plane-parallel plate placed in the path of a converging beam displaces the focus of the beam from P1 to P2 by an amount that depends only on the thickness and the refractive index of the plate.6 Plane-Parallel Plate 93 n n′ x0 β (–) β′ (–)x 0′ (a) n P n′ Q h (–)β′0 β0 P′0 Q′0 P′ Q′ Q0 P0 (–)h′ S S′ (b) Figure 2-37. the system is assumed to be multisurface. as illustrated in Figure 2-38a. is a plate with two surfaces that are plane and parallel to each other. Unlike a lens. a dotted line in the figure does not represent a ray but merely a line joining its point of incidence on and its point of emergence from the system to establish a continuation of the ray. therefore. (b) Finite conjugate imaging by an afocal system. (a) Lagrange invariant of an afocal system for infinite conjugates. they can be obtained by applying the imaging equations (2-4) and (2-12) for a spherical surface to its two surfaces and combining the results thus obtained. 2.

illustrates that the prism ABC is equivalent to a plane-parallel plate ABCD in terms of their optical path lengths. n1¢ = n . Accordingly. Using Eqs. a plane-parallel plate of thickness t and refractive index n forming the image of a point object P lying at a distance S from its front surface and at a height h from its axis. Figure 2-38b shows a right-angle reflecting prism as an example of a plane-parallel plate. where the virtual portion ADC of the equivalent plate is obtained by a reflection of its real portion ABC by the reflecting surface AC. as indicated in Figure 2-39. as discussed in Section 1.94 REFRACTING SYSTEMS P1 P2 (a) D A 45∞ 45∞ B C (b) Figure 2-38. The “unfolded” path of the rays. Rays incident on the plate converging toward P1 converge toward P2 after being refracted by it. we determine the location of the image of the point object P. and R1 = •. Its diagonal face acts as a mirror because the rays incident on it undergo a total internal reflection. (b) A right-angle reflecting prism placed in the path of a converging beam. (2-4) and (2-12).2. The optical path lengths of the rays for the prism are equivalent to those for a plane-parallel plate. The prism is used in optical systems to deviate the path of a beam by 90˚.6. called a tunnel diagram.2 Imaging Relations Consider. 2. For the first surface n1 = 1.3. it forms the image of P at P ¢ at a distance S1¢ and height h1¢ . where . (a) Plane-parallel plate placed in the path of a converging beam of light.

Imaging of a point object P by a plane-parallel plate of refractive index n and thickness t. Therefore. P ¢ is the image of P formed by the first surface of the plate. (2-112b) where h1 ∫ h . R2 = • . For the second surface.t . the transverse magnification of the image is unity. S1¢ = nS1 (2-112a) ∫ nS and M1 ∫ h1¢ / h1 = n1S1¢ n1¢ S1 = 1 . n2 = n. n2¢ = 1 .t ) n = S- t n (2-113a) and M2 ∫ h2¢ h1¢ = n2 S2¢ / n2¢ S2 = 1 . where S2¢ = S2 n = ( S1¢ . (2-113b) . and P ¢¢ is the image of P ¢ formed by its second surface.6 Plane-Parallel Plate 95 n OA (–)h P¢ P P¢¢ (–)S1 t (–)S¢1 (–)S¢2 (–)S2 Figure 2-39. and S2 = S1¢ . Thus. it forms the image of P ¢ at P ¢¢ at a distance S2¢ and height h2¢ .2.

where P2¢ is the Gaussian conjugate of P2 on the auxiliary axis.(. as illustrated in Figure 2-40.1 Spherical Refracting Surface Consider imaging by a spherical surface of radius of curvature R separating media of refractive indices n and n ¢ . it depends only on the thickness t and refractive index n of the plate. unless a quantity called the Petzval sum is zero. the longitudinal magnification of the image is unity. just as P0 and P0¢ are on the optical axis P0 CP0¢ . In this section.7. Thus. 2. we first consider a spherical object surface P0 P2 of radius of curvature Ro with its center of curvature C2 lying on the optical axis.1 n) . (2-77) by noting that the transverse magnification of the image is unity and the refractive indices of the object and image spaces are equal to each other. It should be evident that a plane-parallel plate is an afocal system with unity transverse and longitudinal magnifications. Accordingly.t ) = t (1 .S1 . (2-4) and (2-12). This may also be seen from Eq. and apply the result to imaging by a thin lens. Let P0¢P2¢ be the corresponding Petzval image surface. then the . It should be evident from the symmetry of the spherical refracting surface that the image of a concentric spherical object surface P0 P1 will also be a concentric spherical surface P0¢P1¢ . the object and image distances are measured along the optical axis. we derive expressions for the radius of curvature of the Petzval surface for a single refracting surface. the image displacement PP¢¢ is independent of the object distance S. the image formed by a multisurface system is also spherical.7 PETZVAL IMAGE In Gaussian imaging. and it is called the Petzval image. and not a planar surface. The image thus obtained is called the Petzval image point. For generality. The object and image distances are S and S¢ regardless of whether a point object is axial or not. The correct image of a planar object obtained in this manner is spherical. as they are both equal to unity. generalize it to a system of surfaces to obtain the Petzval sum. The correct position of the image formed by an imaging surface is obtained by considering the object and image distances along an auxiliary axis connecting the off-axis point object and the (vertex) center of curvature of the surface. P1 and P1¢ are Gaussian conjugate points on the auxiliary axis PCP¢ . 2. We now show that the image of a planar object P0 P is also a spherical surface. This results in a slight error in the position of the image thus determined for an offaxis point object. If the object distance changes by a small amount DS . Similarly. P0¢P ¢ is the Gaussian image of object P0 P obtained by use of Eqs.96 REFRACTING SYSTEMS Noting that S2¢ is numerically negative.S2¢ . as assumed in Figure 2-8. the displacement PP¢¢ of the final image from the object may be written PP ¢¢ = . (2-114) Thus.

S .1 ˜ . (2-116) .S ¢ ¯ (2-115b) where Ri is the radius of curvature of the image surface P0¢P2¢ . The corresponding Petzval image is P0¢Pp¢ . As the heights of P1 and P2 from the optical axis are approximately equal to h.VP1¢ 2 Ê ˆ ~ h¢ Á 1 . and therefore Ro < R . P0¢P2¢ is the spherical Petzval image of a spherical object P0 P2 .1 ˜ . (2-18). P0 P1 is a spherical object concentric with the refracting surface. P1¢P2¢ gives the increase in image distance VP1¢ = S ¢ corresponding to an increase of P1 P2 in the (numerically negative) object distance VP1 = S of conjugates P1 and P1¢.2. we may write D S¢ n¢ h¢2 = DS n h2 .7 Petzval Image n 97 n¢ P¢1 P¢p Ro P0 P¢ P¢2 P¢¢ h¢ V0 OA C2 P¢0 C UR (–) h V P P1 P2 SS R (–)S S¢ Figure 2-40. whose center of curvature lies on the optical axis at C2 .VP1 2 (2-115a) Ê ˆ ~ -h Á 1 . 2 Ë Ri R . 2 Ë Ro R . we may write DS ∫ P1 P2 = VP2 . (2-18). In Figure 2-40. Its Petzval image is the concentric surface P0¢P1¢ . Similarly.e. P1 P2 is approximately equal to the difference in the sags of points P2 and P1 .. Note that VP1 = S and VP1¢ = S ¢. Now. corresponding change D S ¢ in the image distance is given by Eq. i. D S ¢ ∫ P1¢ P2¢ = VP2¢ .S ¯ Note that because P2 lies to the right of P1 in the figure. From Eq. Petzval image by a spherical refracting surface with its center of curvature at C. D S ¢ is equal to the difference in the sags of points P2¢ and P1¢ . the center of curvature of the object lies between P0 and C. P0¢P ¢ is the Gaussian image of a planar object P0 P .

º. The corresponding Gaussian image point P ¢ is. then following Eq. (2-119) . n1 . the radii of curvature Ri1 . (2-115) and (2-116) into Eq.7. Rk . is called the Petzval image surface. . we obtain the radius of curvature of the spherical image surface for a planar object P0 P : 1 n . and its radius of curvature Ri is called the Petzval radius of curvature. and 1 1 1 Ê 1 1 ˆ = Á ˜ nk Rik nk -1 Rik -1 Rk Ë nk nk -1 ¯ . the point of intersection of the auxiliary axis with the Gaussian image plane. it depends only on the radius of curvature of the refracting surface and the refractive indices of the media that this surface separates. Note that Ri does not depend on the object distance S or the image distance S ¢ . This image surface. of course.˜ n1 Ri1 n0 Ro R1 Ë n1 n0 ¯ 1 1 1 Ê 1 1ˆ = . (2-117) By letting Ro Æ •. of the Petzval image surfaces formed by them are given by 1 1 1 Ê1 1ˆ = Á . shown in figure as P0¢Pp¢ . nk represent the refractive indices of the media separating a series of k refracting surfaces of vertex radii of curvature R1 . Rik . we obtain (after some manipulations) 1 1 1 Ê 1 1ˆ = n¢ Ri n Ro R Ë n¢ n ¯ .. R2 .n¢ = Ri nR . º.98 REFRACTING SYSTEMS Substituting for DS and D S ¢ from Eqs. (2-120) .. º. 2. Ri 2 . (2-18). (2-118) which is numerically negative in Figure 2-40 for n ¢ > n .2 General System If n0 .˜ Á n2 Ri 2 n1 Ri1 R2 Ë n2 n1 ¯ . (2100). The location of the Petzval image Pp¢ of an off-axis point object P is the point of intersection of the auxiliary axis PCP¢ and a spherical surface of radius of curvature Ri centered on the optical axis and passing through the axial image point P0¢ .

called the Petzval sum.ˆ Ri 2 nRi1 R2 Ë n¯ .7.nk  j =1 n j n j -1 (2-121a) .3 Thin Lens Consider imaging by a thin lens of refractive index n with surfaces of radii of curvature R1 and R2 . The radius of curvature of the Petzval image surface produced by the first refracting surface (for a planar object) is given by 1 1.n j -1 (2-122) Rj is the refracting power of the jth surface. Unless the sum on the right-hand side of Eq. (2-121b) where Kj = n j . the Petzval image is spherical with a radius of curvature Rik . (2104a) and letting n0 = 1. (2-100) to refraction by its two surfaces. (2-123) The second refracting surface images the first Petzval surface into a second surface. and n2 = 1. with a radius of curvature Ri2 given by 1 1 1 Ê 1 = 1 . We note that the Petzval radius is independent of the object and image distances. 2. n1 = n. The radius of curvature of its Petzval surface can be obtained by applying Eq.n Ê 1 1ˆ = Á ˜ Ri 2 n Ë R1 R2 ¯ (2-124a) 1 nf¢ (2-124b) = - .n = Ri1 R1 . (2-121a). or 1 1. Thus.7 Petzval Image 99 respectively.2. the radius of curvature Rp ∫ Ri 2 of the Petzval image surface is given by . is zero. we obtain the radius of curvature of the Petzval image surface produced by a system of k refracting surfaces according to k 1 Ê 1 1 1 ˆ = nk  Á Rik n j -1 ˜¯ j =1 R j Ë n j Kj k = . or equivalently by using Eq. Adding these equations and letting the radius of curvature of the object surface Ro Æ •.

it lies to the left of the lens and is curved toward it. then the first lens forms the image of a planar object on a Petzval surface. It can be shown that the radius of curvature of the Petzval surface of a system consisting of a series of m thin lenses of refracting indices n j and focal lengths f j¢ . Petzval surface of a thin lens. it depends only on the refractive index and the focal length of the lens.. m. the Petzval surface is curved toward the lens with its center of curvature lying to its left... 2. This image surface becomes the object for the next lens in the series. (a) Real for a positive lens. .e. .100 REFRACTING SYSTEMS Rp = .n f ¢ . as illustrated in Figure 2-41b. C p is the center of curvature of the Petzval surface. (b) Virtual for a negative lens. (2-125) Note the radius of curvature of the Petzval surface does not depend on the object or the image distance. where j = 1. The radius of curvature of the virtual Petzval surface for a negative lens is numerically positive.. is given by (see Problem 2. Rp n j =1 j f j¢ (2-126) Petzval Surface Cp P¢0 (–)Rp S¢ (a) Petzval Surface Cp P¢0 Rp (–)S¢ (b) Figure 2-41. If a system consists of a series of thin lenses. Its value is numerically negative for a positive lens. and so on. i.14) m 1 1 = Â . as illustrated in Figure 2-41a.

let the heights of its object and image points P and P ¢ from its optical axis VC be h and h ¢. In the perturbed position.3. x z y P¢¢ Cp Vp D V P0 C h¢p P¢ P0¢¢ h¢ P¢0 (–)hp (–)h P (–)S R S¢ Figure 2-42. Such a displacement of the surface is referred to as its decenter. from the optical axis VC. its center of curvature moves to C p and the image is displaced to P ¢¢. The two heights are related to each other according to h ¢ = Mh . we determined the axial displacement of the image for a small displacement of a point object. Let the displacement be along the x axis with a value of D. The imaging surface is either nonspherical. When the surface is decentered by an amount D along the x axis. and thus yields a vertex. . or is an element of a series of coaxial imaging surfaces. so that it has a well-defined vertex. as indicated by the dashed surface. we determine the displacement of the image when the imaging surface is slightly decentered. respectively.1 Decentered Surface First. 2. or despaced. the center of curvature of the surface shown by the solid curve lies at C. as indicated in Figure 2-42. so that there is a well-defined optical axis.2. its axis is still parallel to the optical axis of the unperturbed system. where V is the vertex and C is the center of curvature of the surface. In its unperturbed position. we consider an imaging surface that is laterally displaced from its nominal position. The point object P and its image P ¢ are at heights h and h ¢ . respectively.8. thus yielding an expression for the longitudinal magnification. In the unperturbed state. The new object and image heights are h p and h p¢ . from the new optical axis Vp C p .3.8 MISALIGNED SURFACE In Section 2. Now. tilted. Decentered surface.8 Misaligned Surface 101 2. respectively. (2-127) where M is the (transverse) magnification of the image.

D ) (2-130a) = (1 . In the unperturbed position.D (2-128) and h p¢ = Mh p = h¢ . the Gaussian image of the point object P is displaced to P ¢¢ .102 REFRACTING SYSTEMS In the perturbed position. Accordingly. When the surface is tilted.S (2-131) and h p¢ = Mh p = h ¢ . (2-132) Note that because h is numerically negative in the figure.(h ¢ . (2130b). (2-129) respectively. is given by P¢ P ¢¢ = h p¢ .MD .M ) D .M ) D c d . the point object P and its Gaussian image P ¢ are at heights h and h ¢ from the optical axis VC. the displacement P0¢P0¢¢ of the axial image point is also given by Eq. or P ¢P ¢¢ = (1 . The image displacement is independent of the height h of the object. Note that h and M are numerically negative in Figure 2-42. The image point for the decentered surface lies at P ¢¢.MS .S is a numerically smaller height than h. the object and image heights from the new optical axis Vp C p become hp = h . the heights of the object point P and image point P ¢¢ are given by h p = h . 2. We assume that the surface has been rotated by a small angle  about its vertex in the tangential plane. which is also along the x axis.8. as illustrated in Figure 2-43. h . The image displacement. . (2-130b) where  c d =  is the displacement of the center of curvature of the surface due to its decenter. With respect to the tilted optical axis of the surface.2 Tilted Surface Now we consider a tilt of an imaging surface from its nominal orientation.

M ) R . as in the case of a decentered surface. The image for the tilted surface is located at P ¢¢ . The heights of the object P and image P ¢ change from h to hp and from h ¢ to h p¢ . (2-134a) or P ¢P ¢¢ = (1 . (2-130b) and (2-134b) that the image is not displaced unless the center of curvature of the surface is displaced. its center of curvature C moves to C p . (2-10) for the image magnification and S ¢ in terms of R from Eq. It should be evident from Eqs.S ¢) . (2-133b) Substituting for S in terms of S ¢ from Eq. the image does not move.2. if the displacement of the center of curvature due to a decenter of the surface is canceled by its tilt. (2-4) for imaging. The image displacement.MS)  . When the surface is tilted by an angle  . we find that P ¢P ¢¢ = (1 . which is along the x axis. . (2-134b) where D c t = R is the displacement of the center of curvature of the surface due to its tilt.M ) D c t . (2-133a) or P ¢P ¢¢ = ( S ¢ . Thus.8 Misaligned Surface 103 P¢¢ h¢p Cp P0 V bS¢ b (–)bS C P¢ h¢ P0¢¢ P¢0 (–)h (–)hp P R S¢ (–)S Figure 2-43. for example. Tilted surface.( h ¢ . is given by P ¢P ¢¢ = hp¢ . respectively. indicated by the dashed surface.

the net displacement of the image is given by ( ) P0¢P0¢¢ = 1 . (2-18). then the corresponding displacement of the image is given by Eq.104 REFRACTING SYSTEMS 2. the distance of the object point from it changes. the refracting surface is assumed to be fixed in position. as in Figure 2-44. along its optical axis.(n ¢ n) M 2 D .(n ¢ n) M 2 D . (2-135) Note that the distance of the displaced image from the displaced surface is S ¢ . when the object is fixed and the refracting surface is displaced by an amount D . therefore. the object distance changes from S to S . For a despace D of the surface.n ¢ M 2 n D .8. according to Eq. the image location is indeed different in the two cases. the object and image distances change. . The difference comes about because when the refracting surface is displaced. n′ n P (1 – n′M2t /n)Δ h Δ P0 C V P′0 P′′0 P′ P′′ (–)h′ R (–)S S′ Figure 2-44. the change in the image distance is not. but the more serious effect is the defocused image. However. thus creating defocus. In Eq. and D S ¢ represents the displacement of the image corresponding to a displacement DS of the object. Despaced surface. When the change in object distance is the same in both cases. the reference point for both the object and image distances changes. When the surface is despaced slightly. (2-18). or it changes by dS = -D . (2-135). The image height h ¢ may also change. the distances of the object for each surface that follows it also change.D .e. Thus.. The longitudinal displacement of the surface is referred to as its despace. i. the change in the image distance due to a change in the object distance alone is d S ¢ = . and therefore the distance of its image point also changes.3 Despaced Surface When an optical surface of an imaging system is displaced longitudinally. Adding it to the displacement of the surface. and. If a surface of a multisurface system is displaced. the image is displaced.

2. Let M = h ¢ h = S ¢ S be the image magnification. as illustrated in Figure 2-45.2.1 Decentered Lens Consider a thin lens forming the image of an object. When a lens is decentered slightly.D (2-136) and h p¢ = Mh p = h¢ . but it is displaced along the x axis by an amount D from its nominal position. (2-138b) or which is independent of the height h of the point object P.(h¢ .D ) . Therefore. (2-138a) P¢ P ¢¢ = (1 . the image displacement is given by P¢ P ¢¢ = h p¢ . P¢¢ h¢p P¢ C¢ h¢ P¢¢ 0 C P0 D (–) hp P0 (–) h P (–)S S¢ Figure 2-45.9. We show that the image does not move when the lens is tilted about its center. but their heights from its optical axis change.9 MISALIGNED THIN LENS Now we consider the displacement of an image formed by a thin lens when it is slightly misaligned. (2-137) respectively. . The optical axis is still parallel to the z axis.MD . We are interested in determining the displacement of the image if the lens is decentered by an amount D along the x axis.9 Misaligned Thin Lens 105 2. Decentered lens. the object and image distances from its center do not change. Let the heights of the object and its image from the optical axis be h and h ¢ . The object and image heights from the perturbed optical axis are given by hp = h .M ) D . respectively.

. the heights of the object and image points do not change. but the more serious effect is the defocused image.106 REFRACTING SYSTEMS 2. the image does not move. However.9.S ¢) = ( S ¢ . along its optical axis. 2. which does not change when the lens is tilted about its center. the image height h ¢ may also changes.MS )  (2-140) = 0 . the net displacement of the image is given by 1 . Tilted lens. Thus.M 2 D .D . As in the case of a refracting surface. according to Eq.MS . the distance of the object point from it changes. the object distance changes from S to S . i. Note that the distance of the displaced image from the displaced lens is S ¢ . Adding it to the displacement of the lens. (2-36).2 Tilted Lens When a lens is tilted about its center by an angle . . This is not surprising. (2-139) The image displacement is given by P ¢P ¢¢ = hp¢ .e. or it changes by dS = -D .M 2 D . When a lens is tilted about its center.( h ¢ . the change in the image distance due to a change in the object distance alone is d S ¢ = .3 Despaced Lens When a thin lens is displaced longitudinally. and therefore the distance of its image point also changes. Thus.S . the image stays stationary. the object height changes from h to h p = h .M 2 D . For a longitudinal movement D of the surface. ( ) P¢ h¢ b P0 P0 (–) h P (–)S S¢ Figure 2-46. as illustrated in Figure 2-47. as illustrated in Figure 2-46. because the image lies on the ray passing through the center of the lens. The corresponding image height changes from h¢ to h p¢ = Mhp = h ¢ .9.

for example. Despaced lens. respectively. The Gaussian images of a point object with object rays in the two symmetry planes are formed separately. S1¢ S1 f1¢ or (2-141) . They are related to each other by the image-space focal length f1¢ according to 1 1 1 = . Similarly. is symmetric about two orthogonal planes whose intersection defines its optical axis. therefore. and S1¢ be the distance of the Gaussian image point P ¢ from the object. the object and image distances from its center change. When the lens is despaced.10 Anamorphic Imaging Systems 107 P¢ h¢ P0 P¢¢ P0¢¢ P0¢ (–) h P D (1 – M2) D (–)S S¢ Figure 2-47. By definition. Let S1 be the distance of the point object P. and focused by L2 at P ¢ . displace the image. The system is symmetric about the yz and zx planes whose intersection defines its optical axis z. for example.and image-space principal planes H1 and H1¢ of the lens L1 . thus creating defocus. The cylindrical lens L1 schematically represents cylindrical lenses with their symmetry axes parallel to x axis. Consider a point object P located at a point (p. an anamorphic system forms the image of an extended object with different transverse magnifications in the two symmetry planes. q) in the object plane imaged by an anamorphic system at a point P ¢ . Thus. the image of a square object is rectangular and that of a rectangular object can be square.2. The rays in the zx plane originating at P are transmitted by L1 like a plane-parallel plate. They are coincident in the final image space of the system for only two pairs of conjugate planes. one consisting of cylindrical optics. as illustrated in Figure 2-48.10 ANAMORPHIC IMAGING SYSTEMS An anamorphic imaging system. and similarly for L2 along the y axis. as illustrated in Figure 2-49. The projections of skew rays on the zx and yz planes contribute to the image in a similar manner. and. the rays in the yz plane are focused by L1 at P ¢ and transmitted by L2 like a plane-parallel plate. 2.

and focused at the image point P ¢ . The system is symmetric about the yz and zx planes whose intersection defines the optical axis z. such as in Figure 2-48. Figure 2-49. A fan of rays in the zx plane is shown originating at a point P in the center of a square object.108 REFRACTING SYSTEMS Figure 2-48. Gaussian imaging by an anamorphic imaging system. When the transmitted rays are incident on the cylindrical lens L2 . Schematic of an anamorphic imaging system consisting of orthogonal cylindrical lenses in a configuration called crossed cylinders. The cylindrical lens L1 acts as a plane-parallel plate on these rays and transmits them without any bending . . they are refracted by it just like a spherical lens.

(2-144) where d1 and d 2 are the distances H1H 2 and H1¢H 2¢ between the respective principal planes of the two lenses. we obtain a quadratic equation in S1¢ yielding two solutions for it.11 SUMMARY OF RESULTS 2.d1 f 2¢ . its image distance S ¢ from the image-space principal point H ¢ in image space of refractive index n ¢ and the image height h ¢ are given by (see Figure 2-50) n¢ n n¢ n = = S¢ S f¢ f and (2-147a) . (2-142).11.d 2 S1 .11. (2-144). as they are given by Mx = - S2¢ S2 My = - S1¢ S1 (2-145) and .2. Consequently. In the thin-lens approximation. an anamorphic system has only two pairs of conjugates. Thus. A corresponding value of S1 can be obtained for each value of S1¢ from Eq. Substituting for S1 from Eq. (2-146) respectively. 109 (2-142) Similarly. the object and image distances S2 and S2¢ for the lens L2 of focal length f 2¢ are related to each other according to 1 1 1 = S2¢ S2 f 2¢ (2-143) or 1 1 1 = S1¢ .11 Summary of Results S1 = S1¢ f1¢ f1¢ . d1 and d 2 are equal to the spacing between the lenses. It should be evident that the image magnifications along the x and y axes are different. compared to an infinite number for a rotationally symmetric imaging system. for example. (2-142) into Eq. 2.1 Imaging Equations 2.1 General System If an object of height h lies at a distance S from the principal point H of an imaging system in object space of refractive index n.1.S1¢ . the image of a square object is rectangular and that of a circle is elliptical.

and image-space focal lengths of the system. a ray incident in the direction of the objectspace focal point F emerges parallel to the optical axis. The principal planes are conjugate planes with a magnification of unity. Mt ∫ n0 h¢ nS ¢ = = h n ¢S n ¢¢0 . The object-space nodal point N lies at a distance f ¢ from the corresponding focal point F. Imaging by a general system. is given by Mb = ¢0 / 0 = S / S ¢ . However. where f and f ¢ are the object. The principal points are conjugates of each other. as illustrated by the fact that Q and Q ¢ are conjugate points at the same height from the axis.110 REFRACTING SYSTEMS n n′ Q P Q′ (–)β′0 h β0 P0 F H F′ H′ P′0 (–)h′ P′ (–)z (–)f (–)S f′ z′ S′ Figure 2-50. The angular magnification of a ray bundle diverging from the axial point object P0 and converging to its image point P0¢ after refraction by the system. Similarly. (2-147c) The product of the transverse and angular magnifications is given by Mt Mb = n n ¢ . Note that the dashed line QQ¢ is not a ray but merely an illustration of this fact. the image-space nodal point N ¢ lies at a distance f from the corresponding focal point F ¢ . A ray incident in the direction of N emerges from the system in a parallel direction passing through N ¢ . (2-147d) showing that a large value of Mt is accompanied by a correspondingly small value of Mb . A ray incident parallel to the optical axis of the system passes through the image-space focal point F ¢ after emerging from the system. The spacing between the nodal points is equal to that between the principal points. as illustrated in Figure 2-48. as are the nodal points. the focal points are obviously not conjugates of each other. Equation (2-146b) may also be written n ¢h ¢¢0 = nh0 . Similarly. (2-147e) . (2-147b) respectively. This ray determines the image height h ¢ .

Thus.2. the imaging equations reduce to Ê 1 1 1 1 1ˆ 1 = = (n .11 Summary of Results 111 representing Lagrange invariance. (2-147f) where D S ¢ represents the length of the axial image. For a lens of refractive index n with surfaces of radii of curvature R1 and R2 . The Newtonian imaging equation. The longitudinal magnification representing the magnification of an axial object of length DS is given by Ml ∫ D S ¢ D S = ( n n ¢)( S ¢ S) 2 = ( n ¢ n) Mt2 = Mt Mb .f z . and a ray incident in the direction of its center passes through it undeviated. n¢ . the above equations apply with f¢ = n¢ R .z ¢ f ¢ = . (2-149d) .3 Thin Lens In the case of a thin lens in air.11. .11.2 Refracting Surface If the system consists simply of a refracting surface of radius of curvature R separating media of refractive indices n and n ¢ . the object and image distances are measured from its center. It also represents the change in image distance D S ¢ due to a small change DS in the object distance. (2-149a) (2-149b) Mb = ¢0 0 = S S ¢ .(n n ¢) f ¢ 2 (2-147g) Mt ∫ h ¢ h = . and the nodal points coincide with its center of curvature. A ray incident in the direction of the center of curvature passes through the surface undeviated because the angles of incidence and refraction are both equal to zero. are given by zz ¢ = f f ¢ = . where the object and image distances z and z ¢ are measured from the object. respectively. It shows that the image moves in the same direction as the object.and image-space focal points.1. (2-147h) and 2.1. (2-149c) Mt Mb = 1 .n (2-148) The principal points coincide with the vertex of the surface.1) Á . 2.˜ = S¢ S f¢ f Ë R1 R2 ¯ Mt ∫ h ¢ h = S ¢ S = 0 ¢0 . the principal and nodal points all coincide at its center.

This leads to a slight error in the position of the image for an off-axis point object. The image of an object can be determined by applying the imaging equation successively for each surface or thin lens of the system.1 n) from the object. Accordingly.11.f z .2 Petzval Image In Gaussian optics. the object and image distances are measured along the optical axis of a system when determining the Gaussian image formed by it.4 Afocal System In the case of an afocal system. . 2. . (2-150) where x 0 and x 0¢ are the heights of a parallel ray in the object and image spaces with refractive indices n and n ¢ .5 Plane-Parallel Plate The image of an object formed by a plane-parallel plate of refractive index n and thickness t lies at a distance t (1 . The image distance S ¢ for another object lying at a distance S from the previous object is given by S¢ n ¢h ¢ 2 n¢ 2 Mt = = S n nh 2 .11. the image formed by a multisurface system is also spherical unless a quantity called the Petzval sum is zero. Let Mt = h ¢ h be the magnification of the image. respectively. independent of the object distance. (2-149e) Ml ∫ D S ¢ D S = ( S ¢ S ) z z¢ = f f ¢ = . The image thus obtained is called the Petzval image point. (2-151) The transverse magnification Mt and longitudinal magnification Ml = S ¢ S are independent of the object position. 2. The ray angular magnification for infinite conjugates is given by nx0 ¢ =  n ¢x0¢ .1. The correct position of the image formed by an imaging surface is obtained by considering the object and image distances along an auxiliary axis connecting the off-axis point object and the (vertex) center of curvature of the surface. (2-149h) 2. It has the consequence that the correct image of a planar object is spherical and is called the Petzval image surface. the focal points lie at infinity.f ¢2 2 = Mt2 = Mt Mb .11.112 REFRACTING SYSTEMS h ¢¢0 = h0 .1.z ¢ f ¢ = . Its transverse and longitudinal magnifications are both equal to unity. (2-149f) (2-149g) and Mt ∫ h ¢ h = = .

the image is displaced by an amount ( ) P0¢P0¢¢ = 1 . They are coincident in the final image space of the system for only two pairs of conjugate planes.10. then D = bR. º. Rk . (2-155) 2. which does not change when it is tilted about its center. an image of magnification M formed by it is displaced by an amount that is also given by Eq.11. R2 . there is no image displacement if the lens is tilted by a certain angle about its center. (2-148).3. then the image is displaced from its axial position P0¢ to a position P0¢¢ such that ( ) P0¢P0¢¢ = 1 .11 Summary of Results 113 If n0 . (2-154) where M is the magnification of the image.1 Misaligned Surface If a surface of radius of curvature R separating media of refractive indices n and n ¢ is decentered or tilted so that its center of curvature is displaced by an amount D .3.11. If a surface is tilted by an angle b . as shown in Section 2. If the lens is displaced longitudinally by an amount D .n f ¢ . If the surface is displaced longitudinally by an amount D . its image is displaced from its position P ¢ to a position P ¢¢ such that P ¢P ¢¢ = (1 . nk represent the refractive indices of the media separating a series of k refracting surfaces of vertex radii of curvature R1 . 2. An anamorphic system forms the image of an extended object with different . 2.11.M 2 D .M ) D . it is given by Rp = .n ¢ M 2 n D . Á Rp n j -1 ˜¯ j =1 R j Ë n j (2-152) For a thin lens of refractive index n and focal length f ¢ .3 (2-153) Misalignments 2. The Gaussian images of a point object with object rays in the two symmetry planes are formed separately. the radius of curvature of the Petzval image of a planar object is given by k 1 Ê 1 1 1 ˆ = nk  .11. The image in this case lies on the ray passing through the center of the lens. n1 . However.4 (2-156) Anamorphic Imaging Systems An anamorphic imaging system is symmetric about two orthogonal planes whose intersection defines its optical axis.2.2 Misaligned Thin Lens When a thin lens is decentered by an amount D . º.

the image of a square object is rectangular and that of a rectangular object can be square.114 REFRACTING SYSTEMS transverse magnifications in the two symmetry planes. . As a result.

(b) Determine the location of the image of an object lying at a distance of 40 cm from the lens at a height of 5 cm from its optical axis. A typical lens magnifier produces a magnified (virtual) image of an object placed between it and its front focal plane.1 Determine the focal length of an air bubble 2 mm in diameter suspended in a solution of refractive index 1. 2.5 and a power of 5 D. Jones.6 A 4-cm square slide is placed at a distance of 8 cm from a thin lens. 1.” Appl.5 Consider a plano-convex lens 3 cm thick with a radius of curvature 10 cm and refractive index 1. 607–613 (1962).2 From Eqs. (c) How does the image location change if the lens is displaced by 1 mm and is decentered by 1 mm? Check the change in image height also. 2.48. (a) What is the size of the image? (b) Sketch the Petzval surface indicating the value of longitudinal defocus for the corner point of the slide.Problems 115 PROBLEMS Illustrate each problem by a diagram. If an object is placed at a distance of 30 cm from the first lens. 2. 2. . verify that the nodal points of a refracting surface coincide with its center of curvature. The image on the detector is smaller in size by the magnification of the lens determined in parts (a) and (b). 2. Opt. as in immersed detectors. where the image is focused on the detector.7 Two thin lenses of focal lengths 10 cm and 20 cm are placed 5 cm apart. This problem is discussed in detail by way of ray tracing in Chapter 4. “Immersed radiation detectors. Find the apparent position and relative size of a flower (a) embedded at its center. Determine how far to place a point source from its planar surface to yield a parallel beam of light exiting from the lens. determine the location and size of the image formed by the system. A hemispherical or hyperhemispherical contact lens magnifier produces a magnified (virtual) image of an object placed in contact with its planar surface. which is in contact with the planar surface of the hemispherical or the hyperhemispherical lens. This problem illustrates the concept of a contact magnifier. The Contact magnifiers can be used in reverse. derive the focal length of a thick lens of refractive index n and thickness t with surfaces of radii of curvature R1 and R2 . Determine the focal length of the lens if an image is to be formed on a screen at a distance of 2 m. 2. See R.4 From Eq. C. (2-98). 2. 2.5. (2-79) and (2-82). and (b) placed at a distance of R n from its center and observed from the other side of the center.8 (a) Determine the radii of curvature of a thin equiconvex lens of refractive index 1.3 Consider a glass sphere of radius of curvature 3 cm and refractive index 1.5.

10 Consider a plane-parallel plate of thickness t and refractive index n. 2.13 (a) Show that the power of a system changes when it is reversed (by rotating it by 180 o about an axis normal to its optical axis) unless the refractive indices of its object and image spaces are equal. consider f ¢ = 10 cm and an object placed at a distance of 30 cm from the first lens. Determine its focal length and power when placed in water.5 and focal length 30 cm. then reverse the lens and repeat the calculations. j =1 2. determine the lens movements required to keep the image focused at the film. and So = 3 cm. Calculate its focal lengths and power.14 Show that the radius of curvature of the Petzval surface of a system consisting of a series of m thin lenses of refractive indices n j and focal lengths f j¢ . (c) Sketch the various quantities determined for t = 1 cm. The refractive index of water is 1. Let the focal length of the positive lens be 4 cm. Assume the lens to be thin with a focal length of 10 cm. A telephoto lens consisting of a positive lens and a negative lens is used to obtain a large image such that the back focal distance is kept small.15 Consider a camera with an adjustable focus. (b) Derive an expression for the location and the size of the image of its front surface formed by its back surface.5. (a) Design a telephoto lens with a focal length of 20 cm and a back focal distance of 4 cm. n = 1.. 2. 2.. m. Show that the reversed lens works as a wide-angle lens. .15 cm with air in its object space and water in its image space.9 REFRACTING SYSTEMS Consider a thin lens of refractive index 1.12 The size of the image of a distant object depends on the focal length of the imaging system. If the object distance changes from 2 m to 4 m.. (a) Derive an expression for the location and the size of the image of an object lying at a distance So from its front surface. 2.116 2. m . (a) Determine the transverse and longitudinal magnifications of the image of a nearby object.33. Show that the position and size of the image do not change as the system is moved along its axis. (b) Determine the space between the object and its image.11 Consider an afocal system consisting of two lenses of equal focal lengths f ¢ placed 2 f ¢ apart. where j = 1. (b) Determine the focal length and the back focal distance of the lens when it is reversed. Consider a thin lens of refractive index 1. 2.5 and radii of curvature 10 cm and .1 n j f j¢ . is given by 1 Rp = Â . (c) How are the imaging properties of the system affected if a third lens of focal length f ¢ is placed at the common focal point of the first two? (d) As an example. 2.

.......................................1 Introduction ............6 Misaligned Mirror.................................................................139 3..2 Spherical Reflecting Surface (Spherical Mirror) ........................................ 119 3............... 129 3..138 3.....................119 3.................1 Imaging by a Mirror ..........6........2 Tilted Mirror ...........................8 Summary of Results ...............................................5................................137 3......................................8.........1 Decentered Secondary Mirror................8..............136 3.....................................1 Decentered Mirror ......................................................2 Two-Mirror System .5 Petzval Image................................................................................................................6............7...............4 Beam Expander ........ 133 3.....................................3 System of k Mirrors ................................................................................................................2....................2................................................................................133 3...........................................139 3........................................................................ 135 3..............................................139 3...................................................141 3......CHAPTER 3 REFLECTING SYSTEMS 3.........................121 3.... 136 3........................................ 127 3.............. 144 117 ... 141 3...............142 Problems ....................................................................................4 Graphical Imaging ....................................2..........................2....3 Two-Mirror Telescopes .......................................127 3..............................................2 Focal Length and Reflecting Power .......... 139 3....................133 3.........7..................................................................................................................3 Despaced Mirror ......................................7................3 Magnifications and the Lagrange Invariant.............6.......................................................................7 Misaligned Two-Mirror Telescope ............................................5..........1 Single Mirror .......................................1 Gaussian Imaging Equation.............................2 Imaging by a Two-Mirror Telescope ............2 Tilted Secondary Mirror ..........................119 3..............5....3 Despaced Secondary Mirror ..........................................2..............5 Newtonian Imaging Equation ......................... 136 3......................... 123 3.......

.

From triangle P0 CQ .1 INTRODUCTION In Section 1. (3-1) where q and q ¢ are the angles of incidence and reflection. we considered Gaussian imaging by a reflecting surface.8. as illustrated in Figure 3-1. Let the slope angles of the incident and reflected rays from the optical axis be 0 and ¢0 . (3-4b) and 119 . (3-3) The tangent of a small angle is approximately equal to the angle in radians. we rederive the Gaussian imaging equations for a spherical reflecting surface and show that they can be obtained from those for a corresponding refracting surface by substituting the refractive index associated with the reflected rays equal to the negative value of that associated with the incident rays.x / S . we note that f = 0 . 3. two-mirror telescopes.2. and showed that the curved surface can be replaced by a planar surface that is a tangent to the surface at its vertex. Thus.q .q .2 SPHERICAL REFLECTING SURFACE (SPHERICAL MIRROR) 3.x /R . from triangle CP0¢Q . (3-4a) 0 = . and the image displacement resulting from the misalignment of a mirror are also discussed. We also show how to determine the image graphically. we may write f = . a beam expander. respectively. (3-2) where f is the angle that the surface normal at the point of incidence Q makes with the optical axis. q¢ = . respectively. According to the law of reflection [see Eq. Similarly. Consider an axial point object P0 at a distance S. Both Gaussian and Newtonian forms of the imaging equations are given.Chapter 3 Reflecting Systems 3. In this chapter. The line VC joining its vertex V and its center of curvature C defines its optical axis.3. called the tangent plane or the paraxial surface.1 Gaussian Imaging Equation Consider a spherical reflecting surface of radius of curvature R. (1-6)]. we note that ¢0 = f + q¢ . The Petzval image.

Gaussian imaging of an axial point object P0 by a spherical reflecting surface of radius of curvature R and center of curvature C. . (b) Convex mirror forms a virtual Gaussian image. (a) Concave mirror forms a real Gaussian image P0¢ .120 REFLECTING SYSTEMS Q (–)q P0 C x b0¢ f b0 q¢ P0¢ V F¢ (–)f ¢ (–)S¢ (–)R (–)S (a) (–)q¢ Q q x (–)b¢0 b0 V P0 (–)S P0¢ (–)f F¢ C S¢ f¢ R (b) Figure 3-1. F ¢ is the focal point of the mirror.

3. 121 (3-4c) where x is the height of the point of incidence. S ¢ Æ .2 Spherical Reflecting Surface (Spherical Mirror) ¢0 = . (3-1) and Eqs. it is independent of the direction of propagation of the rays. and S ¢ is the image distance.and image-space focal points are coincident just as the two spaces are coincident. Thus. we define the reflecting power K and the equivalent or effective focal length fe of a mirror according to . Any refracting imaging elements following the mirror will be assigned refractive indices with a negative value of their actual refractive indices because the rays on them are incident propagating from right to left. these rays will propagate from left to right and will be associated with a refractive index n2¢ = n .2. Therefore. (3-4) for the other angles.n .2 Focal Length and Reflecting Power When the object lies at infinity.•. S¢ S R (3-5) As R Æ • . It is evident that a mirror has only one focal point. the rays on the first mirror (not necessarily the first imaging element) of a system will be incident propagating from left to right. where f ¢ is called the focal length of the mirror. (3-5) is independent of the refractive index of the medium in which the rays are incident or reflected. The focal length f ¢ is numerically negative for a concave mirror but positive for a convex mirror. In a medium of refractive index n. but the reflected rays will be associated with a refractive index n ¢ = . The object. It is real in the case of a concave mirror. which lies halfway between V and C. if a point source is placed at the focal point F ¢ . as expected for a plane mirror. the focal length of the mirror is given by f¢ = R 2 . Substituting Eq. but it is virtual in the case of a convex mirror. (3-6) The rays incident parallel to the optical axis come to focus after reflection by the mirror at the point F ¢ . we obtain the Gaussian imaging equation 1 1 2 + = . the incident rays will be associated with a refractive index n. the corresponding image distance S ¢ ∫ VF ¢ = f ¢ . i.. We note that Eq.e. its rays incident on the mirror become parallel after being reflected by it. (3-6) into Eq.x / S ¢ .S . 3. we obtain 1 1 1 + = S¢ S f¢ . When reflected by a second mirror in the system. when S = . For object rays propagating from left to right. Thus. (3-7) The focal point F ¢ of a mirror is illustrated in Figure 3-2 for both a concave and a convex mirror. (3-2) and (3-3) into Eq. (35). Substituting for q and q ¢ from Eqs. Therefore.

a positive value of n ¢ in Eq. Similarly. a convex mirror has negative values of K and fe . Thus. and positive values of K and fe . Therefore.1 for the first mirror. (3-9a) C V F¢ (–)f¢ (–)R (a) V C F¢ f¢ R (b) Figure 3-2. it is always a negative imaging element. and positive values of K and fe . (b) Convex mirror. it has a negative value of R. regardless of the direction of the rays incident on it. It lies halfway between the vertex V and the center of curvature C of the mirror. a second concave mirror in a system will have a positive value of R. and its reflecting power and equivalent focal length are given by K1 = 1 2 = fe1 R1 . i.e. Similarly. . The focal point F ¢ of a mirror.122 REFLECTING SYSTEMS K = 1 2n ¢ = fe R . (3-8) where n ¢ is the refractive index associated with the rays reflected by it. (3-8). regardless of the direction of the rays incident on it. In air. n ¢ = . a negative value of n ¢ in Eq. (a) Concave mirror. a concave mirror is always a positive imaging element. if the first mirror in a system is concave. (3-8)..

(3-9b) where R2 is its radius of curvature. (3-10) 3. we find that the transverse magnification may also be written Mt = - R . but that by a convex mirror is erect. as expected. we find that the transverse magnification of the image is given by Mt ∫ h ¢ h = . (3-12a) The image formed by a concave mirror is inverted.3. From Eqs. which locates the image point at a height h ¢ . as in Figure 3-4. Accordingly. Continuing in this manner. as in Figure 3-3a.3 Magnifications and Lagrange Invariant Now we consider the imaging of an off-axis point object P at height h from the optical axis in the object plane passing through P0 . because n ¢ = 1 for a second mirror. It is evident from the figure that q = h/S (3-11a) q¢ = h¢ / S ¢ .2 Spherical Reflecting Surface (Spherical Mirror) 123 where R1 is its radius of curvature. we obtain (3-13) .S ¢ S . (3-12b) Letting R Æ • shows that the magnification for a plane mirror is unity. (3-1). Similarly. From similar triangles P0 PC and P0¢P ¢C . (3-11b) and Substituting Eqs. as in Figure 3-3b. its reflecting power and equivalent focal length are given by K2 = 1 2 = fe 2 R2 . is given by M = ¢0 / 0 = S / S ¢ .2. we find that the reflecting power K j and equivalent focal length fej of a jth mirror in air of radius of curvature R j in a system is given by Kj = 1 2 = ( -1) j fej Rj . as illustrated in Figure 3-3.S¢ S-R . (3-12a) and (3-13). A ray PV incident at the vertex V of the mirror is reflected as a ray VP¢ intersecting the image plane passing through P0¢ at the point P ¢ . The ray angular magnification representing the ratio of the angular divergence of the rays from P0 to the angular convergence of these rays to P0¢ . (3-11) into Eq. the magnification is negative in Figure 33a and positive in Figure 3-3b.

The Lagrange invariant is nh0 .124 REFLECTING SYSTEMS P h P0′ P0 C (–)θ F′ θ′ (–)h′ V P′ (–)S′ (–)R (–)S (a) ′ P P′ h (–)θ P0 θ′ h′ P0′ V (–)S F′ C S′ R (b) Figure 3-3. (b) Convex mirror forms a virtual and erect image. Mt M = .1 . where n = 1. From Eq. (3-14) Equation (3-14) may also be written h ¢¢0 = . (3-15). the transverse magnification of the image can also be written .h0 . (a) Concave mirror forms a real and inverted image at P ¢ at a height h ¢ . (3-15) representing the Lagrange invariance for the mirror. Gaussian imaging of an off-axis point object P at height h.

Thus. Mt = . for example.0 ¢0 . if the object distance increases. Lagrange invariant nh0 of a mirror. Ml is always negative. (b) Convex mirror.3.. the image distance decreases.e. (a) Concave mirror. Differentiating Eq. (3-16) i.2 Spherical Reflecting Surface (Spherical Mirror) 125 Q P h P0′ β0 P0 β0′ (–)h′ C V F′ P′ (a) ′ Q P h (–)b¢0 b0 V P0 P¢ h¢ P0¢ F¢ C (b) Figure 3-4. it can also be obtained from the slope angles of the axial incident ray and the corresponding reflected ray. (3-5). For a . we obtain the longitudinal magnification Ml of the image in terms of its transverse magnification Mt according to Ml = D S ¢ / D S = .Mt 2 . (3-17) Equation (3-17) shows that whether Mt is positive or negative.( S / S ¢ ) 2 = .

In Figure 3-3a. and P0 z .6.126 REFLECTING SYSTEMS real object. if the object is fixed and the mirror is displaced by an amount D . (3-5) with Eq. we note that the imaging properties of a spherical reflecting surface can be obtained from those of a spherical refracting surface if we let n = 1 because the medium between the object and the mirror is air. and P0 z ¢. Both the transverse and longitudinal magnifications are numerically negative. In Eq. as illustrated by the reversal of the image of the x. y. and z arrows. This is different from that for a refracting surface. the expression for the focal x y¢ z¢ P0 z C P0¢ V F¢ x¢ y (–)S¢ (–)R (–)S Figure 3-5. then the corresponding displacement of the image is 1 + Mt 2 D . Similarly. representing a reflected ray propagating backward. the image moves in a direction opposite to that of the object. Similarly. ( ) Comparing Eq. a decrease in the image distance (from a smaller negative value to a larger one) implies that the image moves away from the mirror. (3-17). This is true for a system with an odd number of mirrors. The reversal of the image arrows P0 x ¢. a decrease in the image distance (from a larger positive value to a smaller one) implies that the image moves closer to the mirror. Thus. P0 y ¢ . as shown in Section 3. in Figure 3-3b. P0 y . This is different from that for a refracting surface. an increase in the object distance takes place (from a larger negative value to a smaller one) by moving the object closer to the mirror. However. where the longitudinal magnification is positive (see Figure 2-11). 3D image of a 3D object. . (2-61) by letting n ¢ n = . and D S ¢ represents the displacement of the image corresponding to a displacement DS of the object. compared with the corresponding object arrows P0 x .1. where the longitudinal magnification is positive (see Figure 2-10). the mirror is assumed to be fixed in position. as may be seen from Eq. shows that both the transverse and longitudinal magnifications are numerically negative. Figure 3-5 illustrates a 3D image of a 3D object.3.1. The opposite is true if the number of mirrors is even because then n ¢ n = 1. and n ¢ = . (2-4).

The tangent plane is sometimes referred to as the paraxial reflecting surface. It should be evident that a mirror has only one principal point.2. Third. a ray incident parallel to the axis of the mirror is reflected by it passing through its focal point F ¢ . any reflection at a surface takes place at a plane that is tangent to it at its vertex. (3-19) . reflecting power. The reflected ray corresponding to the incident ray P0 E passes through the point D and intersects the optical axis at the Gaussian image point P0¢ .n . and Lagrange invariant for a mirror can be obtained from the corresponding expressions for a refracting surface by letting n ¢ = . Second. a ray incident in the direction of F ¢ is reflected parallel to the axis. It is refracted as a ray parallel to the optical axis intersecting the focal plane at the point D. First.3. Thus.4 Graphical Imaging The graphical construction of an image formed by a reflecting surface is similar to that for a refracting surface. It is illustrated in Figure 3-6 for a concave and a convex mirror. namely. and similar triangles P0 F ¢P and VF ¢A . its nodal points coincide with its center of curvature. we find that the transverse magnification of the image is given by Mt = h ¢ h = z ¢ f ¢ = f ¢ z . respectively. where n = 1. except that the former has only one focal point. If we measure the object and image distances z and z ¢. which is the Newtonian imaging equation.2.2 Spherical Reflecting Surface (Spherical Mirror) 127 length. the Gaussian image P ¢ of a point object P may be determined as the point of intersection of any of the following three rays after reflection by the mirror. a ray incident in the direction of the center of curvature C is reflected upon itself. The Gaussian image P0¢ of an on-axis point object P0 can be determined independently (rather than as the point of intersection of the optical axis and the line that is perpendicular to it and passes through P ¢ ) as follows: Consider a ray P0 E incident on the surface. as indicated in Figure 3-6. the tangent plane AVB. (3-18) Therefore. A hypothetical ray incident parallel to it and passing through C intersects the focal plane at a point D. The point D may also be determined by considering a hypothetical parallel ray passing through the focal point F ¢ . as shown in Figure 3-7. which is based on paraxial rays. It should be remembered that in Gaussian optics. then from similar triangles VF ¢B and P0¢F ¢P ¢. z z¢ = f ¢2 . which coincides with its vertex. magnifications. from the focal point F ¢ . 3. as illustrated in Figure 3-6. 3.5 Newtonian Imaging Equation Equation (3-7) is the Gaussian imaging equation for a mirror in which the object and image distances are measured from its vertex.

(a) Paraxial imaging of a real object P0 P of height h. the reflection of rays takes place at the tangent plane AVB. . In the Gaussian approximation. (b) Convex mirror forms a virtual and erect image.128 REFLECTING SYSTEMS P B h P0 C (–)h′ P0′ V F′ A P′ (–) z′ (–) z (–)f ′ (–)S′ (–)R (–)S (a) B P P¢ h h¢ A P0 V C F¢ P¢0 f¢ R S¢ (–)S (–)z ¢ (–)z (b) Figure 3-6. (a) Concave mirror forms a real and inverted image P0¢P ¢ of height h ¢ .

5) have the advantage that the images formed by them do not suffer from chromatic aberrations. with the advent of a photographic film and more recently. the definition of a telescope has evolved to a system that is focal such that the image is formed at a finite distance on the film or a detector array. Historically. i..e. solid-state optical detectors. Reflecting telescopes (as opposed to the refracting telescopes discussed in Section 6. it forms the image at infinity on the other side. for an object lying at infinity on one side. However.3 TWO-MIRROR TELESCOPES In this section. (a) Concave mirror. Graphical Gaussian imaging by a spherical reflecting surface of an axial point object P0 . often called the focal plane array. The strict definition of a telescope is an optical system that is afocal. this definition held as long as the image was observed by humans because the eye is most relaxed when it sees an object lying at infinity. .3 Two-Mirror Telescopes 129 E D P0 C P0¢ V F¢ (a) E P0 V P0¢ F¢ C D (b) Figure 3-7. 3. we consider imaging by a telescope consisting of two mirrors.3. (b) Convex mirror.

. (2-98) and letting n2¢ = 1. the focal length of the telescope is given by t 1 1 1 = . In both cases. S2 < f2¢ . i. resulting in a decrease in the amount of light in the image. (3-7) to the primary mirror M1 . respectively. This image is the object for the secondary mirror M2 and lies at a distance S2 = f1¢ . but in Figure 3-8b. In the Gregorian telescope. Therefore. because one mirror obscures a portion of the other. it can be obtained by substituting for S2 and S2¢ into Eq. Let the vertex-to-vertex spacing from mirror M1 to mirror M2 be (a numerically negative quantity) t. we note that for an object at infinity. but one has a convex secondary mirror.t ) ( f1¢ . S2¢ = f2¢( f1¢ .130 REFLECTING SYSTEMS However. For a given focal length of the primary mirror. the image formed by the concave primary mirror M1 lies beyond the convex secondary mirror M2 and is thus a virtual object for it.t . both mirrors are concave. at a (numerically negative) distance S1¢ = f1¢ from M1 . the focal length is not. In Figure 3-8a. Let R1 and R2 be the vertex radii of curvature of the primary and secondary mirrors.+ f¢ f1¢ f2¢ f1¢f2¢ . and the other a concave. representing the refractive index associated with the ray reflected by M2 . a real image is formed by M2 that lies at the telescope (or Cassegrain) focus F ¢ at a distance S2¢ given by 1 1 1 = S2¢ f 2¢ S2 .t (3-20) from it.e. and S2¢ + t gives the distance of the image from the primary mirror. called the prime focus. and the off-axis by the dashed-line ray. called the working distance. i. and therefore the image is formed at its focus F1¢ . F1¢ lies inside the focus of the secondary mirror. S2 > f2¢ . S1 = . the beam of light that forms the final image is annular. Two configurations of a two-mirror astronomical telescope imaging an object lying at infinity are illustrated in Figure 3-8. Both telescopes have a concave primary mirror.. In the Cassegrain telescope. (3-22) S2¢ locates the image formed by the system. Their corresponding focal lengths are given by f1¢ = R1 2 and f2¢ = R2 2 .e. Although the location of the focal point F ¢ is thus determined. The axial image formation is illustrated by the solid-line rays.• . They are coaxial such that the system is rotationally symmetric about the optical axis that passes through their vertices. and the image formed by the primary mirror lies between the two. (3-23) . the Cassegrain telescope is evidently shorter in length compared to the Gregorian. Applying Eq.f2¢) (3-21) or . it lies outside.

(a) Cassegrain and (b) Gregorian forms are shown in this figure. and off-axis by the dashed-line rays. Astronomical telescope consisting of two mirrors M1 and M2 .3. The axial image formation is illustrated by the solid-line rays. The spherical image surface passing through the focal point F ¢ is an illustration of the Petzval image surface.3 Two-Mirror Telescopes 131 h¢2 h1¢ OA F1¢ F¢ b M2 M1 (–)S2 (–)t (–)f1¢ S¢2 (a) h′1 OA F′1 β F′ (–)h′2 M2 M1 (–)f1′ S2 (–)t S′2 (b) Figure 3-8. .

(3-23) is rederived. The incident and the exit rays meet in the principal plane whose intersection with the optical axis locates the principal point H¢ . where Eq. in turn.S2¢ S2 = f2¢ ( f1¢ .f2¢) .132 REFLECTING SYSTEMS By definition. (3-24) The image formed by M1 is the object for M2 . (3-25) (–)b¢ H¢ OA F1¢ F¢ M2 M1 (–)S2 (–)t S¢2 (–)f1¢ f¢ Figure 3-9. This is done in Section 4. which. .8. which. is the transverse plane passing through the point of intersection of a ray incident parallel to the optical axis and the corresponding exit ray passing through F ¢ .f ¢ f1¢ . The height h2¢ of the final image formed by M2 (and therefore by the system) is given by M2 ∫ h2¢ h1¢ = . A ray incident parallel to the optical axis is reflected by mirror M1 in the direction of its focal point F1¢ .f1¢ . the focal length is the distance of F ¢ from the principal point H ¢ . we need to know the slope angle ¢ of the exit ray in terms of the height of the incident ray. As illustrated in Figure 3-9. To determine f ¢ . H ¢ is the point where the optical axis intersects the principal plane. For an object lying at infinity at an angle  from the optical axis of the system (see Figure 3-8). or M2 = . is reflected by mirror M2 in the direction of the telescope focus F ¢ . in turn.t . the height h1¢ of its image formed by M1 is given by h1¢ = . Ray tracing of a two-mirror system to determine its focal point F ¢ and principal point H ¢.

From Eqs.8 for obscuration value).e. we obtain h2¢ = f ¢ . 3. the secondary mirror recollimates the light. The signs of the various quantities associated with the Cassegrain and Gregorian telescopes are summarized in Table 3-1.5. making an angle ¢ = . Thus. the image-forming light cone is annular (see Section 4. then f ¢ Æ • .h1¢ f2¢ . It is evident that the beamexpansion ratio is D2 D1 = f2¢ f1¢. f1¢ in the plane of the common focus. The angular magnification of the output beam is given by ¢  = f1¢ f2¢ .4 BEAM EXPANDER If the two mirrors of the telescope are confocal (meaning “common focus”). 3. (3-24) and (3-25). respectively. i.f2¢ . The beam focus lies at an angle h1¢ f2¢ from the optical axis. where D1 and D2 are the diameters of the primary and secondary mirrors. (3-27) where D1 is the diameter of the primary mirror. and the system becomes afocal.4 Beam Expander 133 The magnification M 2 of the image formed by the secondary mirror is called the secondary magnification. It should be evident from Figure 3-8 that the secondary mirror obscures the beam incident on the primary mirror. if t = f1¢ . etc.5 PETZVAL IMAGE 3. (3-26) It is evident from Figure 3-9 that the focal ratio of the image-forming light cone is given by F = f ¢ D1 . a parallel beam incident at an angle  with the optical axis OA is focused by the primary mirror M1 at a height h1¢ = . Accordingly.1 Single Mirror The radius of curvature Ri of the Petzval image surface for a spherical refracting surface of radius of curvature R separating media of refractive indices n and n¢ is given Table 3-1. acting as a beam expander.. As illustrated in Figure 3-10. for Cassegrain and Gregorian telescopes. The product of the transverse and angular magnifications is unity. Signs of focal lengths.3. Quantity Cassegrain Gregorian f1¢ – – f 2¢ – + f¢ + – M2 + – S2¢ + + t – – Rp – + .

For a convex (diverging or a negative) mirror with its center of curvature to the right of its vertex. Therefore. (2-118): 1 n . regardless of whether the mirror is concave or convex. the Petzval surface is concentric with the mirror. (3-29) For a concave (converging or a positive) mirror with its center of curvature to the left of its vertex. we obtain the radius of curvature of the Petzval surface for a corresponding reflecting surface: 1 1 = . by Eq. R and f ¢ are numerically negative (see Figure 3-11a).134 REFLECTING SYSTEMS D2 F¢1 F2¢ OA (–)h¢1 D1 b M1 b¢ M2 (–) t S¢1 = f1¢ f2¢ Figure 3-10. Schematic of a beam-expander system consisting of two confocal mirrors M1 and M2 with their focal points F1¢ and F2¢ . When the object is at infinity so that the image lies in the focal plane of the mirror. Rp is also numerically negative. R and f ¢ are numerically positive (see Figure 3-11b).( .1) .n¢ = Ri nR . or the Petzval surface is curved in the same manner as the mirror with a radius of curvature equal to the focal length of the mirror.1 .1. or the Petzval surface is virtual and curved in the same manner as the mirror. . (3-28) Letting n = 1 and n ¢ = . Rp is also numerically positive. Therefore. Ri1 R or Rp = R 2 = f ¢ . The dotted lines shown are parallel to the optical axis OA.

. (a) Concave mirror with a real Petzval image surface. k .5.. . C and F ¢ are the center of curvature and the focal point of the mirror.1 . Petzval surface of a mirror. If the jth surface of a system is a reflecting one. Thus. on the secondary mirror of a two-mirror system. 3. (3-30) reduces to 1 1 1 = (. or Rp . as. including the Petzval surface.2 Two-Mirror System The radius of curvature Rik .. P0¢ C p is the radius of curvature of the Petzval surface. and C p is the center of curvature of the Petzval surface. then n j -1 = 1 and n j = . (3-30) The rays on each surface are incident from left to right.. (2–121a): k 1 1 Ê 1 1 ˆ = nk  Á Rik n j -1 ˜¯ j =1 R j Ë n j . and n2 = 1 (a second reflection makes n2 positive).3. depending on whether it is convex or concave to the light incident on it.1) + (1 + 1) .. i. separating media of refractive indices n0 . (b) Convex mirror with a virtual Petzval image surface.e. n1 . Ri 2 R1 R2 or . of the Petzval image surface of a system consisting of k refracting surfaces of radii of curvature R j . j = 1. then n j -1 = . and the radius of curvature Rj of a surface.1 and n j = 1. For a system consisting of two mirrors with radii of curvature R1 and R2 . is numerically positive or negative. nk respectively. the refractive indices have the values n0 = 1 . 2. However. P0¢ is the axial image point. if they are incident from right to left. .. is given by Eq..1 when rays are incident on it from left to right. depending on whether its center of curvature lies to the right or the left of its vertex. Eq. for example.1 . n1 = .5 Petzval Image Surface Petzval Surface Cp C P¢0 135 Petzval Surface P¢0 F¢ F¢ (–)Rp Cp C Rp (–)f ¢ f¢ (–)R R (a) (b) Figure 3-11.

as expected. (3-31) where f1¢ and f2¢ are the focal lengths of the mirrors.1) Â ( . j = 1. (3-5) and (3-12). The image point lies at distance S ¢ and height h ¢ given by Eqs.1 Decentered Mirror Consider a mirror of radius of curvature R forming the image of a point object P lying at a distance S and height h. k .n = -1. The image is displaced to position P ¢¢ .3 System of k Mirrors Similarly.1) Rp Rj j =1 . where the displacement P ¢P ¢¢ is given by P¢ P ¢¢ = h ¢p .6 MISALIGNED MIRROR The displacement of an image due to the misalignment of a reflecting surface can be obtained from the corresponding results for a refracting surface by letting n¢ = . where M t is the transverse magnification of the image. Letting M t = 1 for a plane mirror. 2. the object and image heights become hp = h . and away from it in the case of a Gregorian telescope.136 REFLECTING SYSTEMS Ê 1 1 1ˆ = 2Á+ ˜ Rp Ë R1 R2 ¯ = - 1 1 + f1¢ f2¢ . (3-35) . It is curved toward the primary mirror in the case of a Cassegrain telescope. the image stays stationary.. However...D (3-33) and h ¢p = M t h p = h¢ . (3-32) 3. is given by 1 k k j 1 = 2( . 3.M t D . This surface is shown passing through F ¢ in Figure 3-8. (3-34) respectively.5. 3.( h ¢ . we find that the radius of curvature Rp of the Petzval surface for a system consisting of k mirrors with radii of curvature R j .M t ) D .6. respectively. it is instructive to rederive them here. If the mirror is decentered by an amount D . as illustrated in Figure 3-12. .D) = (1 .

3.6 Misaligned Mirror

137

P
Cp

h

P0′

D
C

P0

P ′′

Vp
(–)h′

p

V

(–)h′
P′

(–)S ′
(–)R
(–)S

Figure 3-12. Decentered mirror. When the mirror is decentered by an amount D ,
the image is displaced by an amount (1 - M t ) D .
3.6.2 Tilted Mirror
If a mirror is tilted about its vertex by an angle , as illustrated in Figure 3-13, the
image is displaced from the point P ¢ to a point P ¢¢ . The object and image heights with
respect to the tilted axis of the mirror are given by
h p = h - S

(3-36)

and
h ¢p = M t h p
= h ¢ - M t bS .

(3-37)

The image displacement is given by
P ¢P ¢¢ = hp¢ - ( h ¢ - S ¢)
= (S ¢ - M t S)
= 2S ¢ ,

(3-38)

where we have used Eqs. (3-12a) and (3-37). When a ray is incident at a certain angle on
the mirror (including a plane mirror), the reflected ray is tilted by an angle 2 when the
mirror is tilted by an angle . Thus, the image is displaced by 2S ¢ . Substituting for S ¢
in terms of M t and R from Eqs. (3-5) and (3-12), Eq. (3-38) can also be written

138

REFLECTING SYSTEMS

P
h

Cp
(–)β

P0

C

P0′
(–)h′p
(–)h′

V

P′′
P′

(–)S′
(–)R
(–)S

Figure 3-13. Tilted mirror. When the mirror is tilted by an angle b , the image is
displaced by an amount 2bb S ¢ .
P ¢P ¢¢ = (1 - M t ) D ,

(3-39)

where D = R is the displacement of the center of curvature of the mirror. From Eqs. (335) and (3-39), we note that the image displacement is determined by the displacement of
the center of curvature. If a mirror is decentered and tilted such that the center of
curvature is not displaced, then the image is also not displaced. Note that Eq. (3-39) does
not apply to a plane mirror because its center of curvature lies at infinity, and the
magnification of the image formed by it is unity.
3.6.3 Despaced Mirror
If a mirror is displaced along its axis by an amount D , as illustrated in Figure 3-14,
the object distance changes from S to S - D , or it changes by dS = -D . The
corresponding change in distance from the new position of the mirror is given by
d S ¢ = - M t2 D. Adding the displacement of the mirror to it, the net image displacement is
given by

(

)

P0¢P0¢¢ = 1 + M t2 D .

(3-40)

Letting M t = 1 for a plane mirror, the image displacement is twice that of the mirror, as
expected.

3.7 Misaligned Two-Mirror Telescope

139

P
h
P0′ P0′′
P0

C

V

(–)h′

Δ

Vp

P′ P′′
(1– M2 )Δ

(–)S′
(–)R
(–)S

Figure 3-14. Despaced mirror. When the mirror is displaced longitudinally by an
amount D , the image is displaced by an amount 1 + M t2 D .

(

)

3.7 MISALIGNED TWO-MIRROR TELESCOPE
As a practical example, we apply the results of a misaligned mirror to a two-mirror
telescope when its secondary mirror is misaligned with respect to its primary mirror.
3.7.1 Decentered Secondary Mirror
Figure 3-15a shows a properly aligned two-mirror telescope. When the secondary
mirror is decentered by a small amount D along the x axis, as in Figure 3-15b, the image
is displaced by an amount (1 - M2 ) D , where M2 is the transverse magnification of the
image formed by it.
3.7.2 Tilted Secondary Mirror
When the secondary mirror is tilted with respect to the primary mirror by an angle ,
as in Figure 3-15c, the rays reflected by it tilt by an angle 2. Thus, the image formed by
it is displaced by an amount 2 S2¢  , where S2¢ is the distance of the final image from the
secondary mirror M2 .
3.7.3 Despaced Secondary Mirror
The effect of a longitudinal displacement of the secondary mirror relative to the
primary mirror is to change the spacing t between them. If the secondary mirror moves by
an amount dt , as in Figure 3-15d, the position of the image formed by the primary mirror
does not change. However, the distance of the object for the secondary mirror changes by
dt , and the distance of the image formed by it from its displaced position accordingly
changes by M22 d t . Accordingly, the final image is displaced by an amount 1 + M22 d t .

(

)

140

REFLECTING SYSTEMS

(a)
F
M2
M1

D

(b)

(c)

(–)(1– M2)D

C2

2bS2¢

b

C¢2

S2¢

(d)

(–)dt

(–)(1 + M22)dt

Figure 3-15. Misalignments of a two-mirror telescope. (a) Aligned telescope.
(b) Secondary mirror decentered along the x axis by D . (c) Secondary mirror tilted
in the z x plane by an angle b so that its center of curvature is displaced from C2 to
C2¢ . (d) Secondary mirror despaced by d t .

3.8 Summary of Results

141

3.8 SUMMARY OF RESULTS
3.8.1 Imaging by a Mirror
The imaging equations for a spherical mirror of radius of curvature R can be obtained
from the corresponding equations for a refracting surface by letting n = 1 because the
medium between the object and the mirror is air, and n ¢ = - 1, representing a reflected
ray propagating backward. However, a mirror has only one principal point that coincides
with its vertex V, one focal point F ¢ that lies halfway between V and the center of
curvature C, and one nodal point that coincides with C (see Figures 3-16 and 3-17). A ray
incident parallel to the optical axis is reflected by the mirror passing through F ¢ , a ray
incident in the direction of F ¢ is reflected parallel to the axis, and a ray incident in the
direction of C is reflected upon itself. The imaging equations are given by
1 1
2
1
+
=
=
S¢ S
R

,

(Gaussian Imaging Equation)

M t ∫ h ¢ h = - S ¢ S = - 0 ¢0
M b = - ¢0 0 = S S ¢ ,

,

(3-41a)

(Transverse Magnification)

(3-41b)

(Angular Magnification)

(3-41c)

Mt Mb = 1 ,

(3-41d)

h ¢¢0 = - h0

,

(Lagrange Invariance)

Ml = D S ¢ D S = - ( S S ¢ )

2

= - Mt 2

,

(3-41e)
(Longitudinal Magnification)

P

B

h
P0

C

(–)h′ P0′

V

F′

A

P′

(–) z′
(–) z
(–)f ′
(–)S′
(–)R
(–)S

Figure 3-16. Imaging by a mirror of radius of curvature R.

(3-41f)

142

REFLECTING SYSTEMS

Q

P
h
P0′

β0
P0

C

β0′

(–)h′

V

F′

P′

Figure 3-17. Angular magnification of rays.
z z¢ = f ¢2

,

(Newtonian Imaging Equation)

Mt = h ¢ h = z ¢ f ¢ = f ¢ z ,

(3-41g)

(Transverse Magnification)

(3-41h)

and
Rp = R 2 = f ¢ .

(Petzval Radius of Curvature)

(3-41i)

The negative sign in Eq. (3-41e) indicates, for example, that if the object is displaced
longitudinally towards the mirror, the image is displaced away from it.
If the mirror is decentered and/or tilted such that its center of curvature is displaced
by an amount D , the image is displaced by an amount (1 - Mt )D . The image
displacement is also equal to 2S ¢ when the mirror is tilted by an angle . If the mirror is
despaced by an amount D , the image is displaced by an amount 1 + Mt2 D .

(

)

3.8.2 Imaging by a Two-Mirror Telescope
The imaging equations for a two-mirror telescope, illustrated in Figure 3-18, with
mirrors of radii of curvature R1 and R2 , focal lengths fi¢ = Ri 2 , and spaced a
(numerically negative) distance t apart are given by
f¢ =

f1¢f2¢
f1¢ - f2¢ - t

,

(Focal Length of the Telescope)

(3-42a)

h1¢ = f1¢ ,

(Primary Image Height)

(3-42b)

h2¢ = f ¢ ,

(Image Height)

(3-42c)

M2 = - f ¢ f1¢ ,

(Secondary Magnification)

(3-42d)

3.8 Summary of Results

143

h¢2
h 1¢
D1

OA

F 1¢

b
M2

M1
(–)t

(–)S2
(–)f1¢

S¢2 + t
S¢2

Figure 3-18. Imaging by a two-mirror telescope.
F = f ¢ D1 ,
S2¢ = f2¢( f1¢ - t )
S2¢ + t ,

(Focal Ratio of the Image-Forming Light Cone)

( f1¢ - t - f2¢)

,

(Image Distance from Secondary Mirror)

(Working Distance)

Ê 1
1

1
1
= 2Á+ ˜ = +
f1¢ f2¢
Rp
Ë R1 R2 ¯

(3-42e)
(3-42f)
(3-42g)

,

(Petzval Radius of Curvature)

(3-42h)

where D1 is the diameter of the primary mirror, and  is the field angle.
If the secondary mirror is decentered with respect to the primary mirror by an
amount D , the image is displaced by an amount (1 - M2 )D . If it is tilted by an angle ,
the image is displaced by an amount 2S2¢ . If it is despaced by an amount dt , the image
is displaced by an amount 1 + M22 d t .

(

)

144

REFLECTING SYSTEMS

PROBLEMS
Illustrate each problem by a diagram.
3.1

An object is placed at a distance of 15 cm from a concave mirror of radius of
curvature 10 cm. (a) Determine the location and magnification of the image. (b)
How does the image change if the object and the mirror are immersed in water? (c)
Repeat problem (a) for an object placed at the center of curvature of the mirror.

3.2

The right-hand side mirror of automobiles is inscribed with the words "objects are
closer than they appear." Determine the radius of curvature of the mirror if the ratio
of the distances is 1.2.

3.3

A Mangin mirror consists of a thin, negative meniscus lens with a silvered back
surface. Show that, if R1 and R2 are the radii of curvature of the lens and n is its
refractive index, the focal length of the Mangin mirror is given by
fs¢ -1 = 2 nR2- 1 - 2(n - 1) R1-1 .

3.4

The Hubble space telescope is a Cassegrain telescope with a focal ratio of 24. Its
primary mirror has a diameter of 2.4 m and a focal ratio of 2.3. The spacing
between its two mirrors is 4.905 m. (a) Determine its focal length and illustrate it
on a schematic of the telescope. (b) Calculate its working distance. (c) Determine
the radius of curvature of the Petzval image surface.

3.5

Show that imaging by a thin converging lens of focal length f ¢ in contact with a
plane mirror is equivalent to a concave mirror of radius of curvature f ¢ . If the lens
has a focal length of 15 cm, determine the image of an object lying at a distance of
10 cm from it (a) in the absence of the mirror and (b) when the mirror is present.

CHAPTER 4

PARAXIAL RAY TRACING
4.1

Introduction ..........................................................................................................147

4.2

Refracting Surface ............................................................................................... 148

4.3

General System..................................................................................................... 152
4.3.1
Determination of Cardinal Points ............................................................152
4.3.2
Combination of Two Systems ................................................................. 154

4.4

Thin Lens ..............................................................................................................155

4.5

Thick Lens ............................................................................................................159

4.6

Two-Lens System ................................................................................................. 162

4.7

Reflecting Surface (Mirror) ................................................................................165

4.8

Two-Mirror System ............................................................................................. 168
4.8.1
Focal Length ............................................................................................168
4.8.2
Obscuration ..............................................................................................170

4.9

Catadioptric System: Thin-Lens–Mirror Combination ................................... 172

4.10 Two-Ray Lagrange Invariant ............................................................................. 174
4.11 Summary of Results ............................................................................................. 177
4.11.1 Ray-Tracing Equations ............................................................................177
4.11.2 Thick Lens ............................................................................................... 179
4.11.3 Two-Lens System ....................................................................................180
4.11.4 Two-Mirror System ................................................................................. 180
4.11.5 Two-Ray Lagrange Invariant ..................................................................181
Problems ......................................................................................................................... 182

145

.

1 INTRODUCTION Paraxial ray tracing was introduced in Chapter 1 (see Section 1. and its nodal points coincide with its center of curvature. it undergoes rectilinear propagation again until it reaches the next surface. which is often the case in practice. we develop the paraxial ray-tracing equations and demonstrate their utility by determining the cardinal points of simple imaging systems.7) and utilized in Chapters 2 and 3 to show that an imaging system could be characterized by its principal points and focal lengths. a ray incident passing through its object-space focal point and emerging parallel to the optical axis. depending on whether it is a refracting or a reflecting surface. vignetting of the rays. Of course. and a two-lens system are considered. In practice. the principal points coincide with its vertex. We showed that the image of a point object formed by a system can be determined graphically by tracing any two of the three specific object rays: a ray incident parallel to the optical axis of the system and emerging from it passing through the image-space focal point. and a catadioptric system consisting of a thin lens and a mirror.Chapter 4 Paraxial Ray Tracing 4. The ray-tracing equations for a mirror are derived next and applied to a two-mirror system. a thick lens. How to determine the cardinal points of a combination of two systems is also discussed. we must know the location of the cardinal points. Although a system has six cardinal points. In the case of a single refracting surface. We first develop the paraxial ray-tracing equations for a refracting surface and demonstrate their utility by determining its focal length. Ray tracing of a general system to determine its cardinal points is considered next. 147 . Starting at an object point. In this chapter. and the relative size of its secondary mirror and the hole in its primary mirror. we need their locations in order to apply the Gaussian imaging equations as well. the ray-tracing equations are used to determine not only the Gaussian properties of a system but also the size of the imaging elements and apertures. a thin lens. Some of the results obtained in Chapters 2 and 3 on these simple systems are rederived to gain familiarity with the use of the ray-tracing equations. and the process repeats itself until the ray reaches the image plane.and image-space focal lengths are equal in magnitude. only three are independent. and the object. and a ray incident passing through its object-space nodal point and emerging from the system passing though its image-space nodal point. The principal and the nodal points of a thin lens (in air) coincide with its center. However. a ray undergoes rectilinear propagation to the first surface of the system. As examples of simple systems. before any of these three rays can be traced. This is illustrated by determining the obscuration ratio of a two-mirror system. it is refracted or reflected at the surface. then the nodal points coincide with the corresponding principal points. and obscurations in mirror systems. The point of intersection of these rays in the image space determines the image point. If the refractive indices of the object and image spaces are equal.

Note that per our sign convention. computer codes are commercially available for this purpose. from the optical axis VC. Let x 0 . rectilinear propagation from A0 to A1 gives n0 n1 q0 A1 b0 A0 q1 (–)b1 x1 A2 x0 x2 (–)f V OA C R1 t0 t1 Figure 4-1. and C is the center of curvature of the surface. A1 . its slope and height in any other space can be obtained. where V is the vertex. Ultimately. Indeed.148 PARAXIAL RAY TRACING The Lagrange invariant discussed in Chapters 2 and 3 is generalized by describing it in terms of the height and slope of two rays. for the final design and image quality assessment. The invariant in terms of the height and slope of one ray can be obtained from it as a special case. It is evident from Figure 4-1 that for paraxial rays. without tracing it. and x2 be the heights of the points A0 .2 REFRACTING SURFACE We now derive the ray-tracing equations for a refracting surface. 4. Ray tracing of a spherical refracting surface of radius of curvature R1 separating media of refractive indices n0 and n1 . from the slopes and heights of any two other rays in that space. respectively. and A2 . consider a spherical refracting surface of radius of curvature R1 separating media of refractive indices n0 and n1 . An object ray A 0 A 1 from a point object A0 incident at a point A1 on the refracting surface is refracted as a ray A1 A2 . the rays have to be traced exactly. We also show that given the slope and height of a ray in a certain space of a system. Let t0 be the axial distance of V (or the tangent plane passing though V in the Gaussian approximation) from A0 and t1 be the distance of A2 from V. the object distance S is equal to . as discussed in Section 1. Fortunately.6. x1 . As indicated in Figure 4-1. .t0 because it represents the distance from V. this laborious task is routinely performed these days with the aid of computers. Two particular paraxial rays that are useful in determining the location and size of the image of an object and that of the aperture stop of a system are the chief and marginal rays. discussed in Chapter 5.

refraction of the ray at A1 gives n1q1 = n0 q 0 . (4-4). (4-3b) and where f = . then A2 determines the point of incidence on it.e. .f . The starting point is indicated by the coordinates ( x 0 . The point of incidence is indicated by ( x1 .q1 (4-3a) q 0 = 0 . respectively. (4-3) into Eq. Using Eqs. the angles of the incident and refracted rays from the surface normal A1C at the point A1 ). Substituting for q 0 . respectively. where x1 and 1 are given by Eqs. A ray starts at a height x 0 from the optical axis with a slope angle 0 and propagates an axial distance t0 to the refracting surface. (4-4) Equation (4-4) is called the refraction ray-tracing equation. and the ray propagates rectilinearly until it reaches the next surface. (4-2) where q 0 and q1 are the angles of incidence and refraction (i. 149 (4-1) where 0 is the slope angle of the incident ray A 0 A 1 from the optical axis. In that case the ray A1 A2 is refracted at the point of incidence A2 by the second surface according to an equation similar to Eq.n1 ) x1 R1 . Both f and 1 are numerically negative in the figure. (1-66).x1 R1 (4-3c) is the angle the surface normal makes with the optical axis. (1-65). it is the same as Eq. (4-2). except for notation. (4-5) If the next surface lies at a distance t1 from the first. According to the paraxial form of Snell’s law. (4-1) and (4-4). The rectilinear propagation of the refracted ray from A1 to A2 gives x2 = x1 + t11 . We note from Figure 4-1 that f = 1 . the ray can be propagated to the image plane of a multisurface system. 1 ) . (4-5). and f from Eqs. and. 0 ) .. The ray is incident on the surface at a height x1 and is refracted with a slope 1 . Equation (41) is called the transfer ray-tracing equation. we obtain n11 = n00 + (n0 . The ray tracing of a refracting surface is illustrated schematically in Figure 4-2a. The height of a point x2 on the refracted ray at a distance t1 from the refracting surface is given by Eq. q1 .4. It is the same as Eq.2 Refracting Surface x1 = x 0 + t00 . (4-1) and (4-4) recursively.

n0 (4-6) in agreement with Eq. 0 x1. It should be evident that the position and height of the image of an object formed by a refracting surface can also be obtained by using the ray-tracing equations. we use the ray-tracing equations to determine the focal length of the refracting surface. (2-7a). (4-1) and (4-4). (4-1) . Thus. b1 b0 x0. as in Figure 4-2b. corresponding to the point of intersection of the refracted ray with the optical axis. n1 . and x2 = 0 in Eq. (b) Determination of focal point F ¢. for example. we obtain . Ray tracing of a spherical refracting surface. consider a ray from an axial point object P0 with a slope angle 0 . and let x2 = 0 .150 PARAXIAL RAY TRACING n1 n0 x1. b1 x0 x1 x2 = 0 (–)b1 V C F¢ R1 t1 = f¢1 t0 (b) Figure 4-2. Letting x 0 = 0 in Eq. as illustrated in Figure 4-3a. b0 (–)b1 x0 x2 x1 x2 V C R1 t1 t0 (a) n0 n1 x0. corresponding to a ray incident parallel to the optical axis of the system. If we let 0 = 0 . then the corresponding value of t1 gives the focal length f1¢ . we find that f1¢ = n1 R1 . Letting 0 = 0 in Eqs. As a simple example. (4-5). (a) General case.

4. (4-9) .2 Refracting Surface 151 n1 n0 x1 P0 b0 P0¢ (–)b1 V x0 = 0 C x2 = 0 R1 t0 t1 (a) n0 n1 b0 P x1 x0 (–)b1 V P0 P0¢ C (–)x2 P¢ R1 t0 t1 (b) Figure 4-3. (b) Off-axis point object P.n1 )(t0 R1 ) or n . the slope 1 of the refracted ray is given by n11 = n00 + (n0 . (4-8) Substituting for 1 from Eq.n1 ) t00 R1 . (4-7) into Eq. (a) On-axis point object P0 . x1 = t00 . Substituting Eq. (4-4). n0 + (n0 .n0 n1 n0 + = 1 t1 t0 R1 . (4-8) into Eq. we obtain the distance t1 of the axial image point P0¢ : t1 = - = x1 1 n1t0 . (4-5) and letting x2 = 0 . Imaging of a point object by a refracting surface. (4-7) as is evident from the figure.

We also show how the cardinal points of a combination of two systems can be determined from the cardinal points of the individual systems. as illustrated in Figure 4-4. (2-4) and (2-12a). (4-10) where we have used Eq.n1 ) ˙ R1 ˚ Î = x1 + t1 n1 È Ê n1 n0 ˆ ˘ Ín00 .3 GENERAL SYSTEM In this section we illustrate how the cardinal points of a system may be determined from its design parameters by using the transfer and refraction ray-tracing equations. 4. Eq. (4-4) into Eq. (4-1). respectively. (4-1). as illustrated in Figure 4-3b. The ray emerges from the system with a slope angle ¢0 intersecting the optical axis at the image point P0¢ at a distance S ¢ from the image-space principal plane. (4-9). 4. (4-4).152 PARAXIAL RAY TRACING To obtain the height of the image P ¢ of an off-axis point object P. and t0 is the distance a ray propagates from the object to the refracting surface. a ray can be traced through a multielement system. The slope of the refracted ray is given by Eq. The ray height at the surface is given by Eq. we obtain the height x2 of the image point P ¢ at an axial distance t1 : x2 = x1 + t1 n1 È x1 ˘ Ín00 + (n0 . we obtain n x2 = 0 0 x0 n11 . Substituting for x1 from Eq. Consider. Substituting Eq. we obtain nt x2 = . (4-9) and (4-11a) are the same as Eqs. for example. we consider an object ray at a height x 0 with a slope angle 0 .3. (4-11a) Writing t0 and t1 in terms of the ray heights and slope angles.01 x0 n1t0 . (4-11b) is the same as Eq.S because S is the distance of the object from the refracting surface. Eqs. Note that t0 = . (4-11b) Except for notation. The image distance is given by the imaging equation (2-72): . (2-17). (4-5).1 Determination of Cardinal Points By recursive application of the transfer and refraction ray-tracing equations (4-1) and (4-4). Similarly. a ray incident on the system from an axial point object P0 with a slope angle 0 at a distance S from the object-space principal plane.Á + ˜ x1 ˙ Ë t1 t0 ¯ ˙˚ ÍÎ = t1 Ê n0 ˆ x˜ Á n 00 n1 Ë t 0 1¯ .

we can write it in terms of the slope angles of the rays: n ¢¢0 . the focal length of the system can be determined by considering a ray incident parallel to the optical axis at a certain height and determining the point of intersection F ¢ of the emergent ray with the optical axis.x S and ¢0 = . (4-12) where n and n ¢ are the refractive indices of the object and image spaces. . the image-space focal point. we find that f ¢ = . Only the first and the last surface of the system are shown.3 General System 153 n n¢ Q Q¢ x (–)b¢0 b0 P0 H P¢0 H¢ (–)S S¢ Figure 4-4. Thus. then the distance t n n¢ Q Q¢ x H (–)b¢0 xj H¢ F¢ Vj t f¢ Figure 4-5. (4-14) If x j is the height of the emergent ray at the last surface of the system.• or 0 Æ 0 .n0 = . as S Æ . Determination of focal point F ¢ . (4-13) As illustrated in Figure 4-5. (4-13). Letting 0 = 0 in Eq. n¢ n n¢ n = = S¢ S f¢ f .xn ¢ f ¢ .x S ¢ . Image location by ray tracing. By multiplying both sides of Eq.x ¢0 . and f and f ¢ are the focal lengths of the system in those spaces.4. then P0¢ Æ F ¢ . (4-12) by the height x of the ray at the principal planes and noting that 0 = .

2 Combination of Two Systems If two systems with known cardinal points are combined. 4. (4-16) as is evident from Figure 4-5. Let the image-space focal lengths of the two systems be f1¢ and f2¢ .154 PARAXIAL RAY TRACING of the focal point F ¢ from the vertex Vj of the surface is given by (see Figure 4-5) t = - xj ¢0 . we trace a ray incident parallel to the common optical axis at a certain height x1 and determine the n1 n0 x1 n2 x2 H1 H¢1 (–)b 1 (–)b2 H H2 H¢ H¢2 F¢ F¢1 t f¢ f¢1 Figure 4-6. as illustrated in Figure 4-6. H1¢ ) and ( H2 . Because H ¢F ¢ = f ¢ . To determine the image-space focal length f ¢ of the combined system. The distance of H ¢ from the vertex Vj of the last surface may be written Vj H ¢ = x . The quantity t ∫ H1¢ H2 represents the separation of the principal planes of the two systems of focal lengths f1¢ and f2¢ . the point H ¢ is located once the focal point F ¢ and the focal length f ¢ are known. Combination of two systems. Let the refractive indices of the object and image spaces of the combined system be n0 and n2 . the incident and the emergent rays intersect each other at a point in the imagespace principal plane whose intersection with optical axis locates the corresponding principal point H ¢ . The object-space focal point F and the principal point H can be determined in a similar manner by tracing a ray incident parallel to the axis from right to left. and let the refractive index of the space between the two systems be n1 . Let ( H1 . (4-15) Of course. .xj ¢0 .3. it is easy to determine the cardinal points of the combined system. H2¢ ) be the principal points of the two systems separated by a distance t between H1¢ and H2 .

(4-19) and (4-20). we find that n2 n n nt = 1 + 2 . K = K1 + K 2 - t K1 K 2 n1 . in terms of the powers Ki = ni fi¢ of the systems. (4-20) Comparing Eqs. Similarly.t f1¢) . the slope angle 1 of the ray incident on the second system is given by 1 = .2 ˜ Ë f1¢ f2¢ f1¢f2¢ ¯ . From Eq. (4-21a) or.n2 x2 f2¢ Ên n ntˆ = .x 2 ) 2 = t (1 2 ) = . it can be shown that the location of the principal point H is given by (4-22b) .3 General System 155 focal point F ¢ of the system as the point of intersection of the emergent ray with the optical axis. (4-13). (4-21b) The principal point H ¢ of the system is located by considering its distance from H2¢ . (4-19) It is evident from the figure that 2 = .x1 Á 1 + 2 . (4-18) The slope angle 2 of the ray emerging from the second system is given by n22 = n11 .x1 f ¢ .x1 f1¢ .t ( f ¢ f1¢) = -t n2 K1 n1 K (4-22a) . which is given by H2¢ H ¢ = ( x1 .2 f¢ f1¢ f2¢ f1¢f2¢ .4. (4-17) The height x2 of the ray incident on the second system is given by x2 = x1 + t1 = x1 (1 .

we will use the results for a refracting surface recursively to gain some additional insight. In a microscope. we find that L = t . Schematic of the principal and focal points of a microscope and its objective and eyepiece. Thus. as in an oil immersion microscope. (4-24) where f2 is the object-space focal length of the eyepiece. Equation (4-21a) gives the focal length of the combined system in terms of the separation t ∫ H1¢H2 of the principal planes of the two individual systems.f1¢ + f2 . (4-25) into Eq.f2¢ . f2 = . However. (4-25) Substituting for t in terms of L from Eq. respectively. as illustrated in Figure 4-7.f2¢ . It represents the separation F1¢F2 of the focal planes of the individual systems. Let f1¢ and f2¢ be the image-space focal lengths of the objective and the eyepiece. and Eq.156 PARAXIAL RAY TRACING H1 H = t (n0 f ¢ n1 f2¢ ) = -t n0 K 2 n1 K (4-23a) . a standardized quantity of interest is its tube length L. (4-24) may be written L = t . we obtain f¢ = f1¢f 2¢ L . (4-26) n1 = 1 n0 n2 = 1 L F1 H1 H¢1 F¢1 F2 H2 (–)f2 (–)f1 H¢2 F¢2 F¢ H¢ (–)f2¢ (–)f ¢ f¢1 t Figure 4-7. (4-21a) and letting n1 = n2 = 1 . .f1¢ . The object-space focal point F2 of the eyepiece lies to the right of the imagespace focal point F1¢ of the objective. From the figure. Although n0 may be different from unity. called the objective and the eyepiece. both n1 and n2 are equal to unity. (4-23b) Equations (4-22) and (4-23) can be used to obtain equations for a thick lens (of which a thin lens is a special case) or two thin lenses.

0 x1. 1 ) on the first surface and ( x2 . A standard value of L is 16 cm. 0 ) in a medium of refractive index n0 and travels a distance t0 to the first surface. b0 b0 x0 x1 t0 (–)b1 x2 x2 t1 (c) Figure 4-8. the refraction of an incident ray takes place at its two surfaces that have a negligible spacing between them. x1. (b) Object at infinity. b2 x1 x0 x2 b2 (–)b1 x3 = 0 F¢ t 2 = f¢ (b) x1. It starts at point ( x0 .4 Thin Lens 157 In terms of powers Ki = 1 fi¢ of the objective and the eyepiece. 4.4. b0 x2. (c) Simplified ray tracing of a thin lens where the lens thickness t1 is neglected. b1 x0. .4 THIN LENS In the case of a thin lens. The lens has a refractive index n and a thickness t1 that is negligible. we can write K = K1 K2 L . 2 ) on the second. b2 x1 x0 x2 x3 n1 n0 t0 t1 x3 n2 t2 (a) x0. b1 x0.n0 f ¢ . The ray ends at a height x3 from the optical axis at a distance t2 from the second surface in a medium of refractive index n0 . The point of incidence is ( x1 . b1 x2. although some manufacturers have used other values. (4-27) The object-space focal length of the microscope is given by f = . (a) General case. Ray tracing of a thin lens. This is illustrated schematically in Figure 4-8a.

air or water. (4-33) Except for the notation. n1 1 = n00 + (n0 . (2-56). x3 = x 2 + t2 2 (4-32) = x 0 + t2 2 = 0 for the focal point F ¢ . For a lens surrounded by the same medium on both sides.158 PARAXIAL RAY TRACING Now. (4-23b). (4-34) . we let n2 = n0 in Eq.n1 ∫ 2 = 1 + f¢ t2 R1 R2 .n2 ) x2 R2 . Ê n . (4-33) and obtain n . (4-31) or.n1 ) x2 = x1 + t1 1 x0 R1 x1 R1 (4-28b) (4-29a) . e.n1 ) = (n0 .n2 ˆ n22 = Á 0 + ˜ x0 R2 ¯ Ë R1 . (4-1) and (4-4) recursively to obtain the focal length of a thin lens of refractive index n and spherical surfaces of radii of curvature R1 and R2 in a medium of refractive index n0 . we apply Eqs. n2 2 = n11 + (n1 .n1 n1 .n0 Ê 1 1 1ˆ = 1 Á ˜ f¢ n0 Ë R1 R2 ¯ . (4-33) is the same as may be obtained from Eqs.n 0 n 2 . and n2 n n .. substituting for n11 from Eq. The paraxial ray-tracing equations for the lens to determine its focal point F ¢ and focal length f ¢ may be written as follows (see Figure 48b): x1 = x 0 + t0 0 (4-28a) = x 0 for a ray incident parallel to the optical axis. Eq. (4-29b) (4-30a) = x1 because we neglect t1 (4-30b) = x0 (4-30c) .g.

(435). and n2 = 1 . the ray-tracing Eqs. Accordingly. as in Figures 4-8a and 4-8b).4.5 THICK LENS Now we consider a thick lens of refractive index n . we proceed as follows by considering a ray incident on the lens from left to right. (434).n) x0 R1 . respectively. thickness t. We note that if x1 = 0 . (4-39) . the principal and nodal points of a thin lens coincide at its center. (4-28a). 4. (4-31) with n2 = n0 . parallel to its axis. . where a ray incident on the lens is shown refracted by it in one step (rather than in two. and surfaces with radii of curvature R1 and R2 .n1 ) n1 = (1 . f1¢ (4-37) and x2 = x1 + t1 1 . n1 = n . so that 0 = 0 : x1 = x 0 + t00 = x 0 for a ray incident parallel to the optical axis n11 = n00 + (n0 . and (4-32) for a thin lens of image-space focal length f1¢ may be written x1 = x 0 + t0 0 1 = 0 - .1ˆ = Á1 . x2 = x1 + t11 Ê n . and determine its focal length by recursive application of the ray-tracing equations (4-1) and (4-4) for transfer and refraction at a refracting surface. With reference to Figure 4-9 and noting that n0 = 1 . we obtain 2 = 0 - x1 f¢ . then 1 = 0 . x1 R1 . showing that a ray incident in the direction of the center of the lens emerges from it undeviated.5 Thick Lens 159 Substituting Eqs. and utilizing Eq.t ˜ x0 nR1 ¯ Ë . (4-36) x1 . (4-38) respectively. (4-29a) and (4-30b) into Eq. (4-35) Referring to Figure 4-8c.

(4-41) Because the medium surrounding the lens is air. The image-space focal point F ¢ is located by letting x3 = 0 . (4-37) for a thin lens. (4-40) or È1 .1) = ( n . (4-40).1ˆ ˘ 2 = Í + Á1 . 0 x1. Equation (4-41) is the lensmaker’s formula. (2-28) for the focal length of a thin lens when the term containing the thickness t is neglected. Thus.160 PARAXIAL RAY TRACING x0. (4-39) into Eq. Similarly. the refractive index of the image space is unity. we obtain Eq. f ¢ is also the equivalent focal length of the lens. and  1 = . β2 n H H′ V1 (–)β2 V2 F′ C1 t2 t1 ≡ t (–)f x3 = 0 f′ R1 (–)R2 Figure 4-9. respectively.t ˜ ˙ x0 R2 Ë nR1 ¯ ˙˚ ÍÎ R1 . x3 = x 2 + t2 2 = 0 . In that case. It reduces to Eq. C1 and C2 are the centers of curvature of the surfaces of the lens with vertices V1 and V2 and radii of curvature R1 and R2 . Thus. yet the term containing it can be neglected. letting x2 = x1 and substituting for 1 from Eq.1) Á . β1 x0 OA (–)β1 x1 F C2 x2. Ray tracing of a thick lens of refractive index n and thickness.n2 ) x2 R2 . the thickness t is kept as small as possible so that the lens can be fabricated.n n .1 Ê n .˜ + f¢ Ë R1 R2 ¯ nR1 R2 .2 f¢ x0 . n22 = n11 + (n1 . or 2 Ê 1 1 1 ˆ t (n . .

It lies at a distance V2 H ¢ = t2 . The distance of the principal point H from the vertex V1 is given by V1 H = . n R2 (4-45) and a positive value implies that H lies to the right of V1 .f ¢ is the object-space focal length of the lens. (4-44) where f = .f ¢ = -tf¢ (4-43) n -1 n R1 from V2 . where V2 is the vertex of the second surface.4.t f ¢ n -1 . Thus.t ˜ nR1 ¯ Ë . The distance of H ¢ from H is given by HH ¢ = t .f ¢ Á ˜˙ n Ë R1 R2 ¯ ˙˚ ÍÎ (4-46a) ~ n -1 t n (4-46b) = t3 . locates the focal point F ¢ and represents the image-space focal distance. (4-42) The quantity t2 ∫ V2 F ¢ . implying that H ¢ lies to the left of F ¢ . The principal point H ¢ is located by noting that H ¢F ¢ = f ¢ . (4-46c) . we can show that the distance of the focal point F from the vertex V1 of the first surface is given by Ê n .(V1 H + H ¢ V2 ) È n -1 Ê 1 1 ˆ˘ = t Í1 .1ˆ t2 = f ¢ Á1 . The object-space focal point F and the principal point H can be determined in a similar manner by considering a ray incident parallel to the axis from right to left. and a negative value indicates that H ¢ lies to the left of V2 .1ˆ V1 F = f Á1 + t ˜ n R2 ¯ Ë . or Ê n .5 Thick Lens t2 = - x2 2 161 . A positive value of t2 implies that the focal point F ¢ lies to the right of V2 . A positive value of f ¢ implies a converging or a positive lens.

we considered a system with two thin lenses in air spaced a certain distance apart. the magnitudes of the radii of curvature of its two surfaces are assumed to be equal. showing that the second refracting surface has no effect on the image formed at its vertex. Figure 4-10a shows the thin-lens approximation of a thick lens.1) . Its focal length in that case is given by f ¢ = R1 (n . We now revisit this problem by way of ray tracing.6 TWO-LENS SYSTEM In Section 2. i.n R2 (n . the term in Eq. In practice. The corresponding principal and focal points lie at infinity on the opposite sides of the lens. Similarly. . which is independent of the value of R2 . the principal points lie farther from the respective vertices than the corresponding focal points. Because R1 = . we can obtain the focal points and the principal points of the combined imaging system as follows: x1 = x 0 + t0 0 = x 0 for a ray incident parallel to the optical axis. According to Eq. if t = .1) . the image-space focal point F ¢ lies at the back vertex V2 .9. R1 = R2 and F ¢ lies at V2 . Equation (4-46a) shows that the principal points coincide if the two surfaces of the thick lens are concentric. As illustrated in Figure 4-10e. R1 = R2 .4. the focal length approaches infinity. as in Figure 4-10d. the lens becomes afocal. if t = n R1 (n . unless the lens is very thick. If the thickness of the lens is increased further.1) . and the focal length of the lens is given by f ¢ = . as shown in Figure 4-10c. (4-46c). parallel rays incident on the lens are focused inside it and emerge from it as parallel rays. Using Eqs.5 in further obtaining Eq.R2 ( n . Accordingly.162 PARAXIAL RAY TRACING where we have used the thin lens formula for the focal length in obtaining Eq.. there is some spacing between them.e. the separation of its principal points is approximately equal to one-third of its thickness independent of its radii of curvature. The focal length in this case is given by f ¢ = nR 2( n . as illustrated in Figure 4-11. the principal points coincide. as shown in Figure 4-10f.1) . (4-41) containing the thickness t is numerically negative and larger in magnitude than the other term. (4-46b) and n = 1. i.R2 ) (n . (4-36) and (4-37) recursively. and determined its focal length as well as its principal and focal points. according to Eq. the object-space focal point F lies at the front vertex V1 .1) .R2 in the figure. as indicated in Figure 4-10b.1) . Consider two thin lenses L1 and L2 of image-space focal lengths f1¢ and f2¢ separated by a distance t1 . it is interesting to explore the variation in the positions of the principal and focal points of a thick lens with increasing thickness.. As illustrated in Figure 4-10.When F lies at V1 in Figure 4-9. (4-44). In this figure. 4. As expected in the limit of a thin lens. the principal points coincide with its center. F lies at V1 when F ¢ lies at V2 . independent of the value of R1 . thus giving it a negative image-space focal length f ¢ even though its shape is biconvex. In this case. If the thickness is increased to t = n ( R1 . Thus.e. (4-42).

f1¢ x 2 = x1 + t11 Ê t ˆ = x 0 Á1 . (b) Thick lens.1 ˜ f1¢¯ Ë . F¢ at • H¢. H¢ (a) F H F¢ H¢ (b) F H.4. The principal and focal points of a thick lens of increasing thickness. The magnitudes of the radii of curvature of its two surfaces are assumed to be equal in the figure. 1 = 0 = - x1 f1¢ x0 . . (a) Thin lens. (e) Afocal thick lens. (c) Concentric lens. H¢ F¢ (c) F¢ F V1 H H¢ V2 (d) H. F at – • (e) F¢ (f) H¢ (–)f¢ Figure 4-10. (f) Convex thick lens with a negative image-space focal length f ¢ . (d) Thick lens such that the image-space focal point F ¢ lies at the back vertex V2 .6 Two-Lens System F 163 F¢ H.

Ë f1¢ f2¢ f1¢f2¢ ¯  1 = . and t2 = - x2 2 .e.x0 Á + . (4-47) x3 = x 2 + t2 2 = 0 for the right focal point.164 PARAXIAL RAY TRACING L1 x0. or t 1 1 1 = + .. .1 ˜ . by letting n1 = n2 = 1 . (4-48) Equation (4-47) may also be obtained from Eq. i.1 f¢ f1¢ f2¢ f1¢f2¢ . Ray tracing of a two-lens system to determine its object-space focal point F ¢ and principal point H ¢ .1 ˜ f1¢¯ Ë .2 f¢ x0 . (4-21a) by letting the refractive index of the object and image spaces of the system be equal to unity. b1 x0 x2. 0 L2 (–)b1 x1. or Ê t ˆ t2 = f ¢ Á1 . b2 x3 = 0 (–)b2 H¢ OA f 1¢ F¢ f 2¢ t1 t2 f¢ Figure 4-11. 2 = 1 - x2 f2¢ Ê1 t ˆ 1 = .

t1 > f1¢ + f2¢ . We find that F lies at a distance f (1 . 4.. This is why it is desirable to place the spectacle lenses with different corrections for the two eyes in the front focal plane of the eyes. If.. and the focal point F ¢ lies at infinity on the right-hand side of the system. it lies at infinity on the left-hand side of the system.7 Reflecting Surface (Mirror) 165 The quantity t2 . A1 .e. we find that it is the same for imaging by the doublet as it is for imaging by lens L2 alone. as illustrated in Figure 4-12. then f ¢ Æ • and. and A2 . It is easy to see from Eqs. however. Because the height of the image of a certain point object is determined by the object ray passing through the front focal point of the imaging system (see Section 2. Let x 0 . The principal point H ¢ is located by noting that H ¢F ¢ = f ¢ . (4-47) and (4-48) that if t1 = f1¢ + f2¢ .4. let t0 be the axial distance of V from A0 and t1 be the axial distance of A2 from V.e. from the optical axis VC of the mirror. the images on the retinas will have different magnifications. respectively. therefore. We note from Figure 4-1 that (4-50) . The principal point H ¢ lies to the left-hand side of the lens L2 at a distance f ¢ . then the system has a negative focal length. (4-49) According to the law of reflection. we can show that the principal point H and the focal point F lie at infinity on the right-hand and left-hand sides of the system. then f ¢ = f2¢ . and the front focal point F of the system coincides with F2 .4. Thus. where f = . respectively. called the image-space focal distance. We note from the figure that for paraxial rays.t1 f2¢ ) from lens L1 . locates the image-space focal point F ¢ . the system is afocal (as in a Keplerian or a Galilean telescope discussed later in Chapter 6). Consider a spherical reflecting surface of radius of curvature R1 with a vertex V and center of curvature C. if t1 = f2¢ .6). The object-space focal point F and principal point H can be determined in a similar manner by considering a ray incident parallel to the axis from right to left. i.q . t2 Æ • . i. Such a distance of the focal point F from the vertex of the first element of a system is called its objectspace focal distance.t2 = f ¢t1 f1¢ Æ • . then the system has a positive focal length. An object ray A0 A1 from a point object A0 incident on the surface at a point A1 with a slope angle 0 is reflected as a ray A1 A2 so that the magnitudes of the angles of incidence q and reflection q ¢ from the surface normal A1C at A1 are equal. Also. rectilinear propagation from A0 to A1 gives x1 = x 0 + t00 . Similarly. and x2 be the heights of A0 . otherwise.f ¢ because the lenses are in air. q¢ = . x1 . If lens L1 is placed at the front focal point F2 of lens L2 .7 REFLECTING SURFACE (MIRROR) We now derive the ray-tracing equations for a reflecting surface. If t1 < f1¢ + f2¢ .

q ¢ . (4-51b) and f = - x1 R1 . Substituting for q from Eq.q . Therefore. (4-53) Note that t1 is numerically negative in this equation because the rays are propagating from right to left as they travel from A1 to A2 . (4-51b) and for f from Eq. Note that 1 .166 PARAXIAL RAY TRACING A2 (–)q¢ x2 q A1 A0 b0 x1 x0 (–)f V (–)b1 F¢ C f1¢ (–)t1 R1 t0 Figure 4-12. (4-52) Equation (4-52) is called the reflection ray-tracing equation.q ¢ = 2q . and f are all numerically negative angles in the figure. (4-51c) where f is the angle the surface normal makes with the optical axis. the quantity t11 is numerically positive.0 - 2 x1 R1 .1 = q . Rectilinear propagation of the reflected ray from A1 to A2 gives x2 = x1 + t1 1 . 0 . A ray starts at a height x 0 from the optical axis with a slope angle 0 and propagates an axial distance t0 to the reflecting surface. The starting point is indicated by the . (4-51c) into Eq. The ray tracing of a reflecting surface is illustrated schematically in Figure 4-13a. we obtain 1 = . Ray tracing of a convex spherical mirror of radius of curvature R1 with center of curvature C and vertex V. (4-51a) 1 = f . (4-51a).

Ray tracing of a reflecting surface. The ray is incident on the surface at a height x1 and is reflected with a slope 1 . Letting 0 = 0 in Eqs. (4-49) and (4-52). coordinates ( x 0 . (3-6). as illustrated in Figure 4-13b. and let x2 = 0 . 1 ) . (4-53). we find that the focal length of the mirror is given by f1¢ = R1 2 . The height x2 of a point A2 on the reflected ray at a distance t1 from the refracting surface is given by Eq. The point of incidence is indicated by ( x1 . (4-55) . respectively. where x1 and 1 are given by Eqs. and x2 = 0 in Eq. b1 x0. corresponding to the intersection of the reflected ray with the optical axis. then the corresponding value of t1 gives the focal length of the mirror. (b) Determination of the focal point.1 f1¢ . (4-4) and (4-). 0 x0 x1 (–)b1 x2 = 0 F¢ V t1 (b) Figure 4-13. (a) General case. 0 ) .4. (4-53). If we let 0 = 0 . b0 x1 x0 V (–)t1 t0 (a) x1. corresponding to a ray incident parallel to the optical axis.7 Reflecting Surface (Mirror) 167 x2 x2 x1. b1 x0. (4-54) in agreement with Eq. The reflecting power of the mirror is given by K ∫ n ¢ f ¢ = .

and determine its focal length and its principal and focal points. (449) and (4-52) recursively as follows: x1 = x 0 + t00 = x0 . . 4.1 Focal Length We now consider an imaging system consisting of two mirrors M1 and M2 of radii of curvature R1 and R2 separated by a (numerically negative) distance t1 .3. 0 x1.0 - = - 2 x1 R1 2 x1 R1 . Starting with a ray incident parallel to the optical axis (0 = 0) at a height x 0 .8. b2 x0 x2 H¢ OA b1 x1 x3 = 0 (–)b2 F1¢ F¢ M2 M1 (–)f1¢ (–)t1 t2 f¢ Figure 4-14. We also illustrate how to determine the obscuration ratio of the image-forming beam as well as the size of the hole in the primary mirror such that this beam is transmitted by it. such as the one considered in Section 3. (4-56) x0. b1 x2. Ray tracing of a two-mirror system to determine its focal point F ¢ and principal point H ¢. 1 = . as illustrated in Figure 4-14. and determine its focal length.168 PARAXIAL RAY TRACING 4.8 TWO-MIRROR SYSTEM In this section we consider a two-mirror system. we apply Eqs. x 2 = x1 + t1 1 Ê 2t ˆ = x 0 Á1 .1 ˜ R1 ¯ Ë .

fe1 = .1 ˜ R1 ¯ Ë .2Á + 1 ˜ f¢ R R R Ë 1 2 1 R2 ¯ .R1 2 and fe2 = R2 2 .8 Two-Mirror System 2 = .2t1 R2 ) from M1 .f ¢ is the object-space focal length of the system. This distance is the object-space focal distance of the system. defined by Eqs. (4-58) x3 = x 2 + t2  2 = 0 for a focal point . by considering a ray incident parallel to the optical axis from right to left. or Ê 2t ˆ t2 = f ¢ Á1 . Letting f1¢ = R1 2 and f2¢ = R2 2 denote the focal lengths of the mirrors. (4-60) can also be written .1 - 2 x2 R2 È1 1 = 2 x0 Í R R ÍÎ 1 2  1 = . (4-59) The quantity t2 locates the image-space focal point F ¢ and represents its distance from M2 . Eq. where f = .1 f¢ f1¢ f2¢ f1¢f2¢ . Eq. (4-58) for the focal length of the system can be written t 1 1 1 = + . In terms of the equivalent focal lengths of the mirrors. R1 ¯ ˚˙ Ë . t2 = - x2 2 . (4-21a) by letting n1 = -1 (representing the refractive index associated with the ray reflected by M1 ) and n2 = 1 (representing the refractive index associated with the ray reflected by M2 ). called the image-space focal distance of the system. A positive value of f ¢ implies that F ¢ lies to the right of H ¢ at a distance f ¢ from it. Similarly.2 f¢ x0 169 Ê 2t1 ˆ ˘ Á1 ˜˙ . (4-57) or Ê 1 1 1 2t ˆ = .4. (4-60) This result may also be obtained from Eq. (3-9). We find that F lies at a distance f (1 . The principal point H ¢ is located by noting that H ¢F ¢ = f ¢ . the location of the object-space focal point F and the principal point H can be determined.

The ratio of the heights of the LQQHUmost to the RXWHUmost rays of the image-forming light cone is called the obscuration ratio of the system.. defines the innermost ray. as illustrated in Figure 4-15.1 f¢ fe1 fe 2 fe1 fe 2 .170 PARAXIAL RAY TRACING t 1 1 1 = + . and it is called a Cassegrain telescope. Its height x3 at M1 (after reflection by M2 ) gives the radius of the hole required in M1 so that the axial rays forming the image at F ¢ are not blocked by it.2 Obscuration It should be evident from Figure 4-14 that the central portion of a bundle of rays incident on the primary mirror M1 is blocked by the secondary mirror M2 . . i. if they have a common focus). A parallel ray incident at a height x2 . (4-56). Both telescopes form a real image of an object lying at infinity. then a ray incident parallel to the optical axis at a height x1 defines the outermost ray. as illustrated in Figure 3-8. Its height at M2 (after reflection by M1 ) gives the radius of M2 required so that the axial rays reflected by M1 are not missed by M2 . From Eq.f 2 . the system becomes afocal if the mirrors are confocal (i. It is said to be centrally obscured in the case of an axial point object lying at infinity..e. b1 x2. then the system has a positive focal length. Axial ray tracing of a two-mirror system.8. the obscuration ratio  of the image-forming beam converging to the image point at F ¢ is given by x1. the image-forming beam is hollow on the inside. and it is called a Gregorian telescope. shown dotted in Figure 4-14. If the magnitude of the spacing between the mirrors is smaller (than that for the afocal setting). If it is larger.e. then the focal length of the system is negative. illustrating its obscuration ratio  = x 2 x1 and the radius x3 of the hole in the primary mirror M1 . Thus. b2 x2 H¢ OA b1 (–)b2 x1 x3 F1¢ F¢ M2 M1 (–)t1 (–)f 1¢ f¢ Figure 4-15. (4-61) We note that f ¢ Æ • if t1 = f1 . If x1 is the radius of M1 . 4.

0 - x1 . Consider a ray incident at an angle 0 at a height x1 on M1 . representing an outermost ray from an object point at infinity making an angle 0 with the optical axis.˜ ˙ . and we have substituted for x2 and 2 from Eqs. (4-56) and (4-57). as illustrated in Figure 4-16. (4-64) x1. Off-axis ray tracing of a two-mirror system. . illustrating the increase in radius of the secondary mirror M2 and the hole in the primary mirror M1 . b2 h1¢ H¢ OA x1 x3 x2 h¢ F1¢ F¢ M2 M1 (–)t1 (–)f 1¢ f¢ Figure 4-16.4.0 t1 + x1 Á1 . By tracing an off-axis ray. f1¢ x2 = x1 + t1 1 Ê t ˆ = . x1 f1¢ (4-62) The radius x3 of the hole required in M1 is given by x3 = x2 + t22 È Ê 1 1 ˆ˘ = x1 Í1 + t1 Á . we can determine how the field of view of a system affects the values of x2 and x3 . The equations for tracing this ray are: 1 = . respectively. Ë f ¢ f1¢¯ ˙˚ ÍÎ (4-63) where t2 = . respectively.t1 (because the ray is propagating from M2 to M1 ). The dashed axial ray is shown for comparison. The heights of the images formed by M1 and the system are h1¢ and h ¢ .1 .1 ˜ f1¢¯ Ë .8 Two-Mirror System  ∫ 171 x2 t = 1. b1 b0 x2.

. we obtain the focal length fs¢ of the system as follows: x1 = x 0 + t00 = x 0 for a ray incident parallel to the optical axis. f2¢ ¯ Ë Ë f ¢ f1¢¯ ˙˚ ÍÎ (4-65) Comparing Eq.˜ ˙ . (4-64) with Eq. (4-65) with Eq. which.9 CATADIOPTRIC SYSTEM: THIN-LENS–MIRROR COMBINATION Finally.0 t1 (2 + t1 f 2¢ ) . However. in turn. comparing Eq.˜ fl¢¯ Ë . we find that the radius of M2 increases by . The precise results in the final stages of a design are obtained by exact ray tracing using a computer-based code. therefore. Thus. (4-63).1 f2¢ ¯ f ¢ Ë . which consists of a spherical mirror and a corrector plate placed at its center of curvature. The results obtained are applied to a Schmidt camera. 4. and determine its focal length. (4-62).0 . 1 = 0 - x x1 = . the approximate results are reasonably accurate for a preliminary design of the system.t1 ) x3 = x2 + t2 2 È Ê Ê 1 t ˆ 1 ˆ˘ = .0 t1 .0 t1 Á 2 + 1 ˜ + x1 Í1 + t1 Á . as illustrated in Figure 4-17.1 - x2 f2¢ Ê t ˆ x = 0 Á1 + 1 ˜ .172 PARAXIAL RAY TRACING 2 = . Good image quality is generally obtained for only very small values of the field angle 0 (a few degrees) due to the rapid increase of aberrations with it. Similarly. focal length fm¢ = R 2 ) separated by a distance t. increases the obscuration ratio. Applying the ray-tracing equations (4-36) and (4-37) for a thin lens and Eqs. The primary purpose of the plate is to correct the spherical aberration of the mirror. fl¢ fl¢ x2 = x1 + t1 1 Ê tˆ = x 0 Á1 . it also has a small focus term and thus acts like a (weak) lens. and (with t2 = . (4-49) and (4-52) for a mirror. we consider a catadioptric system consisting of a thin lens of focal length fl¢ and a concave mirror of radius of curvature R (and. we find that radius of the hole in M1 increases by .

Thus. The dotted line is a continuation of the ray refracted by the lens and intersects the optical axis at the image-space focal point Fl¢ of the lens.1 is the refractive index of the image space of the system. (4-67) where ns¢ = . b2 V ¢ F¢ Fm C x2 b2 H¢ F¢l M L (–)fm¢ (–)t2 (–)R t (–)fs¢ f¢l Figure 4-17.4. (4-66) The focusing power K s and the equivalent focal length fe of the system are given by Ks ∫ ns¢ 1 1 = = fs¢ fs¢ fe . . The distance t2 of the focal point F ¢ from the vertex V of the mirror is given by x3 = x 2 + t2  2 = 0 for a focal point.0 .9 Catadioptric System: Thin-Lens–Mirror Combination x1. 0 x0 173 (–)b1 x1 x3 x2. b1 x0.˜ ˙ fl¢¯ ˚˙ ÍÎ fl¢ fm¢ Ë x = . fs¢ where the negative sign in the last step accounts for the fact that 2 is numerically positive. 2 = .1 - x2 fm¢ È1 1 Ê t ˆ˘ = x0 Í Á1 . Catadioptric system consisting of a thin lens L of image-space focal length fl¢ and a mirror M of radius of curvature R separated by a distance t. whereas fs¢ is numerically negative in the figure. the focal length of the system is given by Ê1 1 1 t ˆ = -Á + ˜ fs¢ f f f ¢ ¢ ¢ Ë l m l fm¢ ¯ .

the Lagrange invariant. t2 = - x2 2 . then the rays reflected by the mirror are refracted by the lens before a final image is formed (see Problem 4. (4-66) and (4-68) reduce to 1 1 1 = + fs¢ fl¢ fm¢ (4-69) and Ê 2f¢ ˆ t2 = fs¢ Á1 + m ˜ fl ¢ ¯ Ë .2 fm¢ . the reference point for both object and image distances is either the principal point H ¢ or the focal point F ¢ . (4-68) If the lens is placed at the center of curvature C of the mirror. (4-4). which is the product of the slope angle of a ray from an axial point object. the slope angles ¢0 and ¢ of the corresponding refracted rays are given by n ¢¢0 = n0 + (n .R = . then t = . We show how this invariant reduces to that for finite or infinite conjugates. and the refractive index of the object space. object height. two linearly independent rays (such that one is not a scaled version of the other) incident at heights x 0 and x with slope angles 0 and  on a refracting surface of radius of curvature R separating media of refractive indices n and n ¢ .3. as in a Schmidt camera.4. Thus.˜ fl¢¯ Ë .n ¢ ) x0 R (4-71) . or Ê tˆ t2 = fs¢ Á1 . It should be noted that if the lens is placed close to the mirror.1) 4. and Eqs.3 and 3. We also show that the slope and the height of any other ray incident on the system can be obtained anywhere in space as a linear combination of the slopes and heights of the other two in that space. and thus for a system consisting of any number of such surfaces. as illustrated in Figure 4-18. From Eq.174 PARAXIAL RAY TRACING Thus.2.10 TWO-RAY LAGRANGE INVARIANT As shown in Sections 2. is invariant upon refraction or reflection by a surface. depending on whether the Gaussian or the Newtonian imaging equation is used. Consider. (4-70) There is only one principal point and one focal point. Now we consider this invariant in terms of the heights and slopes of two arbitrary rays incident on the system.

10 Two-Ray Lagrange Invariant n n¢ x0 P0 b0 175 (–)b¢ x 0¢ x b x¢ P¢ h¢ C V F¢ (–)b0¢ P¢0 (–)h P t R f¢ Figure 4-18.¢ x 0 ) remains invariant upon transfer of the rays from one plane to another. we find from Eq. (4-71) and (4-72).x 0 ) . R (4-72) Eliminating (n .x 0 ) .4. If we let x 0¢ and x ¢ be the heights of the rays in a plane at a distance t from the refracting surface. (4-1) that x 0¢ = x 0 + t ¢0 (4-74) x ¢ = x + t¢ . From Eqs. we find that n ¢(¢0 x .¢ x 0 ) .¢ x 0¢ ) = n ¢(¢0 x . (4-75) and Eliminating t from Eqs.¢ x 0 ) = n(0 x . the two-ray Lagrange invariant remains the same throughout the optical system. (4-76) Thus. (4-74) and (4-75). called the two-ray Lagrange invariant. and n ¢¢ = n + (n . the quantity n ¢(¢0 x . (4-73) showing that the quantity n(0 x . Thus. including the .x 0 ) . Lagrange invariant of two rays incident on a refracting surface of radius of curvature R separating media of refractive indices n and n ¢ . we find that n ¢(¢0 x ¢ . is invariant upon refraction of the rays.n ¢) R from Eqs.n ¢ ) x .¢ x 0¢ ) = n(0 x . (4-77) showing the equality of the Lagrange invariant in the object and image spaces. (4-73) and (4-76) we find that n ¢(¢0 x ¢ .

and x ¢ = h ¢ . . n¢ n b0 = 0 x0 b x (–)b¢ h¢ (–)b0¢ V b C F¢ R f¢ Figure 4-19. as a linear combination of the values of the two rays in that other space. (as may be seen by placing another refracting surface at some distance from the existing refracting surface). (4-77) refer to its object and image spaces. Let the slopes of the three rays in a certain space of refractive index n be 1 . they can be obtained in any other space. as discussed in Section 2. and let their heights in a certain plane in that space be x1 . For example. and the image-space Lagrange invariant reduces to . and x3 . 3¢ ) of the third ray in that space can be determined without tracing it from the heights and slopes of the other two. x = h .¢ x 0 ) at the surface. 1¢ ) and ( x2¢ . are all equal to nf ¢¢0 .n ¢x 0¢ ¢ . (2-15). without tracing it. and n ¢h ¢¢0 at the image plane. For the refracting surface.nx 0  . as in Figure 2-37a. x 0¢ = 0 . it is easy to show that the various expressions for the Lagrange invariant are equal to each other.2. We show that the height and slope ( x3¢ . Suppose that two of the rays have been traced such that their heights and slopes ( x1¢ .176 PARAXIAL RAY TRACING object and image spaces. Lagrange invariant of a refracting surface for an object at infinity. in which case the right. If the system is afocal. as in Figure 2-9. then 0 and ¢0 are both equal to zero.5. x2 . 2 . (477) reduces to Eq. we let 0 = 0 and find that the object-space Lagrange invariant reduces to . respectively. respectively. If we consider the Lagrange invariant in two conjugate planes passing through P0 and P0¢ so that x 0 = 0 . where f ¢ is the image-space focal length of the refracting surface. in Figure 4-19. This invariant relation applies to a multisurface system as well. thus yielding Eq. .nx 0  and n ¢(¢0 x . and 3 . If one of the conjugates lies at infinity. we find that Eq. Now we utilize the two-ray Lagrange invariant to show that if the slope and height of any third ray are known in a certain space. ¢2 ) in another space are known.and left-hand sides of Eq. (2-108).

From Eqs. It also passes through the edge of the image and thus determines its size.3. (4-78a) L13 = n(1 x3 . the Lagrange invariant in terms of the quantities in this space may be written L12 = n ¢(1¢ x2¢ . (4-79c) and respectively.L23 x1¢ L12 3¢ = L132¢ .2 x1 ) .3¢ x 2¢ ) .3 x1 ) .2.3¢ x1¢ ) . (4-81) Because the quantities on the right-hand sides of Eqs. (4-78c) and Using primes for the corresponding quantities in another space. It also passes through the center of the image and thereby determines its location.4. (4-79). The second ray passing through the center of the entrance pupil passes through the center of the exit pupil and thus determines its location. (4-79b) L23 = n ¢(¢2 x3¢ . The first ray passing through the edge of the entrance pupil passes through the edge of the exit pupil and thus determines its size. . The height and slope of a third ray in any space can be determined from the heights and slopes of these two rays in that space.3 x 2 ) . (4-78b) L23 = n(2 x3 .10 Two-Ray Lagrange Invariant 177 The two-ray Lagrange invariant in the plane for which the heights and slopes of the rays are known can be calculated according to L12 = n(1 x2 . 3¢ ) of the third ray can be determined without actually tracing it.L231¢ L12 (4-80) and . we find that the height and the slope of the third ray in the other space are given by x3¢ = L13 x2¢ . a marginal ray from the axial point of an object and a chief ray from its edge are the two rays that can be traced to determine the location and size of the images of an object and the entrance pupil of a system. the height and slope ( x3¢ .2¢ x1¢ ) . (4-80) and (4-81) are known. (4-79a) L13 = n ¢(1¢ x3¢ . As discussed later in Section 5.

( Refracting Surface) (4-83) If the ray is refracted by a thin lens of focal length f1¢ instead. b0 (–)b1 x0 x2 x1 x2 V C R1 t1 t0 Figure 4-20.1 Ray-Tracing Equations Consider a ray starting at a height x 0 with a slope 0 . is given by n11 = n00 + (n0 .11 SUMMARY OF RESULTS 4. b 1 x0.n1 ) x1 R1 . . then its slope after refraction is given by n1 n0 x1. Ray tracing of a thin lens of focal length f1¢ . b1 b0 x0. as in Figure 4-21.178 PARAXIAL RAY TRACING 4.11. as illustrated in Figure 4-20. Its height x1 after propagating a distance t0 is given by x1 = x 0 + t00 . b0 b0 x0 t0 x1 (–)b1 x2 x2 t1 Figure 4-21. Ray tracing of a spherical refracting surface of radius of curvature R1 separating media of refractive indices n0 and n1 . x 1. (4-82) Its slope 1 after refraction by a spherical refracting surface of radius of curvature R1 separating media of refractive indices n0 and n1 .

is given by 2 Ê 1 1 1 ˆ t (n .1) Á . and obscurations in mirror systems. it is given by 1 = . 4. vignetting of rays.0 - 2 x1 R1 .1) n R1 . the height of the refracted or reflected ray after propagating a distance t1 is given by x2 = x1 + t11 .11. ] and . and surfaces of radii curvature R1 and R2 .1) n R2 f ¢ 1 . [ ] x2 x2 (–)b1 x1. ( Thin lens) f1¢ (4-84) In the case of reflection by a spherical mirror of radius of curvature R1 . thickness t. (4-87) [ The front and back focal distances are given by . b0 b0 x1 x0 V (–)t 1 C t0 R1 Figure 4-22. (Mirror ) (4-85) The above equations are applied recursively to trace a ray through a multisurface optical system.t (n .2 Thick Lens The focal length f ¢ of a thick lens of refractive index n. as illustrated in Figure 4-23.˜ + f¢ Ë R1 R2 ¯ nR1 R2 . as in Figure 4-22. For example.f ¢ 1 + t (n .4. respectively. Ray tracing of a spherical mirror of radius of curvature R1 .1) = ( n . (4-86) Ray-tracing equations are used to determine not only the Gaussian properties of a system but also the size of the imaging elements and apertures. b1 x0.11 Summary of Results 1 = 0 - 179 x1 .

.t f2¢) and f ¢ (1 . respectively.180 PARAXIAL RAY TRACING n OA C2 F H H¢ V1 F¢ V2 f ¢(1 – t – f ¢(1 – t n – 1 ) nR1 t (–)f C1 n –1 ) nR 1 f¢ R1 (–)R2 Figure 4-23. (4-88) The front and back focal distances are given by . is given by t 1 1 1 = + f¢ f1¢ f2¢ f1¢f2¢ .11. Thick lens of refractive index n and thickness t. as illustrated in Figure 4-24.3 Two-Lens System The focal length f ¢ of a two-lens system with thin lenses of focal lengths f1¢ and f2¢ separated by a distance t.t f1¢) . 4. L1 F L2 H¢ f 1¢ – f ¢( 1 – t ) f¢2 F¢ f 2¢ t f ¢ (1 – t ) f1¢ f¢ Figure 4-24.f ¢ (1 . Two-lens system consisting of two thin lenses separated by a distance t.

+ f¢ f1¢ f 2¢ f1¢f 2¢ .4 Two-Mirror System The focal length f ¢ of a two-mirror system with mirrors of radii of curvature R1 and R2 spaced a (numerically negative) distance t apart. and x 0¢ and x ¢ . respectively.5 Two-Ray Lagrange Invariant If two rays with slopes 0 and  are incident on a system at heights x 0 and x. (4-90) where n and n ¢ are the refractive indices of the object and image spaces. (4-89) where fi¢ = Ri 2 is the focal length of a mirror. is given by f ¢ (1 . [ )] ( 4.t f1¢) .11. respectively. The corresponding radius of the hole in the primary mirror M1 of radius a is given by a 1 + t1 f ¢ -1 .t f1¢ .4.11. Both the obscuration ratio and the hole radius increase as the field of view increases. The back focal distance. as illustrated in FLgure 4-18. representing the distance of the focal point F ¢ from the secondary mirror M2 .f1¢ -1 . H¢ OA F 1¢ F¢ M2 M1 (–)f1¢ (–)t f¢ Figure 4-25. thentheir Lagrange invariant yields the relation n ¢ (¢0 x ¢ . f ¢ (1 + t f1¢ ) .11 Summary of Results 181 4. The obscuration ratio. Two-mirror system.andiftheslopesand heights of the corresponding rays in the image space are given by ¢0 and ¢ . is given by 1 1 1 t = .¢ x ¢0 ) = n (0 x . is given by 1 . representing the ratio of the inner to the outer radii of the axial ray bundle converging to the focal point. as illustrated in Figure 4-25.x 0 ) .

16667 n3 = 1. and refractive index n = 1. 4.1 A thin lens with a focal length of 10 cm is located at a distance of 3 cm in front of a concave spherical mirror with a radius of curvature of 20 cm.1. (a) Determine the focal points.5 f2¢ .4 cm . Calculate its focal length and sketch its principal and focal points if its thickness is 0.182 PARAXIAL RAY TRACING PROBLEMS Illustrate each problem by a diagram. How does the order of the lenses affect the result? (b) Repeat the problem when the lenses have focal lengths f ¢ and . (a) Determine the focal point and the principal point of the system. If the second surface is silvered and the lens is 2 cm thick.5 f2¢ (Huygens eyepiece).5 f2¢.1282051 n1 = 1. and the focal length of the system. 24 cm. 1.f2¢ (Galilean telescope). 2 cm.2 A thick lens has a refractive index of 1. f2¢.f ¢ 6 and are placed a distance 2 f ¢ 3 apart. (b) Determine the six cardinal points and show them on the axis.6 C3 = 0. principal points. (c) Determine the cardinal points for an underwater swimmer. (b) Repeat the problem when the lens is in contact with the mirror. 4.336 t1 = 3. 4.413 t2 = 3. 2 f2¢ .2 f2¢ and t = 0. and 3 f2¢ (astronomical telescope). 4.5.5 .6 The human eye may be represented in a simplified form as follows: Lens Cornea Retina OA n1 n2 n3 t1 t2 t3 C1 = 0. and . (a) Determine its cardinal points if f1¢ = 2 f2¢ and t = 0. 4.336 (a) Determine t3 . locate the focal point and the principal point of the system.3 Consider a thick equiconvex lens with radii of curvature R1 = 4 cm and R2 = . 12 cm.5 f2¢ (telephoto lens).4 Two thin lenses of focal lengths ± f ¢ are placed a distance f ¢ apart. or 36 cm. Its surfaces have radii of curvature of 10 cm and – 25 cm. Indicate the changes . Let f1¢ = 10 cm . .10 n2 = 1. (b) Repeat the problem if f1¢ = .5 Consider a system of two thin lenses of focal lengths f1¢ and f2¢ spaced a distance t apart. 8 cm.6 C2 = 0.3 cm. 4.

the focal point F ¢ lies in front of the retina. 4. (Hint: One focal point is on the retina.000 1. (a) Determine the prescription of a corrective lens placed 15 mm in front of the cornea that makes F ¢ lie on the retina.707 mm 1. Assume that the eye can be approximated. The spacing between its two mirrors is 4. 4.e. The refractive index of water is 1. Show that such a lens behaves as a negative thin lens placed at the common center of curvature of its two surfaces with a focal length that is n times the focal length of a thin lens of the same refractive index and surfaces with the same radii of curvature. (b) Determine the location and size of its exit pupil. 4. i.336. with a diameter of 2. and R2 = 8 cm . . it is the reciprocal of its radius of curvature. (b) Determine its principal and focal points for n = 1.905 m. Note that Ci is the curvature of a surface.602 mm 24. (a) Show that the distance between its principal points is also equal to t.) Note: t is in units of mm.387 mm. and R = 10 cm .5 . as in a normal eye.336 n = 1. (c) Determine the diameters of the secondary mirror and the hole in the primary mirror for a field of view of ± 5 mrad.9 Consider a concentric lens of refractive index n with its two surfaces having radii of curvature R1 and R2 .387 mm 4.8 Consider a lens of refractive index n and thickness t with its two surfaces having equal radii of curvature R. and C is in units of mm–1. R1 = 10 cm ..7 In a nearsighted eye. 15. as shown in the figure below. such that F ¢ is 23 mm from the cornea instead of 24.4 m and a focal ratio of 2. t = 2 cm .Problems 183 from (b). (a) Determine the location of its principal and focal points. (b) Repeat the calculation for a contact lens.348 mm H Retina H¢ F F¢ Cornea Lens n = 1.5 . Determine its principal and focal points for n = 1. Its primary mirror is its aperture stop (discussed in Chapter 5).10 The Hubble space telescope is a Cassegrain telescope with a focal ratio of 24.3.

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...............218 5.............7 Field Stop........................................... Pupils.................3............188 5.3 Image Irradiance.........................5 Image Radiance .......5 Size of an Imaging Element ..................4........... and Entrance and Exit Windows ............ 218 5.....................1 Introduction.................. AND RADIOMETRY 5.....................CHAPTER 5 STOPS............................ and Field of View ..9 Throughput .............5 Photometry ............197 5................6..........5..224 5..................................4.......197 5.....187 5...................................... 201 5.................................218 5...........6.............................3...............2 Aperture Stop..............................................2 Image Radiance ..................................................216 5....... 224 5...... 211 5............................. Pupils..........................................5...................... 200 5...227 5........................................4................................. and Entrance and Exit Pupils ...........2....................205 5......................................................................................11 Concentric Systems .....................8 Telecentric Systems ....4 Vignetting ...7 Image Irradiance: Aperture Stop in back of the System ........204 5..........................3 Brightness of a Lambertian Surface ........................................................ 220 5...... 226 5...........6 Image Irradiance: Aperture Stop in front of the System....................2........................2 Stops.................1 Stops............. PUPILS..188 5...................................................6..........6...................213 5..................................................................................3.......... 228 185 .................5.........................225 5......................................2 Radiometry of Point Object Imaging ............2.........2...6......1 Introduction ..............1 Flux Received by an Aperture ...........3 Chief and Marginal Rays ...4............................4..............223 5...2 Imaging by the Human Eye ......... 200 5...3........226 5....................... 208 5.....10 Interrelations among Invariants in Imaging .............................................................188 5..............................2........202 5...............................................................6..........3................ 198 5...............3 Radiometry of Point Object Imaging ................6 Telecentric Aperture Stop .............................4...............................204 5.........................................................................2 Inverse-Square Law of Irradiance ............. 220 5................................................4......................4.....................................................2..................................................................................3 Image Intensity .................. 193 5..................194 5....4.........................3..................4................... and Vignetting ..........................................1 Illumination by a Lambertian Disc.........................4 Radiometry of Extended Object Imaging ..........................4 Visual Observations..............................4 Flux Received by an Aperture .............................206 5.....2................ 219 5.............. Windows............3 Illumination by a Lambertian Disc ............................. 223 5..................4......................1 Photometric Quantities and Spectral Response of the Human Eye..6.........................3 Radiometry of Extended Object Imaging ...................6 Summary of Results ....................226 5..................................1 Introduction...........................2 Lambertian Surface...........

...............................229 Problems ............................. PUPILS................................................ AND RADIOMETRY References ...... 230 ..........................186 STOPS......................................................................................................

A brief discussion of photometry. The field stop and its images. We begin this chapter by introducing the concept of an aperture stop and its images. We introduce terms such as intensity of a point source. An invariant relation between the radiances of an object and its image is obtained. is given.Chapter 5 Stops. the marginal ray from the axial point of the object determines the size of the exit pupil and the location of the axial image point. and its advantages are briefly discussed. is explained. It is also shown why stars may be observed during daytime with the aid of a telescope. The chief ray from the edge of an object determines the location of the exit pupil and the height of the image. Pupils. The field of radiometry deals with the determination of the amount of light radiated by a source per unit area per unit solid angle. such as the chief and marginal rays. A telecentric stop is defined. respectively. the entrance and exit windows. no effort was made there to determine the cone of object rays that enters or exits from the imaging system. Photometry is different from the rest of radiometry in that the spectral response of the human eye is taken into account to determine the results of any observation. and Radiometry 5. Vignetting or blocking of the rays from an off-axis point object by the aperture stop and/or other elements of the system. thus changing the effective shape of the stop and pupils. and the angular field of view of a system are also described. or the image irradiance in terms of the object radiance. The irradiance of a surface due to a Lambertian disc is also derived. we have shown how to determine the position and size of the Gaussian image of an object. Similarly. the branch of radiometry limited to human observations in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Similarly. A relationship between the intensities of a point object and its point image is derived. and the cosine-fourth law of image irradiance is discussed [5–7]. the light cone that exits from the system and converges to the image point is limited by the exit pupil. Accordingly. 187 . The irradiance distribution of the images formed by systems that are telecentric or concentric is also discussed. or the amount falling on a surface per unit area [1–4]. The light cone from a point object that enters the system is limited by the entrance pupil. We discuss the radiometry of point-object imaging. showing that it appears equally bright at all distances along all directions of observation. However. The brightness of a Lambertian surface is discussed. called the entrance and exit pupils in the object and image spaces of an imaging system. Such calculations are essential for the determination of the image intensity in terms of the object intensity. irradiance of a surface. are defined. and characteristics of a Lambertian source. Certain special rays. we did not consider the sizes of the imaging elements or the apertures in the imaging system.1 INTRODUCTION In previous chapters. followed by the radiometry of extended-object imaging. radiance of an extended source.

if one pupil is considered as the object. AND RADIOMETRY 5. the image of the aperture stop by surfaces that follow it.g. i. PUPILS. consider imaging by a thin lens. if an aperture is placed in front of the lens. a field stop is defined whose images in its object and image spaces.1 Introduction In this section. is limited by the size of the lens. some of them are blocked by one or another of its elements. and Entrance and Exit Pupils When an object is imaged by a system..e.2.e... a nonpoint) object. We describe how to determine the minimum size of an imaging element (e. the entrance pupil. Finally. For an extended (i. The cone angle of the ray bundle diverging from the axial point object P0 and incident on the lens. As a simple example. the aperture stop.2 Aperture Stop. we define the aperture stop and the entrance and exit pupils of an optical system. A telecentric aperture stop is discussed. the other is its image formed by the system.e. AND VIGNETTING 5. The chief ray from the edge of an object locates the pupils and determines the image size. Similarly. Figure 5-1b shows the imaging of an off-axis point object. Similarly.2 STOPS.. then it limits the cone angle of the incident ray bundle. as in Figure 5-2. The solid angle of the rays converging to the image point appears to be limited by the exit pupil. respectively. not all of the object rays incident on the system are transmitted by it. 5. called the entrance and exit windows. therefore. i. respectively. However. PUPILS. is called the entrance pupil (EnP). i. The chief and marginal rays are defined as the object rays that pass through the center and edge of the aperture stop. the diameter of a lens or a mirror) required to avoid vignetting of rays. An aperture in the system that physically limits the solid angle of the transmitted rays from a point object the most is called its aperture stop ( AS). The image of the stop by surfaces of the system that precede it in the sense of light propagation.188 STOPS. which appears to limit the cone angle of . Similarly. the cone angle of the ray bundle converging to the image point P0¢ is limited by the lens size.. The lens aperture is. define the angular fields of view in those spaces.2. respectively. as in Figure 5-1a. the two pupils are conjugates of each other for the whole system.e. When observed from the object side. Because the entrance and exit pupils are images of the aperture stop formed by the system elements that precede and follow it. as illustrated in Figure 5-1. the entrance pupil appears to limit the solid angle of the rays entering the system to form the image of the object. by those that lie between it and the image. by those that lie between it and the object. which offers the advantage of increased defocus error tolerance to the size or the shape of an image. and the exit pupil of the imaging system. This aperture is the aperture stop as well as the entrance pupil of the system. and discuss how to determine them. it is customary to consider the aperture stop as the limiting aperture for an axial point object and to determine the vignetting or blocking of some rays by this stop and other elements of the system for off-axis object points. the marginal ray from the axial point object locates the image plane and determines the sizes of the pupils. is called the exit pupil (ExP). Its image by the lens is the exit pupil.

5. the entrance pupil EnP. the exit pupil ExP. an aperture is placed behind the lens. The lens aperture is the aperture stop AS. the ray bundle converging to the image point P0¢ . Similarly. An observer looking at the lens from P0 does not see the aperture stop AS. We note that the cone angle of the ray bundle transmitted by the system and reaching the image point is limited by it. entrance pupil EnP. formed by the lens. The image of the aperture stop by the lens is the entrance pupil because it appears to limit the cone angle of the corresponding incident ray bundle. (b) Off-axis imaging. and MR represents a marginal ray passing through its edge. and Vignetting 189 AS EnP ExP MR 0 1 CR0 OA P0 P¢0 MR 02 (a) AS EnP ExP P¢ R1 M P0 OA P¢0 CR P MR2 (b) Figure 5-1. and exit pupil ExP of the imaging system. Pupils. The cone angle of a ray bundle diverging from a point object and incident on the lens is limited by the size of the lens. It is therefore also the exit pupil of the system. formed by the lens. CR represents the chief ray that passes through the center of the lens. An observer looking at the lens from P0¢ does not see the aperture stop but sees instead its image. . but sees instead its image. Imaging by a thin lens with an aperture stop at the lens. (a) On-axis imaging. In Figure 5-3.2 Stops. the cone angle of the ray bundle converging to the corresponding image point is also limited by the size of the lens.

. and its images by the lenses L1 and L2 are the entrance and exit pupils EnP and ExP.2. the entrance pupil EnP. (a) On axis imaging.2. we note that the aperture stop lies in the image space of lens L1 and the object space of lens L2 . An observer looking at the system from P0 does not see the aperture stop AS but sees instead its image. the entrance pupil lies in the (virtual) object space of lens L1 . Suppose we add another lens to the right of the aperture stop so that the imaging system consists of two thin lenses with an aperture lying between them. Similarly. Now AS is the aperture stop. Imaging by a thin lens with aperture stop AS in front of the lens. AND RADIOMETRY ExP AS EnP MR 01 CR0 OA P0 P¢0 MR 02 (a) P¢ ExP P0 OA MR P AS EnP P¢0 1 CR MR 2 (b) Figure 5-2. The cone angle of the ray bundle diverging from a point object and incident on the lens is limited by the entrance pupil. and the exit pupil lies in the (virtual) image space of lens L2 . The aperture stop is also the entrance pupil EnP. and the cone angle of the ray bundle converging to the image point appears to be limited by the exit pupil. Moreover. (b) Off-axis imaging. the entrance pupil lies in the (virtual) object space and the exit pupil lies in the (virtual) image space of the two-lens system. PUPILS.190 STOPS. The chief ray CR passes through the center of the aperture stop and appears to pass through the center of the exit pupil. respectively. From the definition of the object and image spaces given in Section 2. as illustrated in Figure 5-4. and its image by the lens is the exit pupil ExP.

Alternatively. The cone angle of the ray bundle diverging from a point object appears to be limited by the entrance pupil. The chief ray CR passes through the center of the aperture stop and appears to pass through the center of the entrance pupil. The aperture stop is also the exit pupil ExP. is the exit pupil of the system. (a) Onaxis imaging. Imaging by a thin lens with an aperture stop AS behind the lens. formed by L1 . the aperture stop may be determined directly by tracing a ray from the axial point object and calculating the ratio of the ray height to the radius . Similarly.2 Stops. Pupils. formed by L2 . the image of the aperture stop by the imaging elements that follow it. (b) Off-axis imaging. and Vignetting AS ExP 191 EnP MR 01 CR0 OA P0 P¢0 MR 02 (a) P¢ AS ExP P0 OA MR 1 CR P EnP P¢ 0 MR2 (b) Figure 5-3. equivalently. an observer looking at the system from P0¢ also does not see the aperture stop.5. and the cone of the ray bundle converging to the corresponding image point is limited by the exit pupil. the exit pupil ExP . but sees instead its image. and the corresponding element or aperture is its aperture stop. and its image by the lens is the entrance pupil EnP. The smallest image is the entrance pupil of the system. The image of the entrance pupil by the whole system or. The aperture stop of a multielement imaging system may be determined by forming the image of each element and aperture by the imaging elements that precede it and determining the smallest image as seen from the axial point of an object.

CR is the off-axis chief ray. CR0 is the axial chief ray. PUPILS. (b) Imaging of an off-axis point object P. and MR is an off-axis marginal ray. AS is the aperture stop. and MR0 is an axial marginal ray. The Gaussian image is at P0¢ . and its image by L2 is the exit pupil ExP. its image by L1 is the entrance pupil EnP. OA is the optical axis.192 STOPS. The Gaussian image is at P ¢. (a) Imaging of an on-axis point object P0 by an optical imaging system consisting of two lenses L1 and L2 . AND RADIOMETRY ExP L1 EnP L2 AS MR 01 OA B02 A01 CR0 A02 P0 MR P¢0 B01 02 (a) ExP L 1 AS EnP L 2 C2 B2 P0 OA P¢ A2 MR 1 CR A1 P¢0 B1 C1 P MR2 (b) Figure 5-4. .

As a simple example. determines the radius a ¢ of the exit pupil and the location of the axial image point P0¢ . where P is the point of intersection of the line joining the upper edges of A and the lens L with the optical axis. Given the location O and the radius a of the entrance pupil EnP. If the angle of the chosen ray is increased. An object ray passing through the edge of the aperture stop and actually or appearing to pass through the edges of the entrance and exit pupils is called a marginal ray (MR). Change of aperture stop with object location.3 Chief and Marginal Rays An object ray passing through the center of the aperture stop and actually or appearing to pass through the centers of the entrance and exit pupils is called a chief (or the principal) ray (CR).5. the chief ray PO ◊◊O¢P ¢ from the edge of the object at a height h determines the location O¢ of the exit pupil and the height h ¢ of the image P ¢ . Any further increase in the angle of the ray will lead to its vignetting by the aperture stop. and Vignetting 193 (semidiameter) of each element and aperture in the system. Similarly. such as PL . The element or aperture with the highest ratio is the aperture stop. the lens itself acts as the aperture stop for objects. the axial marginal ray P0 A ◊◊A¢P0¢. we find that the angles of the marginal and chief rays are related to each other according to A PA P L PL Figure 5-5. However. each ratio increases by a proportional amount until it reaches a value of unity for the aperture stop.2. 5. The slope and height of any other ray in a certain space can be obtained from the slopes and heights of these rays in that space.10. are called zonal rays. lying to the right of P. indicated by the ray MR0 in Figure 5-6. . Using the Lagrange invariant equation (2-74). the aperture A in Figure 5-5 is the aperture stop for objects such as PA lying to the left of P.2 Stops. Pupils. Which element of a system acts as its aperture stop depends on the location of the object. and therefore appearing to lie between the center and edge of the entrance and exit pupils. The two rays can be traced by using the procedure discussed in Chapter 4. The rays lying between the center and the edge of the aperture. as discussed in Section 4.

but they are missed by the lens L and are said to be vignetted. nh0 = . 5.2.4 Vignetting The amount of light in the image of a point object depends on the size and location of the aperture stop or. Schematic diagram of a system and its entrance and exit pupils EnP and ExP. and the image. (5-1) where n and n ¢ are the refractive indices of the object and image spaces. (5-2a) and Li = h ¢ / q¢ = . The rays in the shaded region are transmitted by the aperture stop AS.a 0 . respectively. Moreover. h and h ¢ are the object and image heights. However. entrance pupil. the entrance pupil of the imaging system. PUPILS. AND RADIOMETRY EnP 97 194 ExP n P h n¢ A¢ A MR 0 CR b0 MR a¢ a 0 (–)b¢0 (–)q O P0 O¢ P¢0 (–)q¢ (–)h¢ CR P¢ Optical System (–)L o Li Figure 5-6. are given by Lo = h / q = . (5-2b) The quantities in Eq. and a and a ¢ are the radii of the entrance and exit pupils. respectively. q and q ¢ are the chief ray angles (both numerically negative) in the object and image spaces. respectively. Figure 5-7 illustrates vignetting of rays. exit pupil. equivalently. showing the marginal ray P0 A ◊◊A¢ P0¢ from the axial point object P0 and the chief ray PO ◊◊O ¢P ¢ from the off-axis point object P ¢.naq = .STOPS. from left to right.n ¢a ¢q ¢ = n ¢h ¢¢0 . The vignetting of rays from an off-axis point object by a multielement system may be determined by projecting the images of all elements and apertures (by the preceding elements) on the entrance pupil using the point object as the center of projection. (5-1) represent. The . not all of the rays transmitted by one element of the system are transmitted by another. the two-ray Lagrange invariant (discussed in Section 4. we have used the fact that the object and image distances from the entrance and exit pupils.a ¢ ¢0 .10) in the planes of the object.

The same region of an imaging element is used for different point objects only when the aperture stop is located at the element. common area of these projections represents the effective entrance pupil of the system for the point object under consideration. the entrance and exit pupils are also circular. there is no vignetting of the aperture stop. therefore. which also shows a system consisting of two lenses L1 and L2 with an aperture A placed between them. In Figure 5-4a.2 Stops. they do not in any way limit the ray bundle from the object point P0 transmitted by the system. any ray that is not blocked by the aperture stop is also not blocked by either of the two lenses. therefore. A¢. However. the lenses are quite large compared with the aperture stop. we note from Figure 5-4b that. Its images formed by the elements that precede it and by the entire system are the effective aperture stop and the effective exit pupil of the system. Rays from an off-axis point object P in the shaded region are transmitted by the aperture stop AS but vignetted by the lens L. consider Figure 5-8a. We note that A is the aperture stop of the system for only those objects that have their axial points lying between P1 and P2 . Thus. A¢ . We also note that different portions of the lenses are used for different point objects. respectively. The images of the common area by the elements that follow it (looking at them from the image point) and by the entire system are the effective aperture stop and the effective entrance pupil. A¢ subtends the smallest angle (at an axial point) among L1 . AS is indeed the aperture stop because it limit the ray bundle. and L2¢ . It is. but the one from the off-axis point object illuminates them eccentrically. for a circular aperture stop. For these objects. . We note that the cone of light rays from an axial point object illuminates the lenses symmetrically. Vignetting of rays. where P1 and P2 are the points of intersection of the lines joining the upper edges of L1 and A¢.. Pupils. Similarly. for any point on the object P0 P . and L2¢ . and A¢ and L2¢ .e. with the optical axis. the entrance pupil of the system. An alternative but equally valid approach to determining the vignetting of rays is to project the images of all elements on the exit pupil using the Gaussian image point as the center of projection. and Vignetting P AS 195 L P0 Figure 5-7. An observer in the object space sees L1 . respectively. The images of A and L2 by L1 are indicated as A¢ .5. respectively. but not A and L2 . i. and L2¢ . The common area of these projections on the exit pupil represents the effective exit pupil.

and A¢ is the entrance pupil EnP. Therefore. P1 P2 L1 (a) L2 A A¢ L¢2 Projections of L1 and L¢2 on EnP L¢2 L1 P0 EnP AS P EnP (b) L1 EnP Effective EnP P0 L¢2 AS P (c) EnP Figure 5-8. it ( L1 ) is the aperture stop of the system for such objects.196 STOPS. It is evident that EnP is smaller than the projections of L1 and L ¢2 . for these objects. L1 subtends the smallest angle. As stated earlier. AND RADIOMETRY For objects lying to the left of P1 . For objects lying to the right of P2 . as expected. A is the aperture stop AS. For the axial point object P0 . we consider an object such as P0 P . PUPILS. and there is no vignetting. (c) Vignetting diagram for an off-axis point object P. Aperture stop of a system and its vignetting. L2 is the aperture stop and the exit pupil of the system. in which case it is also the entrance pupil of the system. To illustrate vignetting. The circles on the right-hand side of the figure show projections of L1 and L2¢ on EnP with the point object under consideration as the center of projection. Thus. (b) Diagram showing no vignetting for an on-axis point object P0 . A¢ and L2¢ are the images of A and L2 by L1 . as indicated in Figure 5-8b. . the entrance and exit pupils are also circular. and L2¢ is its entrance pupil. the projections of L1 and L2¢ on the entrance pupil are indicated in the figure and illustrated on its right-hand side. for a circular aperture stop. It is evident from the foregoing that. L2¢ subtends the smallest angle. (a) Determination of the aperture stop.

2. as in Figure 5-9a. and the system is said to be telecentric on the object side.. Pupils. we do not have to trace the marginal ray from the edge of the object. the size of an imaging element in a system. respectively.2. are called vignetting diagrams. For example. B1C1 is approximately equal to A01 B01 . In this case. and its lower portion is blocked by L1 . then the entrance pupil lies at infinity. illustrating the shape of the pupil for a certain point object. any chief ray in the image space lies parallel to the axis. there is vignetting of the aperture stop and the effective aperture stop..e.5 Size of an Imaging Element To avoid vignetting for a certain field of view. the radius of lens L2 is given by A2 C2 or A2 B2 + B2 C2 .6 Telecentric Aperture Stop If the aperture stop lies in the front focal plane of a system. These projections. any chief ray in the object space lies parallel to the optical axis. e. any ray passing through it will emerge from the system parallel to its optical axis. the lens radius is given by the sum of the magnitudes of the heights of the axial marginal ray and the edge chief ray on the lens. and the corresponding entrance and exit pupils are no longer circular. i. the diameter of a lens or a mirror.e. Similarly. the upper portion of the ray bundle from P is blocked by L2 .g. If the system is afocal (i. Similarly. The shape of the effective entrance pupil is shown shaded in the figure as the region of EnP that is common with the projections of L1 and L2¢ on it. The ray bundle originating at P and transmitted by the system is shown shaded in the figure. 5. The consequence of the variation of the shape of the entrance pupil with the location of point object P lies not only in the loss of light in its image but also in the distribution of the image light (because it depends on the shape of the pupil). in Figure 5-4. 5.2 Stops. can be determined by tracing the marginal ray from a point on the edge of the object and making the size of the element large enough that this ray is not obstructed by it. This is because the angle between the chief and marginal rays is approximately independent of the location of the point object in the object plane. the radius of lens L1 required to avoid vignetting of rays from the point object P is A1C1 or A1 B1 + B1C1 . if the aperture stop lies in the back focal plane. Thus. Considering the front focal point F as an object..5. The approximate size of an element can be obtained by adding the magnitudes of the heights of the chief ray from an edge point object and the marginal ray from the axial point object. Accordingly. and Vignetting 197 Figure 5-8c shows the projections of L1 and L2¢ on EnP as viewed from an off-axis point object P. It is clear that the upper marginal ray (sometimes called the upper rim ray) is limited by L2 . Its Gaussian images by L1 and L2 give the shapes of the effective aperture stop and exit pupil. Such a system is said to be telecentric on the image side. However. are shown to be circular only as an approximation of the actual ellipses. Thus. where B2 C2 is approximately equal to A02 B02 . Thus. illustrated as eccentric circles on the right-hand side of the figure. as . and the lower marginal ray (sometimes called the lower rim ray) is limited by L1 . one that forms the image at infinity of an object at infinity. then the exit pupil lies at infinity. Diagrams such as those shown on the right-hand side of Figures 5-8b and 5-8c.

............ . ....5) and if the aperture stop is placed in an intermediate focal plane. i.... in Figure 5-9b... as may be seen from Figure 5-9.... PUPILS.e.. ... A dotted line shown within the system here and in Figure 5-10 does not represent a ray but merely a line joining its points of incidence on and emergence from the system.... and the system is said to be telecentric on both object and image sides...2. The image of the field stop by the imaging elements that precede it is called the entrance AS EnP CR (–)h F .. (a) Telecentric aperture stop on the image side.. However. but it does in (b).. . which limits the cone angle of the transmitted chief rays from the object... . i... (–)h P CR P¢ CR h¢ P¢¢ h¢¢ ...7 Field Stop...... . called the field stop. for example....... a small defocus changes the height of the image center. In Figure 5-9a..... has the advantage that the size or the shape of an image is insensitive to small focus errors. .. h ¢¢ > h ¢.. and Entrance and Exit Windows Whereas the aperture stop limits the cone angle of the rays from a point on an object transmitted by the system.. However. P ¢ and P ¢¢ are at the same height. where the aperture stop does not lie in the front focal plane.e..... as illustrated in Figure 5-10... ..... .... ....... a system cannot be telecentric on the object side if the object lies at infinity because then the aperture stop will lie in the image plane where it cannot control the cross-section of the focused beams. then both the entrance and exit pupils lie at infinity... there is another stop... A telecentric stop on the image side. 5... Optical System (b) Figure 5-9.. . AND RADIOMETRY discussed in Section 2.198 STOPS.... the height of the image center does not change with defocus. . as may be seen from the fact that P ¢¢ is at a slightly larger height than P ¢ .. A small focus error does not change the height of the image center in (a)... . (b) Nontelecentric aperture stop. P¢ CR P¢¢ h¢ P Optical System (a) AS EnP .. .............

An example is a stop called a Lyot stop (or a cold stop when used in an infrared system) placed at a real image of the aperture stop. and field of view of a system. (5-1). Field stop.2 Stops. The field stop may also be determined by tracing a chief ray from a certain off-axis point object and calculating the ratio of the height and radius of each element and aperture in the system. The dotted line is not a ray but a mere illustration that the angle q 0 is limited by the field stop. whereas the position and the size of the aperture stop determine the quality and the amount of light in the final image (by virtue of blocking rays with large aberrations). According to Eq. the angle q i subtended by the exit window at the center of the exit pupil is the angular field of view of the system in image space. Pupils. The field stop of a system is determined by finding the image of each aperture and element by the imaging elements that precede it and determining the image that subtends the smallest angle at the center of the entrance pupil. This image is the entrance window. The element with the highest ratio is the field stop.5. The field stop is placed at a real image of the object. and the physical stop corresponding to it is the field stop. Simple examples of field stops are the rectangular diaphragm or the plate holder for the film in a camera or for a slide in a slide projector. entrance and exit windows. The field stop is assumed to lie at an intermediate image of the object. Additional stops and baffles are placed in optical systems to block stray light from reaching the final image area. The angle qo subtended by the entrance window at the center of the entrance pupil defines the angular field of view of the system in object space. and Vignetting 199 EnW EnP CR Field Stop ExP CR qo qi Optical System Object Plane ExW Image Plane Figure 5-10. their ratio qo / q i is equal to the magnification of the exit pupil when the refractive indices of the object and image spaces are equal. and its image by the elements that follow it is called the exit window ExW . The entrance window defines the object field that is actually imaged. the field stop determines only the portion of the object that is imaged. window EnW . It should be noted that. respectively. the entrance and exit windows lie in the object and image planes. Similarly. Accordingly. The image may be an intermediate or the final one. .

The flux incident on a surface by a point source is calculated. PUPILS. the flux incident on the surface per unit area is called the irradiance E (in watts/square meter. The solid angle dW subtended by it at the point source is given by dS cos q d 2 . Thus. AND RADIOMETRY 5. we obtain the total flux incident on the aperture. the flux incident on it is given by dS1 = dS = I dS cos3 q R2 = IR 2 p rdr (R 2 + r2 ) . i. F = Ú dF a Û = 2 p IR Ù ı 0 (5-5a) rdr (R 2 +r 2 3/ 2 ) È 1 1 = 2p IR Í – 2 ÍR R + a2 Î ( = IW . or W/m2 ) of the surface.200 STOPS. 32 Integrating over r from 0 to a. then its intensity I (in watts/steradian.e. the irradiance of the surface is given by dF dS E = . or W/sr) in that direction is given by dF dW I = . (5-4) Now we determine the flux incident on a circular aperture of radius a from a point source P of intensity I lying at a distance R on its axis (see Figure 5-11). Consider an annular element of radius r and width dr making an angle q = cos -1 ( R d ) with the axis. while its projected area perpendicular to the line joining it and the point source is given by dS cos q. where d is the distance between the two. or W) in a certain direction into a solid angle dW. we discuss the radiometry of point object imaging.1 Flux Received by an Aperture If a point source radiates a flux dF (in watts.3 RADIOMETRY OF POINT OBJECT IMAGING In this section. We also obtain an expression for the intensity of the Gaussian image of a point object in terms of the object intensity.. Its area is given by dS = 2 p rdr . Accordingly. 5. and the inverse-square law of irradiance is derived. (5-3) If a flux dF from a point source irradiates a surface element of area dS. ˘ ˙ 1/ 2 ˙ ˚ ) (5-5b) .3.

2 Inverse-Square Law of Irradiance For a small aperture. Eqs. (5-5a) is smaller .3.3 Radiometry of Point Object Imaging 201 dr a a d q r P R Figure 5-11. where S = p a 2 is the area of the aperture. Thus. (5-5a) and (5-5c) reduce to S R 2 . for a distant point source. it shows that the exact value given by Eq. (5-5) reduces to F = = p a2 I R2 IS R2 . Eq. for a << R . (5-6a) and W = S R 2 = pa 2 . Equation (5-6a) represents the inverse-square law of irradiance.5.. (5-6b) where S = p a 2 is the area of the aperture.cos a ) = 4 p sin 2 (a 2) (5-5c) is the solid angle. and a is the semiangle subtended by the aperture at the point source. i. and I R 2 is the uniform irradiance on the aperture. Point source irradiating an aperture. the irradiance of a surface by a point source lying on its surface normal is inversely proportional to the square of its distance from the radiating source. 5. In that case. Comparing curve (a) with (b). where È 1 1 W = 2p R Í ÍR 2 R + a2 ÍÎ ( ˘ ˙ 12˙ ˙˚ ) = 2 p (1 . the solid angle subtended by the aperture is simply its area divided by the square of its distance from the point source.e. namely. Figure 5-12 shows how the flux varies with R a.

determination of the intensity of the image point in terms of the intensity of the object point and the parameters of the system. Here. If the object is a uniform point source of intensity Io . PUPILS.e. the flux incident on the entrance pupil of area Sen is given by F = I o W( P) . AND RADIOMETRY 2 1. than the approximate value given by Eq. The difference between the two is less than 3% when R = 5 .8 1.4 0.6 1.202 STOPS.6 0. PO is the distance between the point object P and the center O of the entrance pupil. It is assumed here that the dimensions of the entrance pupil are small enough compared to its distance from the object plane that the variation of the angle q with the location of an area . and that the two are practically equal to each other for R a ≥ 5. Flux collected from a point source of intensity I by an aperture of radius a lying at a distance R.. Curve (b) represents Eq.3 Image Intensity Now we discuss the radiometry of point object imaging.2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 R/a Figure 5-12.3.8 0. Consider. 5. and q is the angle the chief ray makes with the optical axis of the system in object space. (5-7) where W( P) = Sen cos q ( PO) 2 ( ) = Sen L2o cos 3 q (5-8) is the solid angle subtended by the entrance pupil at the point object P. a point object P lying in a plane at a distance Lo from the entrance pupil of an optical imaging system. Its Gaussian image lies at P ¢ in a plane at a distance Li from the exit pupil of the system. i.4 F/pI 1. (5-6a).2 1 (b) (a) 0. as indicated in Figure 5-13. (5-6a).

(5-11) where W ¢( P ¢ ) = Sex cos q ¢ (O ¢ P ¢ ) 2 ( ) = Sex L2i cos 3 q ¢ (5-12) is the solid angle subtended by the exit pupil at the image point.5.3 Radiometry of Point Object Imaging EnP 203 ExP P¢ CR P0 q¢ q O P0¢ O¢ CR P Object Plane Image Plane Optical System (–)L o Li Figure 5-13. Radiometry of point object imaging. Its Gaussian image P ¢ lies in the image plane at a distance Li from the exit pupil ExP of the system. Sex is the area of . The chief ray CR makes an angle q in the object space and q ¢ in the image space of the system. element on the pupil can be neglected and. Equation (5-7) may also be written F = Io W ( P0 ) cos 3 q . we find that the irradiance of the pupil is proportional to cos 3 q . integration across the pupil is not required. the flux F emerges from the exit pupil and focuses on the image point P ¢ . therefore. Here. and thus obtain the cosine-third power law of irradiance of a surface by a point source. If we divide the flux F by the area Sen . In the absence of any transmission losses in the system. (5-9) where W ( P0 ) = Sen L2o (5-10) is the solid angle subtended by the entrance pupil at the axial point object P0 . then the flux emerging from the exit pupil is given by F ¢ = Ii W ¢( P ¢ ) . O¢P ¢ is the distance between the center O¢ of the exit pupil and the image point P ¢. If Ii is the intensity of the image point. A point object P lies in the object plane at a distance Lo from the entrance pupil EnP of the system.

PUPILS. and therefore integration across the pupil is not required. (5-16) reduces to Ii = Io W( P0 ) W ¢( P0¢) .4. AND RADIOMETRY the exit pupil. Eq. For an axial point object. Therefore. (5-15) Due to conservation of energy. we obtain the intensity of the image point: Ii = Io W ( P0 ) cos 3 q W ¢( P0¢ ) cos 3 q ¢ . and Eq.1 Introduction In this section. We derive an invariant property of the radiance of rays when they are refracted or reflected. (5-18) where Fen = Lo Den and Fex = Li Dex are the focal ratios of the optical beams entering and exiting from the system. This property is used to obtain the irradiance of the image of a . we define a Lambertian surface and determine the irradiance due to a Lambertian disc. Equation (5-12) may also be written W ¢( P ¢) = W ¢( P0¢ ) cos3 q ¢ . (5-13) where W ¢( P0¢) = Sex L2i (5-14) is the solid angle subtended by the exit pupil at the axial image point P0¢ .204 STOPS. As in the case of the entrance pupil. the dimensions of the exit pupil are assumed to be small enough compared with its distance from the image plane that the variation of the angle q ¢ with the location of an area element on the exit pupil can be neglected. both q and q ¢ approach zero. (5-9) and (5-15). Thus. 5. F = F ¢ . (5-11) may be written F ¢ = Ii W ¢( P0¢) cos 3 q ¢ . and Den and Dex are the diameters of the entrance and exit pupils.4 RADIOMETRY OF EXTENDED OBJECT IMAGING 5. (5-16) It should be noted that the image point is a uniform point source only within the solid angle W ¢( P ¢ ) because (according to geometrical optics) there is no radiation outside it. (5-17) which may also be written Ii = Io Fex2 Fen2 . by equating the right-hand sides of Eqs. and q ¢ is the angle the chief ray makes with the optical axis in image space.

According to Eq. and its radiance B is given by B = dI . the radiance of a surface element is independent of the direction of radiation if its intensity is proportional to cosq.4 Radiometry of Extended Object Imaging 205 Lambertian object formed by an optical system.2 Lambertian Surface Unless an irradiated surface is highly polished.4. Thus. which may or may not be the same as that of the aperture stop due to vignetting or distortion of the pupil image. Its intensity at any point P (see Figure 514) per unit projected area in a certain direction is called its radiance (in watts/square meter steradian. then the flux entering the system can be calculated by integrating across the entrance pupil. or W/m2 sr) at that point in the direction under consideration. dS cos q dS q P Figure 5-14. then the integration may be performed across the entrance or the exit pupil. however. if an area element dS has an intensity dI in a direction inclined to its normal at an angle q. The region of integration depends on the shape of the pupil. The flux from an object element incident on the system and transmitted by it to the image element can be calculated in two different ways. which is system specific. If the aperture stop lies in the image space so that it is also the exit pupil. If the aperture stop lies in the object space so that it is also the entrance pupil. The pupil shape. the projected area is dS cosq. Both of these approaches are illustrated. may be determined by tracing a bundle of rays. it will reflect or radiate like a selfradiating object over a wide range of directions. We show that the irradiance in the image plane decreases as the fourth power of the cosine of the chief ray angle. If. 5. the radiance of self-radiating and reradiating surfaces does not vary strongly with the direction of radiation. (5-19). Radiance of a Lambertian surface. the aperture stop lies somewhere inside the system. . dS cos q (5-19) Generally. depending on the location of the aperture stop.5. then the image flux is obtained by integrating across the exit pupil.

we consider an elemental ring of radius r and width dr . The sun is a spherical blackbody radiating uniformly in all directions and therefore appears as a uniform disc. Thus. 5. Thus. Its area is given by dSe = 2prdr .4. the flux incident on the receiver by the ring is given by BdSe dSr cos 4 q R 2 . Irradiance of a surface element by a Lambertian surface element. The flux radiated by this ring per unit solid angle on a parallel elemental area dSr centered on the axis of the disc at a distance R is given by BdSe cos q . The solid angle subtended by dS2 at dS1 is given by dS2 cos q 2 R 2. A surface that radiates uniformly in all directions is called a Lambertian surface or a uniform diffuser. where 12 d = R cos q = r 2 + R 2 is the distance between a point on the ring and the receiver.206 STOPS. Because of the axial symmetry of the disc. the total flux received by dS2 from dS1 is given by dF2 = B dS1 dS2 cos q1 cos q 2 R2 . PUPILS. We now determine the axial irradiance of a Lambertian disc of radius a and radiance B (see Figure 5-16). Its irradiance is accordingly given by ( ) q1 (–)q2 dS1 dS2 R Figure 5-15. is highly directional and obviously not a Lambertian source of radiation. The solid angle subtended by the receiver area dSr at any point on the ring is given by dSr cos q d 2 or dSr cos 3 q R 2 .3 Illumination by a Lambertian Disc Consider a surface element of area dS1 and radiance B irradiating a surface element dS2 at a distance R such that the normals to the two surface elements make angles q1 and q 2 with the line joining their centers. The intensity of dS1 in the direction of dS2 is BdS1 cos q1 . depending on whether it is self-radiating or reradiating. AND RADIOMETRY Such a surface is said to obey Lambert’s cosine law of intensity. . A laser beam. on the other hand. where q is the angle the line joining a point on the ring and the receiver makes with the axis. as illustrated in Figure 5-15. It represents the flux radiated by dS1 per unit solid angle in the direction of dS2 . (5-20) and its irradiance is given by dE = dF2 dS2 = B dS1 cos q1 cos q 2 R 2 (5-21) .

E(0) Æ p B . and I = BS is the intensity of the disc along its axis. Eq. The difference between the actual value and that given by the . when the source is very large compared with the distance of the receiver. dE(0) = BdSe cos 4 q R2 = BR 2 2prdr (r 2 + R2 ) 2 . (5-23a) (5-23b) where S = p a 2 is the area of the disc. the axial irradiance is independent of the distance between the two. as expected.4 Radiometry of Extended Object Imaging 207 dr a a d r q ® dS r R Figure 5-16. (5-22) Integrating from 0 to a. we obtain the axial irradiance due to the disc: a rdr 2Û E(0) = 2 p BR Ù ı 0 = (r 2 + R2 ) 2 BS a 2 + R2 = p Bsin 2 a . the irradiance due to the disc at large distances is equal to the product of its radiance and the solid angle subtended by it at the distant receiver. (5-24c) where W = S R 2 is the solid angle subtended by the disc. The disc also behaves like a point source of intensity BS at large distances. Axial illumination at a distance R by a Lambertian disc of radius a and radiance B. at the receiver.5. Thus. and a is the semiangle subtended by the disc at the point of observation. Thus. (5-23a) reduces to E(0) = p B tan 2 a (5-24a) = BW (5-24b) = I R2 . When R << a . At a large distance from the disc ( R >> a) .

a ® dS r d a R Figure 5-18.208 STOPS.0 0.04 0.02 0.00 10 R/a Figure 5-17. Figure 5-17 shows that Eq. (5-25b) where one factor of cos d arises from the projected area of the disc along the line joining 0. AND RADIOMETRY point-source approximation is less than 4% if R ≥ 5a . (5-23) very well for R a ≥ 5.05 1. (5-24) approximates the exact Eq.4 0. the irradiance is given by E (d ) = E (0 ) cos 4 d (5-25a) = p B tan 2 a cos 4 d . For a distant off-axis receiver making an angle d with the disc axis (see Figure 518).2 0. Axial irradiance at a distance R by a Lambertian disc of radius a and radiance B. . Note that sin a ~ tan a ~ a for R ≥ 5a .01 [1+(R / a)2] –1 0 2 4 6 8 0. PUPILS.6 E(0) pB 0. The difference becomes less than 1% when R ≥ 10 a .03 0.8 (R / a)2 (R / a)2 [1+(R / a)2] –1 0.0 0. Off-axis illumination at a large distance R by a Lambertian disc of radius a and radiance B. The right-hand vertical scale is for R a ≥ 5.

q1 = q 2 = q . (5-26) may also be written ( ) dF = B dS (2 p rdr ) cos 4 q R 2 = B dS R 2 (2 p rdr ) (R 2 + r2 ) 2 . where the off-axis angle d is in degrees. the actual irradiance values are higher than those predicted by Eq. Letting d = R cos q 12 = R 2 + r 2 .2 0 0 10 20 30 δ 40 50 60 Figure 5-19. Figure 5-19 shows how the irradiance decreases as the off-axis angle d o increases. Eq. especially for d > ~ 10 . we consider a small Lambertian source of area dS and radiance B centered on the axis of an aperture of radius a at a distance R from it. dS2 = 2 p rdr .4. When R is not much greater than a. another due to the projected area of the receiver. and cos 2 d due to the increase in distance between the disc and the receiver.5.4 Radiometry of Extended Object Imaging 209 its center and the point of observation. 5. (5-26) where we have used Eq. The cos 4 d variation of irradiance at large distances.3.1. (5-20) with dS1 = dS .4 Flux Received by an Aperture In Section 5. . Now we consider the same problem except that the point source is replaced by a small Lambertian source.4 0. (5-27) 1 E( δ )/E(0) 0. we determined the flux received by an aperture from a point source.8 0. and d is the distance between the source and a point on the annulus. The flux radiated by the source into an annulus of radius r and width dr is given by dF = B dS (2 p rdr ) cos 2 q d 2 . As illustrated in Figure 5-20.6 0. (5-25a).

(5-30) . The reason the two expressions are different is because of the extra cosine factor in the projected area of the source. Flux incident on an aperture of radius a by a Lambertian source of area dS at a distance R. The flux incident on the annulus is given by B dS cos q d W. we note that the flux incident on an aperture of radius a from a Lambertian source of area dS is exactly the same as the flux incident on an area dS by a Lambertian disc of radius a. where d W = 2 p rdr cos q d 2 (5-29) is the solid angle subtended by the annulus at the source. (5-28) with Eq. (5-5) for the flux received from a point source. PUPILS. Comparing Eq. we note that the intensity I of the point source has been replaced by the radiance B of the Lambertian source. It shows that the same amount of flux is transmitted from a source to a receiver if their roles are interchanged. Comparing Eq. (5-23b). AND RADIOMETRY dr a a d r q dS R Figure 5-20. The flux calculation may also be carried out in terms of the solid angle subtended by the annulus. The total flux received by the aperture is obtained by integrating over r from 0 to a: a rdr 2Û F = 2 p B dS R Ù ı (r 0 = 2 + R2 ) 2 p B dS a 2 a 2 + R2 = p B dS sin 2 a . (5-28) with Eq. We note from the figure that sin q = r d = r (r 2 + R2 12 ) . (5-28) where a is the semiangle subtended by the aperture at the source.210 STOPS.

where q ¢ is given by Snell's law according to n ¢ sin q ¢ = n sin q . Eq. (5-37) Differentiating both sides of Eq. (5-38) .5. f) . (5-36). (5-36) The azimuthal angle f does not change upon refraction by virtue of the fact that the incident ray. and f and f + df . f) on an interface separating media of refractive indices n and n ¢ . The solid angle dW is given by dW = (rd q) (r sin q df) r2 = sin q d q df . the flux incident on an elementary area dS is given by dF = B dS cos q d W . (5-33) which is the same as Eq. (5-32) Substituting for dW and integrating over q from 0 to a . (5-34) It represents the area on a unit sphere lying between the angles q and q + dq . we obtain a F = pB dS Ú sin 2q dq 0 = pB dS sin 2 a . If B is the radiance of the beam. d (5-31) Hence. as shown in Figure 5-21.5 Image Radiance Now we show how the radiance of rays changes when they are refracted or reflected.4. (5-29) can be written d W = 2 p sin q dq . and the surface normal are coplanar. Consider an elementary beam of solid angle dW incident in a direction (q. The solid angle of the refracted beam is given by d W ¢ = sin q ¢ d q ¢ d f . (5-35) The beam is refracted at the interface in the direction (q ¢. the refracted ray. 5. (5-28). we obtain n ¢ cos q ¢ d q ¢ = n cos q d q . as may be seen from the figure.4 Radiometry of Extended Object Imaging 211 Differentiating both sides. we obtain dq = dr cos q .

.212 STOPS. q. AND RADIOMETRY z r dq r q dq r sinq df y r si nq f df x r sinq df (a) z dW dq q n dS y n¢ dq¢ x q¢ dW¢ (b) Figure 5-21. f) and (b) its change from d W to d W ¢ upon refraction at an interface separating media of refractive indices n and n ¢ . (a) Solid angle of an elementary beam in polar coordinates ( r. PUPILS.

For a reflecting surface. (5-31). If a beam propagates in a given medium. the incident flux is equal to the refracted flux.5). (5-42) reduces to B¢ = B. their radiance is invariant because n ¢ = – n in that case. When the rays are reflected by a lossless surface. they are equal because then q ¢ = q .4. For example. (5-40) In the absence of any transmission loss. we obtain B¢ B 2 = n¢ n2 . at most. (5-42) Thus. dF ¢ = dF . they are often both equal to unity). the quantity n 2 cos q d W is invariant upon refraction.4. (5-42) in Section 5. i. in astronomical telescopes (discussed in Section 6. 5. i.5. and Eq. (5-41) Therefore. Thus. In optical imaging by a multisurface system. the quantity B n 2 associated with them is invariant. Because the entrance pupil of an optical imaging system lies in its object space. and substituting Eq. if the refractive indices n and n ¢ of the object and image spaces are equal (in practice. B¢ £ B when n = n ¢ . if it is neither refracted nor reflected.e.e.7 in obtaining the image irradiance distribution in terms of the object radiance.4 Radiometry of Extended Object Imaging 213 Equating the products of the left-hand sides of Eqs. the radiance of a tube of rays remains invariant as they propagate in a certain medium. we conclude that image radiance can. (5-39) i. (5-35) and (5-40). If B¢ is the radiance of the refracted beam. the radiance of rays at the exit pupil is equal to the image radiance. then the radiance of an image element is equal to the radiance of the corresponding object element. Taking into account the loss of energy at a refracting or a reflecting surface. The two solid angles are different from each other because the rays bounding dW are refracted by slightly different amounts due to their slightly different angles of incidence. the flux contained in it is given by dF ¢ = B¢ dS cos q ¢ d W ¢ .. (5-36) and (5-38) to the products of their right-hand sides..e. then n = n ¢ . when the rays are refracted by a surface. be equal to the object radiance. We make use of Eq.. because the exit pupil lies in the image space. the radiance of rays at the entrance pupil is equal to the object radiance.e. We refer to this invariance as the radiance theorem. the . equating the right-hand sides of Eqs. we find that n ¢ 2 cos q ¢ d W ¢ = n 2 cos q d W . i. Similarly..6 Image Irradiance: Aperture Stop in front of the System Consider a system with its aperture stop lying in the object space so that it is also the entrance pupil.

and the distance between the two is Lo cos q .214 STOPS. If B is the radiance of the object element. The projected area of the pupil in the direction of the object element is given by Sen cos q . its intensity in the direction of the entrance pupil is given by BdS cos q . the flux incident on the pupil is given by F = B dW dS cos q 2 = B ( Sen Lo ) dS cos 4 q . the solid angle subtended by the pupil at the object element is given by dW = Sen cos q ( Lo cos q) 2 (5-43) . this flux is contained in the corresponding image element. PUPILS. AND RADIOMETRY first imaging element is also the aperture stop. its irradiance is given by E(q) = F dS ¢ = E(0 ) cos 4 q . We assume that the aperture stop is much smaller than the object distance from it so that the line joining a given (Lambertian) object element of area dS and any element d Sen on the aperture makes approximately the same angle g with the optical axis (see Figure 5-22). (5-44) Neglecting the loss of light while propagating through the system. Let its radius be aen and area be 2 Sen = p aen . If dS¢ is the area of this element. Accordingly. where q is the angle of the chief ray in the object space. Thus. Li . (5-45) where EnP n ExP n¢ P¢ dSen P0 a CR g q g¢ (–)a¢ q¢ O F O¢ dS¢ P0¢ CR dS dSex P d Object Plane Image Plane Optical System (–)L o Figure 5-22. Radiometry of extended object imaging.

As in Eq. Moreover. then Eq. (5-44) yields ( ) = ( p Bn ¢ E(q) = B f 2 Sen cos 4 q 2 ) 4n 2 F•2 cos 4 q . and therefore every element of the entrance pupil makes exactly the same angle q with the optical axis. Of course. The f-number of the light cone in that case is given by Fen = 1 2sin a . and it is replaced by sin a in Eq. (5-49) The quantity n sin a is called its numerical aperture in the object space. 1/ 2 M = (dS ¢ dS ) (5-47) is its magnification.f . Fen = Lo Den = 1 2a (5-48) is the f-number of this light cone. Equation (5-45) represents the cosine-fourth power law in the object space. and a = aen Lo is the semiangle of the cone subtended by the entrance pupil at the axial object point P0 . in that case. If d is the distance of the object-space focal point from the entrance pupil and f is the object-space focal length of the system. (5-46a). (5-51) where F• = f ¢ Den (5-52) . The quantity 2 a is called the angular aperture of the light cone entering the system. Thus. Lo M Æ .4 Radiometry of Extended Object Imaging ( 215 ) E( 0) = p B M 2 a 2 ( (5-46a) ) = B M 2 W ( P0 ) ( = p B 4M 2 ) (5-46b) Fen2 (5-46c) is the irradiance of an axial image element. all of the rays are parallel to the chief ray. (5-50) For an object at infinity. Eq. ( ) When aen is not very small compared to Lo .d ) . (5-18). then a = tan -1 aen Lo . This decrease can be overcome by introducing barrel distortion into the system. (2-83) yields M = -f ( Lo .5. there may be an additional decrease due to vignetting. as in astronomical observations. showing that the irradiance of the image of a Lambertian object decreases as the fourth power of the cosine of the chief ray angle q in the object space.

The f-number markings on the rim of a camera lens. a smaller f-number) also gives a better resolution. The amount of light collected 2 increases as Den . We note that Fex Æ F• as M Æ 0 . Smaller fnumbers are used for fast-moving or dimly illuminated objects. 5. the image distance S ¢ of P0¢ can be written S ¢ = f ¢(1 . If the diameter Den = 2 aen of the entrance pupil is increased by a certain factor so that the system collects more light. is controlled by a shutter. Thus.4.216 STOPS. (5-53) Similarly.. but its focal length is fixed (unless an additional lens is attached).e.s ¢ ) Dex (5-54) = F• (1 .8.6. Assuming a good-quality lens. a larger lens opening (and. e. where q ¢ is the chief ray angle in the image space. 16. thus requiring a shorter exposure time. the f-number and not the entrance pupil diameter determines the light-gathering capability of a system in the sense of image irradiance. 8. From Eqs. we may write the focal ratio of the light cone exiting from the exit pupil [see Eq. the solid angle subtended by the image element at the pupil is given by . the image irradiance does not change if the imagespace focal length f ¢ is also increased by the same factor. 4. 2.3. AND RADIOMETRY is the focal ratio of the image-forming light cone for an object lying at infinity and we have made use of Eq. (5-18)] Fex = Li Dex = ( S ¢ . represent increasing shutter opening by a factor of 2 in the area from one number to the next. Its speed is inversely proportional to the square of its f-number. 11. Accordingly. and the image area increases as f ¢ 2 so that the irradiance does not change unless the f-number also changes.g.6. 5. as the object moves to infinity. the image distance s ¢ of the exit pupil can be written in terms of the pupil magnification m = Dex Den . and 1. its intensity in the direction of the image element is given by B¢Sex cos q ¢ . If B¢ is the radiance at the exit pupil. We assume that the exit pupil is much smaller than the distance of the image from it so that the line joining any element dSex on it and the image element makes approximately the same angle g ¢ with the optical axis (see Figure 5-17). i. 2. (2-70) and (2-72).M ) .. The projected area of the image element in the direction of the pupil is given by dS¢ cos q ¢ . F• is called the f-number or the relative aperture of the system. The focal ratio of the image-forming light cone for finite conjugates can be related to F• as follows. it is also its exit pupil. Accordingly. therefore.7 Image Irradiance: Aperture Stop in back of the System When the aperture stop lies in the image space of the system. (2-69). 22.M m) . A camera lens with a small f-number is said to be fast since it yields higher irradiance on film. and the distance between the two is Li cos q ¢ . The diameter of the lens.4. PUPILS. and therefore the flux density on the film.

Fex = Li Dex = 1 2 a¢ (5-59) is the f-number of the light cone exiting from the system. When aex is not very small compared to Li . (5-42). (5-58a). (5-18). The quantity n ¢ sin a ¢ is called its numerical aperture in the image space. Equation (5-57) represents the cosine-fourth power law in the image space. (5-58d) and we have written B ¢ in terms of B. As in Eq.4 Radiometry of Extended Object Imaging d W¢ = d S ¢ cos q¢ ( Li cos q¢) (5-55) . ex (5-56) Therefore. The f-number of the exiting light cone in that case is given by Fex = 1 2 sin a ¢ . according to Eq. Here. a ¢ = aex Li is the semiangle of the cone subtended by the exit pupil at the axial image point P0¢ . showing that the irradiance of the image of a Lambertian object decreases as the fourth power of the cosine of the chief ray angle q ¢ in the image space. then a ¢ = tan -1 ( aex Li ) and it is replaced by sin a ¢ in Eq.5. (5-60) . and the angle 2 a ¢ is called the angular aperture of the image-forming light cone exiting from the system with its apex at P0¢ . the irradiance of the image element is given by E(q ¢) = F ¢ dS ¢ = E(0) cos 4 q ¢ . (5-57) where 2 E ( 0 ) = p B ( n ¢ n) a ¢ 2 2 ( = B (n ¢ n) Sex L2i (5-58a) ) (5-58b) 2 = B (n ¢ n) W ¢ ( P0¢ ) = p B ( n ¢ 2 n) 2 Fex2 (5-58c) . 2 217 The total flux in the image element is given by F ¢ = B¢Sex dW ¢ cos q ¢ = ( B¢dS ¢ L )S 2 i cos 4 q ¢ .

By using the radiance theorem. the chief ray angle q ¢ in the image space is zero for any position of the object element. Note that if n = n ¢ (in practice.218 STOPS. AND RADIOMETRY If the object lies at infinity.8 Telecentric Systems As discussed in Section 5. then the image point P0¢ coincides with the image-space focal point F ¢ . The irradiance distribution of the image is given by Eq. called the optical throughput. and the chief ray angle q in the object space is zero for any object element. (5-57) with q ¢ = 0 as the correct equation for this case. PUPILS. 5. then the distribution is given by Eq. then the system is telecentric on the object side. The image irradiance distribution in this case is given by Eq.4. The term numerical aperture is used when imaging objects at short distances. (5-46b) and (5-58c).2. and the numerical aperture all give a measure of the light-gathering capability of an optical system in the sense that the image illumination depends on them. if the aperture stop lies in the object-space focal plane. (5-63) Thus. is an invariant. where F• = n ¢ 2 NA•¢ . 5. (5-57). The angular aperture.4. if the aperture stop lies in the image-space focal plane. If. we obtain n ¢ 2 dS ¢ W ¢ ( P0¢ ) = n 2 dS W ( P0 ) . respectively. and the product of the area and the solid angle may simply be called the throughput. they are often both equal to unity).10 Interrelation among Invariants in Imaging We have shown that the quantity nh0 (Lagrange invariant) and the throughput n 2 dS W remain invariant in the imaging process. then the system is telecentric on the image side. the object lies at infinity. where a ¢• is the semiangle of the image-forming light cone with its apex at F ¢ . then equating the axial image irradiances given by Eqs. It would be a mistake to consider Eq. (5-61) Here. as in microscopes. NA•¢ = n ¢ sin a ¢• (5-62) is the corresponding image-space numerical aperture. because it would lead to the incorrect result that the image irradiance is uniform.6. It is customary to use the f-number of the image-forming light cone for systems such as cameras imaging objects lying at large distances. (5-51). the f-number. Accordingly. in addition.9 Throughput If we consider the corresponding object and image elements centered on the optical axis at P0 and P0¢ . Similarly. (5-45) with an appropriate value of Lo . then B = B¢. 5. In that case. and Fex Æ F• .4. we now . the throughput multiplied by the radiance gives the flux passing through the system. the quantity n 2 dS W ( P0 ) .

the aperture stop and the entrance and exit pupils all lie at its common center of curvature.11 Concentric Systems In a concentric system. the solid . The flux incident on the entrance pupil is given by ( Fo = p h 2 B pa 2 L2o ) .4 Radiometry of Extended Object Imaging EnP ExP n n¢ MR 0 MR a¢ a 0 (–)b¢0 b0 h 219 P0 O h¢ P¢0 O¢ Optical System (–)L o Li Figure 5-23. as illustrated in Figure 5-23. Consider a small circular object of radius h and radiance B at a distance Lo from the entrance pupil of radius a of a certain imaging system. and the image is formed on a spherical surface concentric with the system. (5-65) Equating the flux entering the system to that exiting from it based on conservation of energy. (5-66) This is precisely the result obtained if we square the Lagrange invariant equation (2-75) and multiply by the radiance invariance given by Eq. and lies at a distance Li from it.5. (5-64) If the exit pupil has a radius a ¢ and the image has a radius of h ¢ . (5-42). we obtain the throughput invariance of Eq. and the distance between the two centers is independent of the location of dS¢ on the spherical image surface. radiance B¢ . (5-63). If we substitute for B¢ in terms of B. we obtain h ¢ 2 B¢ ¢02 = h 2 B 20 . 5. The chief ray incident through the common center passes undeviated. The object is a small circular object of radius h.4. such as a Schmidt or a Bouwers–Maksutov camera [8]. and the chief ray angles in the object and image spaces are equal. show that they are interrelated by the conservation of energy in the process. Invariant relations in imaging. then the flux in the image is given by ( Fi = p h ¢ 2 B¢ p a ¢ 2 L2i ) . The image element area dS¢ is normal to the line joining its center and the center of the exit pupil. Therefore.

we let Li = f ¢ . the irradiance of the spherical image formed by a concentric system decreases linearly with the cosine of the angle of the chief ray in the object or the image space. e. The abbreviation of a unit is indicated in parentheses. respectively. Thus. along with an equation for obtaining a photometric quantity from a corresponding radiometric quantity. for example. The theory of photometry.g. The reason stars can be observed during daytime with the aid of a telescope is also discussed. AND RADIOMETRY angle subtended by dS¢ at the exit pupil is simply equal to dS ¢ L i2 . the focal length of the system. If V (l ) represents the relative spectral response of the eye.” A photometric quantity can be obtained from a corresponding spectral radiometric quantity by weighting it with the spectral response of the eye. It is common practice to use the term “luminance” in place of “luminous radiance.1 Photometric Quantities and Spectral Response of the Human Eye The units of some of the basic quantities used in photometry are given in Table 5-1. in terms of the transfer of light from a source to a receiver.. the branch of radiometry that is limited to observations with the human eye. For an object lying at infinity.631 ¥ 683 = 431 lm/W. except that the spectral response of the eye must be taken into account to determine the final result of any observation.” and “illuminance” in place of “luminous irradiance.5 PHOTOMETRY Now we give a brief discussion of photometry. PUPILS. and units of photometric quantities are given. The names. It is shown that a Lambertian surface appears equally bright at all distances and along all directions of observation. then the luminous flux F l of a source with a spectral radiant flux F r (l ) is . the flux emerging from a small exit pupil and converging on the image element is given by ( ) F ¢ = B ¢dS ¢ Sex L i2 cos q ¢ = B¢dS ¢W ¢ ( P0¢ ) cos q ¢ . and correspond to 683 lm/W and 1754 lm/W. and its numerical values are given in Table 5-2 for both day (photopic) and night (scotopic) vision. The relative spectral response of the eye is shown in Figure 5-24. the absolute daytime response of the eye at 600 nm is given by 0.” respectively. The peak values of the two spectral visions lie at 555 nm and 507 nm. which is sensitive only in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum called light. (5-67) Accordingly. the irradiance of the image element is given by 2 E(q¢ ) = B ( n ¢ / n) W¢ (P0¢ ) cos q¢ . the corresponding photometric and radiometric terms are distinguished from each other by adding to them the adjectives “luminous” and “radiant.5. To avoid confusion. Thus. 5. 5. symbols. (5-68) Thus. luminous flux and radiant flux. is the same as discussed earlier. along with their radiometric counterparts.220 STOPS.

8 V 0.0 380 420 460 500 540 580 620 660 700 740 780 l (nm) Figure 5-24. Photometric and radiometric units of some basic quantities. Quantity Photometric Unit Radiometric Unit Energy talbot joule (J) Flux lumen (lm) watt (W) Intensity lumens/steradian (lm/sr) W/sr = candela (cd) Radiance (Luminance) lm/m2 sr W/m2 sr Irradiance (Illuminance) lm/m2 = lux (lx) W/m2 1.5 Photometry 221 given by F l = k Ú F r (l ) V (l ) d l . Relative spectral response of the human eye for day (photopic) and night (scotopic) vision. .2 0. (5-69) where k = 683 lm W or 1754 lm W . Table 5-1.0 0.5.4 Night Day 0. depending upon whether V (l ) is for day or night vision.6 0.

0082 0.455 0.757 0.503 0.00000914 0.139 0.2076 0. Relative spectral response of the human eye for day (photopic) and night (scotopic) vision.503 0.017 0.982 1 0.3281 0.208 0.107 0.631 0.650 0.060 0.323 0.265 0.001497 0.061 0.00105 0.03484 0.038 0.0000715 0.091 0.811 0.00001780 0.00003533 700 710 720 730 740 750 760 770 780 0. PUPILS.1998 0.00004 0. AND RADIOMETRY Table 5-2.0041 0.997 0.00025 0.0003129 0.862 0.000015 0.0116 0.0000001390 .0966 0.000677 0.00052 0.00737 0.00006 0.00012 0.676 0.0021 0.175 0.0004 0.995 0.03315 0.710 0.000000425 0.00000478 0.481 0.3288 0.00012 0.0000002413 0.000000760 0.995 1 0.0001480 0.003335 0.567 0.402 0.032 0.935 0.00929 0.445 0.002209 0.0040 0.00003 0.01593 0.904 500 507 510 520 530 540 550 555 560 570 580 590 0.000001379 0.954 0.381 0.952 0.0012 0.0655 600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 0.023 0.222 STOPS.000002546 0.1212 0.793 0.000589 0.870 0. Wavelength l (nm) Day (Photopic) V Night (Scotopic) V 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 0.

The image height h ¢ is given by h ¢ = R ¢ ¢ (5-71) = (n n¢) R¢  . The apparent size of an object is determined by the size of its retinal image. In looking at objects.5. but the resolution of the retina decreases rapidly as a function of the distance from its center. (see Problems 4. It does not have a field stop.5 Photometry 223 5.3). R′ . 5. (2-67)] n  = n ¢ ¢ . It forms images of objects on a light-sensitive screen called the retina.2 Imaging by the Human Eye The human eye is a lens system with an iris that acts as the aperture stop whose diameter increases or decreases. An image of height h ¢ is formed on the retina at a distance R ¢ from the back principal point H ¢ . Consequently. called the fovea. Consider an object of height h lying at a distance R from the front principal point H. as illustrated in Figure 5-25. Imaging by the human eye.2.5. respectively.) The angular sizes  and ¢ of the object and image as seen from the respective principal points are related to each other according to [see Eq. the eye rotates until the image of an object under observation falls on the central portion of the retina.2. the apparent size of an object is proportional to the angle  it subtends at H .5. The subjective brightness of the surface depends on the illuminance on the retina.6 and 4. depending on the luminance of an object under observation. as illustrated in Figure 5-26. As the object distance varies.7 for a Gaussian model of the human eye.3 Brightness of a Lambertian Surface Consider a Lambertian surface or a uniform diffuser of area dS1 and luminance L observed by an eye of pupil area dS2 lying at a distance R. independent of the state of accommodation. The total flux entering the eye is given by n n′ P h (–)β′ (–)β P0 H P′0 (–)h′ H′ P′ (–)R Figure 5-25.2. see also Section 6. (5-70) where n and n ¢ are the refractive indices of the object and image spaces. the eye lens changes its focal length by a process called accommodation so that the distance R ¢ remains practically invariant (see Section 6.

and Field of View An aperture in an imaging system that physically limits the solid angle of the transmitted rays from a point object the most is called its aperture stop (AS). If h is the transmission factor of the eye. a Lambertian surface appears equally bright at all distances along all directions of observation. which consist of a parabolic mirror with a lamp placed at its focus. the headlights of a car.224 STOPS. i. Its images as . AND RADIOMETRY θ1 dS1 dS′1 Image dS2 Eye Pupil Lambertian Object R R′ Figure 5-26.1 Stops. appear equally bright at all distances. This flux is distributed over the retinal image of object dS1 . if R¢ is the image distance..6 SUMMARY OF RESULTS 5. (5-74) Because it is independent of q1 and R. Therefore. Pupils. (5-73) where nR¢ n ¢R with n = 1 is the (linear) magnification of the image. Hence. 5. For example. The projected area of the observed surface normal to the direction of observation is dS1 cos q1 . then the area of the image is given by 2 dS1¢ = ( R¢ n ¢R) dS1 cos q1 . dF = L dS1 cos q1 dS2 R2 . the illuminance on the retina is given by E = h = dF dS1¢ h n ¢ 2 L dS2 R¢ 2 . the line joining the centers of dS1 and dS2 . Windows. The angle q 2 is zero because dS2 is normal to this line. Observation of a Lambertian surface.e. (5-72) where q1 is the angle between the normal to the surface dS1 and the direction of observation. PUPILS. the flux reaching the retina is h dF .6.

Because S R 2 is the solid angle subtended by the aperture on a distant point source.6. An afocal system with an aperture stop placed in an intermediate focal plane is telecentric on both object and image sides. An object ray passing through the center of the aperture stop and actually or appearing to pass through the centers of the entrance and exit pupils is the chief (or the principal) ray ( CR). placed at a final or intermediate real image of the object. The chief ray from the edge of an object determines the location of the exit pupil and the height of the image. The exit pupil in this case lies at infinity. 5. The entrance window defines the object field that is actually imaged in the exit window. (5-75a) (5-75b) where S = p a 2 is the area of the aperture. If Io is the intensity of a point object P. The approximate size of an imaging element to avoid vignetting by it is equal to the sum of the magnitudes of the heights of the chief ray on it from the edge point object and the marginal ray from the axial point object. the marginal ray from the axial point object determines the size of the exit pupil and the location of the axial image point. the intensity Ii of its image P ¢ is given by (see Figure 5-27) . Similarly. Similarly. The field stop of a system is an aperture. An object ray passing through the edge of the aperture stop and actually or appearing to pass through the edges of the entrance and exit pupils is the marginal ray (MR). that limits the cone angle of the transmitted chief rays from an object. respectively.2 Radiometry of Point Object Imaging The flux incident by a point source of intensity I on an aperture of radius a lying at a distance R is given by È 1 1 F = 2 pIR Í ÍR 2 R + a2 ÍÎ ( = S I R2 ˘ ˙ 12˙ ˙˚ ) for R >> a . The ratio of the two angles is equal to the magnification of the exit pupil when the refractive indices of the object and image spaces are equal. A system is telecentric on the image side when its aperture stop lies in its object-space focal plane. respectively. the angle subtended by the exit window at the center of the exit pupil is the angular field of view of the system in image space. Similarly. and a chief ray lies parallel to the optical axis in the image space. The angle subtended by the entrance window at the center of the entrance pupil represents the angular field of view of the system in object space. Its images as seen from the object and image spaces are the entrance and exit windows EnW and ExW . I S R 2 is the flux incident on the aperture.6 Summary of Results 225 seen from the object and image spaces are the entrance (EnP) and exit (ExP) pupils.5. a system is telecentric on the object side if its aperture stop lies in the image-space focal plane. and I R 2 is the uniform irradiance on it yielding the inverse-square law of irradiance.

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2

Ê F ˆ cos q ˆ 3
Ii = Io Á ex ˜ Ê
,
Ë Fen ¯ Ë cos q ¢ ¯

(5-76)

where Fen and Fex are the focal ratios of the optical beams entering and exiting from the
imaging system, and q and q ¢ are the chief ray angles in the object and image spaces.
5.6.3 Radiometry of Extended Object Imaging
5.6.3.1 Illumination by a Lambertian Disc
A Lambertian surface radiates uniformly in all directions. The axial irradiance of a
Lambertian disc of radius a and radiance B at a distance R is given by (see Figure 5-18)
E( 0) =

BS
a + R2
2

,

(5-77)

where S = p a 2 is the area of the disc. At a large distance from the disc, Eq. (5-77)
reduces to
E(0) = BS R2
= I R2

for R >> a
,

(5-78a)
(5-78b)

where I = p a 2 B is the intensity of the disc along its axis.
The off-axis irradiance at a point at a large distance making an angle d with the axis
of the disc, i.e., the flux incident on the area element d Sr (illustrated in Figure 5-18) per
unit area, is given by
E(d ) = E(0 ) cos 4 d .

(5-79)

When R is not much greater than a, the actual irradiance values are higher than those
predicted by Eq. (5-79).
5.6.3.2 Image Radiance
The radiance B¢ of the image of an object of radiance B is given by (assuming
lossless imaging)

B
2 =

n2

,

(5-80)

where n and n ¢ are the refractive indices of the object and image spaces, respectively. In
the case of imaging by a mirror, n ¢ = - n , and therefore B¢ = B. In practice, n ¢ = n even
for a refracting system, and therefore B¢ = B. In reality, however, B¢ < B due to losses in
the system.

5.6 Summary of Results

227

5.6.3.3 Image Irradiance
For a uniformly radiating object with a radiance B, the image irradiance distribution
is generally nonuniform. When the aperture stop of the system lies in the object space, it
decreases according to (see Figure 5-27)
E (q) = E(0) cos 4 q ,

(5-81)

where
E( 0) = ( p B M ) a 2

(

= p B 4M 2

)

(5-82a)
Fen2

.

(5-82b)

Here, q is the chief ray angle in the object space, M is the image magnification, 2a is
the angular aperture of the entrance pupil, and Fen is the focal ratio of the light cone
entering the entrance pupil.
For an object lying at infinity, Eq. (5-82b) reduces to
E(0) = p Bn ¢ 2 4n 2 F•2

,

(5-83)

where
F• = f ¢ Den

(5-84)

is the corresponding focal ratio of the image-forming light cone. Here, f ¢ is the focal
length of the system, and Den is the diameter of its entrance pupil. The focal ratio Fex for
finite conjugates is related to F• according to
Fex = F• (1 - M m) ,

(5-85)

EnP

n

ExP



CR

P0

a


q

dS

dS¢

O

F

(–)a¢

P0¢

CR
P

Object Plane

Image Plane
Optical
System
(–)L o

Li

Figure 5-27. Radiometry of point object imaging. P and P ¢ are the object and image
points, and d S and d S¢ are the object and image elements.

228

STOPS, PUPILS, AND RADIOMETRY

where m = Dex Den is the pupil magnification, Dex being the diameter of the exit pupil.
If the aperture stop lies in the image space, then the irradiance distribution is given
by
E(q ¢) = E(0) cos 4 q ¢ ,

(5-86a)

where
E ( 0 ) = p B ( n ¢ n)

2

Fex2

.

(5-86b)

Equations (5-81) and (5-86a) represent the cosine-fourth power law of irradiance in the
object and image spaces, respectively, showing that the irradiance of the image of a
Lambertian object decreases as the fourth power of the cosine of the chief ray angle q in
the object space or q¢ in the image space.
In a concentric system, the aperture stop, entrance pupil, and the exit pupil all lie at
the common center of curvature of the imaging elements, and the image is formed on a
concentric spherical surface. The chief ray angles in the object and image spaces are
equal, and an image element is normal to the line joining it and the center of the exit
pupil. The irradiance distribution is accordingly given by
E(q ¢ ) = E( 0) cos q¢ .

(5-87)

Thus, the irradiance of the spherical image formed by a concentric system decreases
linearly with the cosine of the angle of the chief ray in the object or the image space,
where E( 0) may be obtained from Eq. (5-68).
5.6.4 Visual Observations
The radiance of an element of a Lambertian surface is independent of the direction of
radiation. The brightness of a Lambertian surface of luminance L described by the
illuminance on the retina is given by
E = h

n ¢ 2 L Se
R¢ 2

,

(5-88)

where h is the transmission of the eye, n ¢ is its refractive index, R ¢ is its diameter, and
Se is the area of its pupil.
The size of the retinal image of an object subtending an angle b at the eye is given
by (n n ¢) R¢b , where n and n ¢ are the refractive indices of the object and image spaces,
respectively, and R ¢ is the distance of the retina from the image-space principal point of
the eye. In practice, n = 1 for observations in air and 1.33 for observations in water,
n ¢ = 1.33 , and R ~ 2.5 cm.

References

229

REFERENCES
1.

R. McCluney, Introduction to Radiometry and Photometry, Artech, Boston
(1994).

2.

R. Kingslake, “Illumination in optical images,” in Applied Optics and Optical
Engineering, Vol. II, Ed. R. Kingslake, Vol. II, pp. 195–228, Academic Press, San
Diego, CA (1965).

3.

J. R. Meyer-Arendt, “Radiometry and photometry: units and conversion factors,”
Appl. Opt. 7, 2081–2084 (1968).

4.

W. H. Steel, “Luminosity, throughput, or etendue,” Appl. Opt. 13, 704 (1974);
also, “Luminosity, throughput, or etendue? Further comments,” Appl. Opt. 14,
252 (1975).

5.

M. Reiss, “The cos4 law of illumination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 283–288 (1945).

6.

I. C. Gardner “Validity of the cosine-fourth power law of illumination,” J.
Research Nat. Bur. Stand. 39, 213–219 (1947).

7.

M. Reiss, “Notes on the cos 4 law of illumination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 980–986
(1948).

8.

V. N. Mahajan, Optical Imaging and Aberrations, Part I: Ray Geometrical Optics,
Section 6.6, SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA (1998) [doi:10.1117/3.265735.ch6].

230

STOPS, PUPILS, AND RADIOMETRY

PROBLEMS
5.1

Consider a system consisting of two thin lenses of equal focal lengths with an
aperture stop placed midway between them. Show that its entrance and exit pupils
lie at its respective principal points.

5.2

A system consisting of two thin lenses with focal lengths of 10 cm and 5 cm and
with apertures of 4 cm are spaced 4 cm apart. A stop 2 cm in diameter is located
midway between them. (a) Determine its principal points. (b) Find the position and
size of its entrance and exit pupils. (c) Find the position and size of the image of an
object placed 10 cm from the first lens. (d) Sketch everything on a diagram
showing, in addition, the two tangential marginal rays and the chief ray from the
top of the object if it is 4 cm high. (e) In the object plane considered, what is the
maximum height of a point object for which there is no vignetting?

5.3

Consider a system consisting of two thin lenses placed 4 cm apart with a 4-cm
aperture placed midway between them. The first lens has a diameter of 4.6 cm and
a focal length of 5.8 cm. The second lens has a diameter of 5.8 cm. An object is
placed 8 cm from the first lens. (a) Determine the aperture stop of the system. (b)
Sketch the vignetting diagram for a point object 4 cm from the optical axis.

5.4

An exit pupil with a 3-cm aperture is located 6 cm in front of a convex mirror that
has a radius of curvature of 10 cm. An object 1 cm high is centrally located on the
axis 12 cm in front of the mirror. (a) Locate the entrance pupil and the image. (b)
Find the minimum diameter of the mirror needed to see the entire object from all
points of the exit pupil.

5.5

Consider a Schwarzschild telescope consisting of two concentric spherical mirrors
such that the ratio of their radii of curvature is 3 ± 5 2 . Its aperture stop is
located at the primary mirror. (a) Determine its focal length in terms of the focal
lengths of its mirrors. (b) Determine the distance between its focal plane and the
mirror close to it. (This distance is often referred to as the working distance of a
telescope.) (c) Calculate the position and size of its exit pupil. (d) Determine the
obscuration ratio of the image-forming beam. (The obscuration ratio is the ratio of
the inner and outer diameters of the light cone focusing to the image point.)
(e) Determine the diameter of its secondary mirror for a field of view of ± 5 mrad.
(f) Sketch the system if its focal ratio is 2 and the diameter of its primary mirror is
10 cm.

(

)

5.6

Show that the height of a light bulb (assumed to be a point source) from the center
of a circular table of radius a for maximum illumination at its edges is given by
2 a .

5.7

According to the Stefan–Boltzmann law, the exitance (i.e., the power radiated by a
unit area) of a blackbody at a temperature T (in Kelvin) is given by sT 4 , where
s = 5.67 ¥ 10 –8 W m 2 K 4 is the Stefan–Boltzmann constant. Consider the sun to

Problems

231

be a blackbody at 6000 K. (a) Determine its radiance. (b) Calculate the solar
irradiance on the earth, called the solar constant (the solar constant is also
expressed as 2 calories/cm2 min). (c) Compare it with the irradiance of the solar
image formed by a lens with an f-number of 5. (d) Assuming that the moon
reradiates 20% of the light incident on it, compare the lunar irradiance on the earth
for full moon with solar irradiance in full sunlight. Some of the sizes and distances
of interest are as follows: the radius of the sun and its distance from the earth are
6.96 ¥ 10 8 m and 1.49 ¥ 1011 m , respectively, and the radius of the moon and its
distance from the earth are 1.77 ¥ 10 6 m and 3.80 ¥ 10 8 m , respectively.
5.8

Consider an optical system imaging a small circular object of radius h centered on
its optical axis. Let the circular image be of radius h ¢ . Let 0 and ¢0 be small
slope angles of the axial marginal rays in the object and image spaces of the system
(see Figure 5-2). Show by using the Lagrange invariance of Eq. (2-74) that the
object and image radiances are related to each other according to Eq. (5-34), where
n and n ¢ are the refractive indices of the object and image spaces. The object and
image sizes are assumed to be small so that the entrance and exit pupils subtend
approximately the same angles at every point on them.

5.9

Determine the flux incident on a solar panel 1 m ¥ 2 m when the sun is at zenith,
30 o and 60 o . Assume that the radiance of the sun is 22.5 MW/m2 sr and its angular
diameter as seen from the earth is half a degree.

CHAPTER 6

OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS
6.1

Introduction ..........................................................................................................235

6.2

Eye ......................................................................................................................... 235
6.2.1
Anatomy and Structure ............................................................................235
6.2.2
Paraxial Models ....................................................................................... 237
6.2.3
Accommodation ......................................................................................238
6.2.4
Visual Acuity ........................................................................................... 240
6.2.5
Spectacles (or Eyeglasses)....................................................................... 242

6.3

Magnifier ..............................................................................................................249

6.4

Microscope ............................................................................................................251

6.5

Telescope ............................................................................................................... 253

6.6

Ocular....................................................................................................................259

6.7

Telephoto Lens and Wide-Angle Camera ..........................................................259

6.8

Resolution ............................................................................................................. 261
6.8.1
Introduction..............................................................................................261
6.8.2
Airy Pattern..............................................................................................261
6.8.3
Rayleigh Criterion of Resolution............................................................. 263
6.8.4
Resolution of an Imaging System ............................................................266
6.8.5
Resolution of the Eye ..............................................................................268
6.8.6
Resolution of a Microscope ..................................................................... 269
6.8.7
Resolution of a Telescope........................................................................270

6.9

Pinhole Camera ....................................................................................................273

6.10 Summary of Results ............................................................................................. 275
6.10.1 Eye ........................................................................................................... 275
6.10.2 Magnifier ................................................................................................. 275
6.10.3 Microscope ..............................................................................................275
6.10.4 Telescope ................................................................................................. 276
6.10.5 Resolution ................................................................................................276
6.10.6 Pinhole Camera........................................................................................276
References ......................................................................................................................277
Problems ......................................................................................................................... 278

233

Accordingly.333). The tear film is produced by glands within the lids. the human eye.Chapter 6 Optical Instruments 6. Its front portion. they keep a layer of tears on the cornea. and discuss how spectacles correct near. and a telescope. It is nearly spherical. Anatomy and structure of the eye. a dry cornea loses its transparency. resulting in our ability to see ourselves in the eyes of another person. Without the tears. 235 . We illustrate how the eye interacts with such instruments when images are observed by humans. A pinhole camera is also described briefly. It is a transparent tissue approximately 0.2. with a diameter of about 2. By blinking constantly. with a refractive index of 1.1 Anatomy and Structure The human eye is a visual positive lens system that forms a real image on the retina. Figure 6-1. The cornea is also slightly reflective and acts like a convex mirror. no significant refraction takes place at a water–cornea interface.or farsightedness. 6.5 mm thick.5 cm among adults and a tough 1-mm-thick outer shell called the sclera. The eyelids protect the delicate cornea from foreign particles. a person cannot see very well under water (divers wear a mask that creates airspace between the water and the eye).1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter we describe the basic principles of some of the commonly used optical instruments. We then discuss a magnifier (or a reading glass). Nearly two-thirds of the bending of object rays takes place at the air–cornea interface. a microscope. while the rest of the sclera is white and opaque.377. Because the refractive index of the cornea is very close to that of water (1.2 EYE 6. as illustrated in Figure 6-1. where the eye bulges outward. We start with the most common. represents the first element of the lens system called the cornea.

thereby creating a blind spot about 0. brown. They do not function in a colorblind person. The electrical impulses generated by the retinal cells are carried by fibers at a rate of about 109 bits/sec. and a million fibers. As many as 22. covers much of the inner surface of the eye. defines the exit pupil of the eye. controls the amount of light entering the eye. People whose lenses have been surgically removed are significantly more sensitive to ultraviolet light. It is made up of circular and radial muscles that expand or contract to increase or decrease the diameter of the pupil from approximately 2 mm in bright light to 8 mm in darkness. The lens. called the retina.000 very fine layers are arranged as in an onion.386 at the less dense cortex. called rods and cones. which is about 4 mm thick and 9 mm in diameter. e. The rods are extremely sensitive to light.5 million cones. It is black.g. which has a refractive index of 1. Behind the lens is another chamber filled with a transparent gelatinous substance called the vitreous humor. There are about 125 million rods. thereby increasing its power to focus on a nearby object.236 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS Rays emerging from the cornea pass through a chamber filled with a clear watery fluid called the aqueous humor. which lies immediately behind the iris. The crystalline lens absorbs in the ultraviolet. called the choroid. Interestingly. It is a dark layer with blood vessels and pigmented cells.336. which does not contain any photoreceptors. There are two types of photoreceptor cells. While the iris defines the entrance pupil. Its central hole is called the pupil. The red glow in the flash photo of some people represents the light reflected from the retina by fine blood vessels. How the response varies with wavelength is given in Table 5-2 and Figure 5-24. layered fibrous mass surrounded by an elastic membrane. The lens is suspended in place by threadlike fibers that are connected to the ciliate muscle. The iris also gives the eye its color. the curved retina closely approximates the Petzval surface of the eye’s optical system. such as daylight. The normal wavelength range of human vision is approximately 380 nm to 780 nm. and provide color perception. is a complex. The blind spot can be demonstrated very easily by . Its index is a radial analog to the linearly varying index of spectacle glasses in use today. With age. Because of the closeness of the refractive indices.406 at the inner core to approximately 1.337. It absorbs any stray light like the interior black walls of a camera. A diaphragm. its image by a crystalline lens. a condition called cataract. only a small refraction of the rays takes place at the cornea–aqueous humor interface.6 mm in diameter. green. immersed in the aqueous humor. which has a refractive index of 1. but do not distinguish color. 6. or blue. called the iris. of course. It is therefore insensitive to light. The muscle contracts. Its index of refraction varies from about 1. The cones are used in bright light. the lens gets clouded and loses transparency. The exit pupil is located behind the iris and is somewhat smaller than the entrance pupil.. The eye interfaces with the brain through the optic nerve. loosening tension on the lens and allowing it to bulge. A paper-thin (about 50 mm) layer of photoreceptor cells. which can be seen as a small central black spot of the eye. because light goes through it. Within the tough sclerotic wall is an inner shell.

and the radii of curvature of the lens represent the average values for adult eyes. Here. we briefly describe three such models [1. known as the yellow spot or macula.2 Eye 237 considering Figure 6-2. With the left eye closed.333. also known as the Helmholtz eye and illustrated in Figure 6-3b. as illustrated in Figure 6-3c. A chronically elevated pressure of the fluids within the eye. At a certain distance the picture on the right disappears as its image falls on the blind spot of the right eye. The radius of curvature of the cornea. there is an area about 2. starting it at a distance of about 25 cm and slowly bringing the figure closer. called the fovea centralis. Comparing the eye to a camera. and the retina plays the role of a film or a solid state detector (pixel) array. the object. The principal points coincide with the vertex of the surface in this model.3 mm in diameter.5 to 3 mm in diameter. The cones in this region are thinner and more densely packed.6. only the peripheral day and night vision is retained. 90–95% of the vision is lost. stare at the + sign. thickness. respectively.32 mm). the cornea is represented by a single refracting surface. therefore. a single refracting surface represents both the cornea and the lens in a reduced eye model. a condition called glaucoma. In the simplified schematic eye.416 to yield the same refracting power as the schematic eye. In the schematic eye model. At the center of the retina.2 Paraxial Models A simplified paraxial model of the eye was considered in Problem 4. and the nodal points coincide with its center of curvature.45. The lens is assigned a uniform index of 1. The line joining the lens center and the fovea is referred to as the visual axis of the eye. and thus yield the sharpest image. When the index of the lens is adjusted to 1. and the position. There is a tiny. rod-free region about 0.5 mm apart. Without the fovea. The aqueous and vitreous humors are assigned a refractive index of 1. can lead to blindness if not treated. The eye is assumed to be filled with vitreous humor of + Figure 6-2. 6. The fovea does not lie on the optical axis of the lens system of the eye. There are about 14. .and imagespace focal lengths become round numbers equal to 15 mm and 20 mm. the cornea and the lens are represented by two surfaces each.700 cells/mm2 in the fovea compared to a fine laser printer. the iris is the aperture stop. the cornea provides a majority of the focusing. the crystalline lens provides the fine focusing. Because the spacing between the principal points (and.6.5 mm and are spaced about 2 to 2.2. which has 5500 dots/mm2. as illustrated in Figure 6-3a.2]. between the nodal points) is very small (only 0. They have a diameter of about 1. Blind spot demonstration. the eyelids are equivalent to a lens cover. Of course.

The fine focusing of the image of an object as its distance changes is performed by the crystalline lens in a process called accommodation. the focal length of the reduced eye is the same as that of the Helmholtz eye. The lens becomes thicker at the center. thereby reducing its focal length and maintaining a sharp image on the retina. although a teenager may possess more than 10 diopters. (c) Reduced eye (single refracting surface). Some mollusks contract or expand the whole eye to alter the . the lens muscles are relaxed when forming the image of an object lying at infinity.3 Accommodation The cornea provides nearly 43 of the total 60 diopters of the focusing power of an eye (see Problem 6. illustrating its cardinal points.2). and the image of any closer object is blurred. As the object moves closer. (a) Schematic eye. and to roughly 100 cm in a middle-age person. refractive index 1. Accommodation changes the power of the crystalline lens by about 4 diopters. The optical parameters of the three models are listed in Table 6-1. This is illustrated in Figure 6-4b. as opposed to a fixed-focus. Mammals. generally accommodate by varying the lens curvature. camera. (b) Simplified schematic eye (single-surface cornea).2. Thus.333.238 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS (a) (b) (c) F HH¢ N N¢ F¢ F HH¢ N N¢ F¢ F H H¢ N N¢ 10 0 10 F¢ 20 mm Figure 6-3. the ciliary muscle contracts the front surface of the lens. but fish move the lens toward or away from the retina. Paraxial models of the eye. as illustrated in Figure 6-4a. Too much work by the ciliary muscles over long periods leads to eye strain or fatigue. 6. It varies from 7 cm for a teenager to 25 cm or so for a young adult. which becomes more curved. As the object still moves closer. The closest point for which the eye can form a sharp image is called the near point. Generally. such as humans. just as in a focusing. a point is reached when the lens shape cannot change any more.

00 5.99 23.60 7.20 – 6.20 23.416 1.2 Eye 239 Table 6-1. (b) Accommodated eye illustrating the near point.06 7.36 – 14.60 24.3360 — 1.6.20 1.00 – 6.55 5.4200 1.85 7.51 – 15.3374 1.55 1.3771 1.333 1. Parameter Element Schematic eye Simplified schematic eye Reduced eye Radii of curvature of surfaces (mm) Anterior cornea Posterior cornea Anterior lens Posterior lens 7.333 4/3 4/3 4/3 4/3 Refractive indices F′ (a) P′ P Near point 25 cm (b) Figure 6-4. Normal eye.55 — — — Distances from anterior cornea (mm) Posterior cornea Anterior lens Posterior lens Retina 0.60 7.90 — — — — Principal point H Principal point H ′ Nodal point N Nodal point N ′ Focal point F Focal point F ′ 1.67 22.20 7.00 7.22 Cornea Aqueous humor Lens Vitreous humor 1.80 — 10.91 7. .59 1.55 – 16. (a) Relaxed eye showing the far point at infinity.50 10. Optical parameters of the paraxial models of the eye.90 0 0 55.20 — 3.80 6.55 3.09 24.

and the outer region gives a general view of an object scene. that are progressively smaller in size from one row to the next. Birds of prey keep a rapidly moving object in constant focus over a wide range of distances by changing the curvature of the cornea. The optic nerve transmits the retinal . as illustrated in Figure 6-5b.240 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS distance between the lens and retina. small children or illiterate folks) are shown instead a row of E letters oriented at various angles. 100. As a starting point for the correction. and 200 ft. on the other hand. 15. Thus. The width of the black strokes and white spaces in the letters in a given row subtend an angle of one arc min each at a distance corresponding to the row in question. Visual acuity is maximum at the fovea and decreases in the outer region of the retina. approximately 150° high and 210° wide. An adaptation of his table for a nearsighted person is shown in Table 6-2. 10. People who cannot read (e. 70. The eye has an elliptical field of view. It is generally measured by ophthalmologists by using an eye chart containing rows of letters. the eye becomes color blind due to the low sensitivity of the cones. as shown in Figure 6-5a. Eggers developed an approximate correspondence between visual acuity and the required corrective power by testing a large number of patients [3]. it is indeed the curvature of the cornea that is changed. and the patients are asked to describe the orientation using their fingers. Pictures of familiar animals and other artifacts of progressively smaller size are also used with children to get their attention. The eyeball rotates automatically as needed so that the image of the region of interest in a certain object falls on the fovea. The stereoscopic field of view obtained with the use of both eyes is approximately circular with an angular diameter of about 130°. For every row above the eighth in the Snellen chart. 30.4 Visual Acuity Visual acuity (or sharpness of distant vision) is a measure of one's ability to resolve details. 6. In a cataract operation.. the patient selects the lens that gives the best vision while looking at the Snellen letters. for example.2. called Snellen letters. the crystalline lens is replaced by a plastic lens. the automated phoropters estimate the refractive error of a patient’s vision and switch the lenses. the letters used are in the native language of a person. In Lasik (laser in-situ keratomileusis) surgery. In low illumination. which is for 20/20 vision. These days. The normal vision is obviously 20/20. these people can do at 20 ft. his vision is referred to as 20/60 (or 6/18 in the metric system). 50. the power correction increases in magnitude by –0. A person is considered legally blind if the corrected vision is 20/200 or worse. Thus. Of course.g. It is customary to place the Snellen chart at a distance of 20 ft (or 6 m) from the patient and make the letter size in successive rows such that they subtend an angle of 5 arc min at distances of. If the smallest letters that a patient can read at 20 ft are the ones that a normal eye would distinguish at 60 ft. 25. 20. the letters that a normal person can distinguish at 15 ft.25 diopter up to the second row and by –0. but some people have a visual acuity of 20/15. Visual acuity decreases as illumination decreases. the fovea provides the details.5 diopter in the other rows.

Snellen eye charts for (a) literate and (b) illiterate patients. 241 .2 Eye (a) (b) Figure 6-5.6.

called emmetropic. the length of the eyeball. For example.5 Spectacles (or Eyeglasses) In a normal eye.5 20/600 –6.242 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS Table 6-2. the focusing power of the eye is too high. An eye that does not form a sharp image of an object at infinity on the retina is called ametropic. There are two types of ametropia: myopia. Relationship between visual acuity and the corresponding corrective power required in diopers for a nearsighted person.0 20/400 –4. as illustrated in Figure 6-6a.50 5 20/40 –0.e.75 4 20/50 –1. and the eye is said to be myopic.00 7 20/25 –0. When parallel rays from an object at infinity are focused at F ¢ in front of the retina. called the far point.25 6 20/30 –0.0 20/500 –5. yet a person sees it as being erect.0 20/300 –3. i. Such a condition can also happen if the curvature of the cornea is too high. They arise because of the incorrect relationship between the curvature of the cornea and its distance from the retina.00 20/200 –2. and all points beyond . Snellen row Visual acuity Refractive correction 8 20/20 0. the image of an object on the retina is inverted.2. or farsightedness. is located at infinity. the most distant point. 6. It has the consequence that the far point falls short of infinity.5 20/350 –4.25 2 20/100 –1..5 20/450 –5.50 20/250 –3. and hypermetropia. popularly known as nearsightedness.00 3 20/70 –1.50 20/150 –2.5 1 image to the brain which interprets it.

The virtual image is the object for the eye. Myopic (or nearsighted) eye. thus forming a blurry image on the retina. which images it at F ¢ on the retina. (d) Object P closer than the far point imaged at P ¢ on the retina by the spectacle lens and accommodation. illustrating that nearby objects are seen well.6. (a) Object at infinity focused at F ¢ by a relaxed eye in front of its retina. (b) Objects at the far point and closer are in focus.2 Eye 243 F¢ Object at infinity (a) P¢ P Far point (b) F¢ Object at infinity (c) P¢ P Nearby object (d) Figure 6-6. . (c) Object at infinity imaged by a negative spectacle lens forming a virtual image at the far point.

forms a line image of a point object even when it lies on its axis. distant objects are seen well only by accommodation.e. i. the near point of such a person is more distant than that for a normal eye.e. which the eye is able to focus on without accommodation. resulting in different power in different meridians (see Figure 6-8). using somewhat less accommodation.e.. distant objects are seen well. Of course. a person afflicted with astigmatism sees only a blurry image. as illustrated in Figure 6-7a. Accordingly. the cornea has an uneven curvature (as an egg and not as a pingpong ball). An object point P located at the far point is imaged at P ¢ on the retina without any accommodation (see Figure 6-6b). If the object consists of vertical and horizontal lines. nearby objects are imaged by the lens beyond the near point. at or within the far point. The nearby objects are focused on with accommodation. However. i. However. A person with such a condition is said to be farsighted. there is not sufficient accommodation for nearby objects. A person with a myopic eye is said to be nearsighted. and spectacles are needed to see well any objects that are closer than this point. which.. The far point F ¢ of a hyperope is virtually located behind the eye. nearby objects are seen well. objects at distances shorter than the far point are also seen well without the spectacles. However. The objects at other distances are seen well with accommodation. as in Figure 6-7a. This is analogous to the spoked-wheel example of Figure 9-16. Its axis can be determined by looking at an . to see it well. A myope brings an object close enough. but the distant objects are not. or the lens has become too thin in its relaxed state. A myopic eye can be compensated with a negative spectacle lens such that the combination of the two yields a focus on the retina without accommodation [4]. When an object lying at infinity is focused beyond the retina. With normal accommodation.244 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS it will appear blurred. as in the wires of a window screen. The astigmatism of the eye may be other than horizontal or vertical. A hyperope pushes objects at an arm's length (> 25 cm) to see them well.. This distance represents the near point of the person. the cornea is less curved.e.e. An object at infinity is imaged by the spectacle lens at the far point (see Figure 6-6c). as illustrated in Figure 6-7b. i. i. such a person can focus (by accommodation) on only the vertical or the horizontal lines at a time. the eye is said to be hyperopic. but nearby objects are not. in turn. The near point of a myope with normal accommodation is closer than if the eye was emmetropic (normal). It arises from a cornea that is toric (or spherocylindrical) instead of being spherical. Objects closer than P are imaged on the retina with accommodation. With a positive spectacle lens. are brought in focus by accommodation. as illustrated in Figure 6-6d.. A toric surface. i. which are imaged beyond the retina and are therefore out of focus (see Figure 6-7c). Another common defect of the eye is astigmatism. such as that illustrated in Figure 6-9. which the eye images on the retina. The focal length of the spectacle lens is chosen so as to bring the near point to a comfortable distance of 25 cm (see Figure 6-7d). distant objects are imaged sharply without much accommodation. An object at infinity is imaged by it at the far point. where the rim is in focus in one observation plane and the spokes are in focus in another when imaged by a lens with astigmatism. The focusing power of the eye is too weak. as illustrated in Figure 6-7e..

which the eye images at P ¢ on the retina. (b) Object at or beyond the near point focused on the retina by accommodation.2 Eye 245 F¢ Far point Object at infinity (a) P¢ P Near point (b) P¢ P 25 cm (c) P¢ Near point P 25 cm (d) F¢ Object at infinity Far point (e) Figure 6-7. (e) Object at infinity imaged by the spectacle lens at the far point.6. (d) Positive spectacle lens images an object P at 25 cm at the near point. . Hyperopic (or farsighted) eye. thus forming a blurry image on the retina. The focal point F ¢ is the virtual far point of the eye. (a) Object at infinity focused beyond the retina by a relaxed eye. (c) Object P closer than the near point imaged at P ¢ beyond the retina even with accommodation. which the eye images on the retina.

a patient perceives only a blurry image. It introduces power only along its axis. and the curvature of the front surface provides the needed myopic or hyperopic correction. is nonzero even for an axial object. resulting in a blurry image of a point object on the retina.. which is zero for an axial object.g. the one at 30° from the vertical in Figure 6-10b. However. (b) Concave. then a toric lens is required for correction. and a circular image is formed halfway between them. The spoke that is seen in focus. astigmatism eye chart consisting of radial spokes. illustrated in Figure 6-11. which results from an uneven curvature of the cornea. Toric surface. represents the axis of astigmatism. Astigmatic eye illustrating a cornea with uneven curvature.246 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS Figure 6-8. with a rigid contact lens. If the eye is also myopic or hyperopic. (a) Convex. A cylindrical lens. Astigmatism of the eye is different from that of rotationally symmetric optical imaging systems. (a) (b) Figure 6-9. Thus. as shown in Figure 6-10a. is used to correct astigmatism. astigmatism practically disappears. A soft contact lens requires proper orientation to align its toroidal power with that of the eye. astigmatism of the eye. Although line images are formed in front of and behind the retina. the space between its back surface and the cornea is filled with the tear fluid. However. . e.

for example. With age comes another condition called presbiopia.. reading and sewing). driving and watching television) and another for nearby objects (e. inability of the eye to accommodate. Visual acuity of a person does not by itself determine if that person is .e. A starting point for a prescription is determined by looking at the eye chart without any spectacles. a farsighted person wears bifocals with a more-positive lower half. Some people cannot adjust to bifocal spectacles and keep two sets. In order to read it. (a) Convex. the newspaper is kept at arm’s length. indicating the axis of astigmatism at 30 o from the vertical.g. a nearsighted person may use one pair of spectacles for distant objects (e. (b) Chart as observed by an astigmatic eye. The near point in this case has receded beyond the comfortable reading distance..2 Eye 247 (a) (b) Figure 6-10. The crystalline lens hardens and becomes inflexible. (b) Concave. The choice is either to remove the eyeglasses or wear bifocal lenses with a less-negative lower half. cannot read a newspaper at a normal distance while wearing glasses. Cylindrical lens showing parallel rays incident on it are focused on a line (as opposed to a point in the case of a spherical lens). i. (a) Astigmatism eye chart. As a result.g.6. Similarly.. For example. Real line focus Virtual line focus (a) (b) Figure 6-11. a nearsighted person.

25 D.75 –0. e.75 D.75 D on the other. and the lens is said to be toric.e. Such a lens is satisfactory when viewing through its center. Thus. Similarly. but it has large aberrations near its edge. and the power of the cylinder in the 47° meridian is 6.50 D Left eye 2.00 D.50 D for both eyes in the lower half of the spectacle lens. The rear surface (i. The power of a spectacle lens is defined to within a quarter diopter. The range of spherical lenses is generally ± 20 D.50 D nearsighted or farsighted. and Table 6-2 indicates a visual acuity lower than 20/300. one that has surfaces with curvatures of the same sign. a blank with – 3.248 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS Table 6-3. A typical eye prescription. The negative sign on the spherical correction implies that this eye is nearsighted. Eye Sphere Cylinder Axis Right Eye (Oculus Dexter) (Left Eye (Oculus Sinister) –3. as illustrated in Figure 2-19. Because the prescription calls for a combination of a sphere and a cylinder.e. the left eye needs a combination of a sphere having a power of – 3.25 D. i.25 D. and the range of cylindrical lenses is ± 7 D in steps of 0.25 30° Bifocal (Reading Glasses) Right eye 2. they start with a blank that is close to the power required.50 –0.50 D and a cylinder having a power of –0. The outer portions of the field of view are improved by using a meniscus lens. the one closer to the eye) is concave with a power of –6. The optician transposes the prescription such that in the meridian at 137°.75 137° –3. with its axis inclined 30° from the vertical toward the temple.75 D and a cylinder having a power of – 0. the front surface needs to be toroidal. A typical eye prescription may read like the author's shown in Table 6-3. A precise prescription is determined by looking at the eye chart through a variety of lenses in a trial frame until the visual acuity becomes normal or as high as possible.00 D on one surface.75 D on one side and a cylinder with a power of –0.. The prescription is bifocal. In practice.75 D. The prescription for the right eye calls for a combination of a sphere having a power of – 3. the power of the front surface is 2. The optician can fill the prescription for the right eye by starting from a flat blank and grinding a sphere with a power of – 3.g.. with its axis inclined 47° from the vertical toward the temple. needing a spherical power of 2. both eyes have astigmatism.. .

6. The cause of poor acuity is not always an abnormal refraction by the cornea or the lens. Let  = .S ¢) f ¢ . This results in an increase in the size of the image on the retina. However. A magnifier. or distance from the retina. Whether the spectacles will improve the acuity or not can be easily checked by looking through a pinhole (so that only a small central region of the cornea/lens is used). If it is placed inside the focus F of the magnifier at a distance S from it. as illustrated in Figure 6-12b. plastic lenses (Plexiglass) of index 1.h 25 be the angle subtended by an object of height h (in cm) when placed at the near point. it forms a large virtual but erect image of height h ¢ at a distance S ¢ from the eye. Sometimes. If the person under examination can see well. People use it as a magnifying reading glass to look at fine print. it can be brought much closer to the eye. the condition is pathological. Otherwise. Although this distance varies somewhat from person to person. 6. Their refractive index ranges from 1. which the eye keeps in focus by accommodation. They are approximately 100 mm thick and ride on the tear fluid. As an object is moved closer from a position P1 to a position P2 . as illustrated in Figure 6-12c.523. a glass with a high refractive index of 1. These days. the spectacles will help. 25 cm is considered a standard near point or the distance of most distinct vision. and the spectacles may not help at all. as illustrated in Figure 6-12a.3 Magnifier 249 Spectacle lenses are generally made with (spectacle) crown glass of refractive index 1.43 to 1. A contact lens rests on the cornea with a conforming shape. They are made from some polymer or even Plexiglass. and the image gets blurred.70 is used to reduce the weight of the lens. This virtual image is seen by the eye subtending a much larger angle ¢ on the retina. where h ¢ = h( S ¢ S) = h ( f ¢ . which change transmission as a function of illumination level. It may simply be due to other causes. are also quite common.495 are used because their weight is roughly half that of a glass lens. there is a limit to how close the object can get before the eye is not able to accommodate any more. Photochromic lenses. such as the media of the eye may be partially opaque. The contact lenses are meniscus lenses varying from 6 to 15 mm in diameter. If a magnifier of focal length f ¢ lies at a distance d from the eye. If the object is observed through a magnifier.3 MAGNIFIER The apparent size of an object as seen with an unaided eye depends on the angle it subtends at the eye. the angle it subtends at the eye increases from 1 to 2 . (6-1) . also called a simple microscope. and watchmakers use it as an eye loupe to look at the details inside a watch. weighing about 1 to 3 mg.49. it forms a virtual image of height h ¢ at a distance S ¢ + d from the eye. or the retina may be diseased. is a positive lens used to magnify the image beyond one’s accommodation.

(d) Object placed in the front focal plane of the magnifier and observed through a magnifier in (near) contact with the eye.250 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS P1 P1¢ P2¢ P2 (a) h Near point (–)b 25 cm (b) h¢ (–)b¢ h F (–)f (–)S (–)d (–)S¢ (c) (–)b¢ h F (–)f (d) Figure 6-12. (b) Object observed at the standard distance of 25 cm. Magnifier. (c) Object observed through a magnifier of focal length f ¢ kept at a distance d from the eye. (a) Object at various distances observed with an unaided eye. .

we let d Æ 0 .• . When an object P0 P is placed just beyond the focal point of the objective. The smaller the value of f ¢ is. For example.4 MICROSCOPE A microscope is generally used to see the details of very small objects at very short distances. Moreover. f¢ (6-3) where f ¢ is in cm. both the objective and the eyepiece are actually made up of several lenses to reduce the monochromatic as well as chromatic aberrations (which are discussed in Chapters 7 and 8). as in Figure 9-13d. and the other with a somewhat longer focal length called the eyepiece. 6.25 cm.f ¢ and S ¢ = .h 25 = - 25( f ¢ . and a normal eye sees it without much accommodation. Accordingly. or more accurately. one with a very short focal length called the objective. The pupil of the eye is placed at the exit pupil. (6-4) This result can also be obtained from Eq. if the image formed by the magnifier lies at the near point of the eye. then S = .• .6. The objective of a microscope is its aperture stop. the field of view is restricted. If the object is placed in the focal plane of the magnifier. consists of two lenses. the visual magnification becomes Mb = 25 +1 . a microscope. then S ¢ = . the larger the value of the magnification. The ratio of the size of the retinal image thus formed to its size when the object is seen without the magnifier from a distance of 25 cm is called the visual magnification of the magnifier. and its image by the eyepiece is its exit pupil. In practice.h f ¢ and Mb Æ 25 f ¢ . In this case. As illustrated in Figure 6-13. otherwise. (6-2) by letting S ¢ Æ .4 Microscope 251 The virtual image is seen by the eye subtending an angle ¢ = h ¢ ( S ¢ + d ) at the eye. regardless of the value of d.S ¢) . All of the light entering the objective and refracted by the eyepiece passes through the exit pupil. If it is held close to the eye. a magnifier with a focal length of 5 cm is labeled as 5 ¥ . f ¢( S ¢ + d ) (6-2) The magnification increases when the magnifier is moved closer to the eye. It is given by the angular magnification Mb = ¢  = h¢ (S ¢ + d ) . ¢ Æ . a real . a compound microscope. The magnifiers are often specified by this magnification.

Object P0 P is placed slightly beyond the focus of the first lens. The magnified image P0¢¢P ¢¢ is viewed by the eye. as the image P0¢¢¢P ¢¢¢ . The magnification M of the retinal image is equal to the product of the transverse magnification Mt of the image formed by the objective and the angular magnification M of the image formed by the eyepiece: M = Mt M . The second lens. The magnified virtual image P0¢¢P ¢¢ is observed by the eye. Microscope (or a compound microscope). magnified image P0¢P ¢ is formed by it. yielding a final image P0¢¢¢P ¢¢¢ on the retina. magnifies the image P0¢P ¢ formed by the objective. called the objective.OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS Objective F¢o P¢¢ P0¢¢ P P0 Fo a AS EnP (–)a¢ L P¢ Fe P0¢ Eyepiece ExP Eye P¢¢¢ P¢¢¢ 0 252 Figure 6-13. (6-5) An approximate expression for the magnification may be obtained in terms of the tube length L of the microscope and the focal lengths fo¢ and fe¢ of the objective and the eyepiece (see Figure 6-13). placed at the exit pupil of the microscope. called the eyepiece. The objective forms the image of the object in the vicinity of the object-space focal point Fe of the eyepiece at an approximate distance L from the . This image is further magnified by the eyepiece acting as a magnifier.

and the telescope . the magnification of this image is given by Mt = . such as an oil. which. forms the virtual image P0¢¢P ¢¢ at infinity. (6-5).8. (2-83).5 TELESCOPE Whereas a microscope is used to view very small.L fo¢ . The magnification M represents the ratio of the size of the retinal image when an object is viewed through the microscope to its size when viewed without any aid but placed at a distance of 25 cm.4 in the form of a beam expander.L in Eq. (6-6) This image is magnified by the eyepiece.) In Figure 6-14a. to yield a higher numerical aperture and better resolution.6. (6-7) Both Eqs. is seen by the eye.5. A nearsighted or farsighted person can remove their spectacles and focus the microscope by moving the eyepiece in and out. in turn. both lenses are positive. but the second is negative. a telescope is used to view large. which. an astronomical telescope also consists of two lenses: an objective and an eyepiece. as discussed in Section 6. In Figure 6-14b. and represent an example of an afocal system. as may be seen by letting t = fo¢ + fe¢ . (6-6) and (6-7) become exact when the objective forms the image P0¢P ¢ of the object in the focal plane of the eyepiece. Like a microscope. 6. (426). Substituting these equations into Eq. but an astigmatic person must wear them when observing with a microscope. and the telescope is called Keplerian. Sometimes the space between the cover glass and the objective is filled with a liquid. (6-8a) (6-8b) where f¢ = - L fo¢ fe¢ (6-9) is the focal length of the microscope. From Eq.5 Telescope 253 image-space focal point Fo¢ of the objective. as illustrated in Figure 6-14. The two lenses in a telescope are confocal (or common focus). (A reflecting afocal telescope is discussed in Section 3. The visual magnification of the retinal image formed by the eyepiece is given by M = 25 fe¢ . distant objects. nearby objects. the first lens is positive. in turn. we obtain the magnification of the microscope: M = - L 25 fo¢ fe¢ = 25 f ¢ . Objects are often observed with a microscope by placing them under a cover glass.

if the object position changes by a distance S . as may be seen by reversing the system. i. the image of an object can be determined by applying the Gaussian or the Newtonian imaging equation recursively to the two lenses. (a) A Keplerian telescope has positive lenses. but f2¢ is numerically negative.254 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS D1 D2 F¢1 . F2 – f2¢ f1¢ (a) Keplerian telescope D1 F¢1 . A screen with a hole. (b) A Galilean telescope has a positive first lens but a negative second lens. then the Galilean telescope can be used to avoid air breakdown at the common focus. F 2 D2 – f2¢ f1¢ (b) Galilean telescope Figure 6-14. then the image position changes by a distance S ¢ = Mt2 S .e. Similarly. if the second lens has a longer focal length. If the first lens has a longer focal length than that of the second.. and the second lens of smaller diameter D2 is called the eyepiece (because the observing eye is placed near it). f1¢ is numerically positive. A parallel beam of light incident on the system is focused at the common focus by the first lens and emerges as a parallel beam from the second. i. if the beam is of high power. where Mt is the transverse magnification of the image (and the refractive indices of the object and image spaces are both equal to unity). In Figure 6-14. The first lens of diameter D1 is called the objective (because it is closer to the object). can be inserted at the focus to clean up a laser beam incident on a Keplerain telescope. The image-space focal point F1¢ of the first lens and the object-space focal point F2 of the second lens are coincident. Refracting telescope consisting of two lenses with a common focus.e. . (2-111). according to Eq. f1¢ and f2¢ are both numerically positive. then the system can be used as a beam expander. called a spatial filter. the system may also be used as a beam reducer. However.. It is easy to see from the figure that the beam-expansion ratio D2 D1 is given by f2¢ f1¢ . where D and f ¢ are the diameter and the image-space focal length of a lens. is called Galilean. Now.

parallel rays are incident on the second lens. The distance between the eyepiece and the exit pupil is called the eye relief. it forms a virtual image P ¢¢ of P ¢ at infinity. A real inverted image is formed at P ¢ in its focal plane. which focuses them at F2¢ . if the eyepiece is confocal with the objective).fe¢( fe¢ + fo¢) fo¢ . Considering F1 as the object. which is observed by a relatively relaxed eye as P ¢¢¢ . Conjugate focal points. If the focus of the eyepiece also lies in this plane (i. the object-space focal point F1 of the first lens and the image-space focal point F2¢ of the second lens are conjugates of each other. Its image by the eyepiece of a short focal length fe¢ is the exit pupil ExP.e.6. Thus. is the image distance corresponding to an object distance s = fe¢ + fo¢ . the magnification of the pupil is given by m ∫ Dex Den (6-10) = s¢ s = . (6-11) F2¢ F1 f2¢ (–)f1 (a) F2¢ F1 (–)f2¢ (–)f1 (b) Figure 6-15. . the aperture stop AS lies at the objective.f ¢ f ¢ . The eye is placed as close to the exit pupil as possible (to avoid restricting the field of view). as illustrated in Figure 615. indicated as s ¢ in Figure 6-16b. (a) Keplarian telescope. therefore. If Dex and Den are the diameters of the entrance and exit pupils. the entrance pupil EnP. It is given by s ¢ = . This distance. (b) Galilean telescope. Parallel rays from a point on a distant object are shown incident on an objective of a long focal length fo¢ in Figure 6-16a.5 Telescope 255 Incidentally. the first lens forms its image at infinity. In astronomical telescopes.. which is.

. and ¢ is the angle subtended at the eye by the image formed by the eyepiece. (b) The eyepiece limits the angle of a chief ray CR that can be trasmitted by it. . i. It may be seen from the triangles BCE and CEO formed by the chief ray CR in Figure 6-16b that the magnification of the retinal image due to the telescope is given by the ratio of the focal length of the objective to that of the eyepiece.e. Fe (–)b B Fe¢ C D b¢ E P¢ Dex O MR Eyepiece Objective fo¢ (–)s – fe¢ s¢ (b) Figure 6-16. (6-12) where  is the angle subtended by the object at the objective (or at the unaided eye). Fe b¢ P¢¢¢ Fe¢ (–)b P¢ Eye Eyepiece Objective P¢¢ at infinity fo¢ – fe¢ (a) AS EnP MR A ExP CR Den CR F o¢ . (a) The image formed by the objective is reimaged by the confocal eyepiece at infinity.256 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS AS EnP ExP CR F o¢ . Keplerian telescope with positive objective and eyepiece. The magnification of the telescope is given by Mb = ¢  . which is observed by a relaxed eye. It represents the factor by which the telescope magnifies the angular separation of the images of two distant objects. This result may also be seen from similar triangles ABFe and CDFe formed by the marginal ray from an axial point object at infinity.

the eyepiece is a negative lens. (6-11).fo¢ fe¢ . as illustrated in Figure 6-18b. and the eye relief is reduced. Treating the EnP as the object at a distance s and ExP as its image by the objective at a distance s ¢ = fo¢ + fe¢ . Such astronomical telescopes are referred to as terrestrial telescopes. In practice. its image by the eyepiece yields the exit pupil of the telescope. Although the position of the final image is unaffected by the field lens. at the image formed by the objective. (6-14). Sometimes prisms or additional lenses are used to erect the image. placed as close to the eyepiece as possible. becomes the aperture stop AS and the exit pupil ExP of the telescope.5 Telescope 257 Mb = s s ¢ = Den Dex (6-13) = . Thus.6. (6-14) indicates that the image formed by the telescope is inverted. Figure 6-17a shows an object at a field angle  such that only the rays from the lowest portion of the objective are incident on the eyepiece. the eye cannot be placed at the exit pupil of the telescope. all other rays are vignetted (unless the diameter of the eyepiece is increased).e. the eye. and is observed by the eye. If the aperture stop of the telescope lies at the objective. the magnification of the retinal image due to the telescope is given by Eq. as in Figure 6-16b. the total magnification of the telescope is obtained by multiplying the magnification of the objective with that of the eyepiece. However. Similarly. the ratio of the diameters of the exit and entrance pupils) is given by Eq. and neglecting the distance between the eye and the eyepiece. For two positive lenses. a lens placed at the intermediate image plane bends the rays toward the eyepiece.. a telescope with a large field of view is accompanied by a correspondingly small image magnification (as observed by the eye). It lies behind the observer in Figure 6-18b. Hence. Accordingly. from Eq. both focal lengths are numerically positive and the negative sign in Eq. the angle  represents the unvignetted field of view of the telescope. The increase in the field of view is obtained without increasing the diameter of the eyepiece. We also note that the eyepiece limits the angle of a chief ray transmitted by the system. Its large image formed by the telescope is the entrance pupil EnP of the system. the field lens is often displaced slightly to avoid seeing its imperfections. We . as illustrated in Figure 6-18a. (6-14) For an object lying at a finite distance. Although Figure 6-16a indicates that a chief ray with a larger angle than shown may be transmitted by the eyepiece. Thus. The field of view of a telescope can be increased by inserting a lens. called a field lens. the exit pupil does move to the left. In a Galilean telescope. The objective forms a real inverted image of the object at P ¢ that becomes a virtual object for the negative eyepiece. (6-12). it also indicates that the outer rays in the off-axis ray bundle will be vignetted. as illustrated in Figure 6-17b. An erect but virtual image is formed at infinity by the eyepiece. With a slightly larger angle. the magnification of the pupil (i. This image lies between the objective and the eyepiece. thus eliminating vignetting. there would be complete vignetting.

Fe Fe¢ (–)b b¢ Eye P¢ Eyepiece Objective P¢¢ at infinity fo¢ – fe¢ (a) AS EnP Field Lens ExP P¢¢¢ CR F o¢ . (a) Field of view limitation because of vignetting of rays. Fe Fe¢ (–)b b¢ Eye P¢ Objective Eyepiece P¢¢ at infinity fo¢ – fe¢ (b) Figure 6-17. Use of a field lens to increase the field of view of a Keplarian telescope. . The chief advantage of the Galilean telescope is its small overall length.258 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS AS EnP ExP P¢¢¢ CR F o¢ . It is used for viewing operas and sports. except from the lowest portion of the objective. Therefore. note that in this case the objective limits the angle of a chief ray transmitted by the telescope. it is the field stop of the system. (b) Vignetting eliminated by a field lens placed in the focal plane of the objective.

in practice. The entrance pupil EnP is indicated as the object. Whereas a magnifier is used to look at a real object. The lens closer to the eye is called the eye lens. Fe P¢ Objective Eyepiece fo¢ fe (a) AS ExP EnP CR (–)b¢ (–)b MR Eyepiece Eye Objective fe fo¢ (b) Figure 6-18. It consists of two lenses of the same material separated by a distance equal to half the sum of their focal lengths. 6. 6.6. a system with an image-space focal length f ¢ and an angular field of view . Consider. (b) Objective as the field stop. compound lenses are designed to reduce lateral color (discussed in Chapter 7). Such eyepieces are called oculars. An afocal system can also be used to change the effective focal length and field of view of another system by inserting it in the collimated region of the other system.2. and eye as the aperture stop AS.6 OCULAR Although a magnifier may be used as an eyepiece in a microscope or a telescope. an ocular is used to look at an image formed by another optical system. Binoculars consist of two telescopes mounted side-by-side. one for each eye.6 Ocular 259 P¢¢ at infinity F o¢ .7 TELEPHOTO LENS AND WIDE-ANGLE CAMERA A telephoto lens is used to take adequate-size pictures of distant objects. for example. and the exit pupil ExP is its image by the objective. .6. and the one close to the objective is called the field lens. (a) Galilean telescope with a negative eyepiece. An example of an ocular is the Huygens eyepiece discussed in Section 7.

Because such an image is increased in size by the use of the afocal system. where f2¢ < f1¢ . e must be £ D2 f1¢. giving a long effective focal length and thereby a large image of a distant object.f2¢ f1¢ is the transverse magnification of the afocal system. where D2 is the diameter of the beam emerging from the afocal system. F 2 (–)b¢ F¢2 H¢ F¢. Now. which is smaller than ¢ by a factor of 1 Mt . F¢e f¢ fe¢ (a) Telephoto system be F1¢. The first lens in the figure is positive. We note from the figure that the angular magnification is M = ¢ e = 1 Mt .260 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS be F1 b¢ F2¢ H¢ He¢ F¢. Thus. A positive and a . (b) Wide-angle lens attached to an imaging system.. If ¢ is the field of view of the imaging system by itself.e. Similarly. we find that the effective field of view of the combined system is reduced to e . f1¢ is numerically positive. i. F ¢ and H ¢ are the image-space focal point and principal point of the imaging system. F¢e H¢e fe¢ f¢ (b) Wide-angle system Figure 6-19. and the second is negative. but f2¢ is numerically negative. and Mt < 1. the combined system is a telephoto system. The combined system has a longer effective focal length fe¢ = f ¢ Mt . where Mt = . It should be noted that adding an afocal system to an imaging system is not the only way to achieve the telephoto effect. the size of the image of a distant object formed by an optical system depends linearly on its focal length. and M > 1 or e < ¢ . Note that to avoid vignetting by the afocal system. Figure 6-19a shows how it can be combined with an afocal system to form a telephoto system. (a) Telephoto lens attached to an imaging system. Fe¢ and He¢ are the object-space focal point and principal point of the combined system. giving a short effective focal length and thereby giving a wide field of view.

a microscope. This distribution is shown in Figure 6-20. For a system with an exit pupil of diameter D and a spherical wavefront of radius of curvature R converging to the Gaussian image point. and introduce the Rayleigh criterion of resolution. called the Airy pattern. If ¢ is the field of view of the imaging system by itself. The angular magnification of the afocal system is M = ¢ e = . or that the combined system is a wide-angle system.8 RESOLUTION 6.1 Mt . and r is the radial distance of a point from the Gaussian image point in units of l F . Similarly. When the afocal system is used in reverse so that the first lens is negative ( f1¢ < 0) and the second lens is positive ( f2¢ > 0). the resolution of a system is inherently limited by diffraction. a large group of people. Note that ¢ is numerically negative in Figure 6-19b. We discuss the resolution of an eye. the exit pupil) of the system.8. 6. All of the rays emanating from a point object and transmitted by an imaging system pass through the Gaussian image point.12. the image of a point object is also a point. (6-15) where J1 ( ) is the first-order Bessel function of the first kind. 6. The irradiance distribution of the diffraction image of a point object. assuming an aberrationfree system.2 Airy Pattern Let l be the wavelength of the object radiation and F be the focal ratio of the image-forming light cone.1 Introduction The resolution of an optical instrument represents its ability to resolve detail in an object. like for example. a point image is not obtained even if the aberrations are zero (otherwise. the rays generally intersect the image plane in the vicinity of the image point as a spot diagram due to the aberrations of the system (see Chapter 9) because the ability of a system to resolve objects is limited by its aberrations. of course.6. we briefly discuss the characteristics of the diffraction image of a point object. a wide-angle lens is used to take pictures of large.f2¢ f1¢ . It consists of a bright spot. However. where P is the total power. in practice. the effective focal length of the combined system is reduced to fe¢ = f ¢ Mt . Based on Gaussian optics. is given by [5] [ I (r ) = 2 J1 ( p r ) p r ◊ ] 2 . called the Airy disc. F = R D . In this section. the irradiance at the image point would be infinity). and M < 1 or e > ¢ .8. Thus. surrounded by dark and bright rings of decreasing irradiance. we find that the effective field of view e of the combined system is larger than . It is only further degraded by the aberrations. and Mt > 1. where Mt = . . and a telescope. The distribution is normalized 2 by the value p P 4l2 F of the irradiance at the center r = 0 . as in Figure 6-19b.8 Resolution 261 negative lens of suitable focal lengths also form a telephoto system. as illustrated by Problem 2. because of diffraction of the wave by the finite aperture stop (or. equivalently. In reality. nearby objects.

The irradiance distribution has a principal maximum at the center with a value of unity because È 2 J (x) ˘ Limit Í 1 ˙ = 1 . with 83.2 . dx ÍÎ x ˙˚ x (6-18) ◊ where J 2 ( ) is the second-order Bessel function of the first kind. the positions of the secondary maxima are given by the roots of J 2 (p r ) = 0.262 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS Figure 6-20. 2D diffraction image of a point object. (6-17) Noting that J ( x) d È J1 ( x ) ˘ = . (6-19) . r π 0 . x Æ 0 Î x ˚ (6-16) Its minima are zero at the positions given by the roots of J1 ( p r ) = 0. r π 0 .8% of the total light in the central bright spot. called the Airy pattern.

If the Gaussian images are located at x = ± 0.61) Ô˛ ÔÓ p( x + 0. We note that the Airy disc. is shown in Figure 6-22.23. with inner and outer radii of 1. 6.61)] ¸Ô I(x) = Ì 1 ˝ +Ì ˝ ÔÓ p( x .8 Resolution 263 Integrating the Airy pattern over a circular area. According to Eq. (6-17). compared to a maximum value of unity at x = ± 0.6.22 and 2. According to the Rayleigh criterion of resolution. Thus. two incoherent object points are just resolved if the linear separation between their Gaussian images is 1.61) Ô˛ 2 . The positions of several minima and maxima.22 l D.J02 ( p rm ) . The irradiance and encircled power distributions of the Airy pattern are shown in Figure 6-21. the irradiance distribution of the image of the two-point object along the x axis is given by 2 ÏÔ 2 J [ p( x . (6-20) ◊ which is normalized by the total power P. the second bright ring 2. The first bright ring. contains 7. The central value is 0. (6-23) where x is in units of l F .22 l F . because the dark rings (minima of zero irradiance) correspond to J1 ( p r ) = 0 .22 (in units of lF ) and contains 83. are given in Table 6-4.0.8. then the Airy patterns overlap to the extent that the two point objects cannot be resolved. which is symmetrical about x = 0 .J02 ( p rc ) .61 . We note that there is a dip in the irradiance at the center.2%. J0 ( ) is the zeroth-order Bessel function of the first kind. (6-21) Pout (rm ) = J 02 ( p rm ) .73.3 Rayleigh Criterion of Resolution A measure of the imaging quality of a system is its ability to resolve closely spaced objects.0.4% of the total power. and the relative irradiance and encircled power corresponding to them. two incoherent point objects of equal intensity are just resolved if the principal maximum of the Airy pattern of one of them falls on the first zero of the other. we note that the powers inside and outside an mth dark ring of radius rm (in units of l F ) are given by Pin (rm ) = 1 . The 2D image of the twopoint object is shown in Figure 6-23. . has a radius of 1.22l F or if their angular separation is 1. (6-22) and respectively.J12 ( p rc ) . Here.61 .61)] ¸Ô ÏÔ 2 J1[ p( x + 0.8% of the total power. we obtain the power contained in a circle of radius rc : P (rc ) = 1 . This distribution. and the third bright ring 1. If the spacing between the Gaussian images is much smaller than 1.8%. or the first dark ring.

944 Min 4. rc 2.867 Min 2.0 1. Table 6-4.5 1. Max/Min I (r ) r.6 0.0008 0.4 0.0016 0.0175 0.22 0 0. rc P( rc ) Max 0 1 0 Min 1.5 r.2 I 0.64 0.68 0.264 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS 1.5 3. The units of r and rc are l F .922 Min 3. Irradiance and encircled power corresponding to the maxima and minima of the Airy pattern.838 Max 1. P(rc) P 0. and the encircled power is normalized by the total power P .71 0.0 0.910 Max 2.24 0 0.952 Max 4.0042 0.957 .70 0.0 0. Irradiance and encircled power distributions of the Airy pattern.0 Figure 6-21.23 0 0.938 Max 3.0 2.24 0 0. The irradiance is normalized by its central value p 4 l 2 F 2 .0 0.8 I(r).

8 I (x) 0. . Figure 6-23. Irradiance distribution along the x axis of the image of two incoherent point objects of equal intensity separated by the Rayleigh resolution of 1.22ll F .22ll F . The central value is 0.6 0.73.2 0 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 x Figure 6-22.4 0.8 Resolution 265 1 0. 2D image of two incoherent point objects of equal intensity separated by the Rayleigh resolution of 1.6.

Li . If l 0 is the wavelength of object radiation in vacuum.e.22 l ¢( Li Dex ) (6-24b) = 0.22 l ¢ F .61 l ¢ a ¢ . (6-25) n ¢a ¢ where a is the semiangular aperture of the entrance pupil as seen from the object. Let the refractive indices of the object and image spaces be n and n ¢ . Thus. The two point objects are just resolved if the spacing h ¢ between their Gaussian images P0¢ and P ¢ . is equal to 1. Accordingly. Imaging of closely spaced objects. From the sine condition (see Reference 1 in Chapter 1). The object lies at a distance Lo from the entrance pupil of the system. as illustrated in Figure 6-24.22 l ¢ F . which has a diameter of Dex . where F = Li Dex is the focal ratio of the image-forming light cone.266 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS 6. the image of each point object is an Airy disc of radius 1.. Its image lies at a distance Li from the exit pupil.22 l ¢F (6-24a) = 1. respectively. respectively. In practice. Li >> Dex 2 . We assume that the system is aberration free so that the resolution is limited only by diffraction of light at the exit pupil. In EnP ExP n P h n¢ MR CR Den a MR Dex (–)a¢ (–)b O P0 O¢ P¢0 (–)b¢ (–)h¢ CR P¢ Optical System (–)L o Figure 6-24.8. i. its value in the object and image spaces is given by l = l 0 n and l ¢ = l 0 n ¢ . therefore. between the centers of their Airy discs.4 Resolution of an Imaging System Consider a system imaging two closely spaced point objects P0 and P. we may write h ¢ = 1. we have let tan a ¢ = sin a ¢ = a ¢ . (6-24c) where a ¢ = Dex 2 Li is the semiangular aperture of the exit pupil as seen from the image. the magnification of the Gaussian image is given by h¢ n sin a = h n ¢ sin a ¢ ~ n sin a .

the diameter of the exit pupil does not affect the distance between the Gaussian .61n ¢l ¢ n sin a = 0. According to Eq. i.61l 0 n sin a (6-26b) (6-26c) . (6-27) For small values of a . (6-24c) and (6-25). and the final image is formed on its retina (indeed. If it is smaller. this is the origin of the names for the entrance and exit pupils). The larger its value is. (6-27). reduces to  = 1.61l 0 nLo sin a . From Eqs. the angular resolution in the object space is given by  = h Lo = 0.e. it determines the flux entering the system. then any light outside of the eye’s pupil is wasted. For visual observations. we may write sin a ~ a = Den 2 Lo . from Eq. (6-30b) When  and ¢ are large.. (6-26c). Eq. the better the resolution.22 l ¢ Dex (6-30a) . they are replaced by their tangents. (6-29) Similarly. the value of the angle a can be quite large.8 Resolution 267 observations with microscopes. If it is larger.6. (6-28) where Den is the diameter of the entrance pupil of the system. From Eq. (6-24b). The quantity n sin a is called the numerical aperture of the imaging system. (5-33). Moreover. thereby degrading the resolution. then it determines the diameter of the Airy disc formed on the retina. as in the case of telescopes. the smaller the distance between two resolvable points. Otherwise. which increases. we obtain the minimum distance h between resolved object points P0 and P: h ~ n ¢ h ¢a ¢ (6-26a) n sin a = 0. We note that the numerical aperture also determines the resolution of a system. Of course. the apparent field of view is reduced. In such cases. the eye is placed at the exit pupil of the system.22 l 0 Den . the diameter of the exit pupil is chosen to be equal to that of the eye’s pupil. the angular resolution in the image space is given by ¢ = h ¢ Li = 1.

Choosing such a magnification is referred to as pupil matching. 2 ¥ 25 cm (6-31) where we have let n = 1 for objects in air and Lo = 25 cm as the distance of most distinct vision. The magnification of a system when the diameters of the exit pupil and the eye are equal is called its normal magnification. we assume that the eye is a thin lens forming images on the retina at a distance of 25 mm. From Eqs. 6. Schematic of imaging of closely spaced objects by a human eye. to which the eye is most sensitive.006 .8. The angle a represents the angle of the cone of light from a point object entering the eye. . However.5 Resolution of the Eye Consider an eye looking at two point objects P0 and P lying in a plane at a distance Lo . which depends on the magnification of the imaging system. Any magnification in excess of the normal magnification is called the empty magnification because it does not improve the apparent resolution. (6-26c) and (6-27). The image space consists of the vitreous humor with a refractive index of about 1. it still has merit in that positioning of the eye is eased and fatigue is reduced.268 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS images of the two object points. We assume an object wavelength of 0. the linear and angular resolutions of the eye in the object space are given by P CR h MR a (–)b P0¢ a¢ P0 (–)b¢ (–)L o (–)h¢ Deye P¢ Li Figure 6-25. For simplicity.55 mm. which is approximately the diameter of an adult eye ball.33. it is customary to assume a value of 3 mm for normal observations. Although the diameter of the pupil of the eye varies with the level of illumination. The numerical aperture of the eye is given by NAeye = n sin a ~ a = = Deye 2 Lo 3 mm = 0. as illustrated in Figure 6-25.

61 l 0 1.17 mrad = 0. the apparent field of view is reduced.61 l 0 n ¢a ¢ = 0.61 l ¢ a ¢ = 0.76¢ . and its image by the eyepiece is its exit pupil.6. the corresponding quantities in the image space are given by h ¢ = 0. and the Airy disc becomes larger. 6. . the numerical aperture of the eye decreases. If the diameter is increased. therefore.22 mrad = 0.2 mm = 0. 25 cm (6-33) From Eqs. All of the light entering the objective and refracted by the eyepiece passes through the exit pupil. (6-24c) and (6-30a). 25 mm (6-35) If the pupil of the eye is reduced in size. otherwise.57¢ .8.6 l 0 = 4.2 mm (6-34) and ¢ = h ¢ Li = 4. but the aberrations of the eye degrade it. the angle a and.33 (1. the diffraction-limited resolution increases. The pupil of the eye is placed at the exit pupil.6 Resolution of a Microscope We have seen that the eye can resolve objects in air that are separated by about 55 mm when observed at a distance of 25 cm. a microscope is used to observe them. When the objects are closer together.5 25) = 7. The objective of a microscope is its aperture stop.61 l 0 NAeye = 101 l 0 = 55 mm (6-32) and  = h Lo = 55 mm = 0.8 Resolution h = 269 0. thus degrading the resolution.

(6-37) and Dex is the diameter of the exit pupil assumed to be equal to that of the eye. the magnification of the microscope may be written M = = 2 n sin a Dex 25 cm NAobj NAeye . and M  = 25 cm f e¢ is the angular magnification of the eyepiece. The linear resolution given by Eq.6 = 0. by filling the space between the object and the objective with a liquid of refractive index matching that of the objective. Thus. where Mt is the transverse magnification of the objective.7 Resolution of a Telescope A microscope is used for viewing nearby objects. the numerical aperture can be increased to about 1.61 ¥ 0. a practical limit for its numerical aperture is about 0.006 = 267. Under normal magnification.95. An oil-immersion objective increases the numerical aperture compared to that of the eye and thereby improves the resolution by a factor of 1.270 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS Consider a microscope imaging two point objects such that their images are just resolved by the eye. This is expressed as a ratio of the numerical apertures of the microscope and the eye.6/0. where a¢ = Dex 2 fe . the quantity of interest from the standpoint of resolution is the minimum linear distance between two point objects in a plane that can be resolved. The sine condition applied to the objective yields (see Figure 6-13) Mt = = n sin a a¢ (6-36) 2n sin a Dex fe . The magnification of a microscope is given by Eq. The normal magnification is expressed in terms of the .22 l 0 Deye . Thus.21 mm . With a dry objective (n = 1) . and the quantity of interest is accordingly the minimum angle between two point objects that can be resolved. (6-38) where NAobj = n sin a is the numerical aperture of the objective.6.8. (6-39) 6. However. (6-26c) changes from 55 mm to h = 0. A telescope is used to view distant objects (such as stars and the moon). (6-5).55 mm 1. the eye can resolve objects whose images by the microscope subtend an angle of 1.

(6-42b) If the same extended object is observed with the aid of a telescope. As in the case of a microscope. respectively. if the exit pupil of the telescope is larger than the eye's pupil. it helps to see dim objects as well. then the Airy disc on the retina becomes larger. However. Thus. but the angular separation of the two objects as observed on the retina is increased by M . The large objective of the telescope not only improves the visual resolution. (6-29). the illuminance of the retinal image is given by F 2 = L Se ( n ¢ R¢) Si . the improvement in visual resolution is given by the ratio of the diameter of the objective to that of the eye’s pupil [see Eq. (613)]: M = Dobj . (6-11).8 Resolution 271 diameters of the objective of the telescope and the eye’s pupil. Under normal magnification of a telescope. The flux entering an eye with a pupil of area Se is given by ( F = L So Se R 2 ) . (6-42a) Therefore. For a confocal telescope with its objective and eyepiece of focal lengths f1¢ and f2¢ . It is common knowledge that stars are too dim compared with the sky to be observed in the daytime with a naked eye. but also increases the total flux in the image. The angular resolution of a system is given by Eq. then the eye sees the image formed by the telescope. the exit pupil lies at a distance f2¢( f1¢ + f2¢ ) f1¢ from the eyepiece with a . (6-41) where Se R 2 is the solid angle subtended by the pupil at the object. The diameter of the exit pupil is given by Eq. given by (see Figure 6-26a) 2 Ê R¢ ˆ Si = Á ˜ So Ë n¢ R ¯ .6. as illustrated in Figure 6-26b. Let D1 and D2 be the diameters of the objective and the eyepiece. then its image by the eyepiece is its exit pupil. This flux is spread on the retina over an area Si . the size of the Airy disc obtained with the telescope is the same as that obtained without it. respectively. then the amount of light outside the eye’s pupil is wasted. Consider the observation of a distant extended object of area So and luminance L lying at a distance R. as in Figure 6-26a. Thus. the diameter of its exit pupil is equal to that of the eye’s pupil. thereby degrading the resolution. they can be observed with the aid of a telescope. As explained below. Deye (6-40) When Dex = Deye . If the aperture stop of the telescope lies at the objective. this is due to an increase in the star intensity on the retina when a telescope is used. If it is smaller.

is less than or equal to the corresponding illuminance obtained when the object is observed with the naked eye. Because the illuminance of the sky background on the retina either stays the same or decreases with the use of the telescope. then a fraction ( De D2 ) of the total light received by the telescope enters the eye. according to Eq. Thus.272 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS b/n¢ Retina b Eye lens R¢ (a) AS EnP ExP L1 b L2 (–)b¢ (–)b¢/n¢ Retina (–) Eyepiece Objective R¢b¢ n¢ Eye lens R¢ (b) Figure 6-26. such as a star. Because the luminance of the telescopic image. observed with the aid of a telescope. the intensity of the star image on the retina is increased by using the telescope. respectively. If the diameter of the exit pupil is smaller. is (at most) equal to the object luminance. with a spacing equal to the sum of their focal lengths. the ratio of the amount of light in the retinal image with and 2 without the telescope is given by ( D1 D2 ) . In either case. and the retinal illuminance is reduced by a factor Sex Se . 2 If D2 > De . constitute the afocal telescope. in this case. provided the diameter of the exit pupil of the telescope is greater than or equal to the diameter of the eye pupil. and the intensity of the star image on the retina . The images are observed by placing the eye at the exit pupil or as close to it as possible. Thus. this ratio is greater than 1. Daytime observation of a star against a sky background (a) without and (b) with the aid of a telescope. provided D2 £ De . Thus. (5-42). the retinal illuminance of the image of a distant extended object. such as the sky. The apparent intensity of the star depends on the amount of light in its retinal image. it is evident that the retinal illuminance will be the same as in the case of an unaided observation. diameter Dex = D2 . then Se is replaced by the area Sex of the exit pupil. Now consider the observation of a point object. called the objective and the eyepiece. The lenses L1 and L2 . The ratio of the amount of 2 light in this image with and without a telescope is given by ( D1 De ) .

Thus. The image will be practically diffraction limited according to the Rayleigh criterion [5]. Not only is it simple (a pinhole on one side of a box and a photographic plate on the other). Based on geometrical optics. where Lo is the object distance from the pinhole. a lens converts a diverging spherical wave from a point object P0 into a spherical wave converging to an image point P0¢ in the image plane. it is possible to observe bright stars in the daytime by using a telescope for which D1 > De . the defocus wave aberration at a distance r from the center of the pinhole is given by the sum of the sags of two spherical wavefronts passing through the center of the pinhole with their centers of curvature lying at the object and image points. To determine the optimum size of the pinhole. a spherical wave of radius of curvature Lo diverging from the object P0 is incident on the pinhole and continues as a diverging wave toward the image plane.9 PINHOLE CAMERA A pinhole camera (or camera obscura) has been the subject of many investigations. In a regular camera. Accordingly. we may write l 1 1 1 = 2 = Li Lo fe 2a . . including those by Petzval and Rayleigh [6]. (6-43) where the object distance Lo is numerically negative. if the peak value of the aberration is less than or equal to l 4 . The difference between a pinhole camera and a regular camera is that in the former there is no lens to form the image. but it is also distortion free with an infinite depth of field and a very wide field of view. the image of a distant point object in the absence of a lens will be approximately the same size as the pinhole if the pinhole is large.9 Pinhole Camera 273 increases with its use. where Li is the image distance from the pinhole.6. For a perfect image.61lLi a . a converging spherical wave of radius of curvature Li (illustrated by the dashed wavefronts) should emerge from the pinhole converging to the image point P0¢ . Reducing the pinhole size reduces the image size until diffraction by the pinhole spreads it. (6-45) The image spot for a point object is approximately the Airy disc with a radius of 0. Thus. In a pinhole camera. as illustrated in Figure 6-27a. we proceed as follows. 6. For a distant object ( Lo Æ • ). (6-44) where fe is the effective focal length of the pinhole. the star visibility or the signal-to-noise ratio increases.˜r 2 Ë Li Lo ¯ . This is illustrated in Figure 6-27b as AB + BC = AC. Accordingly. the wave aberration may be written W (r ) = 1Ê 1 1ˆ 2 Á . the radius of the pinhole is simply given by 12 a = ( Li l 2) .

.. (a) Imaging by a pinhole camera of radius a. The pinhole size is extremely exaggerated for clarity of the wavefronts.e. (b) Wavefront incident on the pinhole. it is free of distortion. it suffers from astigmatism. i. The camera length Li >> a . Similarly. A pinhole camera suffers from chromatic aberration because its focal length depends on the wavelength. and emerging wavefront required for perfect imaging.e. the transverse magnification of an image is independent of the field angle. However. Thus. because the pinhole appears to be elliptical from an off-axis point object. We note that the chief ray (i. (c) Distortion-free imaging. an object ray incident through the center of the hole) reaches the image . its focal length for an object in the horizontal plane differs from that in a vertical plane.274 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS (a) P0¢ P0 Object plane Pinhole (–)L0 A Image plane Li B C r (b) P h P0¢ (–)h¢ P0 P¢ (–)Lo Li Object plane Pinhole Image plane (c) Figure 6-27.

the objective of very short focal length forms a real magnified image of the object (see Figure 6-13). which. The iris. until the eye reaches the limit of its accommodation at about 25 cm. which gives the eye its color. If the object is placed in the front focal plane of the magnifying lens. acts as a variable aperture stop. The object can be brought closer if it is observed through a magnifier of a short focal length f ¢ .10 Summary of Results 275 plane without any deviation. but the images of objects beyond a certain point (called the far point) are blurry. which is approximately 0.5 mm thick. It is corrected by using a cylindrical lens. in turn. a visual acuity of 20/60.10. A negative lens with a focal length equal to the distance of this point is used to see distant objects well. The crystalline lens is about 4 mm thick and 9 mm in diameter.6. The magnification of the image is given by M = h ¢ h = Li Lo . The magnification of the retinal image with and without the . is magnified as a virtual image by the eyepiece. A nearsighted (myopic) eye sees nearby objects well. The cornea.10 SUMMARY OF RESULTS 6. Accordingly. (6-46) The main disadvantage of a pinhole camera is the long exposure it requires due to the small size of the pinhole. A visual acuity of 20/20 implies that letters that subtend 5 arc min at the eye at a distance of 20 ft can be read. The whole eye can be approximated by a single surface of radius of curvature 5. implies that what a normal eye can resolve at 60 ft is being resolved at 20 ft. where f ¢ is in cm.33 on the other.55 mm with air on one side and humor of index 1. as illustrated in Figure 6-27c. 6. the magnification of the image seen with and without the magnifier is given by 25 f ¢ . A positive lens of focal length such that it forms the image of this point at a comfortable reading distance of 25 cm is used to see nearby objects well.3 Microscope In a compound microscope. 6. provides about two-thirds of the nearly 60-D power. but the images of nearby objects within a certain point (called the near point) are blurry.10. It changes shape to provide fine focusing to keep objects at varying distance in focus on the retina.2 Magnifier The apparent size of an object as seen with an unaided eye increases as the object is brought closer. Simlarly. 6. Astigmatism of an eye results from an uneven curvature of its cornea. for example.10.1 Eye The eye is an interesting optical instrument. a farsighted (hyperopic) eye sees distant objects well with accommodation.

6.10. the resolution of the eye at a wavelength of 0. The pupil magnification is given by . then the resolution is improved by a factor n. 6. and a is the semiangular aperture of the entrance pupil of the system as seen from the object. The numerical aperture of a microscope with a dry objective is at most 0.. The objective is in the field stop. and the field stop at the eyepiece. If an oil of refractive index n is used between the object and the objective. In practice.95.55 mm is 55 mm. it will be degraded by the aberrations of the imaging system. two incoherent point objects of equal intensity are just resolved if their separation is given by h = 0. Thus. the aperture stop lies at the objective.276 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS microscope is equal to the product of the transverse magnification of the objective and the angular magnification of the eyepiece. both the objective and the eyepiece are positive lenses. compared to that of the eye. the resolution is improved.006.fo¢ fe¢ . (6-47) where l 0 is the wavelength of the object radiation in vacuum.61l 0 n sin a . then the microscope magnification is also given by 25 f ¢ . where f ¢ is the effective focal length of the microscope in cm. . According to the Rayleigh criterion of resolution.6 Pinhole Camera A pinhole camera is a lensless camera with distortion-free imaging.fo¢ fe¢ and the telescope magnification by . In the case of a telescope. In a Keplerian telescope. where fo¢ and fe¢ are the focal lengths of the objective and the eyepiece. If the virtual image lies at a distance of 25 cm. The quantity n sin a is called the numerical aperture of the system. respectively. and the observing eye is the aperture stop. We have assumed diffraction-limited resolution in these calculations. n is the refractive index of the object space.10. the eyepiece is negative. (6-48) where l is the mean wavelength of object radiation. and a very wide field of view.e. the distance between the pinhole and the film) are related to each other according to 12 a = ( Li l 2) . by a factor of the ratio of the diameter of the objective and the eye.5 Resolution The resolution of an optical imaging system is its ability to discern the details of an object. The radius a of the pinhole and the camera length Li (i. Its resolution is accordingly 167 times better. The numerical aperture of the eye with a pupil of diameter 3 mm observing an object at its near point at a distance of 25 cm is 0. Its disadvantage is the long exposure time due to the small aperture.10.4 Telescope A telescope is an afocal system used to view distant objects (practically at infinity). 6. In a Galilean telescope. infinite depth of field. used to watch opera and sports.

N. Chapter 1.. “Optics of the eye. H. SPIE Press. III. Ed.” Arch. 23–27 (1945). 33. “Pinhole optics. Bellingham. Ed. Ed.” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering.References 277 REFERENCES 1. Charman. A. “The eye and vision. Vol. 3rd ed. Fry. Part II: Wave Diffraction Optics. 2nd ed. Academic Press. Young. 10. W. II. M. Vol. . 4. 3. CA (1965). 5. WA (2011) [doi: 10. Kingslale. N.. San Diego. V. New York (2010).” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering. McGraw-Hill. Vol.” in Handbok of Optics. Chapter 1. “Estimation of uncorrected visual acuity in malingerers. III. Academic Press. 2763–2767 (1971). Eggers. Ophthalmol.1117/3. “Spectacle lenses. G. Optical Imaging and Aberrations. Mahajan. 6. I.. Bass. Chapter 6. San Diego. M. Lueck. R.. CA (1965).” Appl. Opt. R.415727]. 2.. Academic Press. B. Kingslale.

Determine the location of the image formed by a microscope or telescope objective for relaxed-eye viewing through the eyepiece. (b) How far is his near point when wearing glasses? (c) How close can he be to the mirror to see himself clearly when wearing glasses? (d) How far. 6. he can see well when only 15 cm away. 6. Determine the size of the image of a 6-inch-high object placed 6 ft from the camera.2 Show from the data in Table 6-1 that each model of the eye provides the same total focusing power of 60 D.5 m apart.3 The far point of a nearsighted eye lies at 1 m from it. Determine the location and size of the image of the first person formed by the cornea of the other person assuming a 15-cm gap between the two people. 6. (a) Determine the prescription required to see distant objects clearly. Also show that the cornea of the schematic and simplified schematic eyes provides nearly 43 D of focusing power.55 mm. at the most. Determine the power of a correction spectacle lens worn at 15 mm from the eye. standing 1 m from a mirror.4 The headlights of a car are approximately 1. . With accommodation.6 A person with a near point 25 cm away from her eyes wants to view an object with a magnifying glass that is marked 6 ¥.7 A Ramsden eyepiece consists of two positive lenses of equal focal length f ¢ spaced (2 3) f ¢ apart. Determine their separation on the retina when the car is 30 m away.1 A person with a 15-cm-wide face looks into the eyes of another person. 6.8 Determine the optimum diameter of the pinhole of a pinhole camera where the photographic plate lies at a distance of 10 cm from it. She holds the magnifying glass close to her eyes.278 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS PROBLEMS 6. Let the mean wavelength of object radiation be 0. 6. can he be from a concave mirror of radius of curvature 1 m to see the image of a picture hanging 60 cm from the mirror? 6. What is the power of a contact correction lens? 6. Determine the range of object distance to view the magnified image without undue strain on the eyes.5 A person can see himself clearly with relaxed eyes.

........................281 7.......6........................7.................297 7...................................................................................................................................... 302 7...........................................................7...................................................................................................1 General System ............CHAPTER 7 CHROMATIC ABERRATIONS 7......... 305 7..307 References ...................................................................... 306 7...........................................................................................................296 7.......................305 7................................................2 Lenses of the Same Material..........................7................3 Plane-Parallel Plate ......................3 Thin Lens ...........................................................................................285 7............2 Refracting Surface .....6...........................4 Thin-Lens Doublet..............307 7.................................310 Problems ......................6....................................................................................................4 Plane-Parallel Plate ...................................................301 7.................................288 7.................................................................................1 Introduction ........................................... 281 7....4 Doublet ......................6......5 General System..............1 Lenses of Different Materials ...........................295 7...............................6 Doublet ..............3 Doublet with Two Separated Components .......... 311 279 ................2 Thin Lens ..............................................................................................................................................7 Summary of Results ................................................................ 292 7...................7..........................

Chapter 7
Chromatic Aberrations
7.1 INTRODUCTION
So far, we have discussed the imaging relations without explicitly stating the
wavelength of the object radiation. Because the refractive index of a transparent
substance decreases with increasing wavelength, a thin lens, for example, made of such a
substance will have a shorter focal length for a shorter wavelength. Consequently, an
axial point object emanating white light will be imaged at different distances along the
axis depending on the wavelength, i.e., the image will not be a “white” point. Similarly,
the height of the image of an off-axis point object will vary with the wavelength, resulting
in different sizes of the image of a multiwavelength object. The axial and transverse
extents of the image of a multiwavelength point object are called longitudinal and
transverse chromatic aberrations, respectively. They describe a chromatic change in the
position and magnification of the image, which are discussed in this chapter. The
longitudinal chromatic aberration is also called the axial color.
There is ambiguity about the definition of the chromatic change in magnification. As
a differential of the image height, it represents the difference in image heights of the chief
rays of two colors in their respective Gaussian image planes. From a practical standpoint,
the quantity of interest is the difference of image heights in a given image plane. The
latter is referred to as the lateral color. We define a system as being achromatic if both
the axial and lateral colors are zero.
We start this chapter with a discussion of the chromatic aberrations of a single
refracting surface and apply the results to obtain the chromatic aberrations of a thin lens,
a doublet, and finally, a general system consisting of a series of refracting surfaces. The
chromatic aberrations of a plane-parallel plate are considered as an example of the
general theory. A doublet consisting of two thin lenses that are separated, or in contact so
that its focal length is achromatic, is discussed. Numerical examples are given to illustrate
the concepts.
7.2 REFRACTING SURFACE
First we consider, as illustrated in Figure 7-1, the chromatic aberrations of a single
refracting surface of vertex radius of curvature R separating media of refractive indices n
and n ′. The distance S ′ and height h ′ of the image P ′ of a point object P lying at a
distance S and a height h are given by the relations [see Eqs. (2-4) and (2-12a)]
n′ n
n′ − n

=
S′ S
R

(7-1)

M ≡ h h ′ = nS ′ nS ,

(7-2)

and

281

282

CHROMATIC ABERRATIONS

n

MR

P0

AS
ExP

n′

A

0

MR

0b

V0

UR0

UR0

MR

0r

a

O

R

(–)α
C

P′0b

P′0r

B
(–)δS′

L

RS
R
S′

(–)S

(a)

n

AS
ExP

n′

A

(–)δh′c

MRr

R
M

P0
CR

O

D

h′

b

γ
UR

b

P′r

P′b

b

V0

(–)h

P

MR

a

P′0b

C

(–)δh′
h′r

P′0r
(–)δS′

CR r

UR

L

RS
(–)S

R

S′
Disk of red rays
focusing at P′r
P′r
(–)δh′

CRr
P′b

Disk of blue rays
diverging from P′b

h′b
P′0b
Disk of red rays
focusing at P′0r

(b)

(–)δh′c
CRb
h′r

P′0r
Disk of blue rays
diverging from P′0b

BLUE GAUSSIAN RED GAUSSIAN
IMAGE PLANE
IMAGE PLANE

Figure 7-1. Chromatic aberrations of a refracting surface RS. UR, MR, and CR are
the undeviated, marginal, and chief rays. (a) On-axis imaging. (b) Off-axis imaging.
The subscripts b and r denote blue and red light. The axial color δ S ′ = Sb′ − Sr′ ,
where Sb′ and Sr′ are the distances of the blue and red images. The transverse
chromatic aberration δ h ′ = h b′ − h r′ , where hb′ and hr′ are the image heights in the
blue and red Gaussian image planes, respectively. The lateral color δ h c′ represents
the height difference of the blue and red chief rays in a given image plane.

7.2 Refracting Surface

283

where M is the transverse magnification of the image. Let δ represent a small change in a
certain quantity corresponding to a small change in the wavelength, or, equivalently, a
small change in the refractive index. Because the object distance S is independent of the
wavelength, by differentiating both sides of Eq. (7-1), we obtain
δ n′
n′
δn
δn ′ − δn
− 2 δS ′ −
=
S′
S
R
S′

.

(7-3)

Substituting for S from Eq. (7-1), we find that
δS ′
⎛ δn δn′ ⎞ ⎛ S ′

= ⎜

⎟ ⎜ − 1⎟




S′
n
n′
R

.

(7-4)

Similarly, because the object height h is independent of the wavelength, by differentiating
both sides of Eq. (7-2), we obtain (see Figure 7-1b)
δM
= δ h′ h ′
M
=

δn δn ′
δS ′

+
n
n′
S′

⎛ δn δn ′ ⎞ S ′
= ⎜


⎝ n
n′ ⎠ R

,

(7-5)

where in the last step we have used Eq. (7-4). Note that the fractional chromatic variation
of magnification is independent of the object (or image) height. The quantities δn and
δ n ′ represent the difference in the refractive index of the object and image spaces,
respectively, for the blue and red light. The blue and red light represent, in general, the
shortest and the longest wavelengths of the object radiation spectrum. The chromatic
change δS ′ = Sb′ − Sr′ in the position of the axial image represents the distance between
the axial Gaussian images P0′b and P0′r for the blue and red light. It is called the
longitudinal chromatic aberration or simply the axial color. The chromatic change
δ h ′ = h ′δ M = hb′ − hr′

(7-6)

in the image height, called the transverse chromatic aberration, represents the difference
in the heights of the blue and red chief rays in the blue and red Gaussian image planes,
respectively.
From a practical standpoint, the quantity of interest is the size of the image of a point
object in a given Gaussian image plane. For example, the image of an on-axis point
object in the red Gaussian image plane consists of a bright-red Gaussian image point P0′r
at the center, surrounded by blue rays. The blue rays originating at P0 pass through the
Gaussian image point P0b and diverge from it as a blue disk of rays in the red Gaussian
image plane. The radius P0′r B of the blue disk of rays is given by (see Figure 7-1a)

284

CHROMATIC ABERRATIONS

ri = α δS ′
= (a L) δS ′

,

(7-7)

where a is the radius of the exit pupil, and L is the distance of the image from it.
Similarly, the image in the blue Gaussian image plane consists of a bright-blue Gaussian
image point P0′b at the center, surrounded by red rays that converge to P0′r . The radius
P0′b R of the red disk is approximately the same as that of the blue disk. For a given
angular size of the light cone forming a Gaussian image point, the ratio a L is fixed, i.e.,
if the position of the exit pupil is changed so that L changes, its diameter (in practice, the
diameter of the aperture stop) is also changed so that a L does not change. Thus, the size
of the blue or red image disk, called the transverse axial color, does not change as the
position of the exit pupil is changed.
In the case of an off-axis object point P, its image in the red Gaussian image plane
consists of a red Gaussian image point and a displaced disk of blue rays. The radius of the
blue disk is approximately the same as that for the on-axis image. The displacement of
the blue disk represents the difference in the heights of the blue and red chief rays in this
image plane. We note from Figure 7-1b that the displacement, called the lateral color and
representing the chromatic aberration of the chief ray in a given image plane, is given by
δ hc′ = δ h ′ − γ δS ′
= δ h ′ − (h ′ L ) δS ′ ,

(7-8)

where γ is the angle that the blue chief ray CRb makes with the optical axis in image
space. It differs from δ h ′ , which is the difference in the heights of the blue and red chief
rays in the blue and red Gaussian image planes, respectively. Like δS ′ and δ h ′ , δ hc′ is
also numerically negative in Figure 7-1b.
We note that the value of δ hc′ changes as the value of L changes. This is to be
expected because the chief ray changes as the position of the exit pupil is changed. From
similar triangles CP0′b Pb′ and Pb′DPr′ in Figure 7-1b, we find that
δ h′ =

h′
δS ′ .
S′ − R

(7-9)

Substituting Eq. (7-9) into Eq. (7-8), we obtain
1
1
δ hc′ = h ′ ⎛
− ⎞ δS ′ .
⎝ S′ − R L ⎠

(7-10)

Thus, δ hc′ = 0 as L → S ′ − R , i.e., when the exit pupil lies at the center of curvature.
This is to be expected because the undeviated ray UR becomes the chief ray for both blue
and red light.

7.2 Refracting Surface

285

From Eq. (7-10), the values of the lateral colors δ hc1
′ and δ hc2
′ corresponding to two
exit pupil locations, so that the image lies at distances L1 and L2 from them, are related
to each other according to
⎛ 1
1⎞
δ hc′2 = δ hc′1 + ⎜ −
⎟ h ′δ S ′ .
⎝ L1 L2 ⎠

(7-11)

Equation (7-11) represents the stop-shift equation for the lateral color.
It is evident from Eq. (7-8) that if the longitudinal aberration δS ′ is zero [it cannot
happen for a single surface (unless S ′ = R) or even a thin lens (unless S ′ = 0 )], then δ hc′
is equal to δ h ′ , independent of the position of the exit pupil.
7.3 THIN LENS
The chromatic aberrations of an image formed by a thin lens of focal length f ′ and
refractive index n can be obtained by applying the results for a single refracting surface
successively to its two surfaces. Or, we can obtain them from the imaging and
magnification equations of a thin lens derived in Section 2.3. Because the image-space
focal length f ′ of the lens depends on its refractive index n, the image distance S ′ and
height h ′ also depend on it, i.e., the image is accompanied by both axial and lateral color.
Differentiating Eqs. (2-29) and (2-37a), we obtain
δS ′
S′ 2

=

δf ′
f ′2

= −

1
f ′V

(7-12)

and
δM
δh ′
δS′
=
=
M
h′
S′
= −

S′
f ′V

,

(7-13a)

(7-13b)

respectively, where

V =

(n − 1)
δn

(7-14)

is called the dispersive constant of the lens material. Thus, for a change δn in the
refractive index, there is a corresponding change δ f ′ in the focal length, δ S ′ in the
image distance, and δ h ′ in the image height. It is evident that the smaller the value of δn

286

CHROMATIC ABERRATIONS

is, the larger the value of V, the smaller the change in focal length, and the smaller the
values of chromatic aberrations.
It is common practice to consider n as the refractive index for the yellow line of
helium (l = 0.5876 m ) , called the d line, and dn as the difference nF - nC between the
refractive indices for the Fraunhofer lines F and C, i.e., for the blue (l = 0.4861 mm ) and
red (l = 0.6563 m ) lines of hydrogen. Glass manufacturers often give the refractive
index data as a six-digit number. For example, BK7 glass is specified as #517642. The
first three digits define its refractive index according to nd - 1 = 0.517 , and the
remaining three digits define its dispersive constant according to
nd - 1
nF – nC

(7-15a)

= 64.2 .

(7-15b)

V =

The dispersive constant of a glass defined according to Eq. (7-15a) is called its Abbe
number.
The refractive indices of the available lens materials and their Abbe numbers from
Schott Optical Glass are given in Figure 7-2, called an nd /Vd diagram. Each glass in this
diagram is identified by a point whose position is called its optical position. The Abbe
numbers of glasses vary from about 20 to 90. The glasses with nd > 1.60, Vd > 50 or nd <
1.60, Vd > 55 are called crowns and are indicated by the letter K; others are called flints
and are indicated by the letter F. The simple crown (kron in German) glasses (soda-limesilicate glasses) have low dispersion, and simple flint glasses (lead-alkali-silicate glasses)
have high dispersion. The addition of barium oxide (BaO) yields a low dispersion with a
relatively high refractive index. The borosilicate crown glasses contain boron oxide
(B2 O3 ) instead of the calcium oxide used in normal soda-lime-silicate glass. The addition
of boron oxide yields a low refractive index and low dispersion.
The light and heavy flint glasses contain low and high lead and barium amounts,
respectively. Use of fluorine instead of oxygen also lowers the refractive index and
dispersion. The barium flint glasses contain both barium oxide and lead oxide; the crown
flint glasses contain calcium oxide and lead oxide, resulting in average dispersions. Use
of rare earths such as lanthanum (La) yields glasses of high refractive index and high
Abbe numbers. The terms heavy and light crowns or flints are also used, e.g., barium
heavy flint (BaSF) or phosphorus heavy crown (PSK) (the letter S is for schwer in
German, meaning “heavy” or “dense”). The barium crown glasses contain a large
proportion of boron oxide and barium oxide, while their silicon dioxide (SiO2 ) content is
low. The K group in the diagram includes the barium light crowns (BaLK) and the zinc
crown (ZK). The glasses given in the diagram are for use with visible light. The materials
for use with infrared radiation have been discussed in several publications by McCarthy
[1–6].

7.2 Refracting Surface

287

Figure 7-2. Refractive indices and Abbe numbers of various glass materials
available from Schott Optical Glass, Inc.

288

CHROMATIC ABERRATIONS

The radius of the blue or the red disk of rays in the red or the blue Gaussian image
plane, respectively, is again given by Eq. (7-7), as may be seen from Figure 7-3a. The
axial and transverse axial colors are independent of the position of the aperture stop since
a L is kept fixed as the position is changed. Similarly, from Figure 7-3b, we can show
that the (numerically positive) displacement hc′ of the blue disk from the red Gaussian
image point Pr′ of an off-axis point object P is given by Eq. (7-8). From similar triangles
CP0′b Pb′ and Pb′DPr′ ,
δ h ′ = ( h ′ / S ′ ) δS ′ .

(7-16)

Thus, the lateral color δ hc′ representing the transverse chromatic aberration of the chief
ray in a given image plane may be written
δ hc′ = δ h ′ − γ δS ′
1 1
= h ′ ⎛ − ⎞ δS ′ .
⎝ S′ L ⎠

(7-17)

It approaches zero when the exit pupil lies at the lens as in Figure 7-3c, i.e., as L → S ′ .
The chief ray in this case passes through the center of the lens undeviated regardless of its
wavelength. Because the chief rays of different colors are coincident, they intersect an
image plane at the same point. In a given image plane, rays (other than the chief ray) of
different colors are not in sharp focus due to longitudinal chromatic aberration. The stopshift equation for the lateral color is the same as Eq. (7-11).
As a numerical example, Figure 7-4 shows how the focal length of a thin lens made
of BK7 glass varies with wavelength. The variation of its refractive index is also shown
in the figure. We note that the refractive index decreases as the wavelength increases.
Thus, from Eq. (2-28), the focal length increases as the wavelength increases.
7.4 PLANE-PARALLEL PLATE
In Section 2.6, we showed that a plane-parallel plate forms the image of an object
with unity magnification. The distance of the image from the object is given by Eq. (297), which is independent of the object distance. We now consider a plate with its
aperture stop located at its front surface. Its exit pupil ExP, therefore, lies at a distance
t (1 − 1 / n) from it, as illustrated in Figure 7-5. For an object point P lying at a distance S
from the front surface, the distance of the image P ′′ from ExP (indicated as distance L2
from ExP2 in the figure) is equal to S. A detailed derivation is given later.
Because the aperture stop is located at the first surface, the entrance pupil EnP of the
system is also located there. Moreover, the entrance and exit pupils EnP1 and ExP1 for
this surface are also located at the surface. The entrance pupil EnP2 for the second
surface is ExP1 . The exit pupil ExP2 for this surface is the image of EnP2 formed by it.

4 Plane-Parallel Plate 289 ExP a R ′ P0b O P0 ′ P0r (–)α B (–)δS′ L (–)S S′ (a) ExP CR b P0 O CR r UR (–)h CR r γ C P′b δh′c P′r D h′b P′0b (–)δh′ h′r P′0r CRb L P (b) CRb Disk of blue rays diverging from P′b P′r δh′c CR (–)δh′ P′b δh′c P′r δh′c (–)δh′ D P′b h′r CRr b γ (–)δS′ h′b Disk of red rays focusing at P′r P′0b Disk of red rays ′ focusing at P0r ′ P0r Disk of blue rays ′ diverging from P0b BLUE GAUSSIAN RED GAUSSIAN IMAGE PLANE IMAGE PLANE ExP Rr CR b. (c) Off-axis imaging with the exit pupil at the lens. The lateral color in (c) is zero. and the lateral color is δ h c′ . . (a) On-axis imaging.7.C P0 Pr′ Pb′ h′b ′ P0b (–)h CR h′r (–)δh′ ′ P0r (–)δS′ P (c) Figure 7-3. Chromatic aberrations of a thin lens. (b) Off-axis imaging. The axial color is δ S ′ .

s2 = − t . and R2 = ∞ . and s2′ are all numerically negative.0 λ Figure 7-4.99 1.98 0. For the second surface. Variation of refractive index and focal length of a thin lens made of BK7 glass #517642 with wavelength λ . The wavelength is in micrometers.00 f ′/fd′ 1.02 1. f ′ fd′ = (nd − 1) (n − 1) . n2′ = 1.290 CHROMATIC ABERRATIONS 1. The focal length is normalized by its value for the d line. n2 (7-19) .6 0. ExP2 lies at a distance t (1 − 1 / n) from the first surface. (2-4) and (2-10) that ExP2 is located at a distance s2′ = − t n from the second surface. and its magnification m2 = 1. the axial color is given by δ S2′ = t δn . Substituting for S2′ and s2′ . Differentiating Eq.4 1. ExP2 is also the exit pupil ExP of the system.535 1.505 1. It is evident that for the first surface. Thus. the distance L1 of the image P ′ from ExP1 is equal to its distance S1′ from the surface. letting n2 = n. (7-18b) Now we consider the chromatic aberrations of the plate. (2-97). As expected from Eq. we find from Eqs.530 1. Thus.97 0.515 n 0. distance L2 of the image P ′′ from ExP2 is given by L2 = S2′ − s2′ . (2-96a). (7-18a) because L2.510 0.520 n 0. S2′ .525 1.01 f ′/fd′ 1. Of course. we find that L2 = S .8 1.

and P ′′ is the image of P ′ formed by the second surface of the plate. That is why the centers of the blue and red exit pupil are shown in Figure 7-6 to lie on the optical axis at Ob and Or . the entrance pupil EnP of the plate are located at the first surface. Imaging of a point object P by a plane-parallel plate of refractive index n and thickness t. . because the image magnification is unity regardless of the refractive index of a ray due to the zero refracting power of the plate. the exit pupil. its impact on Eq. The transverse chromatic aberration δ h ′ is zero. respectively. However. which is the image of the first surface by the second. The exit pupil ExP is the image of the first surface by the second. The aperture stop AS and. S n2 (7-20) Of course. (7-20) is a second-order effect. The lateral color representing the difference in the heights of the blue and red chief rays in the final image plane is given by Eq. also has chromatic aberrations. P ′ is the image of P formed by the first surface. (7-8): δ h c′ = γδ S 2′ = − h′ δ S′ .7.4 Plane-Parallel Plate 291 ExP AS ExP2 ExP1 EnP n CR OA O (–)h P′ (–)S′2 P′′ P s2 = – t (–)S1 t (–)S′1 (–)L 1 (–)L 2 (–)S′2 (–)S2 Figure 7-5. therefore. L2 or δ h c′ = − h′ t δn .

The axial color is δ S2′ . as illustrated in Figure 77. it is convenient to use the Newtonian imaging equation (2-83): zz ′ = f f ′ . Chromatic aberrations of a plane-parallel plate. (7-21) where z is the object distance from the object-space focal point F . 7. z ′ is the image distance from the image-space focal point F ′ . . and f and f ′ are the object-space and image-space focal lengths of the imaging system. and the lateral color is δ h c′ . respectively. and therefore n = n ′ = 1 and f = − f ′. To obtain a relationship between the axial color and the displacements of the focal points and the principal points with a change in wavelength.5 GENERAL SYSTEM Just as we obtained an imaging equation in terms of the positions of the focal points and principal points of a multielement imaging system in Section 2. In practice.292 CHROMATIC ABERRATIONS AS ExP1 EnP ExP2 ExP n CRr CRb OA (–)h Or Ob CR Pb′ Pr′ (–)δS′ P Pr′′ Pb′′ δS2′ (–)S1 t (–)S′1 (–)δhc′ γ (–)L1 Pr′′ (–)L2 Pb′′ δS2′ (–)S′2 (–)S2 Figure 7-6.4. a system is generally surrounded by air. we can similarly obtain a relationship between the chromatic aberrations of an image and the chromatic displacements of these points.

and F and F ′ . respectively. Taking a logarithmic differentiation of Eq. we obtain δz = δf ′ − δ d (7-24a) δz ′ = δl ′ − δf ′ − δ d ′ . Also. The object and image distances are also related to each other by the transverse magnification Mt of the image according to . z z′ f′ (7-22) Let l be the distance of the object from the vertex V of the first surface of the system. Also shown are the object and image locations.7. (7-23). we obtain 2 δz δz ′ + = δf ′ . respectively. For a system in air.5 General System 293 P′ h′ V P0 F V′ H H′ (–)h F′ P′ 0 Optical system P (–)f (–)d d′ (–) l f′ l′ Figure 7-7. (7-21). General imaging system showing the location of its principal and focal points H and H ′. (7-23b) Differentiating Eqs. (7-24b) and where δl is zero because the object position is independent of the wavelength. n = 1 = n ′ and f = − f ′ . let l ′ be the distance of the final image from the vertex V ′ of its last surface. let d and d ′ be the distances of the principal points H and H ′ from the vertices V and V ′ . Similarly. Then z = l− f −d = l + f′ − d (7-23a) and z′ = l′ − f ′ − d ′ .

we obtain 2 δ l ′ = δ d ′ − Mt2 δ d + (1 − Mt ) δf ′ . (7-26) Thus. To determine the lateral color. δh′ δz′ δ f ′ = − h′ z′ f′ = − δ l ′ − δf ′ − δ d ′ δf ′ − f ′ Mt f′ = − 1 f′ = ⎤ ⎡ δl ′ − δ d ′ ⎛ 1 ⎞ + ⎜1 − ⎢ ⎟ δf ′ ⎥ Mt ⎠ ⎝ ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ Mt 1 Mt δ d − ( Mt − 1) δf ′ f′ [ ] . (7-28) where we have substituted for δ l ′ from Eq. respectively. noting that the object height is independent of the wavelength. (7-26). we write Eq. The displacements of the principal and focal points are determined in the usual manner by tracing blue and red rays incident on the system parallel to its optical axis.294 CHROMATIC ABERRATIONS z = − f Mt = f ′ Mt (7-25a) and z ′ = − f ′M t . (7-22). The lateral color of the image lying at a distance L from the exit pupil is given by δ hc′ δ h′ δl ′ = − h′ h′ L = 1 δl ′ Mt δ d − ( Mt − 1) δf ′ − f′ L [ ] . Thus. the axial color δ l ′ can be determined for any value of the image magnification Mt from the change δf ′ of the image-space focal length f ′ and the displacements δd and δ d ′ of the principal points H and H ′ . (7-25b) Substituting Eqs. (7-25b) in the form h′ h = − z ′ f ′ (7-27) and take its logarithmic differentiation. (7-24) and (7-25) into Eq. (7-29) .

e. is given by Eq. where the conditions for an achromatic focal length of a singlet is derived. we determine the chromatic aberrations of a doublet. Mt is zero. (7-7). As a simple example of a general system. We show that a doublet with two separated lenses cannot be achromatic. a system consisting of two thin lenses. We refer to a system as being achromatic if its axial and lateral colors are both equal to zero. i. Chromatic aberrations of a general imaging system. (7-11). ExP n P′ n′ b CR b P0 γ MR CR r b b O (–)h h′ MR r P′r δh′c (–)δh′ h′r P′0r P′0b (–)δl ′ P (–)l Optical System L l′ Figure 7-8. (7-26) and (7-28) reduce to δl ′ = δ d ′ + δ f ′ (7-30a) and δ hc′ δ f ′ δl ′ = − h′ f′ L . We also show that a doublet consisting of two thin lenses of different materials in contact can be designed to be achromatic. The axial color δ l ′ represents the difference in the distances of the blue and red images. The lateral color δ h c′ represents the difference in the heights of the blue and red chief rays in a given image plane.6 Doublet 295 For an object at infinity. 7.6 DOUBLET In this section. respectively. We note that if a system is designed so that its axial color δ l ′ is zero. . (7-30b) respectively. the chromatic aberrations of a thick lens are considered in Problem 7. the effect of a stop shift on the lateral color is given by Eq.2..7. The lenses may be of the same or different materials. with δS ′ replaced by δ l ′ . Whereas the axial and transverse axial colors are independent of the position of the aperture stop. as may be seen from Figure 7-8. its lateral color δ hc′ is generally not equal to zero. and Eqs. The radius of the blue or red disk of rays in the red or the blue Gaussian image plane.

1 Lenses of Different Materials Consider two thin lenses of image-space focal lengths f1′ and f2′ separated by a distance t. we find that the focal length f ′ is stationary. The V-number of a lens in this case is accordingly defined as Vm = (nm − 1) ( nF − nC ) . (7-32) where V1 and V2 are the dispersive constants of the lenses. For example. Doublet consisting of two thin lenses of focal lengths f1′ and f2′ spaced apart by a distance t. but the focal points are not coincident (because the principal points are not). its differential is zero. i.e. Although the variation of focal length of a doublet with wavelength is much reduced (compared to that of a singlet) by a combination of two lenses in this manner.e. it is not completely independent of the wavelength. if the spacing t is chosen by substituting the focal lengths and V-numbers of the lenses for a certain wavelength. (7-31) Differentiating Eq.e.. t 1 1 1 = + − f′ f1′ f2′ f1′f2′ . if t = f1′V1 + f2′ V2 V1 + V2 . Its focal length f ′ is the same for blue and red light.. for example.4). if λ m is such that nm = (nF + nC ) 2 (see Problem 7. as in Figure 7-9. (7-31) and using Eq. L1 L2 Hb′ OA f 1′ H r′ Fb′ Fr′ f 2′ t f r′ f b′ Figure 7-9. The focal length f ′ of the combination is given by Eq..6. i. if the spacing t is chosen at a wavelength λ m for which the refractive index nm for each lens is equal to the mean of the corresponding blue and red refractive indices.296 CHROMATIC ABERRATIONS 7. (432). (7-12). However. they can be made equal. . i. the blue and red focal lengths are generally not equal to each other.

Eq.2 . F ′ lies at a distance ⎛ t⎞ t2 = f ′ ⎜1 − ⎟ f1′⎠ ⎝ (7-34) from the center of the second lens [see Eq. (7-36) Substituting Eqs. we obtain the axial color ⎛ 1 Mt2 ⎞ δ l ′ = − f ′t ⎜ + f2′ V2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ f1′V1 . we find that the object-space principal point H and focal point F are displaced by an amount δ d = − f ′t = f ′t f2′ V2 δf2′ f2′ 2 . considering the distance f (1 − t f2′ ) of the object-space focal point F from the center of the first lens and noting that the object-space focal length f and the imagespace focal length f ′ are related to each other according to f = − f ′ . (7-26)] δ l ′ = δ d ′ − Mt2 δ d .6. then letting V1 = V2 = V in Eq. (7-33). Differentiating Eq. (7-35) Similarly. (7-29) yields the lateral color tMt δ hc′ δl ′ = − h′ f2′ V2 L 7. (7-37) Similarly. we obtain . (4-34)]. (7-33) Because the value of f ′ is the same for two wavelengths.6 Doublet 297 The axial color of a doublet with δ f ′ = 0 is given by [see Eq. (7-32) and substituting the result in Eq. (7-31). (4-34). Now. the image-space focal point F ′ and the principal point H ′ for one wavelength are displaced from those for the other by the same amount δ d ′ . (7-38) Lenses of the Same Material If the two lenses are made of the same material with an Abbe number V.7. (7-35) and (7-36) into Eq. we find that H ′ and F ′ are displaced by δ d ′ ≡ δt2 = f ′t δf1′ f1′ 2 = − f ′t f1′V1 .

which. Now. the image-space focal point F1′ of the first lens coincides with the object-space principal point H of the eyepiece. forms the image at infinity for comfortable viewing by a human eye. (7-41d) A numerical example of a doublet with an achromatic focal length and consisting of two separated thin lenses using BK7 glass is shown in Figure 7-10a. Similarly. 2 (7-40) Because both f1′ and f2′ vary with the wavelength in the same manner. Eq. the focal length of the doublet given by Eq. corresponding to a wavelength λ m = 0. (7-35) through (7-38) reduce to δ d ′ = − f2′ V . in turn. Eqs.5535 μm . Practically speaking. it is evident from the parabola-like variation that there is a variety of pairwise wavelengths at which the focal lengths are equal. (7-41a) δd = f1′ V . Substituting for t = f1′f2′ f ′ . and the value of f ′ at this wavelength may also be written f ′ = f1′f2′ t . (7-41c) and f ′M δ hc′ δl ′ = 1 t − h′ V L . the apparent size of an object as perceived by an observing eye is determined by the . The objective forms the image of an object in the object-space focal plane (passing through F) of the eyepiece. Its minimum value is 10 cm.25 cm. the blue and red focal lengths are equal if the spacing t is chosen at a wavelength λ m for which the refractive index nm is equal to the mean of the blue and red refractive indices. the variation of the focal length is negligible. It is a Huygens eyepiece consisting of two planoconvex thin lenses of focal lengths 15 and 7.5 cm. Moreover. The object-space focal point F2 of the second lens coincides with the image-space principal point H ′ of the eyepiece. but the deviation is quite small. The variation of the focal length with wavelength is shown Figure 7-10c. and the blue and red focal lengths are equal. respectively. Its value increases as the wavelength deviates from this wavelength. with a separation of 11. (7-39) is independent of the wavelength to the first order in δn. An eyepiece is used with a telescope or a microscope objective. Accordingly. as illustrated in Figure 7-10b. (7-40) can be satisfied at one wavelength only. Again. (7-41b) δl ′ = − 1 f2′ + f1′Mt2 V ( ) .298 CHROMATIC ABERRATIONS 1 1⎛1 1⎞ = ⎜ + ⎟ f′ f2′ ⎠ 2 ⎝ f1′ (7-39) and t = 1 ( f1′ + f2′) .

7.00004 2.00002 1.40 0. The wavelength is in micrometers.55 t2 f'/ f 'm (b) 1.70 2. Doublet consisting of two thin lenses separated by a distance t1 ≡ t . (a) Schematic of a Huygens eyepiece of focal length 10 cm.45 1.65 0. H F F2.55 0.00006 2.55 0.50 0.50 0.40 2.00008 2. (b) The eyepiece forms an image at infinity of the image at F formed by the objective (not shown).45 0.60 1. H′ F′ f2 = –7. (c) Variation of focal length of the doublet with wavelength. H′ F′ f′ = 10 t1 = 11. (d) Variation of back focal distance t2 with wavelength.25 1. H F F2.00000 0.6 Doublet 299 F′1 .70 Figure 7-10.25 f ′= 10 f′1 = 15 = d (a) F1′.60 0. The two thin lenses are made of BK7 glass. and t2 is in centimeters.5 = d′ t1 = 11.60 λ λ (c) (d) 0.50 0.65 0. .

yields a lateral color of (δ f ′ f ′) h ′ . Because the spacing given by Eq. depends on the angle it subtends at the eye.6. from Eqs. the constant focal length of the eyepiece leads to a constant magnification and. which. varies with the wavelength. i = 1. Substituting for f ′ from Eq. which. (7-44) is different from that given by Eq. we find that the variation of t2 with respect to n for lenses of the same material is equal to zero if the value of t is given by f2′ = − f1′ (1 − t f1′) 2 . Therefore. the position of F ′ must be independent of the wavelength. This angle for a point object at a certain height is independent of the wavelength if the focal length is independent.e. This is (approximately) true in the case of a thin-lens doublet discussed in Section 7. the axial and lateral colors of a doublet with two separated thin lenses cannot be simultaneously equal to zero. (7-34) may be written 1 1 1 = + t2 f1′ − t f2′ = (7-42a) 1 + (n − 1) κ 2 1 − t (n − 1) κ1 . respectively. Its value is 2. It is shown next that a system with two separated components cannot be achromatic unless each component is individually achromatic. (7-34) must be zero. The doublet is not achromatic unless δ f ′ and δ d ′ are each equal to zero. Figure 7-10d illustrates the axial color of the eyepiece in this case. a Huygens eyepiece is achromatic if. . Eq. (7-33) and (7-38). the distance of the focal point F ′ from the center of the second lens. the axial and lateral colors of the image are given by δ d ′ and − (h ′ L )δ d ′ . therefore. (7-43) Differentiating Eq. Accordingly.e.300 CHROMATIC ABERRATIONS size of the image formed on the retina. (7-31). (7-44) It shows that the focal lengths f1′ and f2′ must be of opposite signs. It shows how the back focal distance t2 .4. zero lateral color. Eq. 2 . It is not surprising that a doublet consisting of two separated thin lenses is not achromatic. as may be seen from Eqs. its two separated lenses are each an achromatic thin-lens doublet. i. Zero axial color is obtained if δ f ′ = − δ d ′ . (7-42). This is true even if the two lenses are made of different materials. Thus. (7-30b) shows that the lateral color given by (δf ′ f ′)h ′ is not zero. for example. in turn. (7-40).. (7-30). in turn.5 cm for the wavelength λ m and increases as the wavelength increases. The transverse magnification Mt of an object lying at infinity is zero. i. (7-42b) where κ for a lens in terms of the radii of curvature R1 and R2 of its two surfaces is given by ⎛ 1 1⎞ κi = ⎜ − ⎟ R2 ⎠ i ⎝ R1 . δ f ′ is no longer zero.. In order that the axial color be zero. Therefore. δt2 obtained from Eq. Thus.

.7. The Lagrange invariant h ′′ = h shows that because h ′ is the same for the two off-axis rays. as illustrated in Figure 7-12. Its lateral color is also independent of the wavelength if δ h2′ = 0. We show that the system is achromatic only if each component is individually achromatic. Or. where  and ′ are the slope angles of the rays incident on and emerging from the system. the blue and red rays (not shown in the figure) from an off-axis point object P at a height h must pass through the image point P ′ at a height h ′ . In order that the axial color of the system be zero. L1 forms the image of the object at a distance S1′ with a height of h1′ given by h1′ = h1 ( S1′ S1 ) . the two axial rays not only must pass through P0′ .6. the angle ′ for the axial rays must also be the same. Therefore. we consider the imaging of an object of height h1 lying at a distance S1 from L1 in two steps.6 Doublet 7. The system is achromatic only if the axial blue and red rays not only pass through P0′ but also make the same angle  ′ in the image space. the blue and red rays from an axial point object P0 must cross the optical axis at the image point P0′ . This is possible only if L1 is itself achromatic. Imaging by a system of two separated components L1 and L2 in air. Similarly. (7-46) The axial color of the image formed by L2 is zero if S2′ is independent of wavelength. if L1 and L2 are individually achromatic. respectively.e. (7-45) This image lies at a distance S2 from L2 . as illustrated in Figure 7-11. Thus. . i. each of the two components must be individually achromatic in order that the system be achromatic. For an alternative proof for the system to be achromatic. because h1 and S1 are P R B h β (−)βʹ P0 P0ʹ (−)hʹ Pʹ L1 L2 Figure 7-11. which forms its image at a distance S2′ with a height h2′ given by h2′ = h1′( S2′ S2 ) = h1 ( S1′S2′ S1S2 ) . but must also emerge from L2 at the same point.3 301 Doublet with Two Separated Components Consider an imaging system consisting of two separated components L1 and L2 in air. for zero lateral color.

the image formed by L1 must be achromatic. independent of the wavelength. called a thin-lens doublet..6. (7-32). δ h2′ = 0 if δ S1′ = 0 . according to Eq. Equation (7-45) then shows that δ h1′ is also zero.4 Thin-Lens Doublet If the two thin lenses are in contact (t = 0) .e. (7-31) reduces to 1 1 1 = + f′ f1′ f2′ . if the image formed by L1 has zero axial color.302 CHROMATIC ABERRATIONS L1 L2 P h1 P0ʹʹ P0ʹ (−)h1ʹ (−)h2 P0 (−)h2ʹ Pʹ (−)S1 S1ʹ Pʹʹ (−)S2 S2ʹ Figure 7-12. is achromatic with respect to its focal length. Eq. (7-47) where we have used the fact that δ S2 = − δ S1′ because of the fixed spacing between L1 and L2 . Thus. the system consisting of two separated components L1 and L2 must be individually achromatic if the system is to be achromatic. i. 7. Imaging by the system is achromatic provided imaging by each component is individually achromatic. then the doublet. (7-48) Because. if the ratio of their focal lengths is given by f1′ V = − 2 f2′ V1 . (7-49) the two focal lengths are given by f1′ = f ′(V1 − V2 ) V1 (7-50a) . Thus. for zero spacing. Imaging by a system of two separated components L1 and L2 in air. if δ (S1′ S2 ) = – S22 (S1′ + S2 ) δS1′ = 0 . Therefore.

(7-53). the d line. into Eq. (7-49) if 1 1 1 1 + = + f F′1 f F′ 2 fC′1 fC′ 2 . This may be seen as follows: The focal lengths f F′ and fC′ of the doublet for the F and C lines are equal to each other according to Eq.6 Doublet 303 and f2′ = f ′(V2 − V1 ) . The focal lengths of the doublet for another pair of wavelengths will be equal to each other provided the ratio of the differences in the refractive indices for them is equal to that given by Eq. both the axial and lateral colors are zero. provided the refractive indices also satisfy the relation n − nd 1 κ2 = − F1 n F 2 − nd 2 κ1 . (7-49). (7-54) Equations (7-53) and (7-54) yield the equality nF1 − nd1 n − nd 2 = F2 nF1 − nC1 nF 2 − nC 2 . the principal points of a thin-lens doublet coincide at its center. The residual chromatic aberration at wavelengths other than λ F and λ C is called the secondary spectrum. By the definition of a thin lens. regardless of the value of the object distance.7. respectively.. Therefore. The doublet has the same focal length for a third wavelength. (7-52) or n − nC1 κ2 = − F1 nF 2 − nC 2 κ1 .g. (7-51) or (nF1 − 1) κ1 + (nF 2 − 1) κ 2 = (nC1 − 1) κ 1 + (nC 2 − 1) κ 2 . It should be noted. (7-53) This is indeed the result obtained by substituting the expressions for the focal length and the Abbe number from Eqs. that the focal length of a thin-lens doublet can be made the same at only two selected wavelengths for which the difference δn in the refractive indices is used in defining V. a thin-lens doublet with an achromatic focal length is obtained by combining a positive lens of low dispersion (small δn or large V) and a negative lens of high dispersion. V2 (7-50b) Thus. Accordingly. however. (2-28) and (7-15a). (7-55) . the blue and red focal points also coincide with each other. e.

82 cm and –9.002 1.998 0.004 f ′/fd′ 1.4 n 0. The focal length of the doublet is 10 cm for the d line.62 1.8 1.008 1.60. (a) Cemented doublet with a focal length of 10 cm consisting of BK7 and SF2 glass lenses. respectively. Thus.304 CHROMATIC ABERRATIONS The quantity (nF − nd ) ( nF − nC ) is called the relative partial dispersion of a material. . Achromatic thin-lens doublet.29 cm. (b) Variation of focal length with the wavelength.22 R1 = 6. and its Abbe number is 33.68 1. a doublet with its two lenses obeying Eq.000 0.645.66 f ′/fd′ n 1.07 R4 = – 14. Its refractive index for the d line is 1. A system corrected for three wavelengths is called apochromatic. (7-48) has the same focal length for three wavelengths if they have the same partial dispersion. The variation of the refractive index n of SF2 glass is also shown in the figure.64 1. How it varies with wavelength is shown in R2 = R3 = – 4. A numerical example of an achromatic thin-lens doublet made of BK7 and SF2 glasses is shown in Figure 7-13a.0 λ (b) Figure 7-13.17. The focal lengths of the two lenses are 4. It is a cemented doublet in that the contact surface between the two thin lenses is common.70 1. the radius of curvature of the second surface of the first lens is the same as that of the first surface of the second lens.006 1.29 BK7 SF2 (a) 1. The Abbe number of BK7 is 64.6 0. Thus.

7. The radius of the blue (red) disk of rays in the red (blue) Gaussian image plane is given by ri = ( a L ) δS ′ .7 Summary of Results 305 Figure 7-13b. the specification of f ′ and the dispersive constants of the lens materials specifies their focal lengths f1′ and f2′ . the choice of the radii of curvature of its four surfaces) can be utilized to make the achromatic thin-lens doublet free of spherical aberration and coma.. are related to each other according to ⎛ 1 1⎞ δ hc′2 = δ hc′1 + ⎜ − ⎟ h ′δ S ′ . The values of lateral colors δ hc1 ′ corresponding to two ′ and δ hc2 exit pupil locations.e. However. f1′ and f2′ have opposite signs. The lateral color representing the difference in the heights of the blue and red chief rays in an image plane is given by δ hc′ δ S′ 1 Mt δ d − ( Mt − 1) δf ′ − = h′ f′ L [ ] . However. The axial color is independent of any stop shift because the image distance is independent of the location of the aperture stop. ⎝ L1 L2 ⎠ (7-59) .1 General System The axial color of a system representing the difference in the blue and red image distances is given by 2 δ S ′ = δ d ′ − Mt2 δ d + (1 − Mt ) δf ′ . We note again from the parabola-like variation that there is a variety of pair-wise wavelengths for which the focal lengths are equal. 7. Moreover. (Lateral Color) (7-58) where L is the distance of the image from the exit pupil. (Axial Color) (7-56) where f ′ is the image-space focal length. and Mt is the image magnification.7. the focal length of a thin lens depends on the difference in the curvatures of its surfaces. (7-50) that because V1 and V2 are positive. For an object at infinity. It is also independent of the stop shift because a L is kept fixed when the stop is shifted. compared to a doublet with separated components. and L is the distance of the image from it. This degree of freedom (i. Its minimum occurs in the vicinity of the d line. such that the image lies at distances L1 and L2 from them. (7-57) where a is the radius of the exit pupil. while its spherical aberration and coma depend on the curvatures through its shape factor. We note from Eqs.7. magnification is zero. as in Figure 7-10. δd and δ d ′ are the axial colors of the objectspace and image-space principal points. there is a built-in design feature of equal focal lengths for the F and C lines.7 SUMMARY OF RESULTS Let blue and red be the shortest and longest wavelengths of an image.

517 . (7-60) Its relative change with a change δn in its refractive index is given by δf ′ 1 = − f′ V . BK7 glass is specified as #517642. It is common practice to consider n as the refractive index for the yellow line of helium ( λ = 0.. ⎝ S′ L ⎠ (7-64b) δS ′ = − and .7. (7-63b) V = The dispersive constant of a glass defined according to Eq.4861 μm ) and red (λ = 0. (7-61) where V = (n − 1) δn (7-62) is the dispersive constant of the lens material. and δn as the difference nF − nC between the refractive indices for the Fraunhofer lines F and C. for the blue (λ = 0. The axial and lateral colors of a thin lens are given by S′ 2 f ′V (7-64a) 1 1 δ hc′ = h ′ ⎛ − ⎞ δS ′ . For example.5876 m ) .2 . 7.e. and the remaining three digits define its dispersive constant according to nd − 1 nF – nC (7-63a) = 64.2 Thin Lens The focal length f ′ of a thin lens of refractive index n and surfaces with radii of curvature R1 and R2 is given by ⎛ 1 1 1⎞ = (n − 1) ⎜ − ⎟ f′ ⎝ R1 R2 ⎠ . called the d line.6563 m ) lines of hydrogen. Glass manufacturers often give the refractive index data as a six-digit number.306 CHROMATIC ABERRATIONS Equation (7-59) represents the stop-shift equation for the lateral color. i. (7-15a) is called its Abbe number. The first three digits define its refractive index according to nd − 1 = 0.

S n2 (7-65b) Doublet The focal length f ′ of a doublet with lenses of focal lengths f1′ and f2′ spaced a distance t apart is given by t 1 1 1 = + − f′ f1′ f2′ f1′f2′ . its differential is zero. (7-67) where V1 and V2 are the dispersive constants of the lenses. independent of the object distance.3 Plane-Parallel Plate The image of an object formed by a plane-parallel plate of refractive index n and thickness t lies at a distance t (1 − 1 n) from the object. Its axial and lateral colors are given by δ S′ = t δn n2 (7-65a) and δ hc′ = − 7. 7. if t = f1′V1 + f2′ V2 V1 + V2 . Its axial and lateral colors are given by ⎛ 1 Mt2 ⎞ δ S ′ = − f ′t ⎜ + f2′ V2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ f1′V1 (7-68a) tMt δ hc′ δl ′ = − h′ f2′ V2 L (7-68b) and .7 Summary of Results 307 These equations can be obtained from Eqs..7. Its magnification is unity.7. i.4 h′ t δn .7. (7-58) and (7-60) by setting the axial colors δd and δ d ′ of the principal points of a general system equal to zero and using the thinlens imaging equations.e. (7-66) It is stationary. The axial color of the principal points is given by δd = − and f ′t f2′ V2 (7-69a) .

. (7-69b) If the lenses are made of the same material such that V1 = V2 = V . (7-70a) 1 ( f1′ + f2′) . (7-70f) and The focal length of a thin-lens doublet. 2 δ S′ = − (7-70b) 1 f2′ + f1′Mt2 V ( f ′M δ hc′ δl ′ = 1 t − h′ V L ) . then 1 1⎛1 1⎞ = ⎜ + ⎟ f′ f2′ ⎠ 2 ⎝ f1′ t = . (7-71b) i. (7-70e) δ d ′ = − f2′ V .308 CHROMATIC ABERRATIONS δd ′ ≡ − f ′t f1′V1 .e.e. .. is given by 1 1 1 = + f′ f1′ f2′ . i. V2 (7-71d) and Such a doublet is obtained by combining a positive lens of low dispersion (small δn or large V) and a negative lens of high dispersion. the contact surface between them is shared. . one with t = 0 . It has zero axial and lateral colors regardless of the object distance. In a cemented doublet. (7-70c) (7-70d) δd = f1′ V . if f1′ = f ′(V1 − V2 ) V1 (7-71c) f2′ = f ′(V2 − V1 ) . (7-71a) It is achromatic if f1′ V = − 2 f2′ V1 .

C. if nF1 − nd1 n − nd 2 = F2 nF1 − nC1 nF 2 − nC 2 . A system corrected for three wavelengths is called apochromatic.7 Summary of Results 309 The focal lengths of the doublet are equal for the F and C lines. i.7.e. The residual chromatic aberration at wavelengths other than λ F and λ C is called the secondary spectrum. (7-72) . Its focal length for the F. and d lines is the same if the lenses have the same relative partial dispersion (nF − nd ) ( nF − nC ) ..

E. Opt. D. 591–595 (1963). McCarthy. McCarthy. 2221–2225 (1965). E. Bibliography. McCarthy. “Part 6. 596–603 (1963). Opt. McCarthy. “Part 4. Opt. Part 1. Bibliography. D.” Appl. E. Spectra from 2 μm to 50 μm. E. 317–320 (1965). . D.” Appl. D. 2. D. 1997–2000 (1965). 5. 3. “Part 3. Opt. “Part 5. 4. 2. Opt.310 CHROMATIC ABERRATIONS REFERENCES 1.” Appl. 7. Bibliography. E. D. Spectra from 2 μm to 50 μm. McCarthy. McCarthy.” Appl. Opt. “Part 2. 7.” Appl. 507–511 (1965).” Appl. 4. E. “The reflection and transmission of infrared materials. Spectra from 2 μm to 50 μm. 4. 2. 6.

5. the beam comes to a focus at a distance of 8 cm from its front surface at a height of 0. Show that the corresponding focal length in this case is given by n −1⎛ 1 1 1⎞ = − ⎜ ⎟ f′ n + 1 ⎝ R1 R2 ⎠ . i. placed in a converging beam of image-forming light of a certain system such that the axial image is concentric with the lens.Problems 311 PROBLEMS 7. Also show that the corresponding focal length may be written f′ = b (t R1 ) − 1 b 2t R12 . (b) Determine its chromatic aberrations for δn = 0. it is longer by a factor of n + 1 compared with that of a corresponding thin lens. The plate has a refractive index of 1. or that the distance between the centers of curvature of its two surfaces is given by t n 2 . and surfaces of radii of curvature R1 and R 2 discussed in Section 4. show that the position of its focal point is achromatic if its thickness and radii of curvature are related according to R2 = ( R1 − bt )2 R1 − b 2 t .3 Consider a concentric lens (see Problem 4.2 Consider the thick lens of refractive index n. (c) Show that it is achromatic with respect to its focal length if its thickness is given by t = n 2 ( R1 − R2 ) n2 − 1 . t2 R2 ⎦ ⎣ R1 − bt where b = (n − 1) n . thickness t. (b) By letting ∂t2 ∂n = 0 . (a) Show that its back focal distance t2 can be written ⎡ 1 1 1 ⎤ = (n − 1) ⎢ − ⎥ . a thickness of 1 cm.6. In the absence of the plate.e.9) made of BK7 glass. (a) Calculate the position of the focus in the presence of the plate. with radii of curvature 5 cm and 4 cm.1 Consider a plane-parallel plate placed in the path of a converging beam.. 7. and a diameter of 4 cm.008 and illustrate by a diagram. 7. Calculate the .5 cm from its axis.

e. i. For an aperture stop located at the mirror.3 imaging an object so that the image distance is S ′ . Show that its axial color is given by [ ] δ S ′ = S ′ 2 (2 fs′ − R1 ) n R1 fs′ δ n .312 CHROMATIC ABERRATIONS lateral color introduced by each surface and show that their contributions cancel each other. The V-number of a lens in this case is given by Vm = (nm − 1) (nF − nC ) . if λ m is such that nm = (nF + nC ) 2 . . 7. 7. its lateral color is zero.4 Show that a doublet is achromatic with respect to its focal length if the spacing t is chosen at a wavelength λ m for which the refractive index nm for each lens is equal to the mean of the corresponding blue and red refractive indices..5 Consider the Mangin mirror of Problem 3.

................6..................................................................340 8...................... 329 8.................................................. 352 8............................................................. 340 8................................................................................................3 Polynomials in Optical Testing ........7............6 Additivity of Primary Aberrations ........................................ 316 8............................................... 349 8........................................2 Interferometric Characteristics ............................. 353 8................336 8...................................................1 Isometric Characteristics .............................................................8..........................................................8.... 331 8.................355 313 .............................352 8..............................................9................. 326 8....................7..........2 No Explicit Dependence on Object Coordinates .........................9......1 Introduction .........................2.9.............5 Aberrations of a Rotationally Symmetric System...6 Spherical Aberration ...............................................341 8................................9.........................337 8...............1 Introduction.............................................................335 8........................2 Wavefront Tilt Aberration .....................5 Coma .............332 8............................8 Zernike Circle Polynomials...............9.7 Strehl Ratio and Aberration Balancing .........................4 Characteristics of Polynomial Aberrations ..1 Strehl Ratio ................................ 352 8................3 Wavefront Defocus Aberration......4 Off-Axis Point Object .............1 Definitions ......................322 8.............................4...............9.....................................2 Wave and Ray Aberrations .......4 Astigmatism.......4.......................................................................355 8..................2 Relationship between Wave and Ray Aberrations ........................................6......320 8....9. 326 8...................................2.................................................................................325 8..........................315 8............. 337 8....349 8.................................................2 Primary Wave Aberrations ........2 Aberration Balancing.... 316 8........................................ 338 8...........................5.....................1 Introduction........................1 Introduction.........331 8..........1 Explicit Dependence on Object Coordinates.........CHAPTER 8 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS 8.8.........................3 Transverse Ray Aberrations .................9 Relationship between Zernike Polynomials and Classical Aberrations .........354 8...............................4 Wavefront Tilt Aberration ......350 8.............5 Higher-Order Aberrations.............7 Seidel Coefficients from Zernike Coefficients .6..........................................................................................................8....337 8..........6........6.....5.......................................2 Polynomials in Optical Design .........................353 8........................................3 Wavefront Defocus Aberration ..........8....................................8................ 345 8.........................................................

....8 Aberrations of an Anamorphic System..........369 8.................6..... 370 8.............................4 Expansion of a Rectangular Aberration Function in Terms of Orthonormal Rectangular Polynomials ......................................10..........371 8................364 8................................3 Polynomial Aberrations Orthonormal over a Rectangular Pupil ...........................12.. 374 8...........................................................3 Random Aberrations .......11.6................................................................................ 378 .........................3 Zernike Primary Aberrations ....................10...........6............11 Observation of Aberrations ..................................................................................................................................................314 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS 8............12...........5 Isometric and Interferometric Characteristics .......12............... 370 8.............................................................................12........6............................................370 8.............1 Wave and Ray Aberrations ... 371 8......................................1 Primary Aberrations ........................................1 Use of Zernike Polynomials in Wavefront Analysis .........................................................10 Aberrations of an Anamorphic System ...........................................12.........364 8..............12..3 Wavefront Tilt Aberration ............12...10...370 8.......................371 8....................................12....................356 8........... 360 8.......... 357 8....................................................1 Introduction.4 Primary Aberrations ................................12..............................6........ 374 8.....6 Zernike Circle Polynomials ........................................2 Polynomials in Optical Design ..................377 Problems ...374 Appendix: Combination of Two Zernike Polynomial Aberrations with the Same n Value and Varying as cos mqq and sin mqq .....................358 8......12............10...........11.............................................363 8..............2 Classical Aberrations ............................................4 Polynomials in Optical Testing ......................371 8.......................................7 Relationship between Zernike and Seidel Coefficients ......2 Wavefront Defocus Aberration.. 371 8....................................................5 Strehl Ratio and Aberration Balancing ..............2 Interferograms....................... 372 8.................................................................12..........12...12........................356 8...........11......... 373 8........................ 376 References ....12 Summary of Results .

as discussed in Chapter 5. The ray aberrations represent the displacement of the rays from the Gaussian image point. and a relationship between them is derived. The concept of Strehl ratio as a measure of image quality is introduced next. They are of even order in the object and pupil coordinates. the wave and transverse ray aberrations are discussed. was not discussed. which depends on the aberrations of the system. It is also introduced if one or more imaging elements of the system are displaced along its optical axis. when an imaging element is slightly tilted or displaced perpendicular to the axis. in which case all of the rays converge to its center of curvature.1 INTRODUCTION Given the radii of curvature of the surfaces of an imaging system and the refractive indices of the media surrounding them. The imaging system converts the spherical wavefront diverging from the point object into a spherical wavefront converging to the Gaussian image point. There are five aberrations of fourth order. the irradiance distribution of the image of an object with a certain radiance distribution can be calculated. a wavefront tilt is introduced. We derive a relationship between the longitudinal defocus of an image and the defocus aberration resulting from it. In reality. 3.Chapter 8 Monochromatic Aberrations 8. A defocus wave aberration is introduced when the image is observed in an image plane other than the one in which the center of curvature lies. We show that the primary wave aberrations of a multisurface system are additive in the sense that they can be obtained by adding the primary wave aberrations of the surfaces. They are referred to as the classical aberrations. We show how the wavefront tilt is related to the wavefront tilt aberration. all of the object rays from a certain point object transmitted by a system pass through the Gaussian image point. However. however. They are constructed from three rotational invariants. when the rays are traced according to the exact laws of geometrical optics. In Gaussian optics. By determining the position and the size of its entrance and exit pupils. the quality of the image. referred to as the primary or the Seidel aberrations. Similarly. In this chapter. and a perfect point image is obtained. where the Gaussian image of a point object by one surface becomes the point object for the next surface. they generally do not converge to an image point. The wave aberrations are zero if the wavefront is spherical. The possible aberrations of a rotationally symmetric imaging system in the form of a power series are discussed. The wave aberrations for a certain point object represent the optical deviations of its wavefront at the exit pupil from being spherical. the position and the size of the Gaussian image of an object can be determined by using the equations given in Chapters 2. and 4. The aberrations of a system are discussed in terms of Zernike circle 315 . and balancing of an aberration of a certain order with one or more aberrations of lower orders is discussed.

consisting of cylindrical optics. We show that the transverse aberration of a ray is proportional to the derivative of its wave aberration with respect to its pupil coordinates. called spherochromatism. the contribution of a surface to the ray aberration in the final image plane can be obtained from its wave aberration using the parameters of the final image. especially for a narrow spectral bandwidth. The aberrations of anamorphic systems. However. the monochromatic aberrations of a refracting system discussed also vary with the wavelength. The balanced aberrations orthogonal over a rectangular pupil are products of Legndre polynomials. The object radiates a spherical wave. which are not only orthogonal over a circular pupil but also represent balanced classical aberrations with minimum variance across the pupil. this variation is generally small.1 Definitions Consider an optical system imaging a point object P. can be calculated by substituting the appropriate value of the refractive index. If the image is perfect. Because the wave aberrations play a fundamental role in determining the image quality. The relationships between the classical and orthogonal aberrations are discussed. Because the refractive index of a transparent substance depends on the wavelength. It is shown that there are six reflection invariants. We point out that the ray aberrations are not additive. For example.2. However. they can also be obtained from the wave aberrations. the results of this chapter are summarized. the optical path length of a ray passing through it also depends on the wavelength.316 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS polynomials. knowledge of them is essential. 8.2 WAVE AND RAY ABERRATIONS In this section we define wave and transverse ray aberrations and derive a relationship between the two. Of course. Finally. as illustrated in Figure 8-1. one for each of the two axes of the pupil. Accordingly. the diverging spherical wave incident on the system is converted by it into a spherical wave converging to the Gaussian . yielding sixteen primary aberrations. The aberrations in the form of Zernike polynomials are referred to as the orthogonal aberrations. 8. in that those in the final image plane cannot be obtained by adding their values in the intermediate image planes formed by the surfaces of a system. the variation of spherical aberration with wavelength. Interferograms of primary aberrations are discussed briefly to illustrate how such aberrations may be recognized in practice. Although the transverse ray aberrations of a system for a certain point object can be obtained by tracing the rays through the system and up to the image plane. the distribution of rays in an image plane does not represent the true picture of an image because it does not take into account the diffraction of the wavefront at the exit pupil. that are symmetrical about two orthogonal planes are discussed briefly.

image point P ¢ . The wave aberration of a ray from a point object is positive if it travels an extra optical path length. we say that the image is aberrated. If the wavefront is spherical. If. Because the optical path lengths of the rays from the reference sphere to the Gaussian image point are equal. P is the point object.2 Wave and Ray Aberrations 317 P Optical System P¢ Figure 8-1. geometric deviations times the refractive index ni of the image space) of the wavefront from the Gaussian reference sphere along a ray is called its wave aberrations. It represents the difference between the optical path lengths of the ray under consideration and the chief ray in traveling from the point object to the reference sphere. The wave aberration ni Q Q of a general ray GR0 or GR. as shown in the figures. and the wavefront pass through the center O of the exit pupil. the wave exiting from practical systems is only approximately spherical. the wave aberration associated with the chief ray is zero. is numerically positive. in order to reach the Gaussian reference sphere [1]. We now introduce the concept of wave and ray aberrations associated with an object ray and derive a relationship between the two. The reference sphere. called the Gaussian reference sphere. The rays transmitted by the system in that case have equal optical path lengths in propagating from P to P ¢ . which is centered at the Gaussian image point P0¢ in Figure 8-2a or P ¢ in Figure 8-2b. The optical deviation (i. The . The optical path length of a ray in a medium of refractive index n is equal to n times its geometrical path length. Accordingly.. and they intersect the Gaussian image plane in the vicinity of P ¢ . with its center of curvature at the Gaussian image point. Perfect imaging by an optical system. the wave aberration of a ray is also equal to the difference between its optical path length from the point object P to the Gaussian image point P ¢ and that of the chief ray. however. we say that the image is perfect. and P ¢ is its Gaussian image point.e. With a few exceptions.8. respectively. the surface passing through their end points is called the system wavefront for the point object under consideration. If rays from a point object are traced through the system and up to the exit pupil such that each one travels an optical path length equal to that of the chief ray. The rays do not have equal optical path lengths. compared to the chief ray. the actual wavefront deviates from the spherical wavefront. Figures 8-2a and 8-2b illustrate the reference sphere S and the aberrated wavefront W for on-axis and off-axis point objects P0 and P. and they all pass through P ¢ .

ExP _ Q Q(x. y) = niQQ S W zg Figure 8-2. The displacement of the chief ray in the image plane from P ¢ represents distortion. z) Q x GR0 a P0¢¢ (xi.y) = niQQ W S R Figure 8-2. and a general ray GR0 is shown intersecting the Gaussian image plane at P0¢¢ . 0) R OA O P¢0 x a z g y b W(x. The value of R in this figure is slightly larger than its value in Figure 8-2a. By definition. z) GR P¢¢(xi. yi) CR0 O P0¢ (0. The reference sphere S of radius of curvature R is centered at the Gaussian image point P ¢ . and z axes is illustrated. A right-hand Cartesian coordinate system showing x. y. y. 0) OA z g b y W(x.318 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS ExP Q(x. GR is a general ray intersecting the Gaussian image plane at the point P ¢¢ . CR0 is the chief ray. Angular rotations a . . The reference sphere S of radius of curvature R is centered at the Gaussian image point P0¢ . but it may or may not pass through P ¢ . where the z axis is along the optical axis of the imaging system. and g about the three axes are also indicated. (b) Aberrated wavefront for an off-axis point object. The wavefront W and reference sphere S pass through the center O of the exit pupil ExP. yi) P¢(xg. the chief ray (not shown) passes through O. (a) Aberrated wavefront for an on-axis point object. . y.

As the chief ray bends when it is refracted or reflected by an optical surface. This may be seen by considering a tangential object ray and Snell’s law. . The plane normal to the tangential plane but containing the chief ray is called the sagittal plane. so does the sagittal plane. thus making the z x plane the tangential plane. zg) zg P¢0 yg im Ga ag us e sia pl n an e yp z Figure 8-3. (There is no loss of generality due to this because the system is rotationally symmetric about the optical axis. The chief ray always lies in the tangential plane.2 Wave and Ray Aberrations 319 coordinate system is also illustrated in these figures. and the Gaussian image plane lies at a distance zg from it along the z axis. and image planes. zg) P pl up an il e yo R O P¢ (xg. exit pupil. and image planes. It should be evident that only the chief ray lies in both the tangential and sagittal planes because it lies along the line of intersection of these two planes. according to which the incident and refracted (or reflected) rays lie in the same plane. Right-hand coordinate system in the object. and the off-axis point object P is assumed to be along the x axis. The corresponding Gaussian image point P ¢ lying in the Gaussian image plane along its x axis also lies in the tangential plane. The object. yi. Figure 8-3 illustrates the coordinate systems in the object. The origin of the coordinate system lies at O. We choose a right-hand Cartesian coordinate system such that the optical axis lies along the z axis. xo P (xo. and the Gaussian image lie in mutually parallel planes that are perpendicular to this axis. y) P0 r xg q P¢¢ (xi.) The z x plane containing the optical axis and the point object is called the tangential or the meridional plane. exit pupil. exit pupil. The optical axis of the system is along the z axis. 0) xp O pl bje an ct e Q (x.8. We assume that a point object such as P lies along the x axis. entrance pupil. 0.

Let the angle of the ray with the surface normal at B.. the optical path length of a ray starting at the point object and ending at Q is the same as that of the chief ray ending at O. The wave aberration of the ray is given by W ( x ) = ni AB . where ( x. as shown in the figures. Now DW = ni CE = nibD x = ni ( xi R)D x . indicated by the dashed line BP¢ .320 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS Consider a ray such as G R from the object passing through the system and intersecting the Gaussian image plane at P ¢¢( xi . The ray aberrations and spot diagrams are discussed in Chapter 9. with its center of curvature at the Gaussian image point. z ) are the coordinates of the point Q. Let W ( x. y. then the wave and ray aberrations are zero. The distribution of rays in an image plane is called the ray spot diagram.2 Relationship between Wave and Ray Aberrations In Figures 8-2. Consider a ray ABP¢¢ passing through a point A on the wavefront. The displacement P ¢P ¢¢ of P ¢¢ from the Gaussian image point P ¢ is called the geometrical or the transverse ray aberration. and the image is said to be perfect. 8. (8-3) . as illustrated in Figure 8-2b. be b . 0). We need not consider the dependence of W on z explicitly because z is related to x and y by virtue of Q being on the reference sphere. (8-1) where x + D x is the height of the point D. is numerically positive. ni Q Q gives the wave aberration of the ray under consideration. respectively. The ray aberration P ¢P ¢¢ = xi is approximately equal to bR . Thus. and CE = bD x . x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = R 2 for a sphere of radius of curvature R centered at (0. By definition of the wavefront. all of the object rays transmitted by the system pass through the Gaussian image point. (8-2) or xi = R DW ni D x . It intersects the reference sphere at the point B at height x. e. Let CED be the ray passing through it. When the wavefront is spherical. yi ) .g.2. where x g is the height of the Gaussian image point P ¢ . In that case. as illustrated in Figure 8-4. Now consider a point C on the wavefront in the vicinity of A. Draw a line AE parallel to BD so that AB = ED . y) represent this wave aberration. a general ray such as GR0 or GR is shown intersecting the wavefront and the reference sphere at points Q and Q. Note that the angle EAC is equal to b . and the image plane at P ¢¢ at a height x g + xi . which. The wave aberration ni CD of the ray may be written W ( x + Dx ) = ni ( AB + CE ) = W ( x ) + DW .

the wave and ray aberrations are related to each other according to ( xi . For a rigorous derivation. as C approaches A. Thus. yi ) = R Ê ∂W ∂W ˆ . R = zg . (8-4) A similar equation is obtained for the y coordinate of the point P ¢¢ . if W ( x. we obtain xi = R ∂W ni ∂x .2 Wave and Ray Aberrations 321 ExP C b E A D P¢¢ P¢ b xi B xg R OA O P0¢ S W zg Figure 8-4. Á ˜ . and BP¢ is the surface normal at a point B on the reference sphere. Thus. ni Ë ∂x ∂y ¯ (8-5) where ( xi . on its geometrical path length difference from . the corresponding ray aberration in the image plane is given by its spatial derivative multiplied by the radius of curvature of the Gaussian reference sphere and divided by the refractive index of the image space. For systems with narrow fields of view. P ¢ lies close to P0¢ . The ray ABP¢¢ is normal to the wavefront W at the point A. Note that in the case of an axial point object. and we may replace R with z g .8. and ni AB is the wave aberration of a ray ABP¢¢ passing through a point B on the reference sphere S with its center of curvature at P ¢ . W is the wavefront for a point object whose Gaussian image lies at P ¢ . see Reference 2. P ¢P ¢¢ is the ray aberration. In the limit. y) is the wave aberration of a ray in the exit pupil. the ray aberrations depend on the shape of the wavefront and. yi ) represent the coordinates of P ¢¢ with respect to those of the Gaussian image point P ¢. Wave and ray aberrations. Because the rays are normal to a wavefront. therefore.

where ni is the refractive index of the image space. The aberration of the wavefront with respect to the Gaussian reference sphere S. However. then ni = 1. say P2 . then the ray aberrations are given by (xi . and a perfect image is observed in the Gaussian image plane. as indicated in Figure 8-5.e.3 WAVEFRONT DEFOCUS ABERRATION We now discuss defocus wave aberration of a system and relate it to the longitudinal defocus of an image. i. (8-7) For a radially symmetric aberration W ( r) . Similarly. When an image is formed in free space. represents its deviation along its axis of symmetry from a plane surface that is tangent . q) are the polar coordinates of this point. sin q + Á cos q ˜ ∂r r ∂q ∂r r ∂q ¯ Ë . they are related to its rectangular coordinates ( x. i. Consider. yi ) = R ni Ê ∂ W sin q ∂ W ∂W cos q ∂W ˆ – . which is centered at P1 . those lying in a plane orthogonal to the tangential plane but containing the chief ray lie along the y axis of the exit pupil plane and thus correspond to q = p 2 or 3p 2 . y ) as the wave aberration at a projected point ( x. We refer to the aberration W ( x. as illustrated in Figure 8-3. those lying in the z x plane. y) according to ( x. is the optical deviation between the two along a ray. y) in the plane of the exit pupil. a ray of zone r in the exit pupil plane intersects the Gaussian image plane at a distance ri from the Gaussian image point given by ri = R ∂W ni ∂r . as is often the case in practice. For a point Q1 on the reference sphere.322 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS the reference sphere. the wavefront W for this point object is spherical. If the system is assembled properly and it is aberration free.. sin q) . the sagittal rays. if one or more of its elements is slightly displaced along its optical axis. lie along the x axis of the exit pupil plane and thus correspond to q = 0 or p . with its center of curvature at P2 . (8-5) converts the optical path length difference into the geometrical path length difference. y) = r(cos q.. (8-6) Note that the tangential rays. and Q2 Q1 is approximately equal to the difference in the sags of the reference sphere of radius of curvature z and the spherical wavefront of radius of curvature R. indicated by OB in Figure 85. If (r. this deviation in the figure is given by ni Q2 Q1 . then the image is displaced longitudinally to a point. Accordingly. q) represents the aberration in polar coordinates. a spherical wavefront with its center of curvature at P1 emerges from its exit pupil. (The sag of a surface S at a point Q1 . (8-8) 8. an imaging system for which the expected Gaussian image of a point object is located at P1 . If W (r. such that P2 lies on the line OP1 joining the center O of the exit pupil and the Gaussian image point P1 . The division by n i in Eq.e.

We note that the defocus wave aberration and the longitudinal defocus have numerically opposite signs.) It is numerically positive because. the defocus wave aberration at the point Q1 is given by W (r ) = ni Ê 1 1 Á 2 Ëz R ˆ 2 ˜r ¯ . (8-9) where r is the distance of Q1 from the optical axis. Defocused wavefront W is spherical with a radius of curvature R centered at P2 . Both W and S pass through the center O of the exit pupil ExP. but the image is observed in a plane other than the Gaussian image plane. compared with the chief ray passing through O. .R (8-11) is called the longitudinal defocus.) Thus. We note that the defocus wave aberration is proportional to r 2 . passing through its center O with its center of curvature at P2 . it represents the extra optical path length that a ray passing through Q1 has to travel in order to reach the reference sphere. If z ~ R . (8-9) may be written W (r ) ~ . to it at its vertex. Thus.8. 2 R (8-10) where DR = z . for example.ni D R2 r 2 . Consider. then Eq. an imaging system forming an aberration-free image at the Gaussian image point P2 . The reference sphere S with a radius of curvature z is centered at P1 .3 Wavefront Defocus Aberration 323 ExP Q2 Q1 r O B W P2 P1 S centered at P1 W centered at P2 S Z R Figure 8-5. A defocus aberration is also introduced if the system is assembled properly. the wavefront at the exit pupil is spherical. The ray Q2 P2 is normal to the wavefront at Q2 . (Note that the Gaussian image is now located at P2 in Figure 8-5.

Once again. on a planar surface) is equivalent to a longitudinal defocus of h ¢ 2 2 R ik . For a system with a circular exit pupil of radius a. (8-14b) is the focal ratio of the image-forming light cone.ni  R 8F 2 is introduced into the system if the image is observed in a plane lying closer to the exit pupil. a positive defocus aberration of Bd = . Substituting into Eq..324 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS Let the image be observed in a defocused plane passing through a point P1 that lies on the line joining O and P2 . or z < R. The longitudinal chromatic aberration or axial color represents chromatic longitudinal defocus. (8-9). an imaging system with a positive value of defocus aberration Bd can be made defocus free if the image is observed in a plane lying farther from the exit pupil. (8-12a) (8-12b) where r = r a (8-13) is the normalized distance of a point in the pupil plane from its center. Thus. by a distance 8 Bd F 2 ni . (8-14b). we obtain the corresponding field curvature aberration of Bd = n i h ¢ 2 16R ik F 2 . (8-9) may be written W (r ) = ni Ê 1 1 . it can be written as a defocus wave aberration. The wavefronts for different wavelengths are spherical. the aberration of the wavefront at a point Q1 on the reference sphere is given by Eq. an observation of the image of a point object in the Gaussian image plane (i. Eq. Such a wavefront forms the reference sphere with respect to which the aberration of the actual wavefront must be defined. compared with the defocus-free image plane. with its center of curvature at P1 . It is given by F = R 2a .e. thus. but their radii of curvature are longer for the . For the observed image at P1 to be aberration free. by a (numerically negative) distance D R. the wavefront at the exit pupil must be spherical.ni D R 8 F 2 (8-14a) (8-14b) is the peak value of the defocus aberration. compared with the defocused image plane. Similarly. (2-124). The radius of curvature Rik of the Petzval image surface of a system (of k imaging surfaces) is given by Eq. The quantity F in Eq. and Bd = ni Ê 1 1 ˆ 2 a 2 Ë z R¯ ~ . Therefore.ˆ a 2 r2 2 Ëz R¯ = Bd r2 . (8-15) We note that a positive value of Bd implies a negative value of the longitudinal defocus D R.

The ray and the wave aberrations can be written xi = R (8-17) ExP Q1 Q2 r P2 xi b O OA S P1 W R Figure 8-6. Thus.8. Thus. We consider a system that has one or more of its optical elements inadvertently tilted and/or decentered slightly. The ray Q2 P2 is normal to the wavefront at Q2. The Gaussian reference sphere is. resulting in a transverse displacement of the image of a point object from its Gaussian image at P1 to P2 . 8. a spherical wavefront with its center of curvature at P2 emerges from the exit pupil of the system. the wavefront and the reference sphere are tilted with respect to each other by a small angle . the two spherical surfaces are tilted with respect to each other by a small angle  = P1 P2 R . we consider a wavefront tilt angle and the corresponding wavefront tilt aberration. . where R is their radius of curvature. then the defocus wave aberration corresponding to an axial color of d S ¢ is given by W d (r) = - ni d S¢ 2 r 2 R2 . If the red wavefront is chosen as the reference sphere. of course centered at P1 . while the reference sphere S is centered at P1 . The spherical wavefront W is centered at P2 . It is evident that for small values of the ray aberration P1 P2 . for small values of P1 P2 . The aberration of the wavefront at a point Q1 on the reference sphere is its optical deviation ni Q2 Q1 from the reference sphere along the ray passing through Q1 . (8-16) where ni is the refractive index of the image space.4 Wavefront Tilt Aberration 325 longer wavelengths.4 WAVEFRONT TILT ABERRATION Next. as indicated in Figure 86. Wavefront tilt.

Note that a positive value of Bt implies that the wavefront tilt angle  is also positive. which are in widespread use in optical design and testing. Thus.5 ABERRATIONS OF A ROTATIONALLY SYMMETRIC SYSTEM In this section. and we assume. R (8-21) 8. The aberration terms are discussed with and without their explicit dependence on the object coordinates. that the xo and x axes are coplanar. (8-18) respectively. Both the wave and ray aberrations are numerically positive in Figure 8-6. yo ) in a plane r orthogonal to the optical axis. q) = nibr cos q . (8-18) may be written W (r. the wavefronts are spherical. (8-19) where Bt = ni a (8-20) is the peak value of the tilt aberration. 8. Similarly. for a system with a circular exit pupil of radius a. Again choosing the red wavefront as the reference sphere.1 Explicit Dependence on Object Coordinates Consider a rotationally symmetric optical system imaging a point object P. y) in the plane of the exit pupil of the system. which is also orthogonal to the optical axis. but their centers of curvature lie at a higher height from the optical axis for the longer wavelength. expand an aberration function in terms of them. namely.5. then an observation with respect to P1 as the origin implies that we have introduced a tilt aberration of Bt r cos q. . Let the position vector of the object point be h with rectangular coordinates ( xo . let r be the position vector of a point with rectangular coordinates ( x. q) = ni d hc¢ r cos q . lies along the z axis. Once again. as in Figure 8-6. q) are the polar coordinates of the point Q1 projected onto the plane of the exit pupil. The aberration function of a system is also expanded in terms of Zernike polynomials. and discuss the primary aberrations. q) = Bt r cos q . Eq. the wavefront tilt aberration due to a lateral color of d hc¢ is given by Wt (r. for example. The axis of rotational symmetry. if an aberration-free wavefront is centered at P2 . where (r. we obtain the form of the aberration terms for a rotationally symmetric system.326 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS and W (r. In the case of lateral color. yo ) and ( x. The origins of ( x o . the r optical axis. y) lie on the optical axis.

yo ) = h(cos q o . sin q o ) (8-22) ( x. yo ) and ( x. r 2 . j. the aberration function depends on the four variables ( x o . Thus. the aberration function must not change. r • •   • i=0 j =0 m =0 • ( ) i (r 2 ) j (hr cos q) m  C ijm h 2 • n =    l =0 n =0 m =0 l a nm h l n r cos m q . 2i + m = l and 2 j + m = n . y) only through the three combinations h 2 . and we have written the object height h in terms of the image height h ¢ . We note that this is indeed the case. r. (8-24b) r r ◊ h r = hr cos(q – q o ) (8-25a) = x o x + yo y .q o ) . and hr cos (q . quantities that are invariant rotation r under r r of the optical system about its axis of r symmetry are the three scalars h .5 Aberrations of a Rotationally Symmetric System 327 Because the pupils of optical systems are generally circular. Now. (8-25b) In order that the aberration function consist of terms with positive integral powers of the four rectangular coordinates. y) of the object and pupil points respectively. (8-26) where C ijm and l a nm are the expansion coefficients. The subscripts on the coefficients l anm represent the . as in Figure 8-3. y) (8-23) and = (r cos q.q o do not change. (8-24a) . If we rotate the system about the optical axis by a certain angle. so do the x and y axes in each plane.8. where ( x o . it is convenient to use polar coordinates. and h r . Let (h. and ( x. but h. i. q) be the polar coordinates corresponding to the angular coordinates ( x o . As the system rotates. because of rotational symmetry. q o ) and (r. and q . A power-series expansion of an aberration function of a system may be written r ( r) = W h. r . These combinations are called the rotational invariants of the aberration function of an optical imaging system with an axis of rotational symmetry. Because of the rotational symmetry. Both q and q o change by the angle of rotation. where ◊ r and 1/ 2 h = h = x o2 + yo2 ( ) rr ( ) = r = x 2 + y2 1/ 2 . there is no loss of generality if we assume for simplicity that the point object lies along the xo axis so that q o = 0 . it must depend on the first two through h 2 and r 2 . yo ) . sin q) . and m are positive integers including zero.

r . the term varying as hr cos q must also be zero. and cos q . such as the radii of curvature of its surfaces. It can be eliminated by observing the image of a planar object on a curved surface (typically spherical. respectively. They can also be determined from the ray-trace data of the paraxial chief and marginal rays. The coefficients 0 a40 .4. They are called the primary or the Seidel aberrations.e. (For an example. the displacement depends on the height of the point object. and the values of their spacing. The primary aberration function may be written W P ( h¢. We note that the dependence of the field curvature term on the pupil coordinates is just like the defocus aberration discussed in Section 8. those for which k = 4 . 1a31 . Accordingly. respectively.3). i. coma. or the image height being different from h ¢ .3. Because the aberration associated with the chief ray (for which r = 0 ) is zero. It must be zero. The first nonzero aberration terms are of fourth order. It is evident that the order of an aberration term. astigmatism. Note that n .) .e. because otherwise the Gaussian image point with respect to which the aberration function is defined must be incorrect. the term varying as r 2 represents a defocus aberration that is independent of h ¢ . this term is a wavefront tilt aberration whose coefficient varies cubically with the height of the point object. the refractive indices of the spaces between them.328 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS powers of h ¢ . 0 a 40 r 4 (8-27) The values of the aberration coefficients depend on the construction parameters of the system. The second-degree terms are also zero.3. the zero-degree term and those varying as h ¢ 2i but without any dependence on r must be zero. as discussed in Section 9. see Section 9. its degree l + n in the object and pupil coordinates. Similarly.4. q) = + 1a 31h¢ r 3 cos q + 2 a 22 h¢ 2 r 2 cos 2 q + 2 a 20 h ¢ 2 r 2 + 3 a11h ¢ 3 r cos q . They can be determined from the Gaussian imaging characteristics of a system without tracing rays [2].3. the dependence of the distortion term on the pupil coordinates is just like the wavefront tilt aberration discussed in Section 8. The reason for the name distortion becomes clear when the image of an extended object is considered. because otherwise it implies a transverse shift of the image point. this term is a defocus whose coefficient varies quadratically with the height of the point object. i. and 3 a 11 represent the coefficients of spherical aberration. but it is transversally displaced from the Gaussian image point. where the distorted image of a square grid is considered.. Therefore. The primary aberrations are listed in Table 8-1. 2 a22 . Similarly.. Thus. The number of terms up to and including a certain order k is given by ( k + 2)( k + 4) . is even. 2 a20 . the image of a point object in the presence of distortion is perfect. and distortion. r. thus the name field curvature. field curvature. For example.m = 2 j is positive and even.

Primary or Seidel aberrations. where n and m are positive integers. (8-30c) a31 = 1a31h¢ a 3 = ac h ¢a 3 = Ac . Combining the aberration terms that have different dependencies on the object coordinates but the same dependence on pupil coordinates so that there is only one term for each pair of (n. respectively.2 No Explicit Dependence on Object Coordinates For a system imaging a given point object. and because 0 £ r £ 1 and cos q £ 1. (8-27) may be written in terms of these coefficients in the form WP (r. The primary aberrations written in this simplified form are also listed in Table 8-1. The primary aberration function of Eq. 8.8. Each aberration coefficient anm depends on the image height h ¢ . (8-30d) . e. the aberration terms may also be written in the form anm rn cos m q . (8-30b) a22 = 2 a22 h ¢ 2 a 2 = aa h ¢ 2 a 2 = Aa . primary spherical.5 Aberrations of a Rotationally Symmetric System 329 Table 8-1. q) = a11r cos q + a20 r2 + a22 r2 cos 2 q + a31r3 cos q + a40 r4 . m) values. We may also let r = r a . it represents the peak value or half of the peak-to-valley value of the corresponding aberration term. Aberration Term l anm h ¢ 0 a40 l n r cos m q r4 1 a31h ¢ r 3 cos q Aberration Term anm rn cos m q Aberration Name* a40 r 4 Spherical a31r3 cos q Coma 2 a22 h ¢ 2 2 a22 r2 cos 2 q Astigmatism 2 a20 h ¢ 2 2 r a20 r2 Field curvature 3 r cos q a11r cos q Distortion 3 a11h ¢ r cos 2 q *The word “primary” is to be associated with these names. (8-30a) . r£ 0 £1 . and n . They correspond to terms with n + m £ 4. (8-28) where a is the radius of the exit pupil of the system. (8-29) where 3 a = at h ¢ 3 a = At a11 = 3 a11h ¢ a20 = 2 a20 h ¢ 2 a 2 = ad h ¢ 2 a 2 = Ad .m ≥ 0 and even.g.. the aberration terms may be written so that their explicit dependence on the image height h ¢ is suppressed.5. depending on whether m is even or odd. including zero.

It is for these reasons that we have used a different symbol.330 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS and a40 = 0 a40 a 4 = as a 4 = As .. for the defocus and tilt coefficients. are called the secondary or the Schwarzchild aberrations.e. (8-8b). However. For convenience. q) = a11r cos q + a20 r2 + a22 r2 cos 2 q + a31r3 cos q + a33r3 cos3 q + a40 r4 + a42 r4 cos2 q + a51r5 cos q + a60 r6 (8-31) . (8-19b). (8-32a) (8-32d) (8-32e) . for which k = 6. 0 a60 a . or n + m £ 6. i. i. . compared to the symbol A for the field curvature and distortion coefficients. (8-30e) and we have introduced aberration coefficients ai and Ai with abbreviated notation. (8-32c) ) + 3 a31h ¢ 3 a 3 . where a11 = ( 3 a11h ¢ a20 = ( 2 a20 h ¢ 2 + 4 a20 h¢ 4 a 2 a22 = ( 2 a22 h ¢ 2 + 4 a22 h¢ 4 a 2 a31 = (a a33 = 3 a33 h ¢ a 40 = ( 0 a40 + 2 a40 h¢ 2 ) a 4 a42 = ) 3 1 31h ¢ + 5 a11h¢ 5 a . the defocus coefficient Bd is independent of h ¢. the values of the indices n and m. (8-32b) ) . comparing the field curvature term with the defocus wave aberration given by Eq. The aberration function through the sixth order aberrations. but the tilt coefficient Bt is independent of h ¢. a60 = ) 3 3 2 a42 h ¢ 6 . and the combined aberration . 2 4 a a51 = 1a51h ¢a 5 . Comparing the distortion term given in Table 8-1 with the wavefront tilt aberration given by Eq. Similarly. we note that their dependence on the pupil coordinates is the same. (8-32f) (8-32g) (8-32h) (8-32i) Written in this form. we note that although the two are similar in their dependence on the pupil coordinates. The aberrations of sixth order. may be written WS (r. The distortion coefficient a11 (or At ) varies with h ¢ as h ¢ 3 . namely.e. the aberration function has nine aberration terms through the sixth order. B. their coefficients depend on the image height differently.. whereas the field curvature coefficient a20 (or Ad ) varies with h ¢ as h ¢ 2 . a . for k £ 6.

6 ADDITIVITY OF PRIMARY ABERRATIONS 8. a 40r 4 consists of spherical and lateral spherical aberrations 0 a 40 a 4 r 4 and 2 a 40 h ¢ 2 a 4 r 4 . In practice. and the tertiary aberrations [2]. Similarly. the Gaussian image of an object formed by a multisurface system can be obtained by sequentially determining the image formed by one surface and treating this image as the object for the next surface. but the sixth degree as well. secondary.1 Introduction As discussed in Chapter 2.6. the Gaussian image is aberration free. it should be noted that the primary aberrations (including distortion and field curvature terms) are not the same as those discussed earlier because they contain aberration components not only of the fourth degree. Combined primary and secondary aberrations. we must trace the object rays through the system and then determine their wave aberrations as the differences in their optical path lengths in reaching the Gaussian reference sphere (with Table 8-2. The object and the (final) image distances are measured from the respective principal points.8. i £ 6. Because the dependence of an aberration term on the image height h ¢ is contained in the aberration coefficient anm . we use the principal points of the system to determine the image in one step using the Gaussian imaging equation. 8. By its definition. n m Aberration Term anm rn cos m q Aberration Name 1 1 a11r cos q Distortion 2 0 a20 r2 Field curvature 2 2 a22 r2 cos 2 q Primary astigmatism 3 1 a31r3 cos q Primary coma 3 3 a33r3 cos3 q Elliptical coma (arrows) 4 0 a40 r 4 Primary spherical 4 2 a42 r 4 cos 2 q Secondary astigmatism 5 1 a51r5 cos q Secondary coma 6 0 a60r6 Secondary spherical . the aberration function through the eighth order can be written by combining the primary. For example. n + m £ 6.6 Additivity of Primary Aberrations 331 terms along with their names. are listed in Table 8-2. To determine the aberrations of a system for imaging a certain point object.

Consider a ray P0 A1 from the axial point object P0 incident on the first surface at a point A1 . its primary spherical aberration.. the wave aberrations of the two surfaces will generally not be additive. which. i. respectively. where P1 A2 represents the transverse aberration of the ray produced by the first surface. because the image P1 is generally not a point due to the aberrations of the first surface. Let the refracted ray intersect the first Gaussian image plane at A2 . and n 2 . forming the image of an axial point object P0 . We also show that the transverse ray aberrations of the surfaces determined in this manner cannot be added to obtain them for the system. as in Figure 8-7. where the object for each surface is the Gaussian image point formed by the previous surface. and the primary aberration of the image P2 of point object P1 formed by the second surface. Thus. the contribution of a surface to the ray aberrations of the final image can be obtained term by term from the wave aberration sum of the system. We show that the primary aberrations of the two surfaces are indeed additive. 8. this ray is the chief ray that passes through the center of the exit pupil. We show that the primary wave aberrations of a multisurface system can be obtained by adding the primary wave aberrations of the surfaces. in turn. n1 . The wave aberration of the ray. Of course. In reality.2 Primary Wave Aberrations Consider a system consisting of two refracting surfaces separating media of refractive indices n 0 . The wave aberrations represent the separations of the wavefront from the reference sphere along the rays. Only the Gaussian imaging parameters of an imaging surface are needed to determine its primary wave aberrations [2]. Typically. The aberrations of a surface under this assumption are called its intrinsic aberrations. namely. with their vertices at V1 and V2 . is given by .332 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS its center of curvature at the Gaussian image point passing through the center of the exit pupil of the system) from a certain reference ray. The corresponding transverse ray aberrations represent the separations of the rays in the Gaussian image plane from the Gaussian image point. forms its Gaussian image at point P2 . the primary aberration of the system in forming the image P2 is equal to the sum of the primary aberration of the image P1 formed by the first surface. The first surface forms the Gaussian image of P0 at P1 . P2 is also the Gaussian image of P0 formed by the two-surface system. The additional wave aberrations for each surface owing to the aberrations of the previous surface are referred to as its extrinsic aberrations. the aberrations of the second surface will be different than if it were a point. They must be obtained from the additive primary aberrations of the system using the Gaussian imaging parameters of the final image.e. The image P1 becomes the object for the second surface. Of course.6. The secondary and higher-order aberrations cannot be obtained by adding them for the surfaces obtained for point objects because the aberration up to a certain order of the image formed by a surface must be taken into account to determine its aberrations of the next higher order.

This coefficient depends on the shape of the refracting surface. P1 is the Gaussian image of P0 formed by the first surface. (8-34) where r 2 is the distance of point A3 from the optical axis. and the refractive indices n1 and n 2 .6 Additivity of Primary Aberrations A1 n0 333 n1 n2 r 1 P1 B V2 r 2 V1 P0 A2 A3 D01 D12 D23 S P29 A4 P2 W Q Image Plane D34 Figure 8-7. Similarly. Wave aberration [ A3Q ] and transverse ray aberration P2 A2 of a ray P0 A1 originating at a point object P0 when imaged by a system consisting of two refracting surfaces separating media of refractive indices n 0 . the wave aberration of the Gaussian image P2 of the point object P1 formed by the second surface is given by W 2 (r 2 ) = [ P1 A3 P2 ] . the object distance D01 .8.[ P0V1P1 ] ( ) = a1r14 + O r16 .[ PV 1 2 P2 ] ( ) = a 2r 42 + O r 62 . (8-35) . W1 (r1) = [ P0 A1P1 ] . n1 . The distances r1 and r 2 are approximately related to each other according to r 2 = r1 D23 D12 . (8-33) where the square brackets indicate an optical path length. object distance D23 . and a 2 is the coefficient of its spherical aberration that depends on the shape of the refracting surface. r1 is the distance of point A1 from the optical axis. and the refractive indices n 0 and n1 [2]. and a1 is the coefficient of spherical aberration. and n 2 . and P2 is the Gaussian image of P1 formed by the second surface.

according to Fermat’s principle. Eq. the wave aberration associated with the ray is [ A3Q ] . (8-42) Next. r 2 ) = [ P0 A1P1 A3 P2 ] . Now. (8-41) Substituting Eq. (8-43) Let the wavefront W passing through the point B intersect the actual ray A3 A4 at Q . the difference in the optical path lengths of the actual and virtual rays is of second order in the transverse distance between them. Using Eq.[ P0V1PV 1 2 P2 ] = (8-36) {[P0 A1P1 ] .[P0 A1 A2 A3 ] ( ) = O r 26 . (8-40) where P1 A2 ~ r13 ~ r 32 represents the transverse aberration of the ray for the first surface. (8-36). [ A1P1 A3 ] . (8-40).[ A1 A2 A3 ] ~ (P1 A2 ) ( ) = O r 62 2 . (8-37) can be written in terms of a single variable r 2 in the form ( ) W s (r 2 ) = a sr 42 + O r 62 . (8-41) into Eq.[P0V1P1 ]} + {[ P1 A3 P2 ] .[ PV 1 2 P2 ]} ( ) ( ) = a1r14 + O r16 + a 2r 42 + O r 62 . Thus. Therefore. by adding the optical path length of the incident ray P0 A1 in Eq. [ A3 P2 ] = [ BP2 ] . (8-38) where 4 ÊD ˆ a s = a1Á 12 ˜ + a 2 Ë D23 ¯ (8-39) is the coefficient of spherical aberration for the system. Thus. (8-37) thus demonstrating the additivity of the primary wave aberrations. we may write ( ) 6 W s (r 2 ) = [ P0 A1 A2 A3 P2 ] . consider the Gaussian reference sphere of radius P2 A3 passing through a point B on the optical axis. we may write [P0 A1P1 A3 ] .[ P0V1PV 1 2 P2 ] + O r 2 . by definition. (8-35). It is numerically negative because the optical path length [ P0 A1 A2 A3 ] to reach the reference .334 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS The wave aberration W s of the system in forming the image P2 of the point object P0 can be written W s (r1. Then.

is also valid for Q lying on the actual ray A3 A4 . Now let us take into account the aberration difference between the point Q lying on the virtual ray A3 P2 and the actual ray A3 A4 .6 Additivity of Primary Aberrations 335 sphere is smaller than the corresponding optical path length [ P0V1PV 1 2 B ] of the reference ray.6. the primary wave aberration associated with a ray is equal to the sum of the primary aberrations associated with it for each of the two surfaces of the system. [P0 A1 A2 A3Q ] = [ P0V1PV 1 2B ] . or. being equal to the sum of the primary aberrations of the two surfaces. (8-38).8. the primary wave aberration of the two-surface system. If we let Q1 and Q2 be the points where the wavefront intersects the two rays. 8. in view of Eq. (8-44) Adding Eqs. Thus. Moreover. and then compared with that of the chief ray or some other reference ray. It should also be clear that the primary aberrations cannot describe the exact wave aberrations because the rays do not pass through the Gaussian image point formed by a surface unless the image formed is indeed aberration free. This result can be generalized to a system consisting of any number of refracting and/or reflecting surfaces. we can write [ P0 A1 A2 A3 P2 ] + [ A3Q ] = [ P0V1PV 1 2 BP2 ] . (8-43) and (8-44). thus establishing the additivity theorem for primary wave aberrations. To determine the exact wave aberration. which.[ P0V1PV 1 2 BP2 ] ( ) = W s (r 2 ) + O r 62 .3 Transverse Ray Aberrations The ray aberration of the image formed by the first surface in Figure 8-7 is P1 A2 given by . (8-46) Thus. is proportional to r 6 . the optical path length of a ray must be determined by tracing it exactly from the object plane to the Gaussian reference sphere of the system. assuming Q to lie on the virtual path A3 P2 .[ A3Q1 ] is proportional to the optical path difference between the two rays. which from Fermat’s principle is of second order in the transverse distance between them. (8-45) or [ A 3Q ] = [ P0 A1 A2 A3 P2 ] . by definition of the wavefront. we obtain [P0 A1 A2 A3Q ] + [ A3 P2 ] = [ P0V1PV 1 2 B ] + [ BP2 ] . in turn. This difference is 2 proportional to [ P2 A4 ] . the aberration difference [ A3Q2 ] .

The transverse ray aberration associated with this ray is P2 P2¢ . For an off-axis point object. Eq. (8-49) It is numerically positive. r 2 ) = W1(r1) + W 2 (r 2 ) . the same reasoning applies to show that the primary aberrations are additive. the primary wave aberration of the system can be written W s (r1. and the second term represents that of the second surface. Of course. appear. the ray aberrations are not additive. coma. (8-51) The first term on the right-hand side of Eq. Note the difference between the first term and the ray aberration P1 A2 given by Eq. they are all of fourth order in the pupil and object coordinates. additional primary aberrations. (8-47) It is numerically negative because the point A2 . In this sense. we have considered the imaging of an axial point object. (8-51) represents the ray aberration contribution of the first surface. Such a difference will occur for each surface of a system. whereas the primary wave aberrations of the surfaces of a system are additive. because the point A4 where the ray intersects the final image plane is above the optical axis.6. Now. and not by adding the ray aberrations of its surfaces. except for the last. It is not equal to the sum of the ray aberrations P1 A2 and P2 P2¢ of the two surfaces. where the ray intersects the first Gaussian image plane lies below the optical axis.4 Off-Axis Point Object So far. from Eq. (847). their ray aberrations are not. The ray aberration of the system must be obtained from its wave aberration. given by P2 P2¢ = D34 ∂W 2 n 2 ∂r 2 . it is refracted as a ray A3 P2¢ . i. field curvature. (8-37). astigmatism.. and distortion. However.336 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS P1 A2 = D12 ∂W1 n1 ∂r1 . the optical path length difference between a . (8-48) The ray aberration for the system associated with the ray P0 A1 incident on the first surface from the point object P0 is P2 A4 . namely.e. 8. (8-50) Thus. Thus. by definition of a primary aberration. If we consider a ray P1 A3 originating at the point object P1 (which is the Gaussian image of the point object P0 formed by the first surface). It is given by P2 A4 = D34 ∂W s n 2 ∂r 2 . (8-49) for the ray aberration of the system can be written P2 A4 = D34 Ê ∂W1 ∂W 2 ˆ + Á ˜ n 2 Ë ∂r 2 ∂r 2 ¯ .

The sum of the intrinsic and extrinsic secondary aberrations of a surface yields its total secondary aberrations. and so on. With a few exceptions. a spherical wave emanating from a point object and incident on an imaging system exits as a spherical wave from its exit pupil converging to the Gaussian image point if the diffraction image is aberration free. and then then adds the aberrations of the surfaces to determine it for the system. The reason is simple: the image formed by the previous surface. l is the wavelength of object radiation.1 Strehl Ratio As illustrated in Figure 8-1. (8-52) where s F2 is the variance of the phase aberration across the exit pupil.7 Strehl Ratio and Aberration Balancing 337 real ray and a virtual ray is of second order in the transverse ray aberration. The primary aberrations of the image formed by this surface must be taken into account to determine the extrinsic secondary aberrations of the next surface. However. 8. where P is the total power in the image.5 Higher-Order Aberrations Just as we can calculate the primary aberration of the image of a point object formed by an imaging surface. its square is of sixth order. and R is the radius of curvature of the exiting spherical wavefront. The Huygens secondary wavelets originating on the spherical wavefront are all in phase and interfere constructively at this point. The ratio of the irradiances with and without aberration is called the Strehl ratio of an image.F 2 . given by PSe l2 R 2 .6. Se is the area of the exit pupil.7. its value is approximately given by [3] S ~ exp ( .s F2 ) . Similarly. The sum of the total secondary aberrations of the surfaces yields the correct secondary aberrations of the system. instead of being a point. The irradiance in the image plane is maximum at the Gaussian image point. adding the intrinsic secondary aberrations of the surfaces will not yield the correct secondary aberrations of the system. is actually a spot diagram resulting from its primary aberrations. the primary wave aberrations are additive also for an off-axis point object. Thus.8. (8-53) where the mean and the mean square values of the aberration are obtained from the expression .7 STREHL RATIO AND ABERRATION BALANCING 8. The variance is given by s F2 = F 2 . and its differences from the spherical wavefront constitute aberrations that reduce the irradiance at the Gaussian image point. Because each (primary) ray aberration is of third order. 8. we can also calculate its secondary and higher-order intrinsic aberrations. For small aberrations. the wave exiting from practical systems is only approximately spherical. the primary and secondary aberrations of an image formed by a surface must be taken into account to determine the tertiary aberrations of the next surface.

corresponding to a wave aberration with s w = l 14 .03 A i for S = 0. The balancing of an aberration to reduce the geometrical ray spot size is discussed in Chapter 9.46 2 3 l 4. They are listed Table 8-3. It should be understood that the tolerance numbers given are not accurate to the second decimal place. q ) sF Spherical As r 4 2 As As = 3. Such a process of balancing a higher-order aberration with one or more aberrations of the same and/or lower orders to minimize the variance is called aberration balancing. 8.8.338 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS 1 Fn 2p Û Û = p -1 Ù Ù F n (r.96 Astigmatism Aar2 cos 2 q Aa 4 l 3.35 3 5 l 4. i. a typical value of the Strehl ratio desired is 0.51 Field Curvature (defocus) Ad r2 Ad Ad = 3. (854). For a high-quality imaging system.. or the wavefront sigma. ı ı 0 (8-54) 0 with n = 1 and 2. the value of the aberration coefficient Ai .7. Standard deviation and tolerance for primary aberrations. for a Strehl ratio of 0. It also lists the aberration tolerance. as is customary in optics. respectively.06 Distortion (tilt) At r cos q At 2 l 7. It is assumed that the amplitude across the pupil is uniform.83 2 2 l 4.8. The aberration tolerance listed in Table 8-3 is for the wave (as opposed to the phase) aberration coefficient.8 . which would otherwise act as the weighting function in the integral in Eq.2 Aberration Balancing Because the Strehl ratio increases as the variance of an aberration decreases. q) r dr dq . Aberration F (r. where s w = (l 2 p) s F is the standard deviation of the wave aberration. Table 8-3 gives the form as well as the standard deviation s F of a primary (or Seidel) aberration. we mix an aberration with aberrations of the same or lower orders to decrease its variance.e. where its coefficient Ai represents the peak value of the aberration.19 Coma Acr3 cos q Ac Ac = 2 .

However.F = 2 B2 A B 4 As2 + d + s d 45 12 6 . the dependence of distortion on (r. The mean and the mean square value of the aberration function are given by 2p 1 1 Û Û F = Ù p Ù ı ı 0 = ( A s r 4 + B d r 2 ) r dr dq 0 As Bd + 3 2 (8-56) and F2 = As2 B2 A B + d + s d 5 3 2 . and the balanced aberration is given by ( F bs (r) = As r 4 . for example.8 is obtained in the Gaussian image plane for As = l 4 .As. we find that the optimum value is Bd = . (8-55) The defocus aberration is introduced by making an observation in a defocused image plane. we balance primary spherical aberration with defocus aberration and write it as F(r) = As r 4 + Bd r 2 . (8-57) The aberration variance is accordingly given by s F2 = F 2 .r 2 ) . which is a factor of 4 smaller than the corresponding value 2 As 3 5 for Bd = 0. For example. the same Strehl ratio is obtained for As = 1 l in a slightly defocused image plane such that . Thus. S = 0. Because the sigma value of the aberration has been reduced by a factor of 4. its tolerance has been increased by the same factor.7 Strehl Ratio and Aberration Balancing 339 as such for consistency only. The variance of primary spherical aberration or astigmatism can be reduced by balancing it with defocus aberration. (8-58) The value of defocus Bd yielding minimum variance is obtained by letting ∂ s F2 = 0 . Note that the dependence of the field curvature on r as r 2 is the same as that for the defocus wave aberration. q) as r cos q is the same as that for the wavefront tilt aberration. ∂ Bd (8-59) and checking that it yields a minimum and not a maximum.8. (4-60) Its standard deviation or sigma value is As 6 5 . Similarly. Thus.

Similarly. the rays from a point object are traced through an optical system to determine the wave aberrations at an array of points.1 Introduction The Zernike circle polynomials are in widespread use because they are not only orthogonal over a circular pupil. Balanced Aberration F (r. The amount of balancing defocus is minus half the amount of astigmatism. 0 . Thus.l . For a system with a circular pupil..1 2 ( ( ) sF A i for S = 0.955l (4 FAc 3. Because of the orthogonality of the polynomials. Table 8-4. In optical design. the maximum Strehl ratio is obtained at a point that is displaced from the Gaussian image point by 4 FAc 3 but lies in the Gaussian image plane.349l 2 s ) ( Diffraction Focus* ) 2 a = ( Aa 2 ) r2 cos 2q *The diffraction focus coordinates are relative to the Gaussian image point. we balance astigmatism with defocus and coma with tilt. each polynomial represents a certain type of aberration. the Zernike polynomials are used to determine the content of the aberration function formed by the array data values. according to Eq. 8F A ) As 6 5 0.2r 3 cos q Astigmatism Aa r2 cos 2 q . Balanced primary aberrations and corresponding diffraction focus. their coefficients are independent of each other in the sense that their values do not depend on the number of polynomials used in the expansion. q) Spherical As r 4 . and their tolerances for a Strehl ratio of 0.8. and its coefficient represents its value. Table 8-4 lists the forms of balanced primary aberrations.e. Also listed in the table is the location of the diffraction focus.8 ZERNIKE CIRCLE POLYNOMIALS 8. In optical testing of a system. standard deviation. 0 ) Ac 6 2 0. 8. their standard deviations.r2 Coma Ac r3 . When the aberration function is expanded in terms of the Zernike polynomials.340 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS Bd = . (8-52). they are measured at an array of points. The defocused image plane lies at a distance 8l F 2 from the Gaussian image plane. i. 4 F A ) Aa 2 6 0. .604l (0 . The balancing tilt in the case of coma is minus two-thirds the amount of coma. 0.8. 0. but also represent balanced classical aberrations that yield minimum variance across the pupil [3]. or the diffraction focus lies at a distance 4 F 2 Aa from the Gaussian image plane along the z axis. the point with respect to which the aberration variance is minimum so that the Strehl ratio is maximum at this point.8 (0. and aberration tolerance. The balancing of higher-order aberrations can be considered in a similar manner.

They are even or odd in r depending on whether n (or m) is even or odd. and n and m are positive integers including zero such that n – m ≥ 0 and even.s˜ ! Á . (8-64) where d ij is a Kronecker delta. (8-68) . q) = Í 1 + d ˙ Rnm (r) cos mq . It is evident from Eq.s˜ ! Ë 2 ¯ Ë 2 ¯ r n .8. K. i.d m 0 for odd n 2 (8-66) Rnn (1) = 1 . q) . The radial and angular dependence of the polynomials is given by 12 Z nm È 2( n + 1) ˘ (r.m )/ 2 Â s= 0 Ên+m ˆ Ên-m ˆ s!Á .e. (8-65) Moreover. q) in the form • n W (r. rn -2 . and d ij = 0 if i π j .2 Polynomials in Optical Design The aberration function W (r.8. d ij = 1 if i = j .s)! ( n . 8. q) = Â Â c nm Z nm (r. (8-63) that Rnn (r) = r n .2s (8-63) is a radial polynomial of degree n in r containing terms in rn .8 Zernike Circle Polynomials 341 We normalize the radial coordinate r of a point on the circular pupil by its radius a so that the maximum value of r = r a is unity. Î m0 ˚ (8-62) where Rnm (r) = ( -1) s ( n .. We refer to a pupil normalized in this manner as a unit circular pupil. q) for a system with a circular exit pupil can be expanded in terms of a complete set of Zernike circle polynomials Z nm (r. and rm. The angular functions are orthogonal according to 2p Ú cos mq cos m ¢q dq = p (1 + d m 0 ) d mm ¢ 0 . Ïd m 0 for even n 2 Rnm ( 0) = Ì Ó . The radial polynomials Rnm (r) are orthogonal to each other according to 1 m m Ú Rn (r) Rn ¢ (r) r dr = 0 1 d 2(n+ 1) nn ¢ . (8-61) n =0 m =0 where c nm is a Zernike expansion coefficient. (8-67) The variation of some typical radial polynomials is shown in Figure 8-8.

as may be seen by letting n ¢ = 0 = m¢ . q) 2p Û Û = Ù Ù W k (r. the polynomials Z nm (r. q) r dr d q ı ı 0 0 1 2p Û Û Ù Ù r dr d q .342 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS Therefore. (8-70a) = (n + 1)(n + 3) 4 for odd n . q)Z n ¢ (r. and ( n . ı ı 0 0 (8-74) . This is different from the order of a classical aberration. Their number through an order n is given by n N n = Ê + 1ˆ Ë2 ¯ 2 for even n . we obtain 1 2p • 1 2p n m¢ m m¢ Ú Ú W (r.W (r.5. q) are orthonormal to each other according to 1 1 2p m m¢ Ú Ú Z (r. and for a given value of n. is zero. q) r dr d q 0 n =0 m =0 0 • 0 0 n = p   c nm d nn ¢d mm ¢ n =0 m =0 = pc n ¢m ¢ . (8-69) The mean value of a polynomial. except piston. q)Z n ¢ (r. (8-71) or c nm = 1 1 2p m Ú Ú W (r. a polynomial with a lower value of m is ordered first. q) . q) 2 . 2 . (8-61) by Z nm¢ ¢ (r. The index n of a Zernike polynomial represents its radial degree or the order because it represents the highest power of r in the polynomial. q) r dr d q = d nn ¢d mm ¢ p0 0 n .1). q)Z n (r. (8-60).1) 2 when it is odd. q) . The index m of a polynomial is referred to as its azimuthal frequency. q) r dr d q . The polynomials are ordered such that a polynomial with a lower value of n is ordered first. (8-70b) Multiplying both sides of Eq. (8-73) where the angular brackets indicate a mean value over the unit pupil according to 1 k W (r. and utilizing the orthonormality Eq. q)r dr d q =   c nm Ú Ú Z n (r. p0 0 (8-72) The variance of the aberration function is given by s W2 = W 2 (r. The number of polynomials of a certain order n is (n 2) + 1 when n is even. which represents the degree of the Cartesian coordinates of the point object (for which the aberration function is being considered) and pupil points (see Section 8. q)Z n ¢ (r. integrating over the unit pupil. k = 1. The polynomials through n = 8 and m = 0 are given in Table 8-5.

(b) Tilt and coma.2 0.5 3 -1 0 0.6 0.8 1 U 1 n=6 0. Variation of a Zernike circle radial polynomial Rnm (r) as a function of r . (a) Defocus and spherical aberrations.4 0.2 0.8 1 U Figure 8-8. (c) Astigmatism.5 2 R n(ρ) 2 (c) 0 -0.6 0.6 0.4 0.5 8 (a) 0 -0.2 0.5 6 2 -1 0 0. .8 1 U 1 n=5 0.5 8 4 -1 0 0.5 7 1 R n(ρ) 1 0 (b) -0.8.4 0.8 Zernike Circle Polynomials 343 1 n=4 0 R n(ρ) 0.

Orthonormal Zernike circle polynomials and their names when identified with aberrations.2r cos q 3 3 8 r3 cos 3q 4 0 5 6r 4 .1 ) Secondary spherical 2 ) cos 2q Tertiary astigmatism ) Secondary coma ) 5 .140r6 + 90r 4 .4r cos q 7 7 ( 5 Tertiary coma 3 5 ) Tertiary spherical *The words “orthonormal Zernike” are to be associated with these names.3r 2 Primary spherical ) cos 2q Secondary astigmatism 4 4 4 10 r cos 4q 5 1 12 10r5 .20r + 6r 6 .12r3 + 3r cos q 5 3 ( 12 (5r 5 5 12 r5 cos 5q 6 0 7 20r6 .20r2 + 1 6 6 4 14 15r . n m Polynomial Aberration Name* È 2(n + 1) ˘ Znm (r.30r 4 + 12r2 .4r3 cos 3q ( 6 4 ( 14 (6r 6 6 14 r6 cos 6q 7 1 7 3 7 5 ( ) 4 (21r .5r 4 2 ) cos 4q 4 35r 7 . . q ) = Í ˙ Î 1 + d m0 ˚ 1 2 Rnm (r) cos mq 0 0 1 Piston 1 1 2r cos q Distortion (tilt) 2 0 ( ) 3 2r2 .344 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS Table 8-5. e..30r + 10r ) cos 3q 4 (7r .g.1 Field curvature (defocus) 2 2 2 6 r cos 2q 3 1 8 3r3 . orthonormal Zernike primary astigmatism.6r ) cos 5q 7 7 4 r 7 cos 7q 8 0 3 70r8 .6r2 + 1 4 2 ( Primary astigmatism ) ( Primary coma ) ( 4 10 4r .60r5 + 30r3 .

c 00 . Z j (r. (8-76) n =0 m =0 Substituting Eqs.e. (8-75) and (8-76) into (8-73). q) = n +1 Rn0 (r). It is convenient in such cases to write their form and numbering as [3]: Z even j (r. i. where W rms = W 2 is the root-mean-square (rms) value of the aberration.. q) = 2(n + 1) Rnm (r) sin mq. the variance of the aberration function is equal to the sum of the squares of the orthonormal expansion coefficients c nm . (8-79) . we obtain • s W2 =  n 2 2 .8 Zernike Circle Polynomials 345 The mean value of the aberration function is given by • W (r. q) = 2(n + 1) Rnm (r) cos mq. except c 00 .  c nm (8-77) n =0 m =0 or • s W2 =  n 2  c nm .8. (8-78) n =1 m = 0 Thus. q) 1 2p n =   c nm Ú Ú Z nm (r. (8-75) where again we have used the orthonormality Eq. We point out that unless the mean value of the aberration W = 0 . m π 0 . 8.3 Polynomials in Optical Testing Because the aberrations introduced by fabrication errors or atmospheric turbulence are random in nature. It illustrates that an orthonormal coefficient represents the standard deviation of the corresponding polynomial aberration term. m=0 . q)Z nm¢ ¢ (r. q) • • n =   c nm  n =0 m=0 • n ¢=0 m¢=0 • n =   c nm  n =0 m =0 • n 1 2p  c n ¢m ¢ Ú Ú Z nm (r.8. we need both the cosine and the sine Zernike circle polynomials to express them. q) r dr d q n =0 m =0 • 0 0 n =   c nm d n 0d m 0 n =0 m =0 = c 00 . m π 0 . The mean square value of the aberration function is given by W 2 (r. q) r dr d q 0 0 n  c n ¢m ¢d nn ¢d mm ¢ n ¢=0 m ¢=0 n 2 =   c nm . (8-69) for n ¢ = 0 = m¢ . then 1/ 2 s w π Wrms . Z odd j (r. for Z 00 = 1.

(8-82) The first 45 orthonormal Zernike polynomials are listed in Table 8-6. The orthogonality of the trigonometric functions yields Ï cos mq cos m¢q Ô cos mq sin m¢q Ô Û Ù dq Ìsin mq cos m¢q ı Ô 0 ÔÓsin mq sin m¢q 2p . a polynomial with a lower value of m is ordered first. the polynomials are orthonormal over a unit circular pupil according to 1 Ú 0 2p Ú Z j (r. q) across a unit pupil representing the aberrations resulting from fabrication errors or atmospheric turbulence can be expanded in terms of the polynomials Z j (r. The number of polynomials of a given order n is n + 1. (8-81). we obtain the expansion coefficients: aj = 11 Ú p0 2p Ú W (r.346 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS An even number is associated with a cosine polynomial. q) Z j ¢ (r. Ô = Ì p d mm ¢ . q) in the form J W (r. (8-83) by Z j (r. The polynomials are ordered such that an even j corresponds to a symmetric polynomial varying as cosmq. An aberration function W (r. (8-84) 0 It is evident from Eq. q) r dr dq . q) r dr dq 1 2p Ú Ú 0 0 r dr dq = d jj ¢ . q) . (8-84) that the value of a coefficient a j is independent of the . Their number through a certain order n is given by N n = ( n + 1)( n + 2) 2 . (8-83) j =1 where a j is an expansion coefficient. q) = Â a j Z j (r. and using the orthonormality Eq. Ó and j ¢ are both even is even and j ¢ is odd is odd and j ¢ is even and j ¢ are both odd j and j ¢ are both even j and j ¢ are both odd otherwise . . integrating over the unit disc. j j j j Ï p (1 + d m 0 )d mm ¢ . Multiplying both sides of Eq. and an odd j corresponds to an antisymmetric polynomial varying as sinmq. and an odd number with a sine polynomial. . (8-80) Therefore. . A polynomial with a lower value of n is ordered first. (8-81) 0 The index j is a polynomial-ordering number and is a function of both n and m. and for a given value of n. q) . q)Z j (r. Ô0 . and we have truncated the polynomials at a maximum value J of j.

a polynomial with a lower value of m is ordered first. e.2r sin q 8 3 1 ( 8 (3r 9 3 3 8 r 3 sin 3 q 10 3 3 8 r 3 cos 3 q 11 4 0 5 6r 4 . and m are called the polynomial number.. The polynomials Z j are ordered such that an even j corresponds to a symmetric polynomial varying as cos mqq .1 Defocus 5 2 2 6 r 2 sin 2q 45∞ primary astigmatism ( r2 ) cos 2 q 6 2 2 6 0∞ primary astigmatism 7 3 1 8 3r3 .2r) cos q 3 ( ) 4 ) .12r + 3r) sin q 12 (5r .4r ) cos 3q 12 (5r . orthonormal Zernike circle 0∞ primary astigmatism.4r ) sin 3q 20 5 5 12 r 5 cos 5 q 21 5 5 12 r 5 sin 5 q ) . and azimuthal frequency. n. radial degree.12r3 + 3r cos q 17 5 1 18 5 3 19 5 3 ( ) 12 (10r .8. respectively.3r2 cos 2q 0∞ secondary astigmatism 13 4 2 ( 10 ( 4r 14 4 4 10 r 4 cos 4 q 15 4 4 10 r 4 sin 4 q 16 5 1 12 10r5 . q) Aberration Name* 1 2 0 1 0 1 1 2 r cos q Piston x-tilt 3 1 1 2 r sin q y-tilt 4 2 0 3 2r2 . A polynomial with a lower value of n is ordered first. and an odd j corresponds to an antisymmetric polynomial varying as sin mqq. . and for a given value of n. The indices j. q) .6r2 + 1 Primary spherical aberration 12 4 2 10 4r 4 . Orthonormal Zernike circle polynomials Z j (r.g.3r ) sin 2q 2 5 3 5 3 5 3 Primary y-coma Primary x-coma 45∞ secondary astigmatism Secondary x-coma Secondary y-coma *The words “orthonormal Zernike circle” are to be associated with these names. j n m Z j (r.8 Zernike Circle Polynomials 347 Table 8-6.

g.30r + 10r ) cos 3q 4 (7r . (Cont.30r + 10r ) sin 3q 4 (21r .42r 6 + 15r 4 ) sin 4q 18 (8r 8 .105r 6 + 60r 4 .7r 6 ) sin 6q 44 8 8 18 r 8 cos 8q 45 8 8 18 r 8 sin 8q 30 7 1 4 35r 7 . q) . orthonormal Zernike circle 0∞ primary astigmatism.4r) cos q 4 (21r . e.348 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS Table 8-6. q) Aberration Name* ( ) 7 20r6 .5r ) sin 4q 14 (6r .20r + 6r ) cos 2q 14 (6r .4r sin q 7 5 3 7 5 3 7 5 3 7 5 7 5 ( Tertiary y-coma Tertiary x-coma ) 18 56r 8 .20r2 + 1 38 8 2 39 8 2 40 8 4 41 8 4 42 8 6 43 8 6 ( ) 18 ( 56r 8 .20r + 6r sin 2q 6 4 6 4 45∞ tertiary astigmatism 0∞ tertiary astigmatism 31 7 3 32 7 3 33 7 5 34 7 5 ( ) 4 (35r .6r ) sin 5q 4 (7r ..6r ) cos 5q 35 7 7 4 r 7 sin 7 q 36 7 7 4 r 7 cos 7 q 37 8 0 3 70r8 . .1 25 6 4 26 6 4 ( ) 14 (15r . Orthonormal Zernike circle polynomials Z j (r.10r 2 cos 2q Tertiary spherical 0∞ quaternary astigmatism 45∞ quaternary astigmatism *The words “orthonormal Zernike circle” are to be associated with these names.) j n m 22 6 0 Z j (r.60r + 30r .140r6 + 90r 4 .42r 6 + 15r 4 ) cos 4q 18 ( 28r 8 .60r5 + 30r3 .7r 6 ) cos 6q 18 (8r 8 .30r 4 + 12r2 .105r 6 + 60r 4 .5r ) cos 4q 27 6 6 14 r 6 sin 6 q 28 6 6 14 r 6 cos 6 q 29 7 1 23 6 2 24 6 2 6 4 2 6 4 2 Secondary spherical 14 15r .10r 2 ) sin 2q 18 ( 28r 8 .

1 Isometric Characteristics The P-V numbers of Zernike polynomials are given in Table 8-7 [4].4. Rnm (1) = 1 . The P-V numbers in this case are given by 2 ( n + 1) . the P-V numbers of polynomials with the same value of n but different values of m. and cos q or sinq varies by 2 from –1 to 1. Moreover. the mean and the mean square values of the aberration function are given by W (r. they are given by 2 2( n + 1) . (8-83) for the expansion of the aberration function. It should be evident that the P-V numbers of two polynomials with the same values of n and m are the same. the P-V numbers are given by (1 . As in the case of polynomials in optical design. The P-V numbers of a polynomial representing the fabrication errors give a measure of the depth of material to be removed in the fabrication process. because Rnm ( 0) = 0 . Rn0 (r) varies from –1 at r = 0 to 1 at r = 1. except m = 0. The isometric plots of the Zernike primary aberrations are shown in Figure 8-9.8 Zernike Circle Polynomials 349 number J of the polynomials used in Eq.8. . as for defocus Z 4 and secondary Zernike spherical aberration Z 22 . q) . where b is the extreme negative value of Rn0 (r) as r varies between 0 and 1. Thus.4 Characteristics of Polynomial Aberrations 8. q) 2 J = Â a 2j .b) n + 1 . (8-88) j =2 8. are also the same. However. When m = 0 and n 2 is even. Rnm (r) £ 1 (as may be seen from Figure 8-8). q) = Â a 2j .a12 .W (r. (8-87) j =1 or J s W2 = Â a 2j .8. Accordingly. From the form of the polynomials given in Eqs. (8-79) for m π 0. as for the primary and tertiary Zernike spherical aberrations Z11 and Z 37 . the variance of the aberration function is given by s W2 = W 2 (r. when m = 0 and n 2 is odd. one or more polynomial terms can be added to or subtracted from the aberration function without affecting the value of the coefficients of the other polynomials in the expansion. as may be seen from Figure 8-8. q) = a1 (8-85) and J W 2 (r. (8-86) j =1 respectively.8.

485 Z10 4 2 = 5.928 Z 32 8 Z3 4 Z18 2 12 = 6. and those intersecting the y axis are formed by a negative aberration. as in optical testing. which is equal to the number of times the aberration changes by one wave as we move from the center to the edge of the pupil.325 Z 28 2 14 = 7.5 5 = 3.485 Z13 2 10 = 6.292 Z 37 4.483 Z 41 2 18 = 8.657 Z 25 2 14 = 7.485 Z15 2 10 = 6.657 Z 23 2 14 = 7.928 Z 31 8 Z2 4 Z17 2 12 = 6. Rotating by p 2 yields an aberration of the same magnitude but with an opposite sign. Zj P-V # Zj P-V # Zj P-V # Z1 0 Z16 2 12 = 6.657 Z 24 2 14 = 7.928 Z 33 8 Z4 2 3 = 3. Accordingly.485 Z12 2 10 = 6.325 Z 30 8 Z 45 2 18 = 8.483 Z 42 2 18 = 8.928 Z 34 8 Z5 2 6 = 4.325 Z 29 8 Z 44 2 18 = 8.928 Z 35 8 Z6 2 6 = 4.286 Z8 4 2 = 5. astigmatism Z 6 varying as cos 2q is 2-fold symmetric.899 Z 20 2 12 = 6.325 Z 27 2 14 = 7.485 Z9 4 2 = 5.899 Z 21 2 12 = 6.8. The number of fringes in an interferogram. or the aberration is an odd multiple of l 2.485 Z14 2 10 = 6. Each fringe represents a contour of constant phase or aberration. For example.483 Z 39 2 18 = 8.483 Z 43 2 18 = 8. the fringes intersecting the x axis are formed by a positive aberration.483 Z 38 2 18 = 8.483 Z 40 2 18 = 8.485 Z11 1. can be different from that of the aberration.2 Interferometric Characteristics The symmetry of an interferogram of a Zernike polynomial aberration.485 8. is different for the different polynomials.350 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS Table 8-7.464 Z19 2 12 = 6. Peak-to-valley (P-V) numbers (in units of wavelength) of orthonormal Zernike polynomial aberrations for a sigma value of one wave. because a fringe is formed independent of its sign.4. Thus. The fringe is dark when the phase is an odd multiple of p.354 Z 26 2 14 = 7. It has the implication that the aberration function does not change when it is rotated by p.928 Z 36 8 Z7 4 2 = 5. its interferogram is 4-fold symmetric.657 Z 22 2 7 = 5. In .

In the case of spherical aberration Z11 . which is the same as the P-V number of four waves. Similarly. the aberration changes by one wave four times. Thus.       Z1 Z2           Z4     Z8     Z6       Z11     Figure 8-9. interferograms on the left. The corresponding diffraction PSFs are included for completeness. the total number of times the aberration changes by unity is equal to 6. reaches a negative value of . the aberration starts at a value of 5 waves. for example. defocus aberration Z4 yields about 3. Zernike circle polynomials shown as isometric plots on the top. and then increases to 5 waves. . four straight-line fringes symmetric about the center are obtained. The interferograms of the Zernike primary aberrations are shown in Figure 8-9. and diffraction PSFs on the right for a sigma value of one wave. and approximately seven circular fringes are obtained. Thus.8.8 Zernike Circle Polynomials 351 the case of tilts. and the y-tilt polynomial Z3 yields horizontal fringes. decreases to zero. The x-tilt polynomial Z2 yields vertical fringes.5 fringes.7.5 2 waves.

as in optical testing.1.1 Introduction As discussed in Section 8. where the aberration coefficient is in units of wavelength. The names of some of the aberrations associated with the Zernike polynomials are given in Table 8-3. or cos mq as a power series of cos q terms. q) = 2 a 2r cos q + 2a 3r sin q . q) = 2 a 3r sin q (8-90) represents a tilt of the wavefront about the x axis by an angle 4 (l D)a 3 and results in a displacement of the PSF along the y axis by 4l Fa 3 . However. We show how to define the effective Seidel coefficients in such cases. Similarly. the coefficients of classical aberrations can be obtained from the Zernike coefficients. We emphasize that the Seidel aberration coefficients determined from the primary Zernike aberrations will be in error unless the higher-order terms that also contain Seidel terms are negligible [5]. a Zernike polynomial depends on the angle as cos mq (or sin mq).2 Wavefront Tilt Aberration The Zernike tilt aberration a 2 Z 2 (r. the Zernike tilt aberration a 3 Z 3 (r.9 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ZERNIKE POLYNOMIALS AND CLASSICAL ABERRATIONS 8.5. However. if both x and y Zernike tilts are present in the form W (r. By expressing cos m q as a series of cos mq terms. The P-V number of the aberration is 4 a2 . q) = 2a 2r cos q (8-89) represents a tilt of the wavefront about the y axis by an angle 4 (l D)a 2 . the measured aberrations of a system in optical testing generally contain both the cosine and sine terms due to the assembly and fabrication errors. where the optical system has an axis of rotational symmetry with the consequence that the angle-dependent terms are in the form of powers of cos q . We illustrate this for primary aberrations. It results in a displacement of the PSF along the x axis by 4 l Fa 2 . q) + a 3 Z 3 (r. their combination represents the aberration whose orientation depends on the value of the component terms.352 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS 8. For example.9. 8. (8-91a) (8-91b) . q) = a 2 Z 2 (r. m The Seidel aberrations are well known in optical design. a classical aberration depends on the polar angle q as cos q . where F is the focal ratio of the image-forming light cone.9. and vice versa [2]. They are a carry over from the names associated with the classical aberrations. It should be evident that when the cosine and sine terms of a certain aberration are present simultaneously.

The P-V number for the aberration is 2 3a 4 . indicating a sin mq polynomial. Similarly. The Zernike tilt aberration Z 2 (r.5). q) = a 4 3 2r 2 . q) = 6 a 5r 2 sin 2q (8-95) can be written a 5 Z 5 (r. we find that it is equivalent to changing q to q + p 4 . Accordingly. just as the Seidel field curvature varies with it. 8. How to decide the sign of the overall tilt and the value of its angle are discussed in the Appendix. q) dependence (see Tables 8-1 and 8-2). (8-94). it is called the 45∞ astigmatism. (8-97) . The secondary Zernike astigmatism. then the angle of orientation is zero. (8-92) that if b j = 0 . 8.8. given by a12 Z12 (r. indicating a cos mq polynomial. q) is similar to the Seidel distortion in its (r.tan-1(a3 a2 )] . The Zernike primary astigmatism a 5 Z 5 (r. it represents a Zernike wavefront tilt aberration of magnitude 2 a 22 + a 32 about -1 an axis that is orthogonal to a line making an angle of tan (a 3 a 2 ) with the x axis.9 Relationship between Zernike Polynomials and Classical Aberrations 353 it can be written ( W (r. It varies with r as r 2 . q) = 6 a 6r 2 cos 2q (8-94) is referred to as the 0∞ astigmatism.9. The constant term in Z 4 (r) results in its mean value across the circular pupil to be zero. q) = [ ] 6 a 5r 2 cos 2(q + p 4) .1 . It is evident from Eq.9. (8-93) where a 4 is its sigma value. without changing its standard deviation. It consists of Seidel astigmatism r2 cos 2 q balanced with defocus aberration r2 to yield minimum variance (see Problem 8.3r 2 cos 2q . then the angle is p 2m . so are the PSF and the spot diagram. (8-92) ( )1 2 Thus. q) = 2 a 22 + a 32 )1 2 r cos [q .4 Astigmatism The Zernike primary astigmatism a 6 Z 6 (r. if a j = 0. q) = ( ) 10 a12 4r 4 .3 Wavefront Defocus Aberration The Zernike defocus aberration Z 4 (r) is given by ( ) Z 4 (r. (8-96) Comparing it with Eq. Because the aberration is radially symmetric. It displaces the image along the x axis by 4 l Fa 3 .

8. q) = a 6 Z 6 (r. When both x. q) ( ) (8-101a) ( ) 8 a 8 3r 3 . q) + a 7 Z 7 (r. to yield minimum variance (see Problem 8. q) are called the x and y Zernike comas.5). or a 90∞ negative Seidel astigmatism and a positive defocus.2r) cos [q . q) = a 72 + a 82 )1 2 8 (3r3 . The names for the secondary and tertiary comas can be explained similarly.r 2 = a6 (8-100b) .and y-Zernike comas are present.5 Coma The Zernike aberration terms a 8 Z 8 (r. q) + a 5 Z 5 (r. as in Eq. The name tertiary astigmatism in Table 8-5 can be explained similarly.(1 2) tan -1(a 5 a 6 ) showing that it is Zernike astigmatism of magnitude (1 2) tan-1( a 5 a 6 ) with the x axis. For example. it is referred to as the 0∞ astigmatism in conformance with the corresponding primary astigmatism.9. q) = a 52 + a 62 )1 2 {[ ]} 6 r 2 cos 2 q . They represent classical coma r 3 cos q or r 3 sin q balanced with tilt r cos q or r sin q .2r cos q + 8 a 7 3r 3 .2r sin q . (8-100c). q) = a 8 Z 8 (r. (8100b). Because of its variation with q as cos 2q . (8-100a) can be written as a combination of 0∞ positive Seidel astigmatism and a negative defocus. because it can be written in different but equivalent forms by separating defocus aberration from it.tan-1(a7 a8 )] . a 0∞ astigmatism can be written a 6 Z 6 (r. . the aberration may be written W (r. (a52 + a62 )1 2 (8-99) at an angle of It should be evident that there is ambiguity in determining astigmatism.2r 2 sin 2 q + r 2 ) (8-100a) = a 6 6 2r 2 cos 2 q . q) and a 7 Z 7 (r. (8-101c) .354 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS does not yield a line image in any plane. q) (8-98a) 6 a 6r 2 cos 2q + 6 a 5r 2 sin 2q . If both 0 o and 45∞ astigmatisms are present so that the aberration function is W (r. (8-100c) It is clear that a 0∞ Zernike astigmatism given by Eq. respectively. = (8-98b) we may write it in the form ( W (r. = (8-101b) or ( W (r. as in Eq. q) = a 6 6r 2 cos 2q ( ) 6 ( .

but the secondary and tertiary Zernike comas also contain Seidel coma. Z14 . Thus. For an off-axis image.8. 355 )1 2 inclined at an angle of 8. However. Thus. it is only if the higher-order Zernike comas are zero or negligible that the PSF aberrated by primary Zernike coma will be symmetric about a line making an angle of tan -1 (a 7 a 8 ) with the x axis. e. (8-96c) at an angle of -1 tan (a 7 a 8 ) is only from the primary Zernike comas. a11 = 1 4 5 . e.. secondary.9 Relationship between Zernike Polynomials and Classical Aberrations ( which is equivalent to a Zernike coma of magnitude a 72 + a 82 tan -1 (a 7 a 8 ) with the x axis. Similarly. we will. ( ( ) ) To illustrate how an incorrect Seidel coefficient can be inferred unless it is obtained from all of the significant Zernike terms that contain Seidel aberrations.5 waves.. as many as 21 terms. Needless to say. it is important that the expansion be carried out up to a certain number of terms such that any additional . 12 or tertiary coma. The secondary Zernike aberration Z 22 consisits of classical secondary aberration r 6 balanced with the primary spherical aberration and defocus to yield minimum variance. that also contain Seidel aberrations.g.9. Similarly.7 Seidel Coefficients from Zernike Coefficients It should be noted that the wavefront tilt aberration given by Eq.g.6 Spherical Aberration The Zernike primary spherical aberration Z11 (r) represents the Seidel spherical aberration varying as r 4 balanced with defocus varying as r 2 to yield minimum variance (see Problem 8. (8-93) represents the tilt aberration obtained from the Zernike tilt aberrations. Zernike primary. Similarly. the Seidel coma 3 8 a 72 + a 82 in Eq. there are angledependent aberrations. if we expand the aberration function up to the first. say. there are other Zernike aberrations that also have tilt aberration built into them. the Seidel spherical aberration will correctly reduce to zero when at least the first 22 terms are included in the expansion. because in reality the amount of Seidel spherical aberration is zero. 8. Such a conclusion is obviously incorrect.5 waves. incorrectly conclude that the amount of Seidel spherical aberration is 1.9. a 4 = 9 20 3 . a1 = 1 4 . (8-103) If we infer the Seidel spherical aberration from only the primary Zernike aberration a11Z11 (r) . in fact. as in Eq. However. we consider an axial image aberrated by one wave of the secondary spherical aberration r 6 . the constant term in Z11 (r) results in its mean value across the circular pupil to be zero. it is only if the secondary and tertiary astigmatisms are zero or negligible that the Seidel 12 astigmatism is 2 6 a 52 + a 62 . (8-99).5). its amount would be 1. As in the case of the Zernike defocus term Z 4 (r) . the Zernike secondary and tertiary spherical aberrations Z 22 and Z 37 also contain a constant term so that their mean value is zero. (8-102) where ( ) a 22 = 1 20 7 . In terms of Zernike polynomials it will be written as W (r) = a 22 Z 22 (r) + a11Z11(r) + a 4 Z 4 (r) + a1Z1(r) .

for example.3 5a11 . q) = Â a j Z j (r.10 ABERRATIONS OF AN ANAMORPHIC SYSTEM 8. the Gaussian images of a point object with object rays in the two symmetry planes are formed separately. At = 2ÈÍ a 2 . ba = ( )1 2 .3a 4 + 5a11 . we may write 8 W (r. The two orthogonal planes of symmetry of the imaging system yield six reflection invariants in terms of the Cartesian coordinates of the . By definition. As discussed in Section 2. They are given by A p = a1 . and b i is the orientation angle of the Seidel aberration. for example. 8.10. Thus. is symmetric about two orthogonal planes whose intersection defines its optical axis.b c ) + Asr 4 . (8-104a) is good only when the higher-order Zernike aberrations that also contain Seidel aberration terms are negligible.8a8 ¯ .10. (8-105c) 1 tan -1 (a 5 a 6 ) . (8-104b) where A p is the piston aberration. we add that the approximation of Eq.8 a 8 Î ( ( Ad = 2 2 ) + (a 3 (8-105a) 12 2 . Aa = 2 6 a 52 + a 62 Ac = 6 2 a 72 + a 82 . and that of a rectangular object can be square. (8-105f) As a note of caution.8a7 ˆ .b a ) + Ac r cos(q . b t = tan -1Á 3 ˜ Ë a2 . (8-105b) (8-105d) (8-105e) and As = 6 5a11 . 2 ( )1 2 . If we approximate a certain aberration function by the primary Zernike aberrations only.Aa ) Ê a .356 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS terms do not significantly change the mean square difference between the function and its estimate. an anamorphic system forms the image of an extended object with different transverse magnifications in the two symmetry planes.8 a 7 ˘˙ ˚ ) 3a 4 . the inferred Seidel aberrations will be erroneous [5]. other coefficients Ai represent the peak value of the corresponding Seidel aberration term. the image of a square object is rectangular. They are coincident in the final image space of the system for only two pairs of conjugate planes.1 Introduction An anamorphic imaging system. q) + a11Z11(r) (8-104a) j =1 = A p + At r cos(q . Otherwise. b c = tan -1 (a 7 a 8 ) . consisting of cylindrical optics.b t ) + Ad r 2 + Aa r 2 cos 2 (q .

the aberration function. are also orthogonal over a rectangular pupil [7]. q. and n are positive integers including zero. and the other three are symmetric about the zx plane. l .l . j. (8-108) It is evident that the degree of an aberration term is even. j . x . k . Let ( x . consists of products of positive integral powers of six reflection invariants: p 2 . as it represents the aberration of the chief ray.10 Aberrations of an Anamorphic System 357 object and pupil points. one for each of the two dimensions of the rectangular pupil [6]. which become the building blocks of its aberration function for a certain point object. 8. which depends on both ( p. y) be the coordinates of a pupil point normalized by (a. x 2 . and thus the aberration function consists of aberrations of even orders only. k. y 2 . The zero-degree term must be zero. are inherently separable in the Cartesian coordinates of the pupil point.10. m . The compound Legendre polynomials are orthogonal across a rectangular pupil and.m. y ) coordinates. The balanced aberrations for a rectangular pupil are represented by the products of the Legendre polynomials. There are six terms of second degree. b) so that -1 £ x £ 1 and -1 £ y £ 1 . we briefly discuss the power series expansion of the aberration function in terms of the six reflection invariants and define the classical aberrations of an anamorphic system. q 2 . because they do not represent balanced aberrations for such systems. q) and ( x . m. n ( ) i (q2 ) j ( x 2 ) k ( y 2 ) l ( px) m (qy) n C i. and qy . In this section. Because of the symmetry of the system about the orthogonal planes zx and yz (see Figure 2-48). k.8. or equivalently for an infinite number of symmetry planes.k. l. A power-series expansion of the aberration function can be written W ( p. q) in the object plane imaged by an anamorphic system. They are different from the orthogonal polynomials representing the balanced aberrations for a system with rotational symmetry but a rectangular pupil. j . (8-106) The first three are symmetric about the yz plane. like the classical aberrations. j. which is zero by its definition as the reference ray.2 Classical Aberrations Consider a point object located at a point (p. they are not suitable for anamorphic systems. It may be an aperture stop in the image space of the system. namely the reflection invariants multiplied . l. m. Although products of Chebyshev polynomials. px . (8-107) where i.n is the coefficient of the aberration term that has a degree in the object and pupil coordinates given by degree = 2(i + j + k + l + m + n ) . Let the exit pupil of the system be rectangular with half widths a and b. y ) = Â i. one for the x axis and the other for the y axis. n p 2 . The six invariants reduce to three “rotational” invariants for a rotationally symmetric system. and C i.

y ) = C1 p 3 + C 2 pq 2 x + C 3 p 2 q + C 4 q 3 y + C 5 p 2 + C 6 q 2 x 2 ( 2 2 2 ) + C 7 pqxy + C 8 p + C 9 q y + C10 pxy + C11qyx + C12 px 3 3 2 2 + C13 qy + C14 x y + C15 x 4 + C16 y 4 2 2 . For example. are piston terms. In conformance with the aberrations of a rotationally symmetric system. y ) of a pupil point. r r and the 16 primary aberrations reduce to five. Because our aberration function is defined with respect to the Gaussian image point. and px + qy . or astigmatism. and can generally be ignored. The primary aberration function can be written ( ) ( ) ( ) W ( p. and the quaternary terms are the spherical aberrations. represent lateral deviations of the image point from the Gaussian image point. the linear terms in x and y are the distortion aberrations. the cubic terms are comas. compared to only five for a rotationally symmetric system. Thus. and those in x 2 and y 2 represent longitudinal deviations. The order of an orthogonal aberration is represented by its degree in the pupil coordinates. and r then the r r r hr cos q . of which three are piston terms and two are equal to another two. They are called the primary aberrations of an anamorphic system. r ◊ r . r 2 .e. they are independent of the pupil coordinates. b) are orthogonal over the pupil. defocus.358 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS with their respective coefficients. the fourth-order classical aberration px 3 in the object and pupil coordinates representing x-coma becomes a third-order orthogonal aberration p x 3 .(3 5) x in pupil coordinates. we are left with 16 terms that depend on the pupil coordinates.. h ◊ r or h 2 . namely. and may be referred to as the orthogonal aberrations. r = r . the quadratic terms may be referred to as the field curvature. It is easy to see that an anamorphic system has three primary aberrations for an axial point object. namely those in p 2 and q 2 . these four terms must be zero. the balanced aberrations for a rectangular pupil and the polynomials representing them are the products of Legendre polynomials in x and y variables. If h and rr are position vectors of the r the r r r r object and pupil points. [ ] . which is the same as that of its leading classical aberration term only for an axial point object. those in px and qy . Two of these terms. For a rotationally symmetric system. x . compared to only one for a rotationally symmetric system. q. and q is the polar angle of r with respect to that of h . Among the other four. i. (8-109) where we have expressed the aberration coefficients in a simplified form with one subscript for convenience.10. the six reflection coefficients reduce to three rotational invariants. x 2 + y 2 . rotational invariants are h ◊ h . p 2 + q 2 . where h = h .3 Aberration Polynomials Orthonormal over a Rectangular Pupil The balanced classical aberrations for an anamorphic imaging system are separable in the x and y coordinates of a point on the rectangular exit pupil. Thus. There are 21 terms of the fourth degree. 8. The polynomials with the x and y variables properly normalized by the dimensions of the rectangular pupil (a. It is clear that the aberration terms are separable in the Cartesian coordinates ( x .

n Ln ( x) 0 1 1 3x 6 )( ) 7 2)( 5x . It is evident that these polynomials are inherently separable in the Cartesian pupil coordinates x and y. but separable in polar coordinates (r. y ) = L0 ( x ) L0 ( y ) = 1 . (8-110) where j is a polynomial ordering index starting with j = 1.10 Aberrations of an Anamorphic System 359 The Legendre polynomials orthonormal over the interval -1 £ x £ 1 are given in Table 8-8. and l and m are positive integers (including zero). (8-112) Table 8-8. (8-111) The first polynomial is the piston polynomial Q1( x. The order n of a polynomial representing its degree in the pupil coordinates is given by n = l + m . Legendre polynomials Ln ( x ) = 2n + 1Pn ( x) orthonormal over an interval -1 £ x £ 1.693x 5 + 315x 3 .3x ) (3 8)( 35x .1260 x 2 + 35 2 3 4 5 ( ( 5 2 3x 2 .1 3 4 2 5 3 6 )( )( 4 2 ) -5 ) ) .8. This is different from the Zernike circle polynomials. q) . The number of polynomials through a certain order n is given by N n = ( n + 1)( n + 2) 2 . where 0 £ r £ 1 and 0 £ q £ 2p . the number of polynomials with a certain order n is n + 1. As in the case of Zernike circle polynomials.12012 x 6 + 6930 x 4 . which are orthogonal over a unit circle.30 x + 3) ( 11 8)(63x . y ) = Ll ( x ) Lm ( y ) .70 x + 15x) ( 13 16)(231x . We define the products of Legendre polynomials in x and y variables that are orthonormal over the rectangular pupil: Q j ( x .315x + 105x 7 ( 15 16 429 x 7 . where Pn ( x ) is a regular Legendre polynomial of order n.35x 8 ( 17 128 6435 x 8 .

It should be evident that Q7 represents the balanced x-primary coma. However. (8-113) The rectangular Q-polynomials up to and including the eighth order are listed in Table 8-9 as products of the Legendre polynomials. they are not suitable for anamorphic systems because they do not represent balanced aberrations for such systems. which are also orthogonal over a rectangular or a square pupil. i. y) = Â a j Q j ( x. there is a corresponding polynomial Lm ( x ) Ll ( y ) . y ) Q j ¢ ( x . (8-114) It should be evident that the polynomials for a square pupil can be obtained from those for a rectangular pupil by letting a = b . Note that for each polynomial Ll ( x ) Lm ( y ) . Because the aberration function is separable in the Cartesian coordinates x and y of a pupil point. have been suggested for the analysis of rectangular wavefronts [7]. and Q11 represents the balanced x-primary spherical aberration.e. by using the same scale for the x and y axes. The corresponding seventh-order orthonormal polynomial is given by [ ][ ] Q32 ( x . y ) = L4 ( x ) L3 ( y ) . y) . The piston term in Q11 yields a zero mean value across the rectangular pupil (without changing its variance). a seventh-order aberration term x 4 y 3 will yield a balanced aberration of the form x 4 .. These polynomials are evidently different from those for a rotationally symmetric system with a rectangular pupil. y) of a pupil point.4 Expansion of a Rectangular Aberration Function in Terms of Orthonormal Rectangular Polynomials An aberration function defined over a rectangular exit pupil can be expanded in terms of the rectangular Q-polynomials in the form J W ( x. and a j is an expansion coefficient of the polynomial Q j ( x . The higher-order Q-polynomials can be written in a similar manner.(3 5) x . y ) given by .4 for such a system are not separable in the Cartesian coordinates (x.10. Products of Chebyshev polynomials (one for the x. The rectangular polynomials given in Section 9. 8. and the other for the y axis).360 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS The orthonormality of the polynomials is expressed by 1 1 1 Ú Ú Q ( x .(6 7) x 2 x 3 . Their explicit form can be obtained by using the expressions of the orthonormal Legendre polynomials given in Table 8-8. an aberration term containing both x and y dependence is balanced separately for its x and y factors. for example. along with the names associated with some of them. (8-115) j =1 where J is the number of polynomials used in the expansion. y ) dx dy = d jj ¢ 4 -1 -1 j . Thus.

10 Aberrations of an Anamorphic System 361 Table 8-9.8. Polynomial order n =l +m Polynomial Aberration name 0 Q1 = L0 ( x ) L0 ( y ) Piston 1 Q2 = L1( x ) L0 ( y ) x-tilt 1 Q3 = L0 ( x ) L1( y ) y-tilt 2 Q4 = L 2 ( x ) L 0 ( y ) x-defocus 2 Q5 = L1( x ) L1( y ) 2 Q6 = L 0 ( x ) L 2 ( y ) y-defocus 3 Q7 = L 3 ( x ) L 0 ( y ) x-primary coma 3 Q8 = L2 ( x ) L1( y ) 3 Q9 = L1( x ) L2 ( y ) 3 Q10 = L0 ( x ) L3 ( y ) y-primary coma 4 Q11 = L4 ( x ) L0 ( y ) x-primary spherical 4 Q12 = L3 ( x ) L1( y ) 4 Q13 = L2 ( x ) L2 ( y ) 4 Q14 = L1( x ) L3 ( y ) 4 Q15 = L0 ( x ) L4 ( y ) y-primary spherical 5 Q16 = L5 ( x ) L0 ( y ) x-secondary coma 5 Q17 = L4 ( x ) L1( y ) 5 Q18 = L3 ( x ) L2 ( y ) 5 Q19 = L2 ( x ) L3 ( y ) 5 Q20 = L1( x ) L4 ( y ) 5 Q21 = L0 ( x ) L5 ( y ) Q j (x. Orthonormal polynomials Q j (x. b) of the pupil. where the (x. y ) = Ll ( x) Lm ( y) y-secondary coma . y ) coordinates of a pupil point have been normalized by the half-widths (a. y ) for an anamorphic system with a rectangular pupil.

y ) coordinates of a pupil point have been normalized by the half-widths (a.) Polynomial order n =l +m Polynomial Aberration name 6 Q22 = L6 ( x ) L0 ( y ) 6 Q23 = L5 ( x ) L1( y ) 6 Q24 = L4 ( x ) L2 ( y ) 6 Q25 = L3 ( x ) L3 ( y ) 6 Q26 = L2 ( x ) L4 ( y ) 6 Q27 = L1( x ) L5 ( y ) 6 Q28 = L0 ( x ) L6 ( y ) y-secondary spherical 7 Q29 = L7 ( x ) L0 ( y ) x-tertiary coma 7 Q30 = L6 ( x ) L1( y ) 7 Q31 = L5 ( x ) L2 ( y ) 7 Q32 = L4 ( x ) L3 ( y ) 7 Q33 = L3 ( x ) L4 ( y ) 7 Q34 = L2 ( x ) L5 ( y ) 7 Q35 = L1( x ) L6 ( y ) 7 Q36 = L0 ( x ) L7 ( y ) y-tertiary coma 8 Q37 = L8 ( x ) L0 ( y ) x-tertiary spherical 8 Q38 = L7 ( x ) L1( y ) 8 Q39 = L6 ( x ) L2 ( y ) 8 Q40 = L5 ( x ) L3 ( y ) 8 Q41 = L4 ( x ) L4 ( y ) 8 Q42 = L5 ( x ) L3 ( y ) 8 Q43 = L2 ( x ) L6 ( y ) 8 Q44 = L1( x ) L7 ( y ) 8 Q45 = L0 ( x ) L8 ( y ) Q j (x. (Cont. Orthonormal polynomials Q j (x.362 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS Table 8-9. b) of the pupil. y ) for an anamorphic system with a rectangular pupil. where the (x. y ) = Ll ( x) Lm ( y) x-secondary spherical y-tertiary spherical .

An aberration in the system yields an interference pattern that is characteristically different for a different aberration. Because the mean value of each polynomial (other than piston) is zero and Q1( x . the mean value of the aberration function is given by the piston coefficient a1 : W ( x . Because of the orthogonality of the Legendre polynomials. . its variance is given by 2 sW = [W (x. Because the optical frequencies are very high (1014 – 1015 Hz). aberrated or not.W ( x. (8-118) j =1 Accordingly.8. they can be used to reconstruct the function and obtain it continuously across the pupil. (8-117) Its mean square value is given by [W (x. The image is characteristically different for a different aberration [3]. 4 -1 -1 363 (8-116) It is evident that the value of a coefficient is independent of the number of polynomials used in the expansion. the coefficients are independent of each other. Once the expansion coefficients are calculated using Eq. y ) is unity. y)]2 J = Â a 2j . one of which has been transmitted through the system. optical detectors simply do not respond at these frequencies. (8-119) j =2 When an aberration function is obtained at a discrete array of points by tracing rays from a point object through an imaging system or by testing a system interferometrically. y )dx dy . An alternative approach is to measure the ray aberrations with a Hartmann sensor and calculate the wave aberrations from them [8]. cannot be observed directly. Here. y)]2 . and an orthogonal aberration term can be added to or subtracted from the aberration function without affecting the other terms. y) = a1 . the primary aberration of a system may be recognized by observing the image of a monochromatic point object formed by the system.11 Observation of Aberrations aj = 1 1 1 Ú Ú W ( x . we briefly discuss the interference patterns for primary aberrations. y) 2 J = Â a 2j . y ) Q j ( x . However.11 OBSERVATION OF ABERRATIONS Now we briefly describe how the aberrations of an optical system may be observed. (8-116). A direct way to recognize an aberration is to form an interferogram by combining two parts of a light beam. optical wavefronts. 8. it can be expanded in terms of the orthonormal polynomials. The emphasis of our discussion is on how to recognize a primary aberration and not on how to measure it precisely.

q) be the polar coordinates of a point in the plane of its exit pupil. for a given image height. The coefficients Ad and At of these aberrations vary with the image height as h ¢ 2 and h ¢ 3 . 8. when Bd = 0. discussed in Section 9. One part.120c) (8 .2 Interferograms There are a variety of interferometers that are used to detect and measure aberrations of optical systems [8]. respectively. these aberrations are equivalent to defocus and tilt aberrations. Figure 8-11 schematically illustrates a Twyman–Green interferometer in which a collimated laser beam is divided into two parts by a beam splitter BS. as may be seen by comparing the aberration thus obtained with the Zernike polynomial Z31 (r. However.11. Equations (8-120d) and (8-120e) represent field curvature and distortion aberrations.2.e. (8-10). when Bd = 0. Ó (8 . In Eq.5 .3. the reference sphere is centered at the marginal image point. where F is the focal ratio or the fnumber of the image-forming light cone. and the point midway between the marginal and Gaussian image points when Bd As = .120e) In Eq. the center of the circle of least confusion. and . (8-120b). A nonzero value of Bd implies that it is combined with defocus. As discussed in Section 9. the aberration is not defined with respect to a reference sphere centered at the Gaussian image point but with respect to another sphere centered at a distance z from the plane of the exit pupil.364 8. q) = Ì Aa r 2 cos 2q + Bd r 2 . . Figure 8-10 shows a 3D plots of the various aberrations.11.1 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS Primary Aberrations Considering an optical system with a circular exit pupil of radius a and letting (r. as may be seen by comparing the aberration thus obtained with the Zernike polynomial Z40 (r) .1. according to Eq.3. Field curvature Ô At r cosq .3. i. The variance of the aberration is minimum when Bt Ac = . indicated .1 2 . the aberration is astigmatism. (8-120a). is incident on the system under test.1.120b) (8 . we obtain the so-called tangential and sagittal images of a point object. q) . 0) in the image plane. The variance of the aberration is minimum when Bd Aa = .1. the functional form of the primary phase aberrations may be written Ï Asr 4 + Bd r 2 .120a) (8 .1. or that it is defined with respect to a reference sphere centered at a point (2 FBt . Astigmatism combined with defocus Ô 2 Ô Ad r . when Bt = 0. A nonzero value of Bd implies that the aberration is combined with defocus. the aberration is spherical. Coma combined with tilt Ô F(r. Distortion . the aberration is coma.. The midway point corresponds to minimum variance of the aberration. respectively. In Eq.120d) (8 . When Bd Aa = 0 or . called the test beam. respectively.2 3. A nonzero value of Bt implies that the aberration is combined with tilt. Spherical combined with defocus Ô 3 Ô Ac r cosq + Bt r cosq . respectively. (8-120c).

.8.11 Observation of Aberrations   Defocus: ρ2   365       Spherical: ρ 4     Coma: ρ cosθ   3 Astigmatism: ρ cos 2 2   θ     Balanced Spherical: ρ 4 − ρ2     2 ⎞ ⎛ Balanced Coma: ⎜ ρ 3 − ρ⎟ cosθ   ⎝ 3 ⎠   1 Balanced Astigmatism: ρ cos θ − ρ2 2 2 2 Figure 8-10. spherical) and an actual wavefront. Shape of primary aberrations representing the difference between an ideal wavefront (typically.

y ) ] { [ 2 ]} = 2 I0 1 + cos ( x. F is the image-space focal point of L. its aberration is twice that of the system. As the angle of the incident light is changed to study the off-axis aberrations of the system. The lens L ¢ is used to observe the interference pattern on a screen S. y) .366 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS M1 BS F C L M2 x L¢ z y S Figure 8-11. The interfering beams are focused by a lens L ¢ . the irradiance distribution of their interference pattern is given by I ( x . and if their amplitudes are equal to each other. If the reference beam has uniform phase and the test beam has a phase distribution F(x. y). and the other. y ) = I 0 1 + exp[iF( x . The irradiance has a maximum value equal to 4 I0 at those points for which F( x. A record of the interference pattern is called an interferogram. the mirror is tilted so that its center of curvature lies at the current focus of the beam. Twyman–Green interferometer for testing a lens system L. In this arrangement the mirror does not introduce any aberration because it is forming the image of an object lying at its center of curvature. and C is the center of curvature of a spherical mirror M2 . is incident on a plane mirror M1 . The focus F of the lens system lies at the center of curvature C of a spherical mirror M2 . called the reference beam. and the interference pattern is observed on a screen S. The two reflected beams interfere in the region of their overlap. (8-121) where I0 is the irradiance when only one beam is present. y) = 2p n and a minimum value equal to zero wherever (8-122a) . Note that because the test beam goes through the lens system L twice. by the lens L.

this interferogram is obtained when points F and C are separated from each other axially.11 Observation of Aberrations 367 F( x.As and Bd = . [See Eqs. coincident F and C) represents such a system with an image of a certain object being observed in its Gaussian or paraxial image plane. rather than in radians. as is customary in optics. For a system with a positive spherical aberration. when F lies to the left of C by 48l F 2 . respectively..e. (8-122a) for a bright fringe and Eq.e. which. Bd = .5 As . Figure 8-12a shows the interferogram obtained when the system is aberration free but is misfocused.2 represents the system when the image is observed in its marginal image plane.1. y) = 2 p ( n + 1 2) . represent the system when the image is observed in the minimum-aberration-variance plane and the circle-of-least-confusion plane.e. As = 3 l) and a certain amount of defocus. The case Bt = . where a is the radius of the test beam [see Eq. when its focus F lies to the left or right of the center of curvature C of the spherical mirror M2 by an amount corresponding to 3 l of the defocus aberration. corresponding to 6 l of an aberration of the interfering test beam. (8-15) and note the factors of 2 resulting from the reflection of the reference beam by mirror M 1 and the doubling of the system aberration in the test beam].2 Ac 3 represents the system corresponding to a minimum aberration variance.. Each fringe in the interference pattern represents a certain value of n. we give the value of an aberration coefficient in wavelength units. including zero. its marginal focus lies farther from it than its paraxial focus (see Figure 8-11).8. For defocus and spherical aberration. the axial spacing between F and C. in turn.. (8-14)] for the relationship between the longitudinal defocus. [ ] Figure 8-12 shows interferograms when the lens system L under test suffers from 3 l of a primary aberration. Figure 8-12c shows the interferograms obtained when light is incident at a certain angle from the axis of the system so that it suffers from 3 l of coma. (8122b) for a dark fringe. The other two interferograms.2 FBt .e.. the interference pattern consists of concentric circular interference fringes. by 48l F 2 . In our discussion. the interferogram obtained for Bd As = . which is 3 l in our example. (8-122b) where n is a positive or negative integer. 0 ) . i. It may also be obtained by tilting the plane mirror M1 by an angle Bt a.. i. y) = 0 . The fringes in this case are cubic curves. corresponds to the locus of ( x. . according to Eq. If the test beam is aberration free F ( x.e. The case Bd = 0 (i. y) points with the phase aberration given by Eq.] Figure 8-12b shows the interferograms obtained when the system has 3 l of spherical aberration (i. Similarly. i. (8-10b). then the interference pattern has a uniform irradiance of 2 I0 . The case Bt = 0 corresponds to two parallel interfering beams (F and C are coincident in this case). and the peak defocus aberration Bd . Thus. The fringe spacing depends on the type of aberration. A tilt aberration with a peak value of Bt may be obtained by transversally displacing C from F by ( .

(b) spherical aberration combined with defocus Asr 4 + Bd r 2 . because the test beam goes through the system twice. The aberrations in the interferograms are twice their corresponding values in the system under test. . and (d) astigmatism combined with defocus Aa r 2 cos 2q + Bd r 2 . Interferograms of primary aberrations: (a) defocus Bd r 2 . (c) coma combined with tilt Ac r 3 + Bt rcosq .368 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS Figure 8-12.

as in a Twyman–Green interferometer. then Figure 8-13a would appear as a plane.Aa . It should be evident that a general aberration consisting of a mixture of these aberrations and/or others will yield a much more complex interferogram.3 Random Aberrations So far we have discussed interferograms of primary aberrations when only one of them is present. Its standard deviation is 0. the fringe pattern consists of rectangular hyperbolas.4 l . If the aberration were zero. . and Figure 8-13c as uniformly spaced straight lines. we obtain an interferogram with straight-line fringes because the aberration then depends on either x or y (but not both). However. 8.11 Observation of Aberrations 369 Figure 8-12d shows the interferograms obtained when the system suffers from 3l of astigmatism. The interferogram for this aberration is shown in Figure 8-13b. representing a wavefront tilt error. (b) Aberration interferogram. When Bd = .4l (a) Aberration No tilt 25l tilt (b) (c) Figure 8-13. representing the system with an image being observed in a plane containing one or the other astigmatic focal line. Doubling of the aberration. (c) Interferogram with 25 l of tilt. (a) Aberration shape. The ratio of the telecope diameter D and the atmospheric coherence length r0 is 10. respectively. the fringe spacing is not uniform. Aberration introduced by atmospheric turbulence with D r0 = 10. Figure 8-13b as uniformly bright. the interferogram appears as in Figure 8-13c. When 25l of tilt are added to the aberration. D / r0 = 10 s w = 0.Aa 2 . we obtain straight-line fringes that are uniformly spaced. As an example of a general aberration. These interferograms are relatively simple.8. If the system under test is aberration free but the two interfering beams are tilted with respect to each other. The fringe spacing is inversely proportional to the angle between the two beams.11. is not considered in Figure 8-13. When Bd = 0 or . Figure 8-13a shows a possible aberration introduced by atmospheric turbulence as in ground-based astronomical observations. and the aberration type may be recognized from the shape of the fringes.

3 Wavefront Tilt Aberration A wavefront tilt of a small angle b corresponds to a wave aberration of W (r.ˆ a2 Ë 2 z R¯ ~ . The defocus wave aberration and the longitudinal defocus have numerically opposite signs. 8.1 Wave and Ray Aberrations If W ( x.ni D R 8 F 2 for z ~ R (8-126a) (8-126b) is the peak defocus aberration. ni Ë ∂x ∂y ¯ (8-123) where R is the radius of curvature of the reference sphere with respect to which the aberration is defined. For a radial aberration W (r ) . its defocus aberration is given by W (r ) = Bd r2 . Á ˜ . The quantity D R is called the longitudinal defocus. y) on the reference sphere for a certain point object. where (8-127a) .370 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS 8. 8. the distance ri of the intersection point from the Gaussian image point is given by ri = R ∂W ni ∂r .12. yi ) = R Ê ∂W ∂W ˆ . compared to the chief ray.12 SUMMARY OF RESULTS 8. r = r a is the normalized distance of a point in the plane of the exit pupil. yi ) representing the coordinates of the point of its intersection with the Gaussian image plane with respect to the Gaussian image point is given by ( xi . (8-124) The wave aberration of a ray is positive if it has to travel a longer optical path length.2 Wavefront Defocus Aberration If the Gaussian image lies at a distance R from the plane of the exit pupil of radius a. q) = Bt r cos q . and F = R 2 a is the focal ratio of the image-forming light cone.12. but the image is observed in a plane at a distance z. Here. and ni is the refractive index of the image space. then the ray aberration ( xi .12. in order to reach the Gaussian reference sphere [1]. (8-125) where Bd = ni Ê 1 1 . y) is the wave aberration of a ray at a point ( x.

2 Polynomials in Optical Design The aberration function W (r.5 Strehl Ratio and Aberration Balancing A measure of the quality of an image is its Strehl ratio. For small aberrations. The primary wave aberrations of a multisurface system are additive in the sense that they can be obtained by adding the primary wave aberrations of the surfaces. Astigmatism Ô 2 Ô Ad r . Field curvature Ô A r cosq . which represents the ratio of the central irradiances of the diffraction image of a point object with and without aberration. and represent balanced classical aberrations for such pupils.12. 8. can be written Ï As r 4 . Distortion . q) = Ì Aar2 cos 2q .6.12.12. respectively.12. 8.6 Zernike Circle Polynomials 8. its value is approximately given by [2] S ~ exp ( . 8. q) in the form .6.s F2 ) .1 Use of Zernike Polynomials in Wavefront Analysis The Zernike circle polynomials are used in wavefront analysis because they are orthogonal over a circular pupil.8. The primary aberrations with and without balancing are listed in Tables 8-3 and 8-4. 8. in terms of their dependence on the pupil coordinates (r. q) for a system with a circular exit pupil can be expanded in terms of a complete set of Zernike circle polynomials Z nm (r. The variance of an aberration can be reduced by balancing it with one or more aberrations of the same and/or lower-order thereby increasing the Strehl ratio. There are five primary aberrations. Coma Ô W (r. q) . (8-129) where s F2 is the variance of the phase aberration across the exit pupil of imaging system.4 Primary Aberrations The degree or order of a classical primary (or Seidel) wave aberration in the coordinates of the object and pupil points is four.12 Summary of Results Bt = ni ab 371 (8-127b) is the peak value of the aberration. and their form. Spherical Ô Ô Acr3cosq . Ó t (8-128) where Ai represents the peak value of an aberration and contains the dependence on the object point location. where the Gaussian image of a point object formed by one surface becomes the point object for the next surface.12.

and rm. (8-130) n =0 m =0 where c nm is an expansion coefficient. such that n – m ≥ 0 and even. q) . Ó ( ) (8-134) ) where cij is the aberration coefficient. Spherical Ô Ôc 8 3r3 .6.3 Zernike Primary Aberrations The Zernike or orthogonal primary aberrations have the form ( ( ) Ïc40 5 6r4 . (8-132) The polynomials are ordered such that a polynomial with a lower value of n is ordered first. q) r dr d q = d nn ¢d mm ¢ p0 0 n . (8-133) n =1 m = 0 8. q) = Â Â c nm Z nm (r. q) are orthonormal to each other according to 1 1 2p m m¢ Ú Ú Z (r. except c 00 : • s W2 = Â n 2 Â c nm . K.1 . The aberrations in this form are orthonormal over a unit circular pupil. The polynomials through n = 8 and m = 0 are given in Table 8-5. and for a given value of n. Astigmatism Ô 2 Ôc20 3 2r .372 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS • n W (r. and n and m are positive integers. and the standard deviation of an aberration is given by cij . The radial and angular dependence of the polynomials is given by 12 È 2( n + 1) ˘ m Z nm (r. The Zernike astigmatism consists of Seidel astigmatism and – 1/2 the amount of astigmatism.6r2 + 1 .12. An aberration balanced in this manner yields the minimum . Distortion . rn -2 . Field curvature Ô Ôc11 2r cos q . q)Z n ¢ (r. The variance of the aberration function is equal to the sum of the squares of the orthonormal expansion coefficients c nm . The Zernike coma consists of Seidel coma and a tilt of – 2/3 the amount of coma. The polynomials Z nm (r. Coma Ô 31 Ô W (r. including zero. q) = Í ˙ Rn (r) cos mq .2r cosq . a polynomial with a lower value of m is ordered first. 1 + d Î m0 ˚ (8-131) where Rnm (r) is a radial polynomial of degree n in r containing terms in rn . The Zernike spherical aberration consists of Seidel spherical aberration and an equal and opposite amount of defocus. q) = Ìc22 6 r2 cos 2q .

q) = 2(n + 1) Rnm (r) sin mq. (8-48) for the expansion of the aberration function. and for a given value of n. m π 0 . q) Z j ¢ (r.8. 8. as discussed in Chapter 9. a polynomial with a lower value of m is ordered first. (8-136) 0 The polynomials are ordered such that an even j corresponds to a symmetric polynomial varying as cosmq. (8-138) 0 The value of a coefficient a j is independent of the number J of the polynomials used in Eq. m π 0 . q) in the form J W (r.6. q) r dr dq 1 2p Ú Ú 0 0 r dr dq = d jj ¢ . The polynomials are orthonormal over a unit circular pupil according to 1 2p Ú Ú 0 Z j (r. Thus. one or more polynomial terms can be added to or subtracted from the aberration function without affecting the value of the coefficients of the other polynomials in the expansion.4 Polynomials in Optical Testing Because the aberrations introduced by fabrication errors or atmospheric turbulence are random in nature.12 Summary of Results 373 standard deviation but not necessarily the minimum spot radius. m = 0 . we need both the cosine and the sine Zernike circle polynomials to express them. and an odd number with a sine polynomial. An aberration function W (r. Z j (r. q)Z j (r. q) r dr dq . q) . q) = Â a j Z j (r. An even number is associated with a cosine polynomial. (8-137) j =1 where a j is an expansion coefficient. q) = 2(n + 1) Rnm (r) cos mq. q) = (8-135) n + 1 Rn0 (r). The first 45 orthonormal Zernike polynomials are listed in Table 8-6.12. and we have truncated the polynomials at a maximum value J of j: aj = 11 Ú p0 2p Ú W (r. Z odd j (r. It is convenient in such cases to write their form and numbering as: Z even j (r. and an odd j corresponds to an antisymmetric polynomial varying as sinmq. The variance of the aberration function given by . A polynomial with a lower value of n is ordered first. q) across a unit pupil representing the aberrations resulting from fabrication errors or atmospheric turbulence can be expanded in terms of the polynomials Z j (r.

through six reflection invariants p 2 . y 2 .374 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS J s W2 = Â a 2j . x 2 + y 2 . r cos q Z11 = 2r cos q . However. When m = 0 and n 2 is even. px .6. 8. q) and ( x .6r 2 + 1 Coma. The aberration function of an anamorphic system depends on the object and pupil coordinates ( p. and qy . where b is the extreme negative value of Rn0 (r) as r varies between 0 and 1. and the corresponding balanced and Zernike aberrations are given in Table 8-10.5 Isometric and Interferometric Characteristics The P-V numbers of Zernike polynomials are given in Table 8-7.1 Distortion. y ) . q 2 . r 2 cos 2 q ( ) 8 ( 3r 3 .7 Relationship between Zernike and Seidel Coefficients. compared to an infinite number for a rotationally symmetric imaging system. The form of a Seidel aberration in terms of their dependence on the pupil coordinates (r. See the Appendix on how to combine cosine and sine aberration terms to obtain a Seidel aberration at a certain angle. x 2 .b) n + 1 . (8-139) j =2 8.12.r2 Z 40 = 5 6r 4 .12.1 2) Z 13 = Astigmatism.2r 3) cos q r 2 ( cos 2 q . 8. they are given by (1 . when m = 0 and n 2 is odd. q) . For m π 0. respectively. r 2 Z 20 = 3 2r 2 . they are given by 2 2( n + 1) .8 Aberrations of an Anamorphic System An anamorphic imaging system has only two pairs of Gaussian conjugates. Its aberration terms are separable in the Table 8-10.12. r 4 r4 . The isometric plots of the Zernike primary aberrations are shown in Figure 8-8. compared to three rotational invariants p 2 + q 2 . and px + qy in the case of a rotationally symmetric system. Seidel aberrations and the corresponding balanced aberrations and Zernike polynomials Seidel Aberration Balanced Aberration Zernike Polynomial Spherical . The P-V numbers of a polynomial representing the fabrication errors give a measure of the depth of material to be removed in the fabrication process. they are given by 2 ( n + 1) .2r) cos q Z 22 = 6 r 2 cos 2q ( ) Field curvature. It is assumed that the aperture stop lies in the image space of the system so that it is also its exit pupil. r 3 cos q (r3 .

The polynomials for a square pupil can be obtained from the rectangular polynomials by letting a = b . (216)]. where the x and y coordinates are normalized by the halfwidths (a. There are 16 primary aberrations [see Eq. then the degree or the order n of the orthonormal polynomial obtained by their product is n = l + m. They are inherently separable in the Cartesian coordinates of a pupil point. as in Table 8-9. respectively.8. There are n + 1 polynomials of a certain order n. y ) representing balanced aberrations are products of the Legendre polynomials Ll ( x ) and Lm ( y ) in the x and y variables. The degree of an aberration term is even. (8-109)]. The orthonormal polynomials Q j ( x . If l and m are the degrees of the x. For each polynomial Ll ( x ) Lm ( y ) .and y-Legendre polynomials. and the aberration function accordingly consists of aberrations of even orders only. . there is a corresponding polynomial Lm ( x ) Ll ( y ) . as opposed to only five for a rotationally symmetric system [see Eq. b) of the rectangular pupil.12 Summary of Results 375 pupil coordinates.

tan -1 b a for positive a and negative b j j j j Ô = Ì Ô p . then tan -1 b j a j of a negative argument has two solutions: a negative acute angle or its complimentary angle. q) = a j Z even j (r.tan -1 b j a j . The choice is made depending on whether a 2 or a 3 is negative according to ( tan -1 ( bj a j ) ) ( ( ) ) Ï . ( ) ( ) . q) + b j Z odd j (r. indicating a sin mq polynomial. ( ) 12 ( ) It is easy to see that when both a j and b j are negative. if a j = 0. It is evident from Eq. but also replace a 2j + b 2j with . q) ( ) = 2(n + 1) Rnm (r) a j cos mq + b j sin mq = 2(n + 1) Rnm (r) a 2j + b 2j cos m q . we can write their sum in the form W (r. except that its orientation is different by an angle (1 m) tan -1 b j a j . (8A-1) It represents an aberration of the form cos mq with a sigma value of a 2j + b 2j . indicating a cos mq polynomial. (8A-1) that if b j = 0 . as when a 2 is 12 12 positive.tan -1 b j a j for negative a j and positive b j Ó ( ) ( (8 A . If two Zernike polynomial aberrations with the same value of n and varying as cos mq and sin mq are present simultaneously with sigma values a j and b j . the orientation of the PSF also changes by this angle. (8A-1) 12 must be replaced by .a 2j + b 2j .376 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS Appendix: Combination of Two Zernike Polynomial Aberrations with the Same n Value and Varying as cos mqq and sin mqq . then the angle is p 2m . then the angle of orientation is zero. Similarly. when one of the coefficients is positive and the other is negative.a 2j + b 2j .2a) . (8 A .(1 m) tan -1 b j a j {[ ( )]} . a 2j + b 2j in Eq.2 b) ) An alternative when a 2 is negative is to let the angle be . However. Thus.

043609 (April 2011) [doi: 10. Malacara. Díaz. 7. for example. (8-5).” Opt. B. 49. Mahajan. N. see D.1117/3.265735]. Aberrations of the Symmetrical Optical System (Academic Press. N. WA (1998) [doi: 10. In practice. N.898443]. M. 5. 1999). F.” Appl. John Wiley and Sons.” Asian J. As with the sign convention in Gaussian optics. For a detailed discussion of different methods of aberration measurement. Part I: Ray Geometrical Optics. M. Wolf. see. Swantner. W. and a positive sign when it leads. SPIE Press. Bellingham. Bellingham. 1974). N. Geary. Liu. New York. Born and E. 2. Ed. SPIE Press. 8. Mahajan and W. Principles of Optics. “Analyzing optics on rectangular apertures using 2-D Chebyshev polynomials. Eng. Optical Imaging and Aberrations. H. V. Phys. “Imaging characteristics of Zernike and annular polynomial aberrations. We have assigned a positive sign to a ray that travels a longer optical path length compared to that of the chief ray to reach the reference sphere. Opt. 7th ed. (Cambridge University Press. Welford. 203–209 (2006). Robinson. Opt. New York. 50 (4). and J. As a result. Mahajan. because a ray must end up at the same point in the image plane regardless of the sign convention used for the wave aberration. 6. V. “Orthonormal aberration polynomials for anamorphic optical imaging systems with rectangular pupils. Optical Imaging and Aberrations. Mahajan. V. V.1117/3. Part II: Wave Diffraction Optics. Mahajan and José A.1117/1. 6924–6929 (2010). Optical Shop Testing. 3. 4 V. different authors use different sign conventions for the wave aberration associated with a ray.3569692]. T. “Seidel coefficients in optical testing. 2nd ed. . it does not matter which sign convention is used as long as it is used consistently. This convention is used. WA (2011) [doi: 10.. N. 52. their equation for the transverse ray aberration has a minus sign on the right-hand side of Eq. 15.. Some authors give it a negative sign.References 377 REFERENCES 1. New York (2007). 2062–2074 (2013).” Appl. for example in M. 3rd ed. They assign a negative sign when the wavefront at the ray lags the reference sphere.

6 ] Consider the primary (Seidel) aberration function W P (r.3 If the Gaussian image of an object is formed at infinity by an imaging system at an angle  from its optical axis. (c) Determine its rms value and its standard deviation. [ 8.(ni / 2 f ¢) r 2 .1 Show that the defocus wave aberration introduced by a lens of image-space focal length f ¢ is given by W (r ) = .2 The field curvature aberration of an imaging system may be written W(r) = ad h ¢ 2 r 2 . 8. (a) Write it in terms of Zernike circle polynomials.4 Consider an imaging system suffering from distortion aberration given by W(r.q) = at h ¢ 3r cos q . where a d is the aberration coefficient. and h ¢ is the height of a Gaussian image point. Determine the height of the actual image point.8. q) = a11r cos q + a 20r 2 + a 22r 2 cos 2 q + a 31r 3 cos q + a 40r 4 . (b) Determine its mean value. The refractive index of the image space is assumed to be unity.5 Show that the Seidel coma r 3 cos q balanced with tilt r cos q . Determine the fabriaction tolerance for the mirrors for a Strehl ratio of 0. respectively. where a t is the aberration coefficient.7 Consider a three-mirror system. 8. assume that each mirror has the same figure tolerance.(2 3) cos q . 8. 8. where ni is the refractive index of the image space. but the system suffers from field curvature according to W (r ) = bd 2 r 2 .378 MONOCHROMATIC ABERRATIONS PROBLEMS 8. and h ¢ is the height of a Gaussian image point. and Seidel astigmatism r 2 cos 2 q balanced with defocus for minimum variance across a circular pupil have the form r 3 . where R is the radius of curvature of the reference sphere with respect to which the aberration is defined. what is the distance at which the image rays come to focus? 8. . and (1 2)r 2 cos 2q . Show that the effect of the aberration is eliminated if the image is observed on a spherical surface of radius of curvature 1 4 ad R 2 passing through a corresponding axial Gaussian image point. For simplicity.

........2 Coma ......................................................................... 417 9..........................7..................................................................CHAPTER 9 SPOT SIZES AND DIAGRAMS 9........................................................................................................2 Theory ................................................... 381 9.7.............................................................................................................3 Astigmatism and Field Curvature ............ 420 379 ..1 Spherical Aberration ..............................3 Astigmatism and Field Curvature .......... 408 9.............................384 9..........................................................................1 Spherical Aberration ......................................7...............................................................4 Balanced Aberrations for the Minimum Spot Sigma .................................................................................5 Distortion ................... 418 9...........................................7.........................................418 9...................3........ 404 9................ 415 9..............3.............6.....6 Aberration Tolerance ..................7.....................................................4 Field Curvature and Defocus ......................................384 9................1 Introduction ....................................................................3............................7 Summary of Results ....... 416 9............................................ 416 9...................................................418 References .................... 416 9...........7..7 A Golden Rule of Optical Design.................3.......3...............419 Problems .....................394 9.3 Application to Primary Aberrations ........................4 Field Curvature and Depth of Focus..5 Spot Diagrams ..2 Coma ..............410 9.................................................391 9..................................381 9............................................................................................................................. Aberration Tolerance and a Golden Rule of Optical Design .................5 Distortion .................................................................... 416 9............................402 9.........7................

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and calculate them for primary aberrations. Such a set of rays is called a ray fan. when the rays are traced according the exact laws of geometrical optics. and obscurations in mirror systems. In the case of spherical aberration and astigmatism. θ.2 THEORY Consider an optical system consisting of a series of rotationally symmetric coaxial refracting and/or reflecting surfaces imaging a point object P lying at a height h along the x axis. The chief ray. the z x plane containing the optical axis and the point object. The plane normal to the tangential plane 381 . and a s . is called the spot diagram. In the early stages of the design of an optical imaging system. a a . without explicitly calculating the ray density distribution [1]. including the depth of focus. and. Also discussed are the balanced aberrations for the minimum spot sigma in terms of Zernike circle polynomials.1 INTRODUCTION In Chapter 4 we developed paraxial ray-tracing equations to determine the Gaussian imaging properties of a system. We illustrate the wave and ray aberrations for ray fans along the x and y axes. field curvature. In the paraxial approximation. thereby introducing the concept of aberration balancing. the ray distribution and spot size are also considered in image planes other than the Gaussian. therefore its Gaussian image). always lies in this plane. and a golden rule of optical design are discussed. as in Figure 8-3.e. one often considers its transverse ray aberrations in an image plane for a set of rays lying along a certain line in the plane of the exit pupil and passing through its center. and its extent is called the spot size. we discuss the distribution of rays in the image of a point object aberrated by a primary aberration. 9. and distortion. they generally intersect in the vicinity of the Gaussian image point. astigmatism. The primary aberration function at the exit pupil of the system may be written W ( r. h ′ is the height of the Gaussian image point P ′. size of imaging elements and apertures. In this chapter. as depicted by the intersection points. The characteristics of the ray spots and tolerance for primary aberrations are summarized in the last section. respectively.Chapter 9 Spot Sizes and Diagrams 9. We define its centroid and sigma value. The density of rays over an observation surface is called the geometrical point-spread function. vignetting of rays. coma. all rays from a point object that are transmitted by the system pass through the Gaussian image point.. q) are the polar coordinates of a point in the x y plane of the exit pupil. a d . However. and at represent the coefficients of spherical aberration. a c . h ′) = as r 4 + ac h ′r 3cosθ + aa h ′ 2 r 2 cos 2 θ + ad h ′ 2 r 2 + at h ′ 3r cosθ . The ray distribution on an observation surface. The angle q is equal to zero or p for points lying in the tangential or meridional plane (i. Aberration tolerances. which by definition passes through the center of the exit pupil. (9-1) where (r.

(9-1) according to As = as a 4 . and represents the peak or the maximum value of the corresponding primary aberration. η) = As ξ 2 + η2 ) 2 ( ) ( ) + Ac ξ ξ 2 + η2 + Aa ξ 2 + Ad ξ 2 + η2 + At ξ . (9-5). If the system is aberration free. if As = 1 λ. then the wavefront at the exit pupil is spherical. say of radius a. and ξ 2 + η2 = ρ2 ≤ 1. ) . y) represent the rectangular coordinates of a pupil point. (9-2) for the primary aberration function may be written ( W (ξ. Ac = ac h ′a 3 . a ray . For example. η) . (9-4b) where −1 ≤ ξ ≤ 1.. dimensions of the wave aberration). The angle q is equal to π / 2 or 3π / 2 for points lying in the sagittal plane. η) = 1 ( x. − ) = − W (ξ. and all of the object rays transmitted by the system converge to the Gaussian image point. the other three aberrations are even.e.. the corresponding normalized coordinates (ξ. and write the aberration function in the form W (ρ. For an optical system with a circular exit pupil. Among the five primary aberrations in Eq. 0 ≤ ρ ≤ 1. The aberration function defined in the form of Eq. − 1 ≤ η ≤ 1. where λ is the wavelength of the object radiation. Ad = ad h ′ 2 a 2 .382 SPOT SIZES AND DIAGRAMS but containing the chief ray is called the sagittal plane. Eq. As the chief ray bends when it is refracted or reflected by a surface. The rays lying in the tangential plane are referred to as the tangential ray fan and those lying in the sagittal plane are referred to as the sagittal ray fan. The ray distribution on an observation surface is called the ray spot diagram. it is convenient to use normalized coordinates (ρ.e. (9-3) If ( x. − η) = W (ξ. Aa = aa h ′ 2 a 2 . we speak of one wave of spherical aberration. sin θ) . η) are given by (ξ. (9-2) has the advantage that an aberration coefficient Ai has the dimensions of length (i. 0 ≤ θ < 2 π . In rectangular coordinates. θ) = As 4 + Ac 3cos θ + Aaρ2 cos 2 θ + Ad ρ2 + At ρ cos θ . y) a (9-4a) = ρ(cos θ. and their density (i. At = at h ′ 3a . only coma and distortion are odd aberrations. so does the sagittal plane. the number of rays per unit area) over the surface is called the geometrical point-spread function (PSF). Of course. When the wavefront is aberrated. suppress the explicit dependence on h ′. spherical aberration and field curvature are radially symmetric. it is odd if W ( − ξ. (9-2) where the new aberration coefficients Ai are related to the ai used in Eq. θ) where ρ = r a. (9-5) An aberration term is even in pupil coordinates if W ( − ξ.

yi ) . following Eq. yi ) dxi dyi ∫∫ Ig ( xi . (9-8) The centroid (or the center of gravity) of a PSF is given by ( xc . For a radially symmetric aberration. y) dxdy . However.e. passes through the center of the exit pupil. then the irradiance or the density of rays Ig ( xi . y) represents the irradiance or the density of rays at the point ( x. for a uniformly . The radial distance ri of a ray from the Gaussian image point in that case is given by ( ri = xi2 + yi2 = 2F 1/ 2 ) ∂W(ρ) ∂ρ . θ) = W (ρ). Here. (9-6). yi ) at a point ( xi . and ( xi . R is the radius of curvature of the Gaussian reference sphere with respect to which the aberration W (ρ. y) in the plane of the exit pupil is mapped into an element of area dSi = dxi dyi centered at the point ( xi .2 Theory 383 passing through a point (ξ. η) or (r. we note from Eq. yi = ∫∫ ( xi . yi ) are the coordinates of the point of intersection of the ray in the Gaussian image plane with respect to the Gaussian image point and represent its ray aberrations. yi ) dxi dyi = I p ( x. yi ) in the image plane is given by I g ( xi . which. may be written ( xi . (9-6b) that the PSF is also radially symmetric. In Eqs. q) in the plane of the exit pupil intersects the Gaussian image plane at a point ( xi . yi ) in the image plane. yi ) dxi dyi . we have assumed that the refractive index ni of the image space is unity because it is often the case in practice. i. (9-7) where the vertical bars ensure that ri is a numerically positive quantity. yi ) ⎛ ∂W ∂W ⎞ = 2F ⎜ . If I p ( x. one for which W (ρ. (9-6b) where F = R 2 a is the focal ratio of the image-forming light cone. yi ) Ig ( xi . An element of area dS p = dxdy centered at a point ( x. like the aberrated wavefront. θ) is defined. sinθ ⎟ ∂ ∂ ∂ρ ρ ρ θ ρ ∂θ ⎠ ⎝ . The reference sphere is centered at the Gaussian image point and. y) in the pupil plane.. it can be obtained in a simple manner by substituting Eqs. (9-9). Thus. yc ) = xi . (9-9) where the angular brackets indicate a mean value. (8-5). ⎟ ∂η ⎠ ⎝ ∂ξ (9-6a) ⎛ ∂W sinθ ∂W ∂W cosθ ∂W ⎞ = 2F ⎜ cosθ + – . (9-6a) and (9-8) into Eq.9.

3. we may write 2F (xc . ∂h ˜¯ d x dh ÚÚ d x dh = (2F p) Ê ∂W ∂W ˆ ÚÚ ÁË ∂x . (9-11b) For a symmetric aberration such as astigmatism. ∂h ˜¯ d x dh . we discuss the characteristics of an image aberrated by a primary aberration. Substituting Eq. i. (9-10) The standard deviation of the image distribution or the spot sigma is given by ss = ( x i .y c ˜ ˙ d x dh˝ ¯ Ë ∂h ¯ ˙ ÍÎË ∂x Ô˛ ˚ . (9-11c) Next. The spot sigma in such cases is equal to the root mean square radius. i. say I p . we find that a ray of zone r in the plane of the exit pupil intersects the Gaussian image plane at a distance . the image coordinates ( xi . y c ) = (0. (415b) reduces to È Û Ê ∂W ˆ 2 ˘ s s = 2 2F Í ÙÁ ˜ r d r˙ ˙˚ ÍÎ ı Ë ∂r ¯ 12 . yc ) = Ê ∂W ∂W ˆ ÚÚ ÁË ∂x . y) .384 SPOT SIZES AND DIAGRAMS illuminated pupil. The concept of aberration balancing is introduced. (4-7) for a radially symmetric aberration.e. (9-7).y c )2 ÏÔ 1 = 2F Ì ÔÓ p 12 (9-11a) 12 ÚÚ 2 2 ¸Ô ÈÊ ∂W ˆ Ê ∂W ˆ ˘ ÍÁ . unless stated otherwise. If two or more of these aberrations are present simultaneously. 0) . Eq. yi ) of a ray are given by the sum of the coordinates for each aberration. the PSF is symmetric. To be definite.x c )2 + ( y i .1 Spherical Aberration Consider a wavefront aberrated by a spherical aberration W (ρ) = As ρ 4 (9-12) with respect to a reference sphere centered at the Gaussian image point P0′ of an axial point object P0 . ( x c . we assume that each aberration coefficient Ai is positive.3 APPLICATION TO PRIMARY ABERRATIONS In this section we discuss the shapes and sizes of PSFs for primary aberrations and uniform pupil illumination I p ..e. whereby a given aberration is mixed with another to reduce the spot size. (9-12) into Eq. The wave and ray aberrations for tangential and sagittal ray fans are also considered. 9. Substituting Eq.xc ˜ + Á . for a constant I p ( x. 9.. and the centroid lies at the origin.

the aberration is negative everywhere except at the center and the edge of the pupil. (9-15b) follows from Eq. midway ( Bd = − As ) . The rays of zone r now lie in the defocused image plane on a circle of radius ri = 8 FAs ρ3 + ( Bd 2 As ) ρ . In a given image plane. because As is independent of the height h of the point object from the optical axis. .3 Application to Primary Aberrations 385 ri = 8 FAs ρ3 (9-13) from P0′. (9-13) in the Gaussian image plane. (8-10)] Bd = ~ 1 ⎛1 1⎞ 2 − a 2 ⎝ z R⎠ ΔR .. We refer to the maximum value of ri as the radius of the image spot. the ray distribution owing to spherical aberration alone is also independent of h.e. We note that for the negative value of Bd . it corresponds to the marginal rays. (9-16) The circle in the image plane is traced out in the same sense as in the pupil plane as θ varies from 0 to 2p to complete a circle of rays.e.5 As ) image planes. for a given value of Bd . − 8F 2 (9 − 15a ) (9 − 15b) Here.e. or the longitudinal defocus Δ R is positive. The maximum value of ri is 8FAs and corresponds to rays with ρ = 1. marginal ( Bd = − 2 As ) .. (9-14) varies across the exit pupil for values of Bd corresponding to paraxial ( Bd = 0) . the rays lying on a circle of radius r in the exit pupil lie on a circle of radius ri given by Eq. and Eq. Figure 9-1 shows how the wave aberration given by Eq.Bd 2 As . i.. We note that r = 0 at the other end point ri = 0 . When Bd is negative. (9-14) where the defocus coefficient Bd is given by [see Eq. if the defocused image plane lies farther from the exit pupil than the Gaussian image plane. Δ R = z − R . Let us consider the ray distribution in a slightly defocused image plane by introducing a defocus aberration Bd . the maximum value of ri as r varies from 0 to 1 is the spot radius in that plane. The aberration with respect to a new reference sphere centered at a defocused point lying at a distance z from the plane of the exit pupil may be written W (ρ) = Asρ 4 + Bd ρ2 . ri = 0 also for rays with r = . Thus.9. implying that the chief ray passes through the center of the image. The names of the image planes given here will become clear from what follows. It occurs either at the stationary value of r obtained by letting ∂ri ∂r = 0 or at the end value r = 1. (9-15a) when z ~ R . and least-confusion ( Bd = − 1. For an off-axis point object. where it is zero. i. Note that Bd is numerically negative for z > R . i.

The spot radius is minimum when Bd = -1.00 0.2 0.4 – 1.6 0.6 Bd = –2 As 0.5 – 0. i.6 0. rays lying on two different circles in the pupil plane lie on the same circle in the image plane. there are two different values of r lying between zero and one that correspond to a given value of ri .0 0.2 0.00 –1 – 0.e.50 –2 – 0.5 0.4 0.0 0.75 0.25 0. When Bd = − As .25 –1.0 ρ Figure 9-1.8 1.0 ρ Figure 9-2.8 ri 0.. How ri varies with r is shown in Figure 9-2 for the values of Bd considered above.2 –1 0 0.00 W(ρ) = ρ4 +(Bd /As)ρ2 As 0. Aberration variance is minimum when Bd = .8 1. When Bd = − 2 As .As . or Bd = − 3 As 2.50 W(ρ) As Bd =0 As 0. Radius ri of a circle of rays in units of 8FAs in various image planes characterized by the value of Bd as a function of corresponding radius ρ in the pupil plane.0 0. .75 – 1. there are three different values of r lying between zero and one that correspond to a given 1. Variation of spherical aberration across the exit pupil in units of As combined with different amounts of defocus Bd .0 0.386 SPOT SIZES AND DIAGRAMS 1.5 As .4 0. We note that only when Bd = 0 does a given value of ri corresponds to a certain value of r.

compared with the old reference sphere. Ray spot radii in various image planes for a wavefront W aberrated by spherical aberration. i.5 O P′0 CR 0. we find that the marginal rays intersect the axis at a distance  R = − 8 F 2 Bd (9-17a) (9-17b) = 16 F 2 As from P0′ .e. There are two circles of rays in the pupil plane with ρ = 1 2 and 1 that correspond to ri = 1 4 when Bd = − 3 As 2. the new reference sphere is centered at a point that is farther from the center of the exit pupil. i. MW – midway. A circle of rays with a larger value of ri up to ri = 1 2 corresponds to only one circle of rays in the pupil plane when Bd = − As . respectively. rays lying on three different circles in the pupil plane lie on the same circle in the image plane. or that the defocused image plane lies farther from the exit pupil than the Gaussian image plane. A positive value of Δ R implies that.e. G – Gaussian or paraxial.9.385 MW LC M G Longitudinal spherical aberration W S R z Figure 9-3. Substituting Bd = − 2 As into Eq. respectively. This is to be expected because as may be seen from Figure 9-3. for ρ = 1.3 Application to Primary Aberrations 387 value of ri for 0 < ri < 1 3 6 or 0 < ri < 1 4. as shown in Figure 9-3.. ri → 0 if Bd = − 2 As . . (9-16). From Eq.25 0. The reference sphere S is centered at a Gaussian image point P0′ . the wavefront W is less curved than the reference sphere S for positive values of As . the point of intersection M of the marginal rays lies to the right of P0′ . M – marginal. L C – least confusion. Thus.. ExP MR 1 0. (9-15). The points P0′ and M are called the Gaussian or paraxial (meaning for very small values of r) and the marginal image points. For the marginal rays.

we may write [ W (ξ. In units of 8FAs .. (9-16). and then increases monotonically. i. This spot is called the circle of least confusion. (9-17c) The image plane M W lying midway between the Gaussian and marginal planes corresponds to Bd = − As . a positive value of Bd can only increase the value of ri for any value of ρ . Thus. the corresponding values of the spot radius are r1 = c 3 / 2 / 3 6 and r2 = 1 − c / 2 . i. The spot radii in the various image planes considered here are listed in Table 9-1.e. (9-14) and (9-16).388 SPOT SIZES AND DIAGRAMS we find that the maximum value of ri in the marginal image plane occurs for rays of zone  = 1 3 . It represents the distance of the marginal image point from the Gaussian image point. This maximum value.385) times the corresponding value in the Gaussian image plane. The quantity Δ R given by Eq. Thus.. respectively. . Figure 9-4 shows that r1 increases monotonically as c increases.e. (9-17b) is called the longitudinal spherical aberration. The value 3/2 yields the minimum spot radius. The spot radius in this case is 1/4 of the Gaussian spot radius and corresponds to the rays of zone ρ = 1 2 and 1.. yi ) [ = 8 FAs ξ 3 + ( Bd 2 As ) ξ. approaches zero as c → 2.e. 0) = As ξ 4 + ( Bd As ) ξ 2 ] (9-18a) and ( xi . This equality yields a cubic equation in c with solutions c = 6. (9-16) that Bd must be negative. the wave and ray aberrations of any ray fan can be written immediately from Eqs. or ρ2 = 1 . Because of the radial symmetry of spherical aberration. the marginal spot radius is considerably smaller than the paraxial spot radius. If we consider the variation of longitudinal spherical aberration with ρ . (9-15b) and (9-16) that it varies quadratically with ρ according to  R = 16 F 2 As ρ2 .e. is 2 3 3 (or 0. i. respectively. if we determine the distance of the point where the rays of a zone ρ intersect the optical axis from P0′ . but r2 first decreases. a plane that is 3/4 of the way from the Gaussian image plane to the marginal image plane. For example. the spot radius is minimum in a plane LC (for least confusion) corresponding to Bd = − 3 As 2 . Note that they increase linearly with F and As . and 3/2. we find from Eqs. where c = − Bd / As . The value of c that gives the minimum spot radius is the one obtained by letting r1 = r2 . It is evident from Eq. The value of ρ corresponding to the spot radius is either ρ1 = c / 6 obtained by letting ∂ri ∂ρ = 0. (9-18b) Figure 9-5 shows how the wave and ray aberrations of a ray fan for spherical aberration vary with x for the various defocus values listed in Table 9-1. 6. The image plane that has the smallest spot radius corresponds to that value of Bd that minimizes the maximum value of ri as r varies from 0 to 1 in Eq. 0 ] . for the tangential ray fan.. i. The spot radius in this plane is half of that in the Gaussian image plane G and corresponds to marginal rays. for the η = 0 rays. the spot radius.

W(ξ. 0) – 3/2 –1 –1 0 –4 –2 0 1 –8 –1 –1 (0.3 Application to Primary Aberrations 389 3 2 ri 1 r1 r2 0 0 2 4 6 8 c Figure 9-4.9. . and the ray aberration is in units of FAs . 0) ξ 0 0 1 Figure 9-5. The wave aberration is in units of As . Variation of image spot radius with c = − Bd /As . 0) 1 xi 8 Bd /As = 0 4 Bd /As = –2 – 3/2 0 ξ –1 (0. Wave and ray aberrations for a ray fan for spherical aberration corresponding to various image planes.

the balanced aberration that gives the smallest spot sigma is As [ρ4 − ( 4 / 3) ρ2 ] .5 0.25 0. ∂Bd (9-20) we find that s s is minimum when Bd = − ( 4 3) As .167 Least confusion –3/2 0. (9-19) Letting ∂s s = 0 . ( ) . (9-16) into Eq. because in that case it is used to reduce the variance of the aberration across the exit pupil. Ray spot sizes in units of 8 FAs .385 0.289 Midway –1 0. (9-11c). Similarly. The balanced aberration giving the smallest ray spot is As [ρ4 − (3 / 2) ρ2 ] . the optimum amount of defocus corresponds to the midway plane.5 Marginal –2 0. The variation of s s with defocus is shown in Figure 9-6. Image Plane Balancing Defocus Bd As Spot Radius Spot Sigma rimax ss Gaussian 0 1 0. We note that s s is minimum in a plane that is different from the least-confusion plane in which the spot radius is minimum. The values of s s in various image planes are listed in Table 9-1. the balanced aberration giving minimum variance is As ρ 4 − ρ2 . for peak spherical aberration As . Based on diffraction. Its value is equal to 4 FAs 3 .e. Substituting Eq. we obtain the image spot sigma 12 ss 2 ÏÔ 1 B 1 Ê B ˆ ¸Ô = 8FAs Ì + d + Á d ˜ ˝ 4 3 As 2 Ë 2 As ¯ Ô ÓÔ ˛ . Here. The amount of defocus that gives the smallest ray spot or its sigma value may be called the optimum defocus based on geometrical optics.. i. The deliberate mixing of one aberration with one or more other aberrations to reduce the stop size is called aberration balancing.204 Minimum spot sigma –4/3 1/3 0. similar to the Zernike circle polynomial Z40 (ρ) [see Tables 8-4 and 8-5]. compared with its value of 4FAs in the Gaussian image plane. we have balanced spherical aberration with defocus in order to minimize the spot radius or its sigma value.390 SPOT SIZES AND DIAGRAMS Table 9-1. 0) . the centroid of the PSF lies at the Gaussian image point (0.177 Because of its radial symmetry.

all of the rays in the image plane are contained in a cone with a semiangle of 30° bounded by a ( ) . (9-23) Thus. yi ) = 2 FAc ρ2 (2 + cos2θ. 9. (9-21) into Eqs. η) = Ac ξ ξ 2 + η2 ) .2 0.3 Application to Primary Aberrations 391 0. the rays coming from a circle of radius ρ in the exit pupil lie on a circle of radius 2 FAc ρ2 centered at 4 FAc ρ2 .0 B d/A s – 0.4 0. (9-21a) or ( W (ξ. 0 in the image plane. The circle in the image plane is traced out twice in the same sense as in the pupil plane as q varies from 0 to 2π to complete a circle of rays.3 0.5 0 Figure 9-6.2 Coma The coma wave aberration is given by W (ρ. because CB CP′ = 1 2 .5 – 1. the locus of the points of intersection of the rays in the Gaussian image plane is given by (x i − 4 FAcρ2 ) 2 ( + yi2 = 2 FAc ρ2 ) 2 .1 – 2. (9-6).5 σs 0.0 – 1. Variation of s s in units of 8FAs for spherical aberration with defocus. As illustrated in Figure 9-7. 2ξη (9-22a) . sin2θ) ( ) = 2 FAc ρ2 + 2ξ 2 . (9-22b) For a given value of ρ.9. we obtain the corresponding ray aberrations in the Gaussian image plane with respect to the Gaussian image point: ( xi .3. (9-21b) Substituting Eq. θ) = Ac ρ3cosθ .

C is the center of the circle formed by the marginal rays. coincides with the Gaussian image point P ′ . 0) . 0) in the image plane. θ = 0. Because the spot diagram has the shape of a comet. π ) intersect this plane at a point T at a distance 6FAc from P ′ along . Ray spot diagram for coma. Here. All of the rays in the image plane lie in a cone with a semiangle of 30° and its vertex at the Gaussian image point P ′ bounded by the upper arc of a circle of radius 2 FAc centered at (4 FAc . They lie on a circle of radius FAc 2 centered at ( FAc . of course. Note that the tangential marginal rays MRt (ρ = 1. The tangential marginal rays MRt are focused at the point T.392 SPOT SIZES AND DIAGRAMS xi T ρ = 1 Rays C Ac 2F A B 4FAc S ρ = 1/2 Rays yi 30° P′ xi T x(ξ) S MRt P′ MRs ExP Q θ h′ CR r O OA MRs P′0 z MRt yi y(η) Figure 9-7. the aberration is appropriately called coma. The cone angle is 30° because CB CP′ = 1 2 . circle of radius 2FAc centered at ( 4 FAc . 0) corresponding to the marginal rays. Rays in the image plane corresponding to a zone of ρ = 1 2 are also shown in the figure. Only the chief ray passes through P ′ . and P ′A and P ′B are tangents to the circle. and the sagittal marginal rays MRs are focused at the point S. The vertex of the cone.

(9-25b) We note that even though the wave aberration of the rays in the sagittal fan is zero. Of course. The ray aberrations given by Eq. 0 ( xi . the rays are displaced along the x (or x) axis in the image plane. the length 6FAc and halfwidth 2FAc of the coma pattern are called tangential and sagittal coma. 3π 2) intersect the image plane at a point S at a distance 2FAc from P ′ . and the ray aberration is in units of FAc . 0) –4 –1 –1 0 1 –8 –1 0 1 Figure 9-8. respectively. the wave aberration for the tangential ray fan is given by Wt (ξ. The wave aberration is zero for the sagittal ray fan. Figure 9-8 shows the variation of wave and ray aberrations with pupil coordinates. θ = π 2 . Wave and ray aberrations for tangential and sagittal ray fans for coma. 0) = Ac ξ 3 . According to Eq. η (0. We note that the wave aberration is odd and the ray aberration is even in pupil coordinates. (9-24) It is zero for the sagittal ray fan. Substituting Eq. (9-22b) may be written for the two types of rays in the form ( ) ( ) ( xi . (9-10). Because the PSF is highly asymmetric about the Gaussian image point P ′ . (9-21b) and (9-22b).9. 0) . 0) 8 xi xi(ξ) 4 xi(η) 0 (0. their ray aberration is not. . Accordingly. (9-26) W(ξ. The wave aberration is in units of Ac . and the sagittal marginal rays MRs (ρ = 1.3 Application to Primary Aberrations 393 the xi axis. this is also evident from Eqs. (9-21b). yc ) 1 = (2FAc . we obtain the coordinates of the centroid (xc . (9-22b) into Eq. yi )s = 2 FAc η2 . its centroid does not lie at it. 0) ξ 0 ξ. yi )t = 6 FAc ξ 2 . 0 (9-25a) and .

measuring the ray aberrations with respect to the centroid is equivalent to a tilt aberration of -Ac r cos q or Bt = .Ac . 0 ) or. the sigma value of the spot will increase. [ ] It is worth mentioning that the centroid of a PSF is associated with the line of sight of an imaging system.3 Astigmatism and Field Curvature If the image of a point object is observed in a defocused plane.r cos q . the aberration function with respect to the centroid can be written ( ) W (r.3. q) = Ac r 3 cos q + Bt r cos q . Accordingly. or bring its centroid at the Gaussian image point. the centroid lies at the point S in Figure 9-7 where the sagittal marginal rays intersect the image plane. the aberration function of a system aberrated by astigmatism and field curvature may be written W (r. similar to the Zernike polynomial Z31 (ρ. if the balanced aberration is Ac ρ3 − (2 / 3) ρ cos θ . and may be written W (r. 9.394 SPOT SIZES AND DIAGRAMS Thus. the centroid of a geometrical PSF is identical to the diffraction PSF [2]. including the Gaussian image point. and (8-5)].1] 2 + r 4 sin 2 2q .. (9-22a) and (9-26) into Eq. 12 (9-27) Measuring the ray coordinates in the image plane with respect to a point other than the Gaussian image point is equivalent to introducing a wavefront tilt aberration in the aberration function. θ) [see Tables 8-4. Thus. The aberration function given by Eq. q) = Ac r 3 .e. (9-11a). we obtain the image spot sigma: s s = 2 FAc [r 2 = 2 2 3FAc (2 + cos 2q) . measuring the ray coordinates with respect to this point. Moreover. the variance of the wave aberration is minimum when Bt = − (2 3) Ac . q) = Aa r 2 cos 2q + Ad r 2 + Bd r 2 or (9-30a) . i. (9-28) where Bt is the peak value of the balancing tilt aberration and corresponds to measuring the wave aberration with respect to a reference sphere centered at a point in the image plane with coordinates ( − 2 FBt . However. (9-29) represents coma aberration balanced optimally with tilt aberration to yield a minimum value of the spot sigma. Substituting Eqs. equivalently. (9-29) It should be evident that if the ray aberrations are measured with respect to a point other than the centroid.

The line image is called the sagittal (or radial) image because the sagittal rays converge to a point at its center. h) = ( Aa + Ad + Bd ) x 2 + ( Ad + Bd ) h2 . lie in a defocused image plane on an ellipse whose semiaxes are given by A and B.Aa r 2sin 2q is called the tangential astigmatism. (The terms “radial” and “tangential” images also become evident by consideration of Figure 9-14. and the balancing defocus coefficient Bd is related to the longitudinal defocus Δ R according to Eq. however. as illustrated in Figure 9-9. then the ellipse reduces to a line T parallel to the yi axis. The largest ellipse is obtained for the marginal rays. If. yi ) [ = 4 Fρ ( Aa + Ad + Bd ) cosθ. It should be evident that it is independent of the zone value ρ of the rays. corresponding to Δ Rs = 8 F 2 Ad . (9-34) and Thus. Bd = − ( Aa + Ad ) . the ellipse reduces to a line S of full length 8FAa parallel to the xi axis. and it lies in the sagittal plane. The two line images are called the astigmatic focal lines. corresponding to  Rt = 8 F 2 ( Aa + Ad ) . The full length of this line image is the same as that of the line image S. containing the point object (which lies along the xi axis in the object plane) and the optical axis. (9-17a).9. The corresponding wave aberration . The distance 8F 2Aa between the two line images is called the longitudinal astigmatism. The corresponding ray aberrations are given by ( xi . (9-32) where A = 4 F( Aa + Ad + Bd ) ρ (9-33) B = 4 F( Ad + Bd ) ρ . This line image is called the tangential image because the tangential rays converge to a point at its center. 395 (9-30b) where Aa and Ad are both proportional to h ′ 2 .) . in general. the rays lying on a circle of radius r in the exit pupil. The Gaussian image ( Bd = 0) is an elliptical spot with semiaxes 4F( Aa + Ad ) and 4FAd . It lies in the tangential (or meridional) plane z x.3 Application to Primary Aberrations W (x. where these images are shown for a point object P as well as for straight and circular line objects. The corresponding wave aberration Aa r 2 cos 2q is called the sagittal astigmatism. ( Ad + Bd ) sinθ [ ] = 4F ( Aa + Ad + Bd ) ξ . the locus of the points of intersection of the rays in the defocused image plane is given by 2 ⎛ xi ⎞ + ⎛ yi ⎞ ⎝ A⎠ ⎝ B⎠ 2 = 1 . We note that if Bd = − Ad . ( Ad + Bd ) η . ] (9-31a) (9-31b) For a given value of r.

q) [see Tables 8-4 and 8-5]. Δ Rb . For a line object. corresponding to  Rb = 4 F 2 ( Aa + 2 Ad ) . it is called the circle of least (astigmatic) confusion. (9-32a). we find that the sagittal. Astigmatic images in the presence of field curvature. Similarly. The sagittal marginal rays MRs are shown converging on the sagittal line image S. similar to the Zernike polynomial Z22 (r. Gaussian or defocused. which is half the full length of the two line images. Δ Rs . showing elliptical image spots and astigmatic focal lines. equating Δ R to the sag of a curved line image. and best images are parabolic with the vertex radii of curvature given by Rs = h ′ 2 16 F 2 Ad (9-35a) = 1 4 R 2 ad (9-35b) . Astigmatism balanced in this manner not only gives the smallest spot but also yields minimum variance of the aberration.396 SPOT SIZES AND DIAGRAMS ΔRt ΔRb T ΔRs xi CR ExP MRs S OA x(ξ) MRt C P′ yi O MRs MRt y(η) Figure 9-9. are special cases of the elliptical spots. Substituting Bd = . and the circle of least confusion C. The circle in the image plane is traced out once in the opposite sense of that in the pupil plane as θ varies from 0 to 2p to complete a circle of rays. Δ Rt . the length of the sagittal and tangential line images of a point object increases quadratically with the height h ′ of the Gaussian image point. and longitudinal astigmatism increase as h ′ 2 . .( Aa + 2 Ad ) 2 into Eq. The line images S and T. tangential. Because both Aa and Ad ~ h ′ 2 . Because this circle is the smallest of all the possible images. the ellipse reduces to a circle C of diameter 4FAa . we obtain balanced aberration ( Aa 2) r2 cos 2q . as may be seen from Eq. We will refer to the image thus obtained as the best image. and the tangential marginal rays MRt are shown converging on the tangential line image T. (9-31a). If Bd = − ( Aa + 2 Ad ) 2 .

Rs Rt (9-38) The right-hand side is also related to the radius of curvature Rp of the Petzval image. corresponds to positive values of Ad and Δ Rs . 2 R 2 ( aa + 2 ad ) (9-37b) and Rb = = respectively. We also note from Eqs.e. for example. as illustrated in Figure 9-10. (9-35b) and (9-36b) we note that 3 1 − = 4 R 2 ( 2 ad − aa ) . Rs = − Rt .9. (9-36b) h′2 8 F 2 ( Aa + 2 Ad ) (9-37a) 1 . the vertex curvature of the best-image surface is equal to the mean value of the vertex curvatures of the sagittal and tangential surfaces. (9-39) Because the sag of a surface is inversely proportional to its (vertex) radius of curvature. Moreover. The wave and ray aberrations of a tangential ray fan are given by Eqs. (9-38) may be written 3 1 2 − = Rs Rt Rp . (9-40) i. When astigmatism is zero. the sagittal and tangential image surfaces have equal but opposite vertex curvatures. The best-image surface is planar when aa = − 2 ad . The images of a planar object centered on the optical axis are the corresponding paraboloids symmetric about the optical axis. the Petzval surface is three times as far from the tangential surface as it is from the sagittal surface. i. (9-31b) and (9-32b) according to Wt (ξ. (9-35) through (9-37) that 1 1⎛ 1 1⎞ = ⎜ + ⎟ Rb 2 ⎝ Rs Rt ⎠ .. In that case.. the sagittal surface always lies between the tangential and the Petzval surfaces. Eq. From Eqs. and Eq. (9-39) has the consequence that. 0) = ( Aa + Ad + Bd ) ξ 2 (9-41) . Note that a positive value of Rs . the sagittal and the tangential surfaces reduce to the Petzval surface.3 Application to Primary Aberrations Rt = h ′ 2 16 F 2 ( Aa + Ad ) 397 (9-36a) = 1 4 R 2 ( aa + ad ) .e.

they are given by Ws (0. (9-42) respectively. 0) . The wave and ray aberrations for Ad + Bd = 0 . Thus. The sagittal and tangential surfaces coincide with the Petzval surface. when astigmatism is nonzero. The centroid of the PSF lies at the Gaussian image point (0. The sagittal and tangential surfaces correspond to astigmatism. and P – Petzval. yi )s (9-44) and = 4 F ( Ad + Bd ) ( η. and ( xi . (9-32a) into Eq. S – sagittal. . when astigmatism is zero. for the sagittal ray fan. and − Aa are illustrated in Figure 9-11. and the Petzval surface corresponds to field curvature. (9-11c). The Petzval surface is three times as far from the tangential surface as it is from the sagittal surface. T – tangential. 0) because it is symmetric about both the xi and yi axes.398 SPOT SIZES AND DIAGRAMS P′ T S P P0′ P′ P S T P0′ (a) Aa < 0 Ad > Aa (b) Aa > 0 Ad > 0 P′ P P0′ (c) Aa = 0 Figure 9-10. as in (a) and (b). It is evident that the wave aberration varies quadratically with a pupil coordinate. The sagittal surface lies between the tangential and Petzval surfaces. − Aa 2 . yi )t = 4 F( Aa + Ad + Bd ) (ξ. P0′ P ′ is the Gaussian image of a planar object. Similarly. Parabolic image surfaces. 0) . η) = ( Ad + Bd ) η2 (9-43) ( xi . as in (c). and the ray aberration varies linearly with it. The image spot sigma may be obtained by substituting Eq.

0) ξ –1 –4 –1 –1 0 1 –8 –1 0 1 Figure 9-11.8 – 0. Wave and ray aberrations for a tangential ray fan for astigmatism corresponding to various image planes. 12 2 È Ê A + Bd ˆ ˘ A + Bd s s = 2FAa Í1 + 2 d + 2Á d ˜ ˙ Aa Ë Aa ¯ ˙ ÍÎ ˚ .7 1.9 – 0. and the ray aberration is in units of FAa .6 1. Variation of s s in units of FAa for astigmatism with Ad + Bd .3 Application to Primary Aberrations W(ξ.6 – 0.2 – 0.5 – 0.3 (A d + B d )/A a – 0.1 0 Figure 9-12.0 1.7 – 0. 0) –1/2 ξ –1 0 (0.9 σs 1.4 – 1. Letting 2.5 1. .9. 0) 1 399 xi 8 (Ad + Bd)/Aa = 0 (Ad + Bd)/Aa = 0 4 –1/2 0 (0.8 1. The wave aberration is in units of Aa .0 – 0.4 – 0. (9-45) The variation of s s with Ad + Bd is shown in Figure 9-12.

However.. in an image plane defined by the balancing defocus are summarized in Table 9-2. Ray spot shape.e. 8FAa 1 − ( Ad + Aa ) Line along yi axis. and diameter of a circular image. size. Similarly. a tangential line image T of the same full length as the sagittal line image is obtained in a defocused image plane corresponding to Bd = − Ad . then all of the object rays transmitted by the exit pupil intersect the Gaussian image plane on a line S of full length 8FAa along the xi axis centered at the Gaussian image point P ′ . 8FAa 1 × 8 F( Ad + Bd ) − ( Ad + Aa / 2 ) Circular. the sagittal image of a planar object will be planar. and sigma for astigmatism Aa and field curvature A d in various image planes defined by defocus Bd . This is the sagittal image of a point object. full length of a line image.. The spot shape and size. Similarly. including its s value. . i. its tangential image is parabolic with a vertex radius of curvature of h ′ 2 / 16 F 2 Aa or 1 / 4 R 2 aa . Note that the longitudinal astigmatism in this case represents the sag of the tangential image surface. The tangential rays converge to a point at its center. in the plane of the circle of least confusion. 0 8 F( Aa + Ad ) Elliptical. The sagittal rays converge on the Gaussian image point. (9-31). 4FAa 1 1/ 2 2 *Spot sizes are full major and minor axes of an elliptical image.400 SPOT SIZES AND DIAGRAMS ∂s s = 0 . i. as illustrated in Figure 9-13. ∂Bd (9-46) we find that the spot sigma is minimum and equal to 2 FAa when Ad + Bd = − Aa 2 . Table 9-2.e. The sagittal image of a line object is also a line that is slightly longer (by an amount 8FAa ) than but coincident with its Gaussian line image. Image Plane Balancing Defocus Spot Shape and Size* Spot Sigma Bd s s 2FAa 1/ 2 General Gaussian Sagittal Tangential Best 8 F( Aa + Ad + Bd ) 2 ⎡ ⎛ A + Bd ⎞ ⎤ A + Bd ⎢1 + 2 d + 2⎜ d ⎟ ⎥ Aa ⎝ Aa ⎠ ⎥ ⎢⎣ ⎦ Bd Elliptical. but its tangential image will be paraboloidal. as expected for uniform irradiance. if the field curvature coefficient Ad = 0 in Eqs. × 8 FAd 2 ⎡ ⎛ Ad ⎞ ⎤ Ad ⎢1 + 2 + 2⎜ ⎟ ⎥ Aa ⎝ Aa ⎠ ⎥ ⎢⎣ ⎦ − Ad Line along xi axis. If astigmatism is the only aberration present.

The focal lines S and T lie in the tangential and sagittal planes. The dashed circles in (b) are the Gaussian images of the object circles. a point object P is imaged as a sagittal or radial line Ps′ on the sagittal surface and as a tangential line Pt′ on h=1 h = 1/2 P′s P0 P′0 P′t P′0 P Object (a) O bject (b) Image on sagittal surface (c) Image on tangential surface Figure 9-14. Gaussian magnification of the image is assumed to be – 1. Similarly.9. The sagittal and tangential images Ps′ and Pt′ of a point object P are shown very much exaggerated. Astigmatic focal lines when only astigmatism is present. the sagittal marginal rays MRs are focused at the Gaussian image point P ′ on the sagittal focal line S. As discussed earlier. The tangential marginal rays MRt are focused at a point on the tangential focal line T. The circle of least confusion C lies in a plane midway between the planes of line images S and T. A magnification of − 1 is assumed in the figure. Astigmatic images of a spoked wheel. Figure 9-14 illustrates the effect of astigmatism and field curvature on the image of a spoked wheel where the images formed on the sagittal and tangential surfaces are shown.3 Application to Primary Aberrations 401 xi x(ξ) S MR t MR s T C P′ ExP yi CR MRs O z OA MR t y(η) Figure 9-13. respectively. .

Because the wave aberration is radially symmetric. it is centered on the line joining the center of the exit pupil and the Gaussian image point). Such a surface forms a line image of a point object even when it lies on its axis. it becomes toric. but it is not centered at the Gaussian image point. Thus. the spot sigma value is given by s s = 2 2 FAd . when the wave aberration is given by W (ρ) = Ad ρ2 . Because the . they will not be sharply imaged on any surface.. a person afflicted with astigmatism sees points as lines. and corresponds to the marginal rays. It should be understood that the astigmatism discussed here is for a system that is rotationally symmetric about its optical axis. (9-47) where Ad varies with the image height as h ′ 2 . i.402 SPOT SIZES AND DIAGRAMS the tangential surface. (9-7). the distribution of rays in the Gaussian image plane is also radially symmetric. (9-11c). is given by ri = 4 FAd ρ . that is curved more in one plane than another. and its value reduces to zero for an axial point object.3. following Eq. If the object consists of vertical and horizontal lines as in the wires of a window screen. For rays lying on a circle of radius r in the exit pupil. (9-47) into Eq. (947) implies that the wavefront is spherical. The circle in the image plane is traced out in the same sense as in the pupil as q varies from 0 to 2p.. This is analogous to the spoked wheel example where the rim is in focus in one observation plane and the spokes are in focus in another. 9. Instead. such a person can focus (by accommodation) only on the vertical or the horizontal lines at a time.4 Field Curvature and Depth of Focus We now consider the case when field curvature is the only aberration present. usually the cornea. The refracting surface that is normally spherical acquires a small cylindrical component. (9-48b) From the discussion in Section 8. so that the sagittal image consists of sharp radial lines and diffuse circles while the tangential image consists of sharp circles and diffuse radial lines.e. (9-48a) Its maximum value of 4FAd represents the spot radius.3. i. it is centered at a distance D R = 8 F 2 Ad (9-49) from the Gaussian image point along the optical axis (strictly speaking. It is different from the astigmatism of the eye which is caused by one or more of its refracting surfaces. As may be seen by substituting Eq. If the object contains lines that are neither radial nor tangential. the radius of the corresponding circle of rays in the image plane. Each point on the object is imaged in this manner.e. we note that an aberration represented by Eq.

the image of a planar object will be spherical. (9-15b). Figure 9-15 shows how the wave and ray aberrations vary with x. 2F (9-52) W(ξ. because of the radial symmetry of field curvature. yi )t (9-50b) and = ( 4 FAd ξ . the spot radius is given by rimax = 4 FBd = 1 ΔR . for the tangential ray fan.3 Application to Primary Aberrations 403 aberration coefficient Ad ~ h ¢ 2 . 0) 0 ξ (0. 0) = Ad ξ 2 (9-50a) ( xi . The spherical surface for a system with zero astigmatism is called the Petzval image surface. 0) . (9-48). (9-51) Unlike the field curvature coefficient Ad . Δ R also increases as h ′ 2 . where Δ R = 8 F 2 Bd . Thus. According to Eq. Wave and ray aberrations of a ray fan for field curvature. the value of Bd is independent of the height of a point object. we may write Wt (ξ. The PSF in this case 2 has a uniform irradiance of I p a 2 2 R Ad across a circle of radius 4FAd . 0) –4 –1 –1 0 1 –8 –1 0 1 Figure 9-15. For example. or 1 4 R 2 ad . Similarly. . the wave and ray aberrations of any ray fan can be written immediately from Eqs. As in the case of spherical aberration. The wave aberration is in units of Ad . respectively.9. the sagittal image of a line object will be spherical with a vertex radius of curvature of h ′ 2 16 F 2 Ad . and the ray aberration is in units of FAd . From Eq. (9-47) and (9-48). a longitudinal defocus of Δ R = z − R introduces a defocus aberration of Bd ρ2 . 0) 8 xi 4 0 ξ (0. ( ) A similar result is obtained when the image is observed in a defocused image plane at a distance z.

if the image is observed in a defocused image plane at a distance z ± Δ R . The corresponding tolerance on the object position. may be obtained from Eq. called the depth of field. Depth of focus Δ R for a spot radius rimax . (9-52). η) = At ξ . This.3. corresponds to a longitudinal defocus of 2λ F 2 . θ) = At ρ cosθ (9-53a) W (ξ. 9. in turn. can be determined. (2-77) for the longitudinal magnification. Thus. An alternative approach. Thus. as illustrated in Figure 9-16.5 Distortion The distortion wave aberration is given by W (ρ. is to use the Rayliegh criterion according to which the peak value of defocus aberration must be less than or equal to λ 4 . based on the diffraction image (instead of the ray image). in agreement with Eq. rimax . The image quality (based on geometrical optics) is not affected as long as the spot radius is smaller than the grain size of the film or the detector element of a photodetector array used to record the image. It is seen from the figure that. (9-53b) or where the aberration coefficient At is proportional to h ′ 3 .404 SPOT SIZES AND DIAGRAMS This result can also be obtained from a simple geometry of defocus. It shows the rays coming to focus at the axial image point P0′ . then the spot radius is given by rimax Δ R = a Li = 1 2 F . The corresponding ray aberrations are given by ExP a MR P′0 MR ΔR Li Figure 9-16. where Mt is the transverse magnification of the image. the tolerable amount of longitudinal defocus. the depth of a field is given by Δ R Mt 2 . called the depth of focus.

Similarly.e. The chief ray will still intersect the Gaussian image plane at the point (2 FAt . 0) because its ray aberration due to the other wave aberrations is zero. (9-55) This angle is proportional to h ¢ 3 . it represents the distance between the points of intersection of the actual (within the approximation of a primary aberration) and the paraxial chief rays in the Gaussian image plane. ( ) It should be noted that although the ray aberration for distortion is independent of the ray coordinates in the pupil plane. the heights h1′ and h2′ of their Gaussian images P1′ and P2′ must be related to each other according to P2 h2 EnP ExP O O′ CR 2 P1 CR h1 1 (–)β2 P′0 (–)β1 P0 (–)β1′ CR (–)β2′ P′1 Optical System (–)L o Figure 9-17. the distance 2FAt of the perfect image point from the Gaussian image point is proportional to h ′ 3 .. which lies along the xi axis at a distance 2FAt from the Gaussian image point. (–)h′1 1 CR 2 Li P′2 (–)h′2 . (9-54b) Because the ray aberrations are independent of the coordinates (ρ. a wavefront aberrated by distortion is tilted with respect to the Gaussian reference sphere by an angle  = At a . for example.9. 0) ( (9-54a) = Rat h ′ 3 . Thus. In order for the distortion to be zero. all of the rays converge at the image point (2 FAt . then different rays will intersect the Gaussian image plane at different points. yi ) 405 = (2 FAt . i. all of the rays converge at the point (2 FAt . the chief ray from any point in the object plane must pass through its Gaussian image point. Therefore. Distortion is often measured as a fraction of the image height. Thus. the ray distortion aberration is the distance of the point where the chief ray intersects the Gaussian image plane from the Gaussian image point. if other wave aberrations are present. However. if we consider two point objects P1 and P2 at heights h1 and h2 . 0 ) . θ) of a ray in the exit pupil. 0) . The tangent condition for zero distortion. and represents the line-of-sight error in the location of a point object. the percent distortion is 100 Rat h ′ 2 . as illustrated in Figure 9-17.3 Application to Primary Aberrations ( xi . 0) if distortion is the only wave aberration present. This has the implication that the image magnification M must be independent of the object height. Thus.

It should be noted. the images are displaced to positions P1′′ and P2′′ so that the displacements P1′ P1′′ and P2′ P2′′ are proportional to h1′ 3. (9-58) . (9-57) where Lo and Li are the object and image distances from the entrance and exit pupils. This may often not be the case because a system will normally be designed to reduce the spherical aberration for imaging of the object plane. the image of any point object is displaced from its Gaussian image point by an amount 2FAt along a line joining the axial image point and the Gaussian image point under consideration. because the chief ray is transmitted without any deviation in both cases. Therefore. We consider imaging of point objects P1 and P2 that are at distances h1 and h2 . A magnification of − 1. however. This would be true only if the axial point O of the entrance pupil is imaged perfectly at O′ . as illustrated in Figure 9-18. that we have assumed that all of the chief rays in the image space of the system to pass through the center O′ of the exit pupil. at a distance h1 from the optical axis.406 SPOT SIZES AND DIAGRAMS M = h1′ h′ = 2 h1 h2 . In other words. respectively. where h1 and h1′ are related to each other by the Gaussian magnification of the system (just as h and h ′ are related to each other). We note from similar triangles P0′ P1′ P2′ and P2′ A P2′′ in Figure 9-18 that P2′A P ′ P ′′ AP2′′ = 2 2 = . spherical aberration of the system for pupil imaging must be zero. we may write L tan 1′ tan ′2 = = M o Li tan 1 tan 2 . respectively. The tangent condition is satisfied in the case of imaging by a pinhole camera (discussed in Section 6. and h2′ 3 . The value of the ratio is given by M ( Lo Li ) . its Gaussian image is also a line parallel to it at a distance h1′ from the optical axis. from the axial point object P0 . Because of distortion. Because of distortion. (9-56) Substituting for the object and image heights in terms of the slope angles of the corresponding chief rays.9) and a thin lens with a collocated aperture stop. Thus the requirement for zero distortion is that the ratio of the tangents of the slope angles of a chief ray in the object and image spaces must be independent of the location of the object point. If we consider a line object L1 L2 . from the Gaussian image P0′ of the axial object P0 . h1′ h2′ b where b = P1′ P2′ . respectively.5 is assumed in the figure. respectively. Their Gaussian images P1′ and P2′ are located at distances h1′ and h2′ . Equation (9-57) is called the tangent condition for eliminating distortion.

the locus of P2′′ represents a parabola with a vertex at P1′′ and a vertex radius of curvature of 1 2 Rat h1′ . We note from Eq. the parabolic image will be curved toward the Gaussian image line. P2′A − P1′ P1′′ = Rat h1′b 2 . the image P2′′ of a point object P2 is simply displaced along the image line. L1′ L2′ and L1′′ L2′′ are the Gaussian and distorted images of the line object L1 L2 . the parabolic image is curved away from the Gaussian image line. Thus. the image of a line object intersecting the optical axis is also a line differing from the . Image of a square in the presence of distortion. (9-60) that if the line object intersects the optical axis so that h1′ is zero.9. The dashed square is the Gaussian image.5 is assumed in the figure. Accordingly. From Eq. If at is positive. (9-58). therefore. Thus. AP2′′ is also small. then the sag of P2′′ is also zero. Because P1′ P1′′= Rat h1′3.3 Application to Primary Aberrations 407 L′′2 L′2 L1 P′2 h′2 P1 P2 h1 P0 P′0 h2 h′1 P′′ 2 A b P′1 P′′ 1 L2 Object Image L′1 L′′1 Figure 9-18. A magnification of – 1. P2′A = (h1′ h2′ ) P2′P2′′ (9-59) = Rat h1′h2′ 2 ( = Rat h1′ h1′2 + b 2 ) . (9-60) which represents the sag of P2′′ from a line parallel to the Gaussian line image L1′L2′ but passing through P1′′ . respectively. (9-61) For small values of at . P1′′P2′′ ~ P1′ P2′ = b . From Eq. AP2′′ = (b h2′ ) P2′P2′′ = Rat bh2′ 2 . (960) we note then that the sag of P2′′ is proportional to the square of its distance b from P1′′ . If it is negative. as shown in Figure 9-18.

are orthogonal [4]. as in (c). The polynomials B40 (ρ) . B31 (ρ) cos θ . where [3] Bnm (r) = Rnm (r) .Rnm-2 (r) . coma. giving a minimum spot sigma. . representing the ray aberrations. respectively. we obtain pincushion distortion. ∞ n W (ρ. 9. The dashed squares represent the Gaussian image of the square object with a magnification of – 1. and astigmatism. giving the smallest spot sigma in terms of Zernike circle polynomials Rnm (ρ) cos mθ . we speak of a pincushion distortion. When the distortion aberration coefficient At is positive. (9-63) n=0 m=0 then the image spot sigma is given by Ï • s s = 2 F Ì Â 4 n bn0 Ó n 2 =1 ( ) 2 • È + Â Í m bmm m =1 Î 12 ( ) 2 • 2 ˘¸ +  2( 2i + m) b2mi + m ˙ ˝ ˚˛ i =1 ( ) . is given by Bnm (ρ) cos mθ.4 BALANCED ABERRATIONS FOR THE MINIMUM SPOT SIGMA A balanced aberration. When At is negative. we speak of a barrel distortion. If an aberration function is written in terms of these polynomials.5. Images of a square grid in the presence of distortion. but their gradients. They are not orthogonal over a unit circle. when At is negative. This discussion can be easily extended to obtain the distorted images of a square grid shown in Figure 9-19. Similarly. (9-64) P′2 P′2 P1 P2 P0 (a) Object P′0 (b) Pincushion distortion At > 0 P′1 P′0 P′1 (c) Barrel distortion At < 0 Figure 9-19. e. and B22 (ρ) cos 2θ represent balanced spherical aberration. It should be evident that when At is positive. (9-62) These polynomials are listed in Table 9-3 and may be obtained from the Zernike polynomials given in Table 8-2.g. θ) = ∑ ∑ bnm Bnm (ρ) cos mθ .408 SPOT SIZES AND DIAGRAMS Gaussian image line only in that it is slightly longer. we obtain barrel distribution.. as in (b).

n m Bnm (ρ) cos mθ Balanced Aberration 0 1 0 1 1 ρ cos θ Piston 2 0 2 ρ2 − 1 Defocus 2 2 ρ2 cos 2θ Primary astigmatism 3 1 3 ρ3 − ρ cos θ 3 3 ρ3 cos 3θ 4 0 2 3ρ 4 − 4ρ2 + 1 4 2 ( 4(ρ 4 4 ρ 4 cos 4θ 5 1 5 3 ( 5(ρ 5 5 ρ5 cos 5θ 6 0 6 2 6 4 ( ) 3(5ρ − 8ρ + 3ρ ) cos 2θ 6(ρ − ρ ) cos 4θ 6 6 ρ6 cos 6θ 7 1 7 5ρ7 − 10ρ5 + 6ρ3 − ρ cos θ 7 3 7 5 ( ) 7(3ρ − 5ρ + 2ρ ) cos 3θ 7(ρ − ρ ) cos 5θ 7 7 ρ7 cos 7θ 8 0 2 35ρ8 − 80ρ6 + 60ρ 4 − 16ρ2 + 1 ( Tilt ) ( ) Primary coma ) 4 Primary spherical ) − ρ2 cos 2θ Secondary astigmatism ) 5 2ρ5 − 3ρ3 + ρ cos θ 5 Secondary coma ) − ρ3 cos 3θ 2 10ρ6 − 18ρ4 + 9ρ2 − 1 6 6 4 ( 2 Tertiary astigmatism 4 7 7 Secondary spherical 5 Tertiary coma 3 5 ) Tertiary spherical .4 Balanced Aberrations for the Minimum Spot Sigma 409 Table 9-3. Balanced wave aberration polynomials Bnm (ρ) cos mθ for minimum spot sigma s s .9.

9-22. The ray distribution for field curvature alone in the Gaussian image plane is identical to that for astigmatism in the plane of least confusion if Bd = Aa 2 . 3 4 . respectively. namely. all rays lie in a cone of semiangle of 30° bounded by a circle of marginal rays of radius 2FAc centered at ( 4 FAc . The images shown are the (a) sagittal line. and 1 2 . the marginal rays (ρ = 1) intersect the optical axis at the marginal image point. Zonal rays in the pupil plane corresponding to four zones:  = 1 4 . 3/4. We consider rays from four zones of the exit pupil. For an aberrated system. 1 2 . we note that rays of a given zone r lie on a circle whose x 1 0 1 h Figure 9-20. The value of Bd for these images is given by ( Ad + Bd ) Aa = 0 . . We first illustrate mapping of the zonal rays from the pupil plane to the image plane for a primary aberration. and marginal ( Bd = − 2 As ) planes. and 1. and all of the object rays lying in the pupil plane converge to the Gaussian image point. By definition. .1. 0) . This distribution of rays is called a spot diagram. (b) least-confusion circle. least-confusion ( Bd = − 3 2 As ) . The spot radius in the marginal image plane corresponds to rays of zone  = 1 3 = 0. In Figure 9-20.1 2 . midway ( Bd = − As ) .577 . As in Figure 9-7. the rays from these zones are indicated by different symbols so that they can be tracked in the image plane. Figure 9-22 illustrates the distribution of rays for coma in the Gaussian image plane. Comparing Figures 9-21a . rays from zones ρ = 1 2 and 1 arrive on the same circle. the wavefront is nonspherical and the rays are distributed in a finite region of an image plane.410 SPOT SIZES AND DIAGRAMS 9. and 9-23b.5 SPOT DIAGRAMS If an optical system is aberration free. 1/2. Figure 9-23 illustrates the ray distribution of various images for astigmatism. r = 1/4. and they are indicated by D in the figure. and 1. We note that in the plane of least confusion. . the wavefront at its exit pupil corresponding to a certain point object is spherical. (c) tangential line. and (d) ellipise that is symmetrically opposite the least-confusion circle. Figure 9-21 illustrates the distribution of rays for spherical aberration in the Gaussian or paraxial ( Bd = 0) .

ρ2 in the case of coma. bring out the singularities of infinite irradiance of the aberrated PSFs. They give a qualitative description of the effects of an aberration. the rays are distributed in a uniformly spaced square array. A designer generally starts with rays that are distributed in a certain grid pattern in the plane of the entrance pupil of the system. and ρ in the case of astigmatism in the least-confusion image plane. Figure 9-24 shows the ray grid patterns in the pupil plane that are commonly used in practice. whereas in Figure 9-24b they are distributed in a hexapolar array. which are fortunately unreal physically. radius is proportional to ρ3 in the case of spherical aberration. Ray distribution for spherical aberration in (a) Gaussian. (c) least-confusion. Note.5 Spot Diagrams 411 xi 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 8 6 yi xi 4 2 2 4 yi (a) xi (b) 4 xi 2 2 1 0 1 2 yi 0 2 4 yi (c) (d) Figure 9-21. and (d) marginal image planes. The units of x i and yi are FAs . In practice. They do not. for example. In Figure 9-24a. however. the spot diagrams are obtained by tracing an array of object rays through a system and determining their points of intersection with the image plane. (b) midway. that the circles are not concentric in the case of coma. they are centered at points along its symmetry axis at distances from the Gaussian image point that vary as ρ2 .9. . They also lie on a circle whose radius is proportional to ρ in the case of field curvature or defocus.

Ray distribution of various images for astigmatism: (a) sagittal. Ray distribution for coma in the paraxial image plane. (b) least confusion. (c) tangential.412 SPOT SIZES AND DIAGRAMS xi 6 5 4 3 2 1 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 yi Figure 9-22. and (d) symmetrically opposite to least confusion. The units of xi and yi are FAa . xi 2 1 xi 4 0 1 2 yi 3 2 (b) Least confusion 1 0 xi yi –1 yi (c) Tangential xi –2 2 –3 1 –4 0 1 2 3 4 5 yi (a) Sagittal (d) Symmetrically opposite to least confusion Figure 9-23. The units of x i and yi are FAc . .

(b) Hexapolar grid of concentric rings. a fourfold symmetry is obtained in the case of the square grid of rays in the pupil plane.5 0 0 – 0. and (d) marginal. instead of being radially symmetric. except for its scale.5 – 0. and hexagonal symmetry in the case of the hexapolar grid.5 (c) 2 4 2 4 (b) 2 –2 –2 0 Bd /As = –1 1 2 –4 –4 –2 0 Bd /As = –2 (d) Figure 9-25.5 –1 –1 – 0. Spot diagrams for spherical aberration in various image planes for a square grid of rays: (a) Gaussian.5 0 0. . It is evident that. This is simply an artifact of the 8 4 4 2 0 0 –4 –2 –8 –8 –4 0 Bd /As = 0 4 8 –4 –4 –2 (a) 4 1 2 0 0 –1 –2 –1 0 Bd /As = –1. The PSFs are four-fold symmetric. In the absence of any aberration. the spot diagram in a defocused image plane looks exactly like the one in the pupil plane. Ray grid pattern in the pupil plane normalized by the pupil radius. The spot sizes are in units of FAs . The spot diagrams for spherical aberration in various image planes considered above are shown in Figures 9-25 and 9-26. instead of the expected radial symmetry of the PSFs.5 (b) Figure 9-24. (a) Square grid of uniformly spaced points. because of the square grid of rays in the pupil plane.5 (a) 0 1 0. (b) midway.5 0.9.5 1 –1 –1 413 – 0.5 Spot Diagrams 1 1 0. (c) least confusion.

Spot diagrams for coma in units of FAc for (a) square and (b) polar array of rays in the pupil plane. the PSF for astigmatism is also uniform. 0). . 0) in the figure. Thus.414 SPOT SIZES AND DIAGRAMS 8 4 4 2 0 0 –4 –2 –8 –8 –4 0 Bd/As = 0 4 8 –4 –4 –2 0 Bd/As = –1 (a) 2 4 1 2 0 0 –1 –2 –2 –2 –1 2 4 2 4 (b) 0 Bd/As = –1. (b) midway. ray grid used in the pupil plane. instead of being radially symmetric. which is shown to lie at (0. Note that the two grids yield different results near the top of the spot. Only the chief ray passes through the Gaussian image point. and (d) marginal. The spot sizes are in units of FAs . (c) least confusion. which is shown with coordinates (0. Spot diagrams for spherical aberration in various image planes for a hexapolar grid of rays: (a) Gaussian. 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 –2 –1 0 (a) 1 2 0 –2 –1 0 1 2 (b) Figure 9-27. Only the chief ray passes through the Gaussian image point. The spot diagrams for coma are shown in Figure 9-27. the spot diagram for it also looks like the input array across an elliptical spot.5 1 2 –4 –4 –2 0 Bd/As = – 2 (c) (d) Figure 9-26. because of the hexapolar grid of rays in the pupil plane. As in the case of defocus. which reduces to a circle or a line depending on the amount of balancing defocus. The PSFs are six-fold symmetric.

9. in spite of the fact that they do not represent reality. Table 9-4. As the aberration increases.22 λ F of the Airy disc. respectively. that this holds for spherical aberration in the Gaussian image plane if As ≤ 0. Just as in the diffraction treatment [2] an optical system is considered practically diffraction limited if the peak (or peak-to-valley) aberration is less than λ 4 (Rayleigh’s quarter-wave rule). We note. The aberration tolerances based on the spot size are summarized in Table 9-4. in turn.3 λ . The depth of focus (giving the tolerance on the location of the plane for observing the image) can be determined from Eq.4λ Astigmatism 4FAa Aa ≤ 0. for example. Aberration tolerance based on the ray spot size.3λ Defocus 4FBd Bd ≤ 0. it is reasonable to use the size of the spot diagrams as a qualitative measure of quality of the design until it becomes smaller than the Airy disc. the aberration tolerance is Bd < ~ 0. although a larger value of As is obtained in the other image planes. distortion tolerance for a certain amount of line-of-sight error can be obtained from Eq.3λ . (9-51). Considering that the long dimension of the coma spot is 6FAc and the line image for astigmatism is 8 FAa long. These tolerances. the aberration tolerance for the spot size to be smaller than the Airy disc is Ac < 0. such as the aberrated diffraction PSF or the modulation transfer function.15 λ . similarly optical designers consider a system to be close to its diffraction limit if the ray spot radius is less than or equal to the radius 1.15λ Coma 3FAc Ac ≤ 0. or the standard deviation of the aberration across the exit pupil is less than λ 14 (Maréchal’s criterion). This is roughly consistent with a value of 2 λ F 2 obtained according to Rayleigh’s quarter-wave rule. and then analyzing the system by its aberration variance and diffraction characteristics. The corresponding depth of field (giving the tolerance on the object location for a fixed observation plane) can be determined from the depth of focus by using Eq. Thus. As discussed in Section 6.4 λ and Aa < 0. which. although larger than λ 4 .8.3 λ for a spot radius smaller than or equal to that of the Airy disc.2.6 ABERRATION TOLERANCE AND A GOLDEN RULE OF OPTICAL DESIGN It is common practice in lens design to look at the spot diagrams in the early stages of a design. Aberration Spot ‘radius’ in Gaussian image plane Tolerance for near diffraction limit Spherical 8FAs As ≤ 0.4 λ F 2 . Thus. (9-55) by replacing At by Bt . are roughly consistent with Rayleigh’s quarter-wave rule. implies a depth of focus of 2.6 Aberration Tolerance and a Golden Rule of Optical Design 415 9. the geometrical and diffraction PSFs begin to increasingly resemble each other. the aberration-free image of a point object is the Airy pattern. Similarly. This yields a golden rule of optical design of using spot diagrams until their size is approximately equal to that of the Airy disc. (2-77) for the longitudinal magnification.

1 ( Spherical Aberration As ρ4 ) Longitudinal spherical aberration = 16 F 2 As . Full length of tangential focal line = 8FAa . Radius of circle of least confusion = 2FAs . PSF centroid. The tolerance for a primary aberration based on the spot radius being equal to the radius of the Airy disc is also given. yc ) = (0. ( xc .2 ( ) Coma Ac ρ 3 cosθ Sagittal coma = 2FAc . ( Astigmatism and Field Curvature Aa ρ2 cos 2 θ + Ad ρ2 Full length of sagittal focal line = 8FAa . yc ) = (2 FAc . The refractive index of the medium in which the ray spot is formed is assumed to be unity. 0 ) . 0) .7. The distance 8F 2Aa between the two line images is the longitudinal astigmatism. Circle of least confusion s s = (9-65d) Minimum spot sigma s s = (4 3)FAs . ) (9-67a) This line is centered on the chief ray at a distance Δ Rs = 8 F 2Ad from the Gaussian image point and lies along the xi axis. (9-65b) The circle of least confusion lies in a plane that is 3 4 of the way from the paraxial to the marginal image plane. (9-65c) 2 FAs .416 SPOT SIZES AND DIAGRAMS 9. 9. 9.7. (9-66b) PSF centroid. (9-65a) A positive value of longitudinal spherical aberration implies that the marginal image corresponding to Bd = − 2 As lies farther from the exit pupil than the Gaussian image.3 . (9-67b) This line is centered on the chief ray at a distance Δ Rt = 8 F 2 ( Aa + Ad ) from the Gaussian image point and lies along the yi axis. ( xc . and the f-number of the image-forming light cone is F.7 SUMMARY OF RESULTS The size of a geometrical ray image spot corresponding to a Gaussian image at a height h ′ from the axis of an optical system aberrated by a primary aberration of peak value Ai is given below. Tangential coma = 6FAc (9-66a) . .7. (9-66c) Spot sigma s s = 2 2 3 FAc (9-66d) 9.

then an image of radius 4FAd is obtained in the Gaussian image plane.7.4 Field Curvature and Defocus The field curvature and defocus aberration both vary as r 2 . yc ) = (0. Whereas Ad is proportional to h ¢ 2 . tangential. The image reduces to a point if it is observed in an image plane at a distance Δ R = 8 F 2 Ad from the Gaussian image plane. We use the notation that the peak value of the former is Ad . It is referred to as the best image. 417 (9-67c) This circle is centered on the chief ray and lies in a plane that is midway between the sagittal and tangential focal line images.7 Summary of Results Diameter of circle of least confusion = 4FAa . PSF centroid. and best-image surfaces are given by Rs = h¢ 2 16 F 2 Ad Rt = h¢ 2 . 8 F 2 ( Aa + 2 Ad ) (9-69c) and Rb = Moreover. (9-67d) Circle of least confusion s s = 2 FAa (9-67e) The radii of curvature of the sagittal. 9. and Bd for the latter. 0 ) . (9-69d) If only field curvature is present. Petzval. The spot radius and spot sigma for them are given by rimax = 4 FAd (9-70a) . ( xc . h¢ 2 (9-69b) h¢ 2 . 16 F 2 ( Ad + Aa ) . Bd is constant for a given defocused image plane. (9-68a) 2 3 1 = Rp Rs Rt = (9-68b) (9-69a) 16 F 2 (2 Ad . 1 1⎛ 1 1⎞ = ⎜ + ⎟ Rb 2 ⎝ Rs Rt ⎠ .9.Aa ) .

and dividing it by Mt2 gives the depth of field. The image point lies at (2 FAt . The depth of focus is given by 8 F 2 Bd . If an aberration is balanced with another. this yields a golden rule of optical design to use spot diagrams until their size becomes comparable to that of the Airy disc.5 As . and then analyze the system by its aberration variance.5 As . (9-71) where a is the radius of the exit pupil. . the better the image quality. 0) relative to the Gaussian image point.418 SPOT SIZES AND DIAGRAMS and s s = 2 2 FAd . Spherical ⎪ Ai = ⎨0.16 λ . when spherical aberration As ρ 4 is balanced with defocus Bd ρ2 . Astigmatism or defocus ⎩ (9-72) . (9-70b) respectively. where Mt is the magnification of the image. the standard deviation of the aberration and the spot size are not minimized for the same amount of the balancing aberration. 9.7.5 Distortion ( At ρ cos θ) A distortion wave aberration of At ρ cos θ corresponds to a wavefront tilt of  = At a . such as the ensquared power of the aberrated diffraction PSF or the modulation transfer function.3 λ . 9. the standard deviation and spot radius are both minimized when Bd = − 0. and other diffraction characteristics. The smaller the spot size is. it is reasonable to use their size as a qualitative measure of image quality until it becomes approximately equal to that of the Airy disc. When astigmatism Aaρ2 cos 2 θ is balanced with defocus. 9.7.6 Aberration Tolerance The tolerance for a primary aberration (in terms of its peak value) based on the spot radius in the Gaussian image plane being equal to the radius of the Airy disc is given by ⎧0. and it represents the line-of-sight error in the position of the image or the object point. Coma ⎪0. the standard deviation is minimized when Bd = − As .7 A Golden Rule of Optical Design Although spot diagrams do not represent reality because they don’t account for diffraction.7. Strehl ratio. For high-quality imaging. but the spot radius is minimized when Bd = −1.4 λ . For example.

. “Polynomial expansion of severely aberrated wavefronts.1117/3. 2nd ed. V. Optical Imaging and Aberrations. WA (2011) [doi: 10.1117/3. Optical Imaging and Aberrations. 4. Optical Imaging and Aberrations. 643–650 (1987). Part II: Wave Diffraction Optics. SPIE Press. SPIE Press. SPIE Press. Braat. Bellingham. N. Soc. V. A 4. Part III: Wavefront Analysis. N. 3. Mahajan. Mahajan.” J. Part I: Ray Geometrical Optics. Bellingham. Mahajan. J.8984443].References 419 REFERENCES 1. Am. Opt.927341] . WA (1998) [doi: 10. 2. N.265735].1117/3. WA (2013) [doi: 10. V. Bellingham.

9.. 9.2 cm from its optical axis. where A5 is the peak value of the aberration. sagittal. i.5 μm .5 λ . and total image power of 1 W.420 SPOT SIZES AND DIAGRAMS PROBLEMS 9.5 μm .6 Sketch the pattern of the image of a point object aberrated by secondary coma A5ρ5 cos θ . Also. imaging a slide by a thin lens. except that it is aberrated by astigmatism W (ρ. and midway image planes for As = 1 λ . on the location of the screen. i. 9. and F = 10 . If the radius of the exit pupil is 1 cm. .e. marginal. Calculate the size.4 if it is aberrated by coma given by W (ρ. θ) = Ac ρ3 cos θ . least-confusion. and irradiance of the tangential. λ = 0. Illustrate the tangential and sagittal coma on the sketch for F = 4 and A5 = 1. and Petzval image surfaces for λ = 0. Illustrate the tangential and sagittal coma on this sketch. θ) = Aa ρ2 cos 2 θ .3 λ . Give the location of these image planes with respect to the Gaussian image plane.4 Consider an imaging system forming the image of a point object at a distance of 15 cm from the plane of its exit pupil at a height of 0. (a) Determine the depth of focus for a defocus aberration of 0. Determine the spot sigma and centroid of the image spot. 9. determine and sketch the tangential.2 Sketch the geometrical PSF of a system with a uniformly illuminated circular exit pupil aberrated by spherical aberration W (ρ) = As ρ 4 in the Gaussian.1 Consider Problem 2. sagittal. (b) What is the corresponding tolerance on the distance between the slide and the lens. on the location of the slide? 9.5 Sketch the pattern of the image of the point object considered in Problem 7. location.5. Let the image be aberrated by λ 4 each of astigmatism and field curvature. where Aa = λ 4 .. Calculate the size and sigma value of the image spot in these planes. where Ac = λ 4 . determine the centroid of the image and its sigma value.3 Consider the imaging system of Problem 7.2. and least-confusion images of a point object. where l = 3 mm.e. giving the tolerance on the distance between the lens and the screen.

..............................................................................................2 Sign Convention .............................................426 E5 Image Brightness ...............424 E4........................................3 Spot Size and Aberration Balancing .......................................427 E6..................426 E4......423 E2 Principles of Geometrical Optics and Imaging.......429 E7 Reflecting Systems................................2 Primary Aberrations ........................................................................424 E4............................................................................ 423 E4 Gaussian Optics ............8 Field of View ..................................................................4 Strehl Ratio and Aberration Balancing ...6 Matrix Approach to Gaussian Imaging........................................................................................................................................................................... 431 E10 General Comments ...................... 425 E4.....430 E8 Anamorphic Imaging Systems .....................................................429 E6.426 E4....... 426 E4.......................................................................1 Tangent Plane or Paraxial Surface ................................................................................................. E3 Ray Tracing: Exact and Paraxial ....................................................................................................................................................EPILOGUE E1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 427 E6...7 Petzval Image ................................5 Lagrange Invariant.....1 Wave and Ray Aberrations ..431 References ........................................................................................................................................423 ................................................................................................................................................................................................9 Chromatic Aberrations ......................................................4 Graphical Imaging ...........................................................427 E6 Image Quality ....424 E4....428 E6........................................................................ 425 E4........................433 421 ..............................................................3 Cardinal Points ..............................424 E4.430 E9 Aberration Tolerance and a Golden Rule of Optical Design ..........................................................

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which is a surface of constant phase. i. that the optical path length of a ray in traveling from one point to another is stationary. a refracting or a reflecting surface. Similarly. When a point object is imaged by an imaging system. y ) of a point on a refracting or a reflecting surface with its symmetry axis along the z axis are much smaller than its radius of curvature. and reflection of a ray from a reflecting surface at the same angle as the angle of incidence.e. The optical path lengths of the rays from the point object to the image point are equal to each other. and if a spherical wave exits from it. namely. we can 423 . The ray-tracing equations for the transverse coordinates ( x . and a refraction or reflection operation. The incident ray.5). indicating an aberrated image. This principle yields the three laws of geometrical optics (1. They are normal to a wavefront.. a diverging spherical wavefront with its center of curvature at the point object is converted by the imaging system into a spherical wavefront converging to the perfect image point. e. y ) of a point on a ray propagating in the z direction are coupled with each other and have to be solved simultaneously (1. Such ray tracing is used primarily to determine the optical deviations of the emerging wavefront from a spherical surface. refraction of a ray at an interface separating media of two refractive indices according to Snell’s law. and the refracted or the reflected ray are coplanar. their sines and tangents can be approximated by the angles themselves.g. When the rays make small angles with the optical axis and surface normals.. If rays are traced from the point object toward and through the imaging system. a perfect point image is formed at the center of curvature of this converging spherical wave. We started this book with a statement of Fermat’s principle. With few exceptions. and outline the next steps within and beyond geometrical optics. they exit from the system and converge to the image point. light consists of rays. E2 PRINCIPLES OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS AND IMAGING In geometrical optics.Epilogue E1 INTRODUCTION We give brief a summary of the imaging process with emphasis on its salient features. the aberrations of an imaging system. and thereby the quality of an image. E3 RAY TRACING: EXACT AND PARAXIAL Exact ray tracing consists of a transfer operation. the surface normal at the point of incidence. It propagates through the system. namely: rectilinear propagation of a ray in a homogeneous medium. which describes its refraction or reflection by the surface.6). Thus. if the transverse coordinates ( x . in which a ray propagates from a certain point to a point on some surface. a portion of the spherical wave originating at the object is intercepted by the system. The numbers given in parentheses are the section numbers where a particular topic is discussed. Their direction of propagation indicates the direction of flow of light energy. the actual shape of the wavefront emerging from the system is generally not spherical.

the equations for the transverse coordinates of a point on a ray are no longer coupled. E4. The Gaussian image is aberration free by definition. The ray tracing carried out under such assumptions is called paraxial ray tracing (1. we need to trace rays only in one of these planes. the projections of a skew ray in the zx and yz planes propagate independently of each other. that there is no distinction between the Gaussian image formed by a spherical surface of a certain radius of curvature and a conic surface with the same vertex radius of curvature.2). Only the vertex radius of curvature of the surface is utilized in the imaging equations. E4. regardless of the magnitude of the angles and sizes. regardless of whether the object or the image is real or virtual. and the process of determining the image in this manner. the plane containing the point object and the optical axis. and approximate the diagonal distance between two points by the corresponding axial distance. in the direction of the propagation of the ray. The aberrations of an actual image are determined separately as the next step to evaluate the quality of the image.8.3 Cardinal Points The Gaussian image of an object formed by a multisurface system can be obtained by sequential application of the imaging equation for a refracting and/or a reflecting surface. E4 GAUSSIAN OPTICS E4. Consequently. i.. called the tangent plane or the paraxial surface (1. by the entire system. and the angles or cone angles of the rays.e. The use of the tangent plane implies. the curved refracting or reflecting surface is replaced by a planar surface passing through its vertex. The Cartesian sign convention (1. In this book. the distances and the angles are indicated with an arrow.. Because of paraxial ray tracing. is called Gaussian optics. This is also true for the exact ray.2) has the advantage that there are no special rules to remember other than those of a righthanded Cartesian coordinate system.1 Tangent Plane or Paraxial Surface The paraxial ray-tracing equations are used to determine the location and size of the image formed by an imaging system in terms of the object location and size. such a calculation is greatly simplified by defining suitable reference . but in ray tracing it is measured from the object to the surface. for example.2 Sign Convention It is essential to have a sign convention for the distances and heights of objects and images. and those that are negative are indicated with a (–) sign. and. However. An object and its corresponding image are referred to as conjugates of each other because one is the image of the other. or a refracting or a reflecting surface is convex or concave to the light incident on it (1.7). The object distance is generally measured from the vertex of a refracting or a reflecting surface. Under such ray tracing. This is generally done in the tangential plane. A ray incident in the tangential plane remains in this plane after its refraction or reflection by an element of the system. for a rotationally symmetric imaging system. i. Moreover.e. The image thus obtained is referred to as the Gaussian image.424 EPILOGUE neglect the sag of the surface. therefore.2).

which is the product of the slope angle of a ray from an axial point object. the slope and height of any other ray incident on the system can be obtained anywhere in space as a linear combination of the slopes and heights of the other two in that space. which is often the case in practice. called the cardinal points of the system: two principal points. If we consider the invariant in terms of the heights and slopes of two arbitrary rays incident on the system.4.6). and its nodal points coincide with its center of curvature. Similarly. and the object. Similarly. The two nodal points correspond to unity angular magnification. a ray incident in the direction of the object-side focal point emerges parallel to the optical axis such that the point of emergence is at the same height as the point of incidence. This product is invariant upon refraction or reflection by a surface. which is at the same height as the point of incidence on the object-side principal plane. The object and image distances are measured from the respective principal points.4. the focal lengths represent the distances of the focal points from the respective principal points. object height. The imaging equation for any imaging system is similar to that for a single refracting surface. Because of the unity magnification of the principal planes. and a ray incident passing through its object-space nodal point and emerging from the system passing though its image-space nodal point (2. which correspond to conjugate planes of unity transverse magnification. The principal and the nodal points of a thin lens (in air) coincide with its center. E4. two focal points. The principal points of a refracting surface coincide with its vertex. a ray incident passing through its object-space focal point and emerging from the system parallel to the optical axis. Once the cardinal points are known.5 Lagrange Invariant An interesting property of the Gaussian image is that the product of the transverse magnification of the image and its angular magnification is constant (equal to the ratio of the refractive index of the object and image spaces). and two nodal points.E4 Gaussian Optics 425 points. If the refractive indices of the object and image spaces are equal. The point of intersection of these rays in the image space determines the image point.4 Graphical Imaging The Gaussian image of an object can be determined graphically by tracing any two of three specific object rays: a ray incident parallel to the optical axis of the system and emerging from it passing through the image-space focal point.2).3). the emergent ray appears to come from a point on the image-side principal plane. then the nodal points coincide with the corresponding principal points. It is a representation of the Lagrange invariant. . Only three of the six cardinal points are independent (2. and the refractive index of the object space (2. The principal points are conjugates of each other. The height of the ray in the image space yields the image height. the system can be replaced by them regardless of its complexity.4. and so are the nodal points.and image-space focal lengths are equal in magnitude. and thus for a system consisting of any number of such surfaces. E4.

Consequently.8 Field of View The field stop of a system is an aperture. an error-free image of a plane object is formed on a spherical surface. The entrance window defines the object field that is actually imaged in the exit window. for example. made of such a substance will have a shorter focal length for a shorter wavelength. Although the matrix approach for tracing paraxial rays or determining the Gaussian image is equally viable.426 E4.9 Chromatic Aberrations Because the refractive index of a transparent substance decreases with increasing wavelength. Similarly. the height of the image of an off-axis point object will vary with the wavelength. The matrix approach is not discussed in this book. A lens designer balances the Petzval curvatures of the surfaces of a system so that the curvature of the final image surface is zero.2. the image observed on a planar surface will suffer from field curvature. Otherwise. E4. an axial point object emanating white light will be imaged at different distances along the axis depending on the wavelength. E4. the angle subtended by the exit window at the center of the exit pupil is the angular field of view of the system in image space. it has the disadvantage of losing physical insight into ray tracing and the imaging process. The radius of curvature of this surface is independent of the object or the image distance. Its images. called the Petzval image surface (2. resulting in different sizes of the image of a multiwavelength object. They describe a chromatic change in the position and magnification of the image. The difference of image heights in a given image plane is referred to as the .7). with the consequence that the image will not be a “white” point. but it can be found in Reference 1. The longitudinal chromatic aberration is also called the axial color. are the entrance and exit windows EnW and ExW . as seen from the object and image spaces.7). The axial and transverse extents of the image of a multiwavelength point object are called longitudinal and transverse chromatic aberrations. Consequently. The angle subtended by the entrance window at the center of the entrance pupil represents the angular field of view of the system in object space (5. respectively. respectively (Chapter 7). a thin lens. As a result. Similarly.6 EPILOGUE Matrix Approach to Gaussian Imaging The ray-tracing equations in Gaussian optics are linear in ray heights and slopes. that limits the cone angle of the transmitted chief rays from an object.7 Petzval Image In Gaussian imaging. the whole imaging process can be represented by a 2 ¥ 2 matrix. This introduces a small focus error that increases quadratically with the height of a point object. placed at the final or an intermediate real image of the object. The ratio of the two angles is equal to the magnification of the exit pupil when the refractive indices of the object and image spaces are equal. E4. the object and image distances are measured along the optical axis even when they are located off the axis.

. however.e. which is circular for the axial point object. as discussed in Sections E6. Rays with increasingly larger cone angles are incident on the system to determine the aperture in the system that physically limits most the solid angle of the transmitted rays (5. at some position. In reality. These aberrations determine the quality of the image. The intensity of the image of a point object varies as the cube of the cosine of its angle from the optical axis (5.3 and 6. The imaging system is assumed to convert the spherical wavefront diverging from the point object into a spherical wavefront converging to the Gaussian image point. Instead they intersect the image plane at various points in a small region in the vicinity of the Gaussian image point in the form of a spot diagram.6). with its center of . E6 IMAGE QUALITY E6. indicating that the exiting wavefront is not spherical.E5 Image Brightness 427 lateral color. E5 IMAGE BRIGHTNESS Once an image of suitable location and size has been obtained. A system is considered achromatic if both the axial and lateral colors are zero. The chief ray from the edge of an object determines the location of the exit pupil and the height of the image.2). the entrance and exit pupils in the object and image spaces of the system. Similarly.2.. or that it is aberrated. The light cone from a point object that enters the system is limited by the entrance pupil. the light cone that exits from the system and converges onto the image point is limited by the exit pupil.3). the entrance and exit pupils are obtained by using the Gaussian imaging equations. all of the object rays from a certain point object transmitted by a system pass through the Gaussian image point. as in the case of. This is done by determining the aperture stop and its images. when the rays are traced exactly (instead of paraxially). the spectral response of the human eye is taken into account. the one passing through the center of the pupil). The wave aberrations of the image of a point object are obtained by tracing rays from the point object through the system and up to its exit pupil such that each one travels an optical path length equal to that of the chief ray (i. e. The aperture stop. If the wavefront is spherical. the marginal ray from the axial point of the object determines the size of the exit pupil and the location of the axial image point. Similarly.g. they generally do not converge to an image point. As the point object moves offaxis.4.4. telescopes and microscopes. The surface passing through the end points of the rays is the system wavefront for the point object under consideration. For visual observations.1 Wave and Ray Aberrations In Gaussian optics. the next step is to determine its brightness. becomes nearly elliptical with a corresponding reduction in the transmitted flux. some of the rays intercepted by the entrance pupil begin to be vignetted or blocked by one or another element. Having obtained the aperture stop. Such ray tracing is also used to determine the size of the imaging elements or the obscurations in imaging systems. The irradiance of the image of an extended object decreases as the fourth power of the angle of an object element from the optical axis (5.

spherical aberration.. the actual wavefront deviates from the spherical wavefront. respectively.2). E6. can be obtained. The order of the corresponding ray aberration term is odd. The wave aberrations of the power-series expansion of an aberration function are referred to as the classical aberrations.5). the aberration term may be written h l r n cos m q.. we obtain a perfect image point. Similarly.q o ) . secondary or Schwarzchild aberrations.2 Primary Aberrations The aberrations of a rotationally symmetric imaging system depend on three rotational invariants: h 2 . q) are the polar coordinates of the object and pupil points. To obtain the higher-order aberrations of a surface. q o ) and (r. The rays transmitted by the system in that case have equal optical path lengths in propagating from the object point to the Gaussian image point. and the system loses its rotational symmetry. y ) separations of the intersection point of a ray from the Gaussian image point are called its transverse ray aberrations. r 2 . and they are positive or negative according to the Cartesian sign convention. field curvature. and they intersect the Gaussian image plane in the vicinity of the Gaussian image point.2. The wave aberration of a ray from a point object is positive if it travels an extra optical path length. e.1). and the image is aberrated (8. compared to the chief ray. It is evident that the order of an aberration term. the aberrations of a single lens. where i. because it is one less than that of the wave aberration owing to the spatial derivative relationship between the two. Letting 2i + m = l and 2 j + m = n .e. where (h. If. j.g. its degree l + n in the object and pupil coordinates. however. The rays do not have equal optical path lengths. The primary wave aberrations of a multisurface system are additive in the sense that they can be obtained by adding the primary wave aberrations of the surfaces. These aberrations have different dependencies on the object height but the same dependence on the pupil coordinates as the aberrations of the unperturbed system (sse Chapter 7 in Reference 1). A general aberration term of the expansion of the aberration function in terms of these invariants may accordingly be i j m written h 2 r 2 (hr cos q) . i. Thus. cannot be obtained in this manner. the aberrations of a two-mirror astronomical telescope can be obtained. and hr cos (q . and they all pass through the image point. in order to reach the Gaussian reference sphere (see Reference 1 in Chapter 8). is even. and m are positive integers including zero. for example. astigmatism. namely.6. ( )( ) There are five aberrations of fourth order in object (or image) and pupil coordinates. . called the Gaussian reference sphere. the effect of the aberrations of the image formed by the previous surface must be taken into account.428 EPILOGUE curvature at the Gaussian image point. where the Gaussian image of a point object formed by one surface becomes the point object for the next surface (8. and distortion (8. coma. by knowing the primary aberrations of a reflecting surface. by knowing the primary aberrations of a refracting surface. New aberrations arise when the system is perturbed so that one or more of its imaging elements is decentered and/or tilted. The higher-order aberrations. referred to as the primary or the Seidel aberrations. The ( x .

The spot size for a certain aberration can be reduced if it is balanced by one or more lower-order aberrations (9.2). The variance of an aberration can be reduced by balancing it with one or more aberrations of the same and/or lower order. The aberrations in the form of these polynomials are .6.E6 Image Quality 429 Although the transverse ray aberrations of a system for a certain point object can be obtained by tracing the rays through the system and up to the image plane. the quantity of interest is the standard deviation or the spot sigma of the ray distribution.4 Strehl Ratio and Aberration Balancing A measure of the quality of an image is its Strehl ratio. Accordingly. For example. E6. they can also be obtained from the wave aberrations. It is calculated by exact ray tracing of the system.3 Spot Size and Aberration Balancing The extent of the ray distribution in a spot diagram is called its spot size. the monochromatic aberrations of a refracting system also vary with the wavelength. Because of the variation of the refractive index of a transparent substance with the wavelength. which represents the ratio of the central irradiances of the diffraction image of a point object with and without aberration. especially for a narrow spectral bandwidth.7. a reflecting system is achromatic. The reduced spot is the well-known circle of least confusion. the optical path length of a ray passing through it also depends on the wavelength. the contribution of a surface to the ray aberration in the final image plane can be obtained from its wave aberration using the parameters of the final image (8. However.3). When some of the rays in the spot diagram are concentrated in a small area and the others are scattered over a large area. For example. The reason for the widespread use of Zernike circle polynomials in wavefront analysis is that they are not only orthogonal over a circular pupil. thereby increasing the Strehl ratio (8.4 3 times the amount of spherical aberration. as in the case of coma.4). the standard deviation or the wavefront sigma of spherical aberration is reduced by a factor of four when balanced with an equal and opposite amount of defocus. The amount of the balancing aberration for the minimum value of spot sigma is different. this variation is generally small. the Strehl ratio can be estimated from its variance across the exit pupil (8. The ray aberrations are not additive in that those in the final image plane cannot be obtained by adding their values in the intermediate image planes formed by the surfaces of a system. Of course. so does the amount of the balancing aberration. As the criterion for balancing changes. The smaller the variance is. the larger the Strehl ratio. when a certain amount of spherical aberration is balanced with –1. but they also represent balanced classical aberrations for such pupils (8. These polynomials are separable in polar coordinates of a pupil point.5 times that amount of defocus aberration. E6.7. the spot radius is minimized by a factor of four. Of course. the defocus aberration that minimizes the spot sigma is . For example. For a small aberration.1).8).

It is important that the Zernike polynomials be ordered in a logical and systematic manner (8. The aberration function of an anamorphic system depends on the object and pupil coordinates through six reflection invariants. It is also practically advantageous to use the orthonormal form of the Zernike polynomials so that their coefficients represent the standard deviation or the sigma value of the corresponding aberration terms. the physical insight is lost in so doing. their coefficients from one person to another may not match.430 EPILOGUE referred to as the orthogonal aberrations.6). compared to an infinite number for a rotationally symmetric imaging system. The imaging and wave aberration equations for a reflecting surface can be obtained in a similar manner from the corresponding equations for a refracting surface. The coefficients of the classical aberrations can be obtained from those of the orthogonal aberrations (8. Although it is convenient to use the equations for a refracting surface to obtain the corresponding equations for a reflecting surface. Accordingly. compared to three rotational invariants in the case of a rotationally symmetric system. Hence. Because of the orthogonal property of the polynomials. The P-V numbers of a polynomial representing the fabrication errors give a measure of the depth of the material to be removed in the fabrication process. . E8 ANAMORPHIC IMAGING SYSTEMS An anamorphic imaging system is symmetric about two orthogonal planes whose intersection defines its optical axis.8). They are inherently separable in the Cartesian coordinates of a pupil point (8. E7 REFLECTING SYSTEMS Generally. as opposed to only five for a rotationally symmetric system.10). The ray-tracing equations (exact as well as paraxial) for a reflecting surface can be obtained from the corresponding equations for a refracting surface by letting the refractive index associated with the reflected ray to be equal to and opposite of that associated with the incident ray (1.9). the refractive index of the medium for imaging by a reflecting surface is unity. That is why Gaussian imaging by a reflecting system is discussed in this book on an equal basis as a refracting system. It has 16 primary aberrations. As a result. otherwise. The orthonormal polynomials representing balanced aberrations are products of Legendre polynomials in the x and y variables. The opposite sign accounts for the backward propagation of the reflected ray compared to that of the incident ray. the image of a square object is rectangular and that of a rectangular object can be square (2. one or more polynomial terms can be added to or subtracted from the aberration function without affecting the value of the other coefficients in the expansion. the variance of the aberration function is simply equal to the sum of the squares of the orthonormal expansion coefficients (except piston).10). the value of a coefficient is independent of the number of the polynomials used in the expansion of an aberration function. The Gaussian images of a point object with object rays in the two symmetry planes are formed separately. An anamorphic system forms the image of an extended object with different transverse magnifications in the two symmetry planes. They are coincident in the final image space of the system for only two pairs of conjugate planes.

e. An exception is astigmatism. E10 GENERAL COMMENTS A good understanding of Gaussian optics is essential for performing Gaussian (or first-order) design and analysis of an optical imaging system. yields minimum variance as well as the smallest spot size (9. For example. the depth of focus (giving the tolerance on the location of the plane for observing the image) based on a spot radius smaller than or equal to that of the Airy disc is roughly consistent with its value obtained according to Rayleigh’s quarter-wave rule. in spite of the fact that they do not represent reality. It is common practice in lens design to look at the spot diagrams in the early stages of a design. the standard deviation of the aberration and the spot size are not minimized for the same amount of the balancing aberration. the geometrical and diffraction PSFs begin to increasingly resemble each other. and then analyze the system performance by its aberration variance and diffraction characteristics. Accordingly..3. it is reasonable to use the size of the spot diagrams as a qualitative measure of quality of the design until it becomes smaller than the Airy disc.g.E9 Aberration Tolerance and a Golden Rule of Optical Design E9 431 ABERRATION TOLERANCE AND A GOLDEN RULE OF OPTICAL DESIGN The wave aberrations can also be balanced to give the smallest ray spot size. based on diffraction. So why do the lens designers use spot diagrams? The reason is that not only are the spot diagrams easy to generate but also that with increasing aberration. the aberration-free image of a point object is the Airy pattern (6. or the smallest standard deviation of the ray distribution (often incorrectly called the root-mean-square radius). it yields the location and size of the image. The corresponding depth of field (giving the tolerance on the object location for a fixed observation plane) can be obtained from the depth of focus by using the longitudinal magnification. Similarly. when balanced with defocus. It should be evident that if an aberration is balanced with another. but it is a point only according to geometrical optics. such as the aberrated diffraction point-spread function (PSF) or the modulation transfer function (MTF) (9. similarly.6). the circle of least confusion in the case of spherical aberration or astigmatism. which.8. the optical designers consider a system to be close to its diffraction limit if the ray spot radius is less than or equal to the radius of the Airy disc. However. Based on the paraxial ray tracing.8.3).3). Just as in the diffraction treatment an optical system is considered practically diffraction limited if the peak (or peak-to-valley) aberration is less than l 4 (Rayleigh’s quarter-wave rule) or if the standard deviation of the aberration across the exit pupil is less than l 14 (Maréchal’s criterion) (6. graphical imaging to determine these parameters also gives insight. The use of the tangent plane in place of the curved imaging surface illustrates that only the vertex radius of curvature determines the . The aberration tolerances based on the spot size are roughly consistent with the Rayleigh’s quarter-wave rule. This yields a golden rule of optical design in that a designer may strive for spot diagrams of a size nearly equal to that of the Airy disc.2).

in turn. It is important to work on the problems given at the end of each chapter. spherical mirror. Given the radiance of an extended object or the intensity of a point object. the irradiance of the image in terms of the radiance of the object.. but they can be found in Reference 1. The derivations of primary aberrations are beyond the scope of this book. We have only discussed the origin of these aberrations in optical systems. We have also not discussed the diffraction effects of the aberrations beyond the Strehl ratio. because they can be the dominant aberrations in the early stages of a design. thin lens. and how they can be recognized by their interferograms or the spot diagrams. and OSLO. or.e. Gaussian optics is also used to determine the extent of the object that can be imaged. the designer chooses the size of the imaging elements that will yield an image of some prescribed irradiance or intensity. and the resulting change in the shape of the pupil. it is used to determine the field of view of the system. more often. The closed-form analytical expressions for primary aberrations of simple systems. such as a spherical refracting surface. The distinction between the Gaussian and Petzval image should also be understood. A lens designer designs an imaging system so that it can form an image of a certain size at a certain location. SYNOPSYS. It is also used to determine the approximate size of the imaging elements. given the size and the location of the object. Once one can solve simple problems that use Gaussian optics. Having tools is not enough. and two-mirror telescopes. paraxial ray tracing. but the derivations are not simple. can one appreciate the theory and validate its understanding. thus yielding the fact that the Gaussian images formed by conic and spherical surfaces of the same radius of curvature are identical. because they are extensions of the theory given in the text. The understanding of the primary aberrations is of paramount importance. can be derived. obscurations in mirror systems. one must also know how to use them. A designer must also choose the shapes and materials of the imaging elements to balance their chromatic and monochromatic aberrations to yield an image of acceptable quality across the field of .432 EPILOGUE Gaussian image. but they can be found in Reference 2. i. They are an essential part of the book because only by working through such problems. The next step beyond Gaussian optics is to determine the image quality. Paraxial ray tracing is used to determine the aperture stop and thereby the entrance and exit pupils and. and that requires exact ray tracing to determine the aberrations. it is important to understand how and why the aberrations of the two images differ from each other. as applications of the theory. Although the Gaussian image formed by conic and spherical surfaces of the same radius of curvature are identical. Only by working the problems can the readers gauge their aptitude. ZEMAX. one is ready to tackle complex problems by using the commercially available optical design and analysis software such as CODE V. and graphical imaging. vignetting of rays as the object moves increasingly off axis. The use of computer software is discouraged until the basic concepts of Gaussian imaging are thoroughly understood.

E10 General Comments 433 view of the system. . the task of a designer is not finished until a system is fabricated. and tested. assembled. However.

Mahajan. N. Bellingham. WA (2011) [doi: 10.898443]. Bellingham. SPIE Press. N. WA (1998) [doi:10. Part I: Ray Geometrical Optics. 2.1117/3. Optical Imaging and Aberrations.1117/3. Part II: Wave Diffraction Optics. V. 2nd ed. SPIE Press. Optical Imaging and Aberrations. Mahajan.265735]. V.434 EPILOGUE REFERENCES 1.. .

F. Astronomical Optics. Norwood. Fundamentals of Optics. V. Kingslake and B. 2nd ed. C. Geometrical and Instrumental Optics. CA (1988). A. Conrady. E. London. T. Optics. Optical System Design. MA (1994). Oxford. Oxford. Smith. New York (1976). Modern Optical Engineering. R. 2nd ed. Klein and T. San Diego. 4th ed. Dekker. Elements of Modern Optical Design. Johnson. John Wiley and Sons. John Wiley and Sons. I. Furtak. Van Venrooij. Jenkins and H. New York (1994). Addison Wesley. J. E. (1929). Macdonald. Malacara. H. L. Klein. Schroeder. London. 2nd ed. Rutten and M. San Francisco (2002). Reflective Optics. D. Pitman. E. Malacara and Z. Academic Press. San Diego. 4th ed. New York (1988). Technical Optics. John Wiley and Sons. J. New York (1983). Lens Design Fundamentals. Academic Press. Hecht. New York (1997). Academic Press. Welford. San Diego. New York (1957). V. (1966). McCluney. Aberrations of the Symmetrical Optical System. New York (1985). CA (2009). Korsch. P. San Diego (1991). Academic Press. New York (1990). Richmond.. Martin and W. M. W. McGraw-Hill. D.. C. Optics. W. W. Introduction to Radiometry and Photometry. VA (1988). E. White. New York (1970). Artech. Academic Press. Malacara. M. T. 2nd ed. CA (1974). Academic Press. Vol. Optics. CA (2000). Handbook of Lens Design. Telescope Optics. 435 . Willmann-Bell. Applied Optics and Optical Design. D. O’Shea. Welford.. San Diego. Mouroulis and J.Bibliography A. McGraw-Hill. Kingslake. Parts I and II. Geometrical Optics and Optical Design. R. Reprinted by Dover. D.. D... R.

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....... 220...................................................... 352..................................... 321.. 285 B beam expander reflecting..... 368 longitudinal....... 330............................................... 123 refracting surface ........... 328........ 331 definition ................................ 34...... 339 wave ............................. 45.... 320............ 378... 133... 351........ 317 defocus ............ 219..... 330 secondary ....................... 261 reflecting telescope ....... 338........................................... 329 peak value ............................................................... 225 angular magnification general system .... 54 thin lens ............................ 74.............................................. 369 auxiliary axis ............................ 84 combination of two systems .............. 315.............................................. 229 angular field of view image space .............. 400 tangential ..................... 357 combined primary and secondary .... 225 object space ................ 325–327......... 96.................. 328 focal lines.. 338.......... 395..................... 281 classical ...... 390 primary aberrations ..... 315.. 415 accommodation ......... 395 interferogram .......................... 317... 253 refracting telescope ...... 297 general system ... 320 intrinsic .................................. 88............ 236............. 67 aperture stop ...... 187.......... 262....................... 395 atmospheric coherence length ..................... 133 refracting .. 412 spot sigma................................................ 78 reflecting surface ............... 329................................................................... 54................................................. 264 ametropic ............................................. 304 aspheric surface ................ 260.................................... 357 reflection invariants ........ 332 Schwarzchild............. 217......... 331 tilt . 335 afocal system ....... 331.......... 338.............. 242 anamorphic system imaging ............................. 328. 340.. 327 peak-to-valley value ............................ 35 astigmatism definition ....... 332 aberration balancing definition ......... 395 sagittal ....................... 365 spot diagram ........... 290 refracting surface .................................... 378.................................Index A Abbe number ................ 329............................................... 340 aberration tolerance . 395 shape ......... 323 extrinsic.............................. 261 Airy pattern .......... 5........................... 283 doublet ................ 133 for telephoto lens .............. 107 aberrations................ 286 aberration balanced . 340 chromatic ................... 253 Airy disc .......... 332................................ 331..... 328.................................................... 336 variance . 332 geometrical.... 295 plane-parallel plate ........ 188 apochromatic ............................................................................................................ 356 angular aperture..................................................................... 254 blind spot .. 337 Seidel ...................... 281.. 189... 31.................... 90 beam expander .... 112 axial color definition ....................................... 340..... 283 thin lens ............. 369 atmospheric turbulence ............ 189............................... 254 beam-expansion ratio ........................................... 237 C cardinal points ........ 259 for wide-angle lens............................. 238 achromatic systems doublet .... 378 transverse ray ...... 329 primary ................................ 261..... 302 additivity theorem .................... 98...................................... 322 order ..................................................... 154 437 ... 353 tolerance .........

.................................. 352 327......... 393............................... 22 conjugate points ................................................ 408 pincushion .... 302................. 203 coupled equations ................... 172 cataract........................... 195 effective exit pupil ..... 42 Cassegrain focus .............................. 365 spot diagram ......... 302 cemented........................ 266......................... 26 critical angle ..... 215.......................................... 393.................... 250............................ 9 reflecting surface .... 402.................... 283 transverse axial color ..................................................... 108...................... 247.... 162................................................438 Cartesian pair definition ................................................................... 23 refracting ................................. 9 reflecting .......................................... 408 for uniform image irradiance .............................. 228 Index conic surface ... 282 thin lens................................... 278 cosine law of intensity............ 121 .......................................................... 219........ 19 decoupled equations .......... 99 coma definition ................................ 217 cosine-third law of irradiance by a point source ................. 304 chromatic aberrations .. 311 concentric systems ............................................. 35....... 42 refracting . 284 circle of least confusion astigmatic ...................................................................... 289 transverse ............. 368 sagittal ..................... 408 wave aberration ........ 396 spherical ... 281–283 doublet ... 416 shape ........... 404 diffraction ............ 295–305 focal length . 417 wave aberration ............. 295–305 general system ................... 417 doublet achromatic .......................... 11 crown glass ................................. 352.. 324 depth of field ...... 42 Cartesian surface definition .............. 273 diffraction focus . 404 depth of focus .. 414 spot sigma ........................ 195 effective entrance pupil .... 285 distortion barrel............................................ 247 D defocus sigma ..... 417 spot radius.. 328 interferogram .................... 22 reflecting ....... 369 cold stop ......... 195 effective (or equivalent) focal length reflecting surface .............. 285 longitudinal ........................................................... 281 axial color............. 236 centroid definition ........................................... 249............ 262............ 428 coherence length ..................... 288......... 173 thin-lens–mirror combination focal length............ 42 refracting surface .. 357 rotationally symmetric system ........... 416 concentric lens ................ 130 catadioptric system ..................................... 283 plane-parallel plate .............. 281.... 215 image of a square ..... 292–295 lateral color .......................................................................................................... 286 cylindrical lens ........... 281...................... 53 dispersive constant ....................................................................... 402.......................................... 177 chromatic aberrations ...................... 394 tangential.............................. 281......................... 388 classical aberrations anamorphic system......... 393 chief ray ............ 290–292 refracting surface .. 162 thin lens .......................... 381........................................................................................................................................ 47 contact lens ................... 304 E eccentricity .......... 407 image of a square grid ................ 24..... 404... 261............ 391 for coma ......... 412................. 206 cosine-fourth law of irradiance by an extended source ........................................... 284...................................................................................... 340 diopter ........... 183 axial color.................. 22 effective aperture stop .................................... 87.............................................................................. 281.......................

..... 215.................... 187......................................................................... 78 reflecting surface .... 188 entrance window ................................. 85..... 418 . 243–245 fovea centralis .................................................................. 352......... 257 field stop .............. 351......... 367....................... 188.. 141 refracting surface .................................. 345... 64............... 247 crystalline lens .................................... 111 thin lens .......................... 237.. 246 bifocal lenses ...... 28 Gaussian imaging equation general system .................... 350.................................... 275 ametropic ..... 346.................... 238 eyepiece ............ 180 two-lens system ................... 373. 254...... 204 focusing power .......................................... 328 fringe ............................. 317 geometrical optics ....... 328 field of view ......... 237 hypermetropia (farsighted)................................. 242......... 236........................... 75 image space . 28. 33.. 238............ 238 simplified eye ........... 242 astigmatism .................... 272 Huygens ................. 3.............................. 121..... 187 exit window . 199 exitance ........................... 53 system ........... 28 flint glass ..................... 3 Gaussian image ... 244.................... 64 equiconvex lens .................... 237 cardinal points.................... 317 geometrical point-spread function .............................................. 247 blind spot ........ 187....... 238 cataract ...................................................................... 3 geometrical path length ............................... 199............................... 180 two-mirror system .................... 199 equiconcave lens ........................... 415... 244 245 imaging ............... 161............................................................................................................ 242 far point................ 5................ 247 prescription .. 116 thick lens ....... 52 focal ratio ... 378 first-order optics ........... 198......................... 349................ 215 equivalent focal length see effective focal length exact ray tracing ... 181 focal length of a refracting surface image space .................... 236................................ 225 figure errors ............................ 334................................ 74........... 238 emmetropic ............... 248 resolution ......... 51 object space ....................................... 424 Gaussian reference sphere ................................... 320 glass sphere ................. 88...... 236 chart .................................... 378 tolerance ................. 369 G Gaussian approximation ............... 165............... 239........................ 188 exit pupil ...... 237..................................... 268 retina ..... 243 near point ..................................... 230 eye ..... 39................ 187............................................. 238 schematic eye ............ 40...................... 382 geometrical ray aberration . 115 golden rule of optical design ...................... 236 contact lens................... 90 fourth-order wave aberrations ....... 239......................................... 87 telephoto lens ......... 236 myopia (nearsighted) ........... 236 rods.......... 242.............. 237 glaucoma ............... 187...................... 220 eye models reduced eye .. 179..... 199.. 298................................................................................................... 223 iris ....... 299 439 F f-number .. 63 entrance pupil ..... 52 focal planes................. 374 Fermat’s principle ............ 236 spectral response ............... ..... 51 object space ..................... 75 focal points ............................................. 30... 233......................Index refracting surface ............................... 286 focal distance general system ....................................................... 245 presbiopia .. 78 thin lens..... 235........................................................ 3.. 335 field curvature ........... 218 fabrication errors ............. 237... 241 cones .................................... 62 Gaussian optics ...................... 169.......

....................................... 53.......................................................................... 206..... 356........................... 281 doublet .............................................. 15 laws of geometrical optics................... 13 Legendre polynomials ...................... 227 image space........ 193 lower .................................... 59 thin lens................... 359 lens bending ................. 65.............................. 127 refracting surface ............................. 144 marginal focus .......................... 350........... 206 brightness .... 56 thin lens ....................................... 275 contact magnifier ........................................ 297 general system ......... 64....... 55 thin lens................... 327 inverse-square law of irradiance ................................... 55 image radiance ......................................................................... 249......... 204 interference pattern ....................................... 181 Lambertian disc .. 10... 395 longitudinal chromatic aberration (see axial color) longitudinal defocus ..................... 197 matrix approach.............................. 10 in 3D .................................................................... 323 longitudinal magnification general system ......................................................... 351...................................... 226 Lambertian source ............................................. 144 Huygens eyepiece .......................... 368 invariants reflection .... 235........ 357 rotational ............................ 81 reflecting surface ..... 135 .................................. 199 M magnifier ... 68 H Hubble Space Telescope .............. 125 refracting surface ......... 284 thin lens ............................... 79 infinite conjugates....... 248................ 331 law of reflection in 2D ........................ 90 general system ... 249 meridional plane (see tangential plane) microscope ... 366..... 251.................... 361............ 12 in 3D .................... 174............................................................................................... 200 L Lagrange invariance ........ 79 reflecting surface ............................ 206 lateral aberrations ........... 197 upper .......... 67 two-ray ..................................... 124 refracting surface .................. 426 meniscus lens ... 8 Mangin mirror chromatic ...................... 298.................. 200......... 79 Lagrange invariant afocal system .............................................................................................. 387 marginal ray .......................................... 123......... 288 lateral spherical aberration ....... 36 law of refraction in 2D ......................... 364...... 250...........440 Index graphical imaging general system .......................................... 160 line-of-sight error .............................. 415 longitudinal astigmatism .... 223 Lambert’s cosine law of intensity ..... 363 interferogram ............................... 388 Lyot stop .... 115 Malus–Dupin theorem........ 387 marginal image plane ..................... 156........... 115 intensity.. 64 lensmaker’s formula ......... 291 refracting surface ....... 177............ 67 longitudinal spherical aberration .............................. 294 plane-parallel plate ............... 331 lateral color definition ...... 227 image magnification reflecting surface ............................................... 50...... 312 focal length .......... 201 irradiance ........................... 64................... 91 reflecting surface ................ 388 marginal image points ............................... 125 refracting surface . 252 mirror concave .......................... 51 immersed detectors ..................................................................... 187 Lambertian surface ......................... 122........ 387..... 299 I image irradiance ......................

....... 187.......... 358 rotationally symmetric system ...... 45..... 75........................... 370 Petzval image point ................................ 29.... 344.................... 101....................... 371 perfect conjugates.. 93 point-spread function (PSF) geometrical . 139 441 object space........... 76 principal points ...... 134............. 267 image space........... 342..................................... 329.............. 270 obscuration ratio ..................................... 276 piston aberration ...... 25 paraxial ray tracing ...... 371 balanced ............................................................ 80 nodal slide ..................... 394... 357 rotaionally symmetric system.............................. 63................................... 370 Seidel ............................................................................. 356... 101 P R parabola ................. 274. 272 oil immersion ... 74 principal ray ........................... 35................... 205........ 369 N negative lens ......... 413–415...... 81 nodal points ................................ 273....................... 88 numerical aperture ........ 135 thin lens ...... 34..................................... 225 random aberrations ... 64 negative surface ................... 392 Newtonian imaging equation general system ........................ 25...................................................... 127 thin lens...... 395 radiance ... 200............... 134 Petzval sum .................................... 5 optical wavefront .... 411....... 393. 135 misalignments reflecting surface ....... 187... 364 tolerance ....................................... 328........ 230 oculars ......................................... 214.................................... 134.................................... 105................. 99 two-mirror telescope ................... 15 plane-parallel plate chromatic aberrations .............................. 217 object space....................................... 340.......................... 134 convex ......... 316 defocus........................................ 347........... 133 paraxial approximation ................... 53 power-series expansion anamorphic system .. 358.... 61 reflecting surface ............... 39 peak-to-valley aberration ........................................ 338 prime focus . 134 system of mirrors .................... 99.... 45.................. 9 perfect imaging ..... 384............................. 211 radiance theorem ....................................................... 390 orthogonal aberrations anamorphic system.... 136 refracting surface .................................. 215 O .......... 240 photometry ....................... 96 Petzval image surface definition . 53.............. 135 diverging ....... 193 projected area .............. 371 radial image ............................................................... 367.. 8 optimum defocus ....... 3 optical path length........... 403.......... 113 thin lens........... 270 optical axis ................................................................................................. 415 positive surface........................ 112 phoropters ............ 254........................ 363 plane of incidence..........Index converging ............. 98 mirror ............................ 68 nodal planes ................... 407 parallel beam . 290–292 imaging .................. 24................. 81 refracting surface ..... 98 general formula .......................................................... 259 oil-immersion objective .......................................... 39 paraxial surface . 351............................... 390.... 53 neutral zone ...... 213 radiometry extended object imaging 204............ 50............................... 226 point object imaging .................................. 394..................... 220 pinhole camera ............... 51 objective ... 327 primary aberrations ...................... 350 peak value ............................ 96.................. 418............................................ 382....................... 130 principal planes ................ 170.... 420 diffraction ............................................................... 329.. 113 two-mirror telescope .................................... 356 tilt........

269........... 205 resolution ........................................... 384 rotational invariants ................ 400 Schott glass.. 328.............. 261........................... 360 rectilinear propagation .................. 55 Snell’s law ............ 263 Rayleigh’s quarter-wave rule ....... 24 spot sigma astigmatism.............................................. 121 reflection invariants ..................... 399 coma ..................................................................................... 388.................................. 360............ 9.......... 54....... 368 longitudinal............. 382 ray tracing ............ 10.................... 197 root-mean-square aberration .. 388 shape ..... 331 secondary magnification .......................................... 197 upper .............. 3 exact .................... 3 paraxial..... 268 imaging system ....................................... 398........ 123.............. 415 ray distribution........................ 266 microscope .... 415.......................................... 303 Seidel aberrations ........ 4 skew ........................ 276 diffraction-limited .... 384........................................................ 415 rays ........................................................................................... 29 Smith–Helmholtz invariant ...... 242 speed of a lens ......................................... 388 stop aperture ...................... 393 sagittal image ...... 416 definition ................ 357......... 133......... 403.................................................................. 395 sagittal plane .................... 142 ray fan astigmatism .............................................. 390........................ 355 sign convention ............................................................... 119 spherochromatism .............................. 345 root-mean-square radius ......... 418 Seidel aberration........ 417 coma ..................... 241 Snellen letters ............... 390 spherical. 25 Snellen chart . 382 sagittal rays ................. 48 relative aperture ..... 4 sine condition . 92.......................... 287 Schwarzschild aberrations..................... 338–340............................................................. 11........... 395.................... 382 spherical aberration............442 ray aberration ........... 265 rim ray lower ..... 321 ray angular magnification ........................................... 330.... 149 transfer ......................... 389 tangential............. 263.................. 404 standard deviation aberration ................... 276 telescope........................................................ 178 reflection ................................... 316 spot diagram .. 270......................................................................................................................... 18 sagittal coma .... 388... 365 spot sigma............................... 240 spectacles ............................................ 133 secondary spectrum ............................... 390...................... 216 spherical aberration definition ... 149 Rayleigh criterion of resolution .................... 358........... 6 rectangular polynomials ............................. 270 skew rays .... 112.............................................................. 364........ 276 two-point .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 356 refracting power general system ..... 327 rotationally symmetric system.................................................... 382 ray spot diagram .... 187... 328 Seidel coefficients . 416 spherical mirror ....................... 428 secondary aberration ................ 80.................................... 328 interferogram .. 393 sagittal ............. 429 spherical............. 3 ray-tracing equations ......... 394.............. 400..................................................... 269 eye ................................. 78 refracting surface . 15 approximate expression ...... 3 meridional ......... 28 slope angle. 188 ........................................................................... 18 reflecting power of a mirror ........... 4 virtual ..................... 166 refraction .... 375 Index S sag of a surface ........................... 391 spot radius defocus....................................

............................ 99 positive ... 337........................ 364 tangential plane .............................. 179.... 63 Lagrange invariant ...................................... 130.................... 331 thick lens .................................. 393 tangential image .... 341 unit pupil ............................. 215....... 337 throughput ..................... 62......... 130 Galilean ............................................................................... 24..............Index field ................................. 325 wavefront tilt aberration .... 187... 230 terrestrial ............................. 199 telecentric ....................... 261 wide-angle system ................ 180 Twyman–Green interferometer ...... 260 telescope ....................................................... 69 toric lens ................................................... 123 refracting surface ................................ 353 coma ............... 354 ................ 285 thin lens..................................... 33........ 240 W wave aberration definition ....... 246... 198 Lyot (cold) stop....... 168 tertiary aberrations .............. 130 Z Zernike aberrations................ 255....................... 321 wavefront ..................................... 284 transverse chromatic aberration see lateral color transverse magnification ......... 353 wavefront sigma ........ 322 wavefront defocus aberration .... 182............................................. 64 Petzval surface .. 259........................................... 4............................. 254....................... 335 visual acuity ....... 381 two thin lenses ..... 352 wide-angle lens ....... 144 Keplerian. 352 astigmatism........................................ 247 total internal reflection ........ 130 Hubble..................... 8 wavefront defocus ............................................................. 187...... 30 reflecting surface ........................... 19..... 346 V variance .. 323 due to Petzval curvature ........... 258 vignetting diagram ...... 196 stop-shift equation for lateral color refracting surface ...... 197 telephoto lens ....... 302 third-order ray aberrations ........... 24 tangential ray fan .... 371 T tangent condition .......................................... 255 Cassegrain ..... 48 virtual object.................... 253 astronomical ....................................... 359 unit circular pupil ........ 74....................... 115.................................. 257–259 Gregorian ..................................................... 381..... 288 Strehl ratio ...... 159......................... 256........... 429 wavefront tilt ... 30............................. 129.. 311 thin lens converging ............................... 406 tangent plane .............. 258 Schwarzchild.............................................. 260 telephoto system .... 25 tangential coma ........................................................ 64 focal length............................................. 325....... 11 transfer operation .................................................... 53 transverse ray aberration .. 37 443 transverse axial color ....................... 47 vertex radius of curvature ..... 254.......... 49 virtual path ........ 64 diverging .. 324 relationship with ray aberration .................................. 338................. 259............................. 64 thin-lens doublet ........................ 257 two-mirror ...................... 22.... 364 U uniform diffuser ....... 197 virtual image.... 187..... 319............. 382 telecentric stop or system ................................................................................................... 253.......................................................................................................................... 23................. 67 magnification .... 260 working distance ........................ 255.. 162.................. 9 due to defocus................................................. 218 throw of a lens ....................... 322.................... 206 unit circle.......... 66 negative ........ 395 tangential ray ................... 337........... 196.................. .................... 63 imaging equation . 337 vergence .................. 87.. 28 vignetting .................... 188.................................

. 346 polynomial ordering number .............................. 350 isometric... 341......... 342 Zernike coefficient ........................ 371 azimuthal frequency .................. 193 Index ....................................... 340. 346 radial degree ................. 353 primary .................................. 373 peak-to-valley value .......... 352 Zernike circle polynomials ................................... 355 tilt ........................................................ 372 spherical ..444 defocus ................................................ 342 characteristics interferometric ....................... 371 in optical testing .................... 350 polynomial ordering ........................................................................... 341 zonal rays .. 349 in optical design .. 345................................

Parts I and II of Optical Imaging and Aberrations evolved out of a graduate course he taught as an adjunct professor in the Electrical Engineering-Electrophysics department at the University of Southern California. and the Optical Society of India. (2011). Part I: Ray Geometrical Optics (1998).ABOUT THE AUTHOR Virendra N. adaptive optics. editor of Selected Papers on Effects of Aberrations in Optical Imaging (1994). Since 1983. Mahajan is the author of Aberration Theory Made Simple. He received his Ph. and Space Optics technical group. and a member of several committees of both OSA and SPIE. SPIE. and acousto-optics. wavefront analysis. chairman of OSA’s Astronomical. he has been at The Aerospace Corporation in El Segundo. and Part III: Wavefront Analysis (2013). 2nd ed. where he worked on space optical systems. California. and a recipient of SPIE’s Conrady award.D. and author of Optical Imaging and Aberrations. and the Department of Optics and Photonics at the National Central University in Taiwan. . Aeronautical. He spent nine years at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory in Cambridge. aberrations. Mahajan is an adjunct professor in the College of Optical Sciences at the University of Arizona. where he teaches graduate courses on imaging and aberrations. Part II: Wave Diffraction Optics. He also teaches short courses on aberrations at meetings of the Optical Society of America and SPIE. Pakistan. He is an associate editor of OSA’s 3rd edition of the Handbook of Optics. Dr. degree in optical sciences from the College of Optical Sciences. He is a fellow of OSA. He has served as a Topical Editor of Optics Letters. Mahajan was born in Vihari. where he is a distinguished scientist working on space-based surveillance systems. University of Arizona. Massachusetts. Dr. (2011). all published by SPIE Press. 2nd ed. He has published numerous papers on diffraction. and educated in India and the United States.

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Chromatic and Monochromatic Aberrations. Paraxial Ray Tracing. Part II: Wave Diffraction Optics. editor of Selected Papers on Effects of Aberrations in Optical Imaging (1994). (2011). Pupils. and derives the three laws of geometrical optics from it. and Part III: Wavefront Analysis (2013). where he is a distinguished scientist working on space-based surveillance systems. and the author of Optical Imaging and Aberrations. which summarizes the imaging process. Part I: Ray Geometrical Optics. Mahajan Optical imaging starts with geometrical optics and ray tracing lies at its forefront. Mahajan is the author of Aberration Theory Made Simple.D. Mahajan received his Ph. Contents: Foundations of Geometrical Optics. He is with The Aerospace Corporation. Dr. Box 10 Bellingham. The book ends with an epilogue. WA 98227-0010 ISBN: 9780819499981 SPIE Vol. The chromatic and monochromatic aberrations are discussed in detail. No. Spot Sizes and Spot Diagrams. Stops. followed by spot sizes and spot diagrams of aberrated images of point objects. degree in optical sciences from the College of Optical Sciences. He is an adjunct professor at the University of Arizona and the National Central University in Taiwan. 2nd ed. Stops. 2nd ed. Imaging by Refracting and Reflecting Systems. Each chapter ends with a summary and a set of problems. paraxial ray tracing is used to determine the size of imaging elements and obscuration in mirror systems. pupils.O. Optical Instruments. and Radiometry. (2011). P. This book starts with Fermat’s principle. These laws are used to obtain the exact ray-tracing equations. whose paraxial approximation yields the Gaussian imaging. and optical instruments are discussed next.: PM245 . Virendra N. After discussing imaging by refracting and reflecting systems. and outlines the next steps within and beyond geometrical optics.FUNDAMENTALS OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS Virendra N. University of Arizona. radiometry.