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Germany
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Germany( i /drmni/German:Deutschland,pronounced
[dtlant]),officiallytheFederalRepublicofGermany
(German:BundesrepublikDeutschland, listen),[e][6]isafederal
parliamentaryrepublicof16constituentstatesincentralwestern
Europe.Ithasanareaof357,021squarekilometres
(137,847sqmi)and,withabout82millioninhabitants,isthemost
populousmemberstateoftheEuropeanUnion.[7]Germany's
capitalandlargestcityisBerlin.OthercitiesincludeHamburg,
Munich,CologneandFrankfurt.
GermanictribesoccupiedthenorthernpartsofmodernGermany
sinceclassicalantiquity.AregionnamedGermaniawas
documentedbefore100AD.Beginninginthe10thcentury,
GermanterritoriesformedacentralpartoftheHolyRoman
Empire.[8]

FederalRepublicofGermany
BundesrepublikDeutschland[a]

Flag

Coatofarms

Anthem:Deutschlandlied
(English:"SongofGermany")
(thirdverseonly)[b]
MENU

0:00

In1871,GermanybecameanationstatewhenmostoftheGerman
statesunifiedintothePrussiandominatedGermanEmpire.After
WorldWarIandtheGermanRevolutionof19181919,the
EmpirewasreplacedbytheparliamentaryWeimarRepublic.The
establishmentofthenationalsocialistdictatorshipin1933ledto
WorldWarIIandsystematicgenocide.AfteraperiodofAllied
occupation,twoGermanstateswerefounded:theFederal
RepublicofGermanyandtheGermanDemocraticRepublic.In
1990,thecountrywasreunified.[9]
Germanyhastheworld'sfourthlargesteconomybynominalGDP,
aswellasthefifthlargestbyPPP.Asagloballeaderinseveral
industrialandtechnologicalsectors,itisboththeworld'sthird
largestexporterandimporterofgoods.Germanyisadeveloped
countrywithaveryhighstandardoflivingsustainedbyaskilled
andproductivesociety.Itupholdsasocialsecurityanduniversal
healthcaresystem,environmentalprotectionandatuitionfree
universityeducation.[10]
GermanywasafoundingmemberoftheEuropeanUnionin1993.
ItispartoftheSchengenArea,andbecameacofounderofthe
Eurozonein1999.GermanyisamemberoftheUnitedNations,
NATO,theG8,theG20,andtheOECD.Thenationalmilitary
expenditureisthe9thhighestintheworld.Knownforitsrich
culturalhistory,Germanyhasbeencontinuouslythehomeof
influentialartists,philosophers,musicians,sportspeople,
entrepreneurs,scientistsandinventors.

Contents
1 Etymology
2 History
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany

Locationof Germany ( darkgreen )


inEurope( green&darkgrey )
intheEuropeanUnion ( green )[ Legend]

Capital
andlargestcity

Berlin[a]

Officiallanguages

German[1][c]

Demonym

German

Government

Federal
parliamentary
republic
JoachimGauck
AngelaMerkel
NorbertLammert
StanislawTillich
AndreasVokuhle

President
Chancellor
PresidentoftheBundestag
PresidentoftheBundesrat
PresidentoftheFederal
ConstitutionalCourt

5231N1323E

Legislature
Upperhouse
Lowerhouse

Bundesrat
Bundestag

Formation
HolyRomanEmpire

2February962
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2.1 GermanictribesandFrankishEmpire
2.2 EastFranciaandHolyRomanEmpire
2.3 GermanConfederationandEmpire
2.4 WeimarRepublicandNaziGermany
2.5 EastandWestGermany
2.6 ReunifiedGermanyandEU
3 Geography
3.1 Climate
3.2 Biodiversity
3.3 Urbanisation
4 Politics
4.1 Law
4.2 Constituentstates
4.3 Foreignrelations
4.4 Military
5 Economy
5.1 Companies
5.2 Transport
5.3 Energyandinfrastructure
5.4 Scienceandtechnology
5.5 Tourism
6 Demographics
6.1 Immigrantpopulation
6.2 Religion
6.3 Languages
6.4 Education
6.5 Health
7 Culture
7.1 Music
7.2 Art
7.3 Architecture
7.4 Literatureandphilosophy
7.5 Media
7.6 Cinema
7.7 Cuisine
7.8 Sports
7.9 Fashionanddesign
8 Seealso
9 Notes
10 References
11 Externallinks

GermanConfederation
GermanEmpire
WeimarRepublic
FederalRepublic
EECFoundation[d]

8June1815
18January1871
11August1919
23May1949
1January1958

Reunification

3October1990

Area
Total

Population
2015estimate

82,175,700[2]
(16th)

Density

227/km2(58th)
583/sqmi

GDP(PPP)
Total

2015estimate

Percapita

$47,033[3](20th)

GDP(nominal)
Total

2015estimate

Percapita

$41,267[3](20th)

Gini(2014)

30.7[4]
medium

HDI(2014)

0.916[5]
veryhigh6th

Currency

Euro()(EUR)

Timezone
Summer(DST)

CET(UTC+1)
CEST(UTC+2)

Drivesonthe

right

Callingcode

49

ISO3166code

DE

InternetTLD

.deand.eu

a.

Etymology

357,168km2
(63rd)
137,847sqmi

$3.842trillion[3]
(5th)

$3.371trillion[3]
(4th)

^Berlinisthesoleconstitutionalcapitalanddejureseatof
government,buttheformerprovisionalcapitalofthe
FederalRepublicofGermany,Bonn,hasthespecialtitle
of"federalcity"(Bundesstadt)andistheprimaryseatof
sixministriesallgovernmentministrieshaveofficesin
bothcities.

TheEnglishwordGermanyderivesfromtheLatinGermania,
whichcameintouseafterJuliusCaesaradopteditforthepeoples
eastoftheRhine.[11]TheGermantermDeutschland,originallydiutisciuland("theGermanlands")isderivedfrom
deutsch(cf.dutch),descendedfromOldHighGermandiutisc"popular"(i.e.belongingtothediotordiota"people"),
originallyusedtodistinguishthelanguageofthecommonpeoplefromLatinanditsRomancedescendants.Thisin
turndescendsfromProtoGermanic*iudiskaz"popular"(seealsotheLatinisedformTheodiscus),derivedfrom
*eud,descendedfromProtoIndoEuropean*tewth"people".[12]

History

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ThediscoveryoftheMauer1mandibleshowsthatancienthumanswerepresentin
Germanyatleast600,000yearsago.[13]Theoldestcompletehuntingweaponsfound
anywhereintheworldwerediscoveredinacoalmineinSchningenwherethree
380,000yearoldwoodenjavelinswereunearthed.[14]TheNeanderValleywasthe
locationwherethefirstevernonmodernhumanfossilwasdiscoveredthenew
speciesofhumanwascalledtheNeanderthal.TheNeanderthal1fossilsareknownto
be40,000yearsold.Evidenceofmodernhumans,similarlydated,hasbeenfoundin
cavesintheSwabianJuranearUlm.Thefindsinclude42,000yearoldbirdboneand
mammothivoryfluteswhicharetheoldestmusicalinstrumentseverfound,[15]the
40,000yearoldIceAgeLionManwhichistheoldestuncontestedfigurativeartever
TheNebraskydisk,c.1600
[16]
BC
discovered, andthe35,000yearoldVenusofHohleFelswhichistheoldest
[17]
uncontestedhumanfigurativearteverdiscovered. TheNebraskydiskisabronze
artefactcreatedduringtheEuropeanBronzeAgeattributedtoasitenearNebra,SaxonyAnhalt.Itispartof
UNESCO'sMemoryoftheWorldProgramme.[18]

GermanictribesandFrankishEmpire

MigrationsinEurope(100500AD)

TheGermanictribesarethoughttodatefromtheNordicBronzeAgeorthe
PreRomanIronAge.FromsouthernScandinaviaandnorthGermany,they
expandedsouth,eastandwestfromthe1stcenturyBC,comingintocontact
withtheCeltictribesofGaulaswellasIranian,Baltic,andSlavictribesin
CentralandEasternEurope.[19]UnderAugustus,Romebegantoinvade
Germania(anareaextendingroughlyfromtheRhinetotheUralMountains).
In9AD,threeRomanlegionsledbyVarusweredefeatedbytheCheruscan
leaderArminius.By100AD,whenTacituswroteGermania,Germanictribes
hadsettledalongtheRhineandtheDanube(theLimesGermanicus),
occupyingmostoftheareaofmodernGermanyAustria,Baden
Wrttemberg,southernBavaria,southernHessenandthewesternRhineland,

however,wereRomanprovinces.[20]
Inthe3rdcenturyanumberoflargeWestGermanictribesemerged:Alemanni,Franks,Chatti,Saxons,Frisii,
Sicambri,andThuringii.Around260,theGermanicpeoplesbrokeintoRomancontrolledlands.[21]Afterthe
invasionoftheHunsin375,andwiththedeclineofRomefrom395,Germanictribesmovedfurthersouthwest.
SimultaneouslyseverallargetribesformedinwhatisnowGermanyanddisplacedorabsorbedsmallerGermanic
tribes.LargeareasknownsincetheMerovingianperiodasAustrasia,Neustria,andAquitainewereconqueredbythe
FrankswhoestablishedtheFrankishKingdom,andpushedfurthereasttosubjugateSaxonyandBavaria.Areasof
whatistodaytheeasternpartofGermanywereinhabitedbyWesternSlavictribesofSorbs,VeletiandtheObotritic
confederation.[20]

EastFranciaandHolyRomanEmpire
In800,theFrankishkingCharlemagnewascrownedemperorandfoundedtheCarolingianEmpire,whichwaslater
dividedin843amonghisheirs.[22]FollowingthebreakupoftheFrankishRealm,for900years,thehistoryof
GermanywasintertwinedwiththehistoryoftheHolyRomanEmpire,[23]whichsubsequentlyemergedfromthe
easternportionofCharlemagne'soriginalempire.TheterritoryinitiallyknownasEastFranciastretchedfromthe
RhineinthewesttotheElbeRiverintheeastandfromtheNorthSeatotheAlps.[22]
TheOttonianrulers(9191024)consolidatedseveralmajorduchiesandtheGermankingOttoIwascrownedHoly
RomanEmperoroftheseregionsin962.In996GregoryVbecamethefirstGermanPope,appointedbyhiscousin
OttoIII,whomheshortlyaftercrownedHolyRomanEmperor.TheHolyRomanEmpireabsorbednorthernItalyand
BurgundyunderthereignoftheSalianemperors(10241125),althoughtheemperorslostpowerthroughthe
InvestitureControversy.[24]

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Inthe12thcentury,undertheHohenstaufenemperors(11381254),Germanprinces
increasedtheirinfluencefurthersouthandeastintoterritoriesinhabitedbySlavsthey
encouragedGermansettlementintheseareas,calledtheeasternsettlementmovement
(Ostsiedlung).MembersoftheHanseaticLeague,whichincludedmostlynorthGerman
citiesandtowns,prosperedintheexpansionoftrade.[25]Inthesouth,theGreater
RavensburgTradeCorporation(GroeRavensburgerHandelsgesellschaft)serveda
similarfunction.TheedictoftheGoldenBullissuedin1356byEmperorCharlesIV
providedthebasicconstitutionalstructureoftheEmpireandcodifiedtheelectionofthe
emperorbysevenprinceelectorswhoruledsomeofthemostpowerfulprincipalities
andarchbishoprics.[26]
Populationdeclinedinthefirsthalfofthe14thcentury,startingwiththeGreatFaminein
1315,followedbytheBlackDeathof134850.[27]Despitethedecline,however,
MartinLuther(1483
Germanartists,engineers,andscientistsdevelopedawidearrayoftechniquessimilarto
1546)initiatedthe
thoseusedbytheItalianartistsanddesignersofthetimewhoflourishedinsuch
ProtestantReformation.
merchantcitystatesasVenice,FlorenceandGenoa.Artisticandculturalcentres
throughouttheGermanstatesproducedsuchartistsastheAugsburgpaintersHans
Holbeinandhisson,andAlbrechtDrer.JohannesGutenbergintroducedmoveabletypeprintingtoEurope,a
developmentthatlaidthebasisforthespreadoflearningtothemasses.[28]
In1517,theWittenbergmonkMartinLutherpublicisedTheNinetyFive
Theses,challengingtheRomanCatholicChurchandinitiatingtheProtestant
Reformation.In1555,thePeaceofAugsburgestablishedLutheranismasan
acceptablealternativetoCatholicism,butalsodecreedthatthefaithofthe
princewastobethefaithofhissubjects,aprinciplecalledCuiusregio,eius
religio.TheagreementatAugsburgfailedtoaddressotherreligiouscreed:for
example,theReformedfaithwasstillconsideredaheresyandtheprinciple
didnotaddressthepossibleconversionofanecclesiasticruler,suchas
happenedinElectorateofColognein1583.FromtheCologneWaruntilthe
endoftheThirtyYears'Wars(16181648),religiousconflictdevastated
TheHolyRomanEmpirein1648,
Germanlands.[29]ThelatterreducedtheoverallpopulationoftheGerman
afterthePeaceofWestphalia,which
statesbyabout30percent,andinsomeplaces,upto80percent.[30]The
endedtheThirtyYears'War
PeaceofWestphaliaendedreligiouswarfareamongtheGermanstates.[29]
GermanrulerswereabletochooseeitherRomanCatholicism,Lutheranism
ortheReformedfaithastheirofficialreligionafter1648.[31]
Inthe18thcentury,theHolyRomanEmpireconsistedofapproximately1,800territories.[32]Theelaboratelegal
systeminitiatedbyaseriesofImperialReforms(approximately14501555)createdtheImperialEstatesand
providedforconsiderablelocalautonomyamongecclesiastical,secular,andhereditarystates,reflectedinImperial
Diet.TheHouseofHabsburgheldtheimperialcrownfrom1438untilthedeathofCharlesVIin1740.Havingno
maleheirs,hehadconvincedtheElectorstoretainHabsburghegemonyintheofficeoftheemperorbyagreeingto
thePragmaticSanction.ThiswasfinallysettledthroughtheWarofAustrianSuccessionintheTreatyofAixla
Chapelle,MariaTheresa'shusbandbecameHolyRomanEmperor,andsheruledtheEmpireasEmpressConsort.
From1740,thedualismbetweentheAustrianHabsburgMonarchyandtheKingdomofPrussiadominatedthe
Germanhistory.
In1772,thenagainin1793and1795,thetwodominantGermanstatesofPrussiaandAustria,alongwiththe
RussianEmpire,agreedtothePartitionsofPolanddividingamongthemselvesthelandsofthePolishLithuanian
Commonwealth.Asaresultofthepartitions,millionsofPolishspeakinginhabitantsfellundertheruleofthetwo
Germanmonarchies.However,theannexedterritoriesthoughincorporatedintotheKingdomofPrussiaandthe
HabsburgRealm,werenotlegallyconsideredasapartoftheHolyRomanEmpire.[33][34]
DuringtheperiodoftheFrenchRevolutionaryWars,alongwiththearrivaloftheNapoleoniceraandthesubsequent
finalmeetingoftheImperialDiet,mostofthesecularFreeImperialCitieswereannexedbydynasticterritoriesthe
ecclesiasticalterritoriesweresecularisedandannexed.In1806theImperiumwasdissolvedGermanstates,
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particularlytheRhinelandstates,fellundertheinfluenceofFrance.Until1815,France,Russia,Prussiaandthe
HabsburgscompetedforhegemonyintheGermanstatesduringtheNapoleonicWars.[35]

GermanConfederationandEmpire
FollowingthefallofNapoleon,theCongressofVienna(convenedin1814)foundedtheGermanConfederation
(DeutscherBund),alooseleagueof39sovereignstates.TheappointmentoftheEmperorofAustriaasthe
permanentpresidentoftheConfederationreflectedtheCongress'sfailuretoacceptPrussia'sinfluenceamongthe
Germanstates,andacerbatedthelongstandingcompetitionbetweentheHohenzollernandHabsburginterests.
Disagreementwithinrestorationpoliticspartlyledtotheriseofliberalmovements,followedbynewmeasuresof
repressionbyAustrianstatesmanMetternich.TheZollverein,atariffunion,furtheredeconomicunityintheGerman
states.[36]NationalandliberalidealsoftheFrenchRevolutiongainedincreasingsupportamongmany,especially
young,Germans.TheHambachFestivalinMay1832wasamaineventinsupportofGermanunity,freedomand
democracy.InthelightofaseriesofrevolutionarymovementsinEurope,whichestablishedarepublicinFrance,
intellectualsandcommonersstartedtheRevolutionsof1848intheGermanstates.KingFrederickWilliamIVof
PrussiawasofferedthetitleofEmperor,butwithalossofpowerherejectedthecrownandtheproposed
constitution,leadingtoatemporarysetbackforthemovement.[37]
KingWilliamIappointedOttovonBismarckasthenewMinisterPresidentof
Prussiain1862.BismarcksuccessfullyconcludedwaronDenmarkin1864,
whichpromotedGermanoverDanishinterestsintheJutlandpeninsula.The
subsequent(anddecisive)PrussianvictoryintheAustroPrussianWarof
1866enabledhimtocreatetheNorthGermanConfederation(Norddeutscher
Bund)whichexcludedAustriafromthefederation'saffairs.AftertheFrench
defeatintheFrancoPrussianWar,theGermanprincesproclaimedthe
foundingoftheGermanEmpirein1871atVersailles,unitingallscattered
partsofGermanyexceptAustria.Prussiawasthedominantconstituentstate
ofthenewempiretheHohenzollernKingofPrussiaruledasitsconcurrent
Emperor,andBerlinbecameitscapital.[37]

TheGermanEmpire(18711918),
withtheKingdomofPrussiainblue

FoundationoftheGermanEmpirein
Versailles,1871.Bismarckisatthe
centreinawhiteuniform.

IntheGrnderzeitperiodfollowing
theunificationofGermany,
Bismarck'sforeignpolicyasChancellorofGermanyunderEmperorWilliam
IsecuredGermany'spositionasagreatnationbyforgingalliances,isolating
Francebydiplomaticmeans,andavoidingwar.UnderWilhelmII,Germany,
likeotherEuropeanpowers,tookanimperialisticcourse,leadingtofriction
withneighbouringcountries.MostalliancesinwhichGermanyhad
previouslybeeninvolvedwerenotrenewed.Thisresultedincreationofa
dualalliancewiththemultinationalrealmofAustriaHungary,promotingat
leastbenevolentneutralityifnotoutrightmilitarysupport.Subsequently,the
TripleAllianceof1882includedItaly,completingaCentralEuropean
geographicalliancethatillustratedGerman,AustrianandItalianfearsof
incursionsagainstthembyFranceand/orRussia.Similarly,Britain,France
andRussiaalsoconcludedalliancesthatwouldprotectthemagainst
HabsburginterferencewithRussianinterestsintheBalkansorGerman
interferenceagainstFrance.[38]

AttheBerlinConferencein1884,GermanyclaimedseveralcoloniesincludingGermanEastAfrica,GermanSouth
WestAfrica,Togoland,andKamerun.[39]Later,GermanyfurtherexpandeditscolonialempiretoincludeGerman
NewGuinea,GermanMicronesiaandGermanSamoainthePacific,andKiautschouBayinChina.Inwhatbecame
knownasthe"FirstGenocideoftheTwentiethCentury",between1904and1907,theGermancolonialgovernment
inSouthWestAfrica(presentdayNamibia)orderedtheannihilationofthelocalHeroroandNamaquapeoples,asa
punitivemeasureforanuprisingagainstGermancolonialrule.Intotal,around100,000people80%oftheHerero
and50%oftheNamaquaperishedformimprisonmentinconcentrationcamps,wherethemajoritydiedofdisease,
abuse,andexhaustion,orfromdehydrationandstarvationinthecountrysideafterbeingdeprivedoffoodand
water.[40][41]
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TheassassinationofAustria'scrownprinceon28June1914providedthepretextfortheAustrianEmpiretoattack
SerbiaandtriggerWorldWarI.Afterfouryearsofwarfare,inwhichapproximatelytwomillionGermansoldiers
werekilled,[42]ageneralarmisticeendedthefightingon11November,andGermantroopsreturnedhome.Inthe
GermanRevolution(November1918),EmperorWilhelmIIandallGermanrulingprincesabdicatedtheirpositions
andresponsibilities.Germany'snewpoliticalleadershipsignedtheTreatyofVersaillesin1919.Inthistreaty,
Germany,aspartoftheCentralPowers,accepteddefeatbytheAlliesinoneofthebloodiestconflictsofalltime.
Germansperceivedthetreatyashumiliatingandunjustanditwaslaterseenbyhistoriansasinfluentialintheriseof
AdolfHitler.[43][44][45]AfterthedefeatintheFirstWorldWar,GermanylostaroundthirteenpercentofitsEuropean
territory(areaspredominantlyinhabitedbyethnicPolish,FrenchandDanishpopulations,whichwerelostfollowing
theGreaterPolandUprising,thereturnofAlsaceLorraineandtheSchleswigplebiscites),andallofitscolonial
possessionsinAfricaandtheSouthSea.[46]

WeimarRepublicandNaziGermany
GermanywasdeclaredarepublicatthebeginningoftheGermanRevolutionin
November1918.On11August1919PresidentFriedrichEbertsignedthedemocratic
WeimarConstitution.[47]Inthesubsequentstruggleforpower,theradicalleft
CommunistsseizedpowerinBavaria,butconservativeelementsinotherpartsof
GermanyattemptedtooverthrowtheRepublicintheKappPutsch.Itwassupported
bypartsoftheReichswehr(military)andotherconservative,nationalisticand
monarchistfactions.Afteratumultuousperiodofbloodystreetfightinginthemajor
industrialcentres,theoccupationoftheRuhrbyBelgianandFrenchtroopsandthe
riseofinflationculminatinginthehyperinflationof192223,adebtrestructuring
planandthecreationofanewcurrencyin1924usheredintheGoldenTwenties,an
eraofincreasingartisticinnovationandliberalculturallife.Underneathitall,though,
layacurrentofanimosityandfrustrationovertheTreatyofVersailles,widely
perceivedasastabintheback,whichprovidedthebasisofmuchoftheanti
Semitismrifeinthenexttwodecades.[48]Theeconomicsituationremainedvolatile.
Historiansdescribetheperiodbetween1924and1929asoneof"partial
stabilisation."[49]TheworldwideGreatDepressionhitGermanyin1929.Afterthe
federalelectionof1930,ChancellorHeinrichBrning'sgovernmentwasenabledby
PresidentPaulvonHindenburgtoactwithoutparliamentaryapproval.Brning's
governmentpursuedapolicyoffiscalausterityanddeflationwhichcausedhigh
unemploymentofnearly30%by1932.[50]

PhilippScheidemann
proclaimsaGerman
Republicon9November
1918.

TheNaziPartyledbyAdolfHitlerwonthespecialfederalelectionof1932.Aftera
seriesofunsuccessfulcabinets,HindenburgappointedHitlerasChancellorofGermany
in1933.[51]AftertheReichstagfire,adecreeabrogatedbasiccivilrightsandwithin
weeksthefirstNaziconcentrationcampatDachauopened.[52][53]TheEnablingActof
1933gaveHitlerunrestrictedlegislativepowersubsequently,hisgovernment
establishedacentralisedtotalitarianstate,withdrewfromtheLeagueofNations
followinganationalreferendum,andbeganmilitaryrearmament.[54]

AdolfHitler,leaderof
NaziGermany(1933
1945)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany

Usingdeficitspending,agovernmentsponsoredprogrammeforeconomicrenewal
focusedonpublicworksprojects.Inpublicworkprojectsof1934,1.7millionGermans
immediatelywereputtowork,whichgavethemanincomeandsocialbenefits.[55]The
mostfamousoftheprojectswasthehighspeedroadway,theReichsautobahn,knownas
theGermanautobahns.[56]Othercapitalconstructionprojectsincludedhydroelectric
facilitiessuchastheRurDam,watersuppliessuchasZillierbachDam,and
transportationhubssuchasZwickauHauptbahnhof.[57]Overthenextfiveyears,
unemploymentplummetedandaveragewagesbothperhourandperweekrose.[58]

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In1935,theregimewithdrewfromtheTreatyofVersaillesandintroducedtheNurembergLawswhichtargetedJews
andotherminorities.GermanyalsoreacquiredcontroloftheSaarin1935,[59]annexedAustriain1938,anddespite
theMunichAgreement,occupiedCzechoslovakiainearly1939.
InAugust1939,Hitler'sgovernmentnegotiatedandsignedtheMolotovRibbentroppactthatdividedEastern
EuropeintoGermanandSovietspheresofinfluence.Followingtheagreement,on1September1939Germany
invadedPoland,markingthebeginningofWorldWarII.[60][61]InresponsetoHitler'sactions,BritainandFrance
declaredwaronGermany.[62]Inthespringof1940,GermanyconqueredDenmarkandNorway,theNetherlands,
Belgium,Luxembourg,andFranceforcingtheFrenchgovernmenttosignanarmisticeafterGermantroopsoccupied
mostofthecountry.TheBritishrepelledGermanairattacksintheBattleofBritaininthesameyear.In1941,
GermantroopsinvadedYugoslavia,GreeceandtheSovietUnion.By1942,GermanyandotherAxispowers
controlledmostofcontinentalEuropeandNorthAfrica,butfollowingtheSovietUnion'svictoryattheBattleof
Stalingrad,theallies'reconquestofNorthAfricaandinvasionofItalyin1943,Germanforcessufferedrepeated
militarydefeats.[60]InJune1944,theWesternallieslandedinFranceandtheSovietspushedintoEasternEurope.By
late1944,theWesternallieshadenteredGermanydespiteonefinalGermancounteroffensiveintheArdennes
Forest.FollowingHitler'ssuicideduringtheBattleofBerlin,Germanarmedforcessurrenderedon8May1945,
endingWorldWarIIinEurope.[63]
InwhatlaterbecameknownasTheHolocaust,theGermangovernmentpersecutedminoritiesandusedanetworkof
concentrationanddeathcampsacrossEuropetoconductagenocideofwhattheyconsideredtobeinferiorraces.In
total,over10millionciviliansweresystematicallymurdered,including6millionJews,between220,000and
1,500,000Romani,275,000personswithdisabilities,thousandsofJehovah'sWitnesses,thousandsofhomosexuals,
andhundredsofthousandsofmembersofthepoliticalandreligiousoppositionfromGermanyandoccupied
countries(NachtundNebel).[64]NazipoliciesintheGermanoccupiedcountriesresultedinthedeathsof2.7million
Poles,[65]1.3millionUkrainians,[66]andanestimated2.8millionSovietwarprisoners.[66][67]Germanmilitarywar
casualtieswereestimatedatbetween3.2millionand5.3millionsoldiers,[68]andupto2millionGermancivilians.[69]
Germanterritoriallossesresultedintheexpulsionofcirca12millionofethnicGermansfromEasternEurope.
Germanycededroughlyonequarterofitsprewarterritory.[9]Strategicbombingandlandwarfaredestroyedmany
citiesandculturalheritagesites.AfterWorldWarII,formermembersoftheNaziregimeweretriedforwarcrimesat
theNurembergtrials.[67][70]

EastandWestGermany
AfterGermanysurrendered,theAlliespartitionedBerlinandGermany's
remainingterritoryintofourmilitaryoccupationzones.Thewesternsectors,
controlledbyFrance,theUnitedKingdom,andtheUnitedStates,were
mergedon23May1949toformtheFederalRepublicofGermany
(BundesrepublikDeutschland)on7October1949,theSovietZonebecame
theGermanDemocraticRepublic(DeutscheDemokratischeRepublik).They
wereinformallyknownas"WestGermany"and"EastGermany".East
GermanyselectedEastBerlinasitscapital,whileWestGermanychoseBonn
asaprovisionalcapital,toemphasiseitsstancethatthetwostatesolutionwas
anartificialandtemporarystatusquo.[71]
OccupationzonesinGermany,1947.
WestGermanywasestablishedasafederalparliamentaryrepublicwitha
TerritorieseastoftheOderNeisse
"socialmarketeconomy".Startingin1948WestGermanybecameamajor
lineunderPolishandSovietdefacto
recipientofreconstructionaidundertheMarshallPlanandusedthisto
annexation,andtheFrenchcontrolled
rebuilditsindustry.[72]KonradAdenauerwaselectedthefirstFederal
SaarProtectoratemarkedinlighttan.
Chancellor(Bundeskanzler)ofGermanyin1949andremainedinofficeuntil
1963.UnderhisandLudwigErhard'sleadership,thecountryenjoyed
prolongedeconomicgrowthbeginningintheearly1950s,thatbecameknownasan"economicmiracle"
(Wirtschaftswunder).[73]WestGermanyjoinedNATOin1955andwasafoundingmemberoftheEuropean
EconomicCommunityin1957.

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EastGermanywasanEasternBlocstateunderpoliticalandmilitarycontrol
bytheUSSRviaoccupationforcesandtheWarsawPact.AlthoughEast
Germanyclaimedtobeademocracy,politicalpowerwasexercisedsolelyby
leadingmembers(Politbro)ofthecommunistcontrolledSocialistUnity
PartyofGermany,supportedbytheStasi,animmensesecretservice
controllingmanyaspectsofthesociety.[74]ASovietstylecommandeconomy
wassetupandtheGDRlaterbecameaComeconstate.[75]WhileEast
GermanpropagandawasbasedonthebenefitsoftheGDR'ssocial
programmesandtheallegedconstantthreatofaWestGermaninvasion,many
TheBerlinWallduringitsfallin
ofitscitizenslookedtotheWestforfreedomandprosperity.[76]TheBerlin
1989,withtheBrandenburgGatein
Wall,builtin1961tostopEastGermansfromescapingtoWestGermany,
thebackground.
becameasymboloftheColdWar.[37]ItwasthesiteofRonaldReagan's"Mr.
Gorbachov,Teardownthiswall!"speechof12June1987,whichechoed
JohnF.Kennedy'sfamousIchbineinBerlinerspeechof26June1963.ThefalloftheWallin1989becameasymbol
oftheFallofCommunism,GermanReunificationandDieWende.[77]
TensionsbetweenEastandWestGermanywerereducedintheearly1970sbyChancellorWillyBrandt'sOstpolitik.
Insummer1989,HungarydecidedtodismantletheIronCurtainandopentheborders,causingtheemigrationof
thousandsofEastGermanstoWestGermanyviaHungary.ThishaddevastatingeffectsontheGDR,whereregular
massdemonstrationsreceivedincreasingsupport.TheEastGermanauthoritieseasedtheborderrestrictions,
allowingEastGermancitizenstotraveltotheWestoriginallyintendedtohelpretainEastGermanyasastate,the
openingoftheborderactuallyledtoanaccelerationoftheWendereformprocess.ThisculminatedintheTwoPlus
FourTreatyayearlateron12September1990,underwhichthefouroccupyingpowersrenouncedtheirrightsunder
theInstrumentofSurrender,andGermanyregainedfullsovereignty.ThispermittedGermanreunificationon3
October1990,withtheaccessionofthefivereestablishedstatesoftheformerGDR.[37]

ReunifiedGermanyandEU
TheunitedGermanyisconsideredtobetheenlargedcontinuationof
theFederalRepublicofGermanyandnotasuccessorstate.Assuch,
itretainedallofWestGermany'smembershipsininternational
organisations.[79]BasedontheBerlin/BonnAct,adoptedin1994,
BerlinonceagainbecamethecapitalofthereunifiedGermany,while
BonnobtainedtheuniquestatusofaBundesstadt(federalcity)
retainingsomefederalministries.[80]Therelocationofthe
governmentwascompletedin1999.[81]Followingthe1998elections,
SPDpoliticianGerhardSchrderbecamethefirstChancellorofa
redgreencoalitionwiththeAlliance'90/TheGreensparty.

Germanunitywasestablishedon3October
1990. [78]Since1999,theReichstagbuilding
inBerlinhasbeenthemeetingplaceofthe
Bundestag,theGermanparliament.

ThemodernisationandintegrationoftheeasternGermaneconomyis
alongtermprocessscheduledtolastuntiltheyear2019,withannualtransfersfromwesttoeastamountingto
roughly$80billion.[82]

Germanybecameacofounderofthe
EuropeanUnion(1993),introduced
theEurocurrency(2002),andsigned
theLisbonTreatyin2007(pictured).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany

Sincereunification,GermanyhastakenamoreactiveroleintheEuropean
Union.TogetherwithitsEuropeanpartnersGermanysignedtheMaastricht
Treatyin1992,establishedtheEurozonein1999,andsignedtheLisbon
Treatyin2007.[83]Germanysentapeacekeepingforcetosecurestabilityin
theBalkansandsentaforceofGermantroopstoAfghanistanaspartofa
NATOefforttoprovidesecurityinthatcountryaftertheoustingofthe
Taliban.[84]ThesedeploymentswerecontroversialsinceGermanywasbound
bydomesticlawonlytodeploytroopsfordefenceroles.[85]
Inthe2005elections,AngelaMerkelbecamethefirstfemaleChancellorof
Germanyastheleaderofagrandcoalition.[37]In2009theGerman
governmentapproveda50billioneconomicstimulusplantoprotectseveral
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sectorsfromadownturn.[86]
In2009,aliberalconservativecoalitionunderMerkelassumedleadershipofthecountry.In2013,agrandcoalition
wasestablishedinaThirdMerkelcabinet.AmongthemajorGermanpoliticalprojectsoftheearly21stcenturyare
theadvancementofEuropeanintegration,theenergytransition(Energiewende)forasustainableenergysupply,the
"DebtBrake"forbalancedbudgets,measurestoincreasethefertilityratesignificantly(pronatalism),andhightech
strategiesforthefuturetransitionoftheGermaneconomy,summarisedasIndustry4.0.[87]
GermanywasaffectedbytheEuropeanmigrantcrisisin2015asitbecamethefinaldestinationofchoiceformost
migrantsenteringtheEU.Thecountrytookinoveramillionrefugeesanddevelopedaquotasystemwhich
redistributedmigrantsarounditsfederalstatesbasedontheirtaxincomeandexistingpopulationdensity.[88]

Geography
GermanyisinWesternandCentralEurope,withDenmarkborderingtothenorth,
PolandandtheCzechRepublictotheeast,Austriatothesoutheast,Switzerlandto
thesouthsouthwest,France,LuxembourgandBelgiumlietothewest,andthe
Netherlandstothenorthwest.Itliesmostlybetweenlatitudes47and55Nand
longitudes5and16E.GermanyisalsoborderedbytheNorthSeaand,atthenorth
northeast,bytheBalticSea.WithSwitzerlandandAustria,Germanyalsosharesa
borderonthefreshwaterLakeConstance,thethirdlargestlakeinCentralEurope.[89]
Germanterritorycovers357,021km2(137,847sqmi),consistingof349,223km2
(134,836sqmi)oflandand7,798km2(3,011sqmi)ofwater.Itistheseventhlargest
countrybyareainEuropeandthe62ndlargestintheworld.[90]
ElevationrangesfromthemountainsoftheAlps(highestpoint:theZugspitzeat
Topographicmap
2,962metresor9,718feet)inthesouthtotheshoresoftheNorthSea(Nordsee)in
thenorthwestandtheBalticSea(Ostsee)inthenortheast.Theforesteduplandsof
centralGermanyandthelowlandsofnorthernGermany(lowestpoint:Wilstermarsch
at3.54metresor11.6feetbelowsealevel)aretraversedbysuchmajorriversastheRhine,DanubeandElbe.
Germany'salpineglaciersareexperiencingdeglaciation.Significantnaturalresourcesincludeironore,coal,potash,
timber,lignite,uranium,copper,naturalgas,salt,nickel,arablelandandwater.[90]

Climate
MostofGermanyhasatemperateseasonalclimatedominatedbyhumidwesterlywinds.Thecountryissituatedin
betweentheoceanicWesternEuropeanandthecontinentalEasternEuropeanclimate.Theclimateismoderatedby
theNorthAtlanticDrift,thenorthernextensionoftheGulfStream.Thiswarmerwateraffectstheareasborderingthe
NorthSeaconsequentlyinthenorthwestandthenorththeclimateisoceanic.Germanygetsanaverageof789mm
(31in)ofprecipitationperyearthereisnoconsistentdryseason.Wintersarecoolandsummerstendtobewarm:
temperaturescanexceed30C(86F).[91]
Theeasthasamorecontinentalclimate:winterscanbeverycoldandsummersverywarm,andlongerdryperiods
canoccur.CentralandsouthernGermanyaretransitionregionswhichvaryfrommoderatelyoceanictocontinental.
Inadditiontothemaritimeandcontinentalclimatesthatpredominateovermostofthecountry,theAlpineregionsin
theextremesouthand,toalesserdegree,someareasoftheCentralGermanUplandshaveamountainclimate,with
lowertemperaturesandmoreprecipitation.[91]

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SummerintheRhinevalleyatLorelei,Syltcoastalareainautumn,LneburgHeathlandscapeinspring,Zugspitzesummitin
winter

Biodiversity
TheterritoryofGermanycanbesubdividedintotwoecoregions:EuropeanMediterraneanmontanemixedforests
andNortheastAtlanticshelfmarine.[92]Asof2008themajorityofGermanyiscoveredbyeitherarableland(34%)
orforestandwoodland(30.1%)only13.4%oftheareaconsistsofpermanentpastures,11.8%iscoveredby
settlementsandstreets.[93]
PlantsandanimalsincludethosegenerallycommontoCentralEurope.
Beeches,oaks,andotherdeciduoustreesconstituteonethirdoftheforests
conifersareincreasingasaresultofreforestation.Spruceandfirtrees
predominateintheuppermountains,whilepineandlarcharefoundinsandy
soil.Therearemanyspeciesofferns,flowers,fungi,andmosses.Wild
animalsincluderoedeer,wildboar,mouflon(asubspeciesofwildsheep),
fox,badger,hare,andsmallnumbersoftheEurasianbeaver.[94]Theblue
cornflowerwasonceaGermannationalsymbol.[95]
Thegoldeneagleisaprotectedbird

The14nationalparksinGermanyincludetheJasmundNationalPark,the
VorpommernLagoonAreaNationalPark,theMritzNationalPark,the
WaddenSeaNationalParks,theHarzNationalPark,theHainichNationalPark,theBlackForestNationalPark,the
SaxonSwitzerlandNationalPark,theBavarianForestNationalParkandtheBerchtesgadenNationalPark.In
addition,thereare14BiosphereReserves,aswellas98natureparks.Morethan400registeredzoosandanimal
parksoperateinGermany,whichisbelievedtobethelargestnumberinanycountry.[96]TheBerlinZoo,openedin
1844,istheoldestzooinGermany,andpresentsthemostcomprehensivecollectionofspeciesintheworld.[97]

Urbanisation
Germanyhasanumberoflargecities.Thereare11officiallyrecognisedmetropolitanregionsinGermany.34cities
havebeenidentifiedasregiopolis.ThelargestconurbationistheRhineRuhrregion(11.7millionin2008),including
Dsseldorf(thecapitalofNorthRhineWestphalia),Cologne,Bonn,Dortmund,Essen,Duisburg,andBochum.[98]

Politics
Germanyisafederal,parliamentary,representativedemocraticrepublic.TheGermanpoliticalsystemoperatesunder
aframeworklaidoutinthe1949constitutionaldocumentknownastheGrundgesetz(BasicLaw).Amendments
generallyrequireatwothirdsmajorityofbothchambersofparliamentthefundamentalprinciplesofthe
constitution,asexpressedinthearticlesguaranteeinghumandignity,theseparationofpowers,thefederalstructure,
andtheruleoflawarevalidinperpetuity.[99]
Thepresident,JoachimGauck(18March2012present),istheheadofstateandinvestedprimarilywith
representativeresponsibilitiesandpowers.HeiselectedbytheBundesversammlung(federalconvention),an
institutionconsistingofthemembersoftheBundestagandanequalnumberofstatedelegates.Thesecondhighest
officialintheGermanorderofprecedenceistheBundestagsprsident(PresidentoftheBundestag),whoiselected

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bytheBundestagandresponsibleforoverseeingthedailysessionsofthe
body.Thethirdhighestofficialandtheheadofgovernmentisthe
Chancellor,whoisappointedbytheBundesprsidentafterbeingelected
bytheBundestag.[37]
Thechancellor,AngelaMerkel(22
November2005present),isthe
headofgovernmentandexercises
executivepower,similartotherole
ofaPrimeMinisterinother
parliamentarydemocracies.Federal JoachimGauck
AngelaMerkel
legislativepowerisvestedinthe
Presidentsince2012 Chancellorsince2005
parliamentconsistingofthe
Bundestag(FederalDiet)and
ThepoliticalsystemofGermany
Bundesrat(FederalCouncil),whichtogetherformthelegislativebody.The
Bundestagiselectedthroughdirectelections,byproportionalrepresentation
(mixedmember).[90]ThemembersoftheBundesratrepresentthe
governmentsofthesixteenfederatedstatesandaremembersofthestatecabinets.[37]
Since1949,thepartysystemhasbeendominatedbytheChristianDemocraticUnionandtheSocialDemocratic
PartyofGermany.Sofareverychancellorhasbeenamemberofoneoftheseparties.However,thesmallerliberal
FreeDemocraticParty(inparliamentfrom1949to2013)andtheAlliance'90/TheGreens(inparliamentsince1983)
havealsoplayedimportantroles.[100]
ThedebttoGDPratioofGermanyhaditspeakin2010whenitstoodat80.3%anddecreasedsincethen.[101]
AccordingtoEurostat,thegovernmentgrossdebtofGermanyamountsto2,152.0billionor71.9%ofitsGDPin
2015.[102]Thefederalgovernmentachievedabudgetsurplusof12.1billion($13.1billion)in2015.[103]Germany's
creditratingbycreditratingagenciesStandard&Poor's,Moody'sandFitchRatingsstandsatthehighestpossible
ratingAAAwithastableoutlookin2016.[104]

Law
GermanyhasacivillawsystembasedonRomanlawwithsomereferencesto
Germaniclaw.TheBundesverfassungsgericht(FederalConstitutionalCourt)isthe
GermanSupremeCourtresponsibleforconstitutionalmatters,withpowerofjudicial
review.[37][105]Germany'ssupremecourtsystem,calledObersteGerichtshfedes
Bundes,isspecialised:forcivilandcriminalcases,thehighestcourtofappealisthe
inquisitorialFederalCourtofJustice,andforotheraffairsthecourtsaretheFederal
LabourCourt,theFederalSocialCourt,theFederalFinanceCourtandtheFederal
AdministrativeCourt.
CriminalandprivatelawsarecodifiedonthenationallevelintheStrafgesetzbuch
andtheBrgerlichesGesetzbuchrespectively.TheGermanpenalsystemseeksthe
rehabilitationofthecriminalandtheprotectionofthepublic.[106]Exceptforpetty
crimes,whicharetriedbeforeasingleprofessionaljudge,andseriouspolitical
crimes,allchargesaretriedbeforemixedtribunalsonwhichlayjudges(Schffen)sit
sidebysidewithprofessionaljudges.[107][108]Manyofthefundamentalmattersof
administrativelawremaininthejurisdictionofthestates.

Judgesofthe
Bundesverfassungsgericht
(FederalConstitutional
Court)inKarlsruhein1989

Constituentstates
GermanycomprisessixteenfederalstateswhicharecollectivelyreferredtoasBundeslnder.[109]Eachstatehasits
ownstateconstitution[110]andislargelyautonomousinregardtoitsinternalorganisation.Becauseofdifferencesin
sizeandpopulationthesubdivisionsofthesestatesvary,especiallyasbetweencitystates(Stadtstaaten)andstates
withlargerterritories(Flchenlnder).Forregionaladministrativepurposesfivestates,namelyBadenWrttemberg,
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Bavaria,Hesse,NorthRhineWestphaliaandSaxony,consistofatotalof22GovernmentDistricts
NominalGDP
NominalGDP
Population
percapitaEUR
(Regierungsbezirke).Asof2013Germanyisdividedinto402districts(Kreise)atamunicipalleveltheseconsistof
State
Capital
billionsEURin
Area(km2)
[112]
2014
in2014[113]
295ruraldistrictsand107urbandistricts.[111]

SchleswigHolstein
Mecklenburg
Vorpommern

Hamburg
Bremen
LowerSaxony

Berlin
Saxony
Anhalt

NorthRhine
Westphalia

Brandenburg

Saxony
Thuringia
Hesse
RhinelandPalatinate
Saarland
Bavaria
Baden
Wrttemberg

State

Capital

Population

Area(km2)

[112]

NominalGDP
percapitaEUR
in2014[113]

NominalGDP
billionsEURin
2014

BadenWrttemberg

Stuttgart

35,752

10,569,100

440

41,200

Bavaria

Munich

70,549

12,519,600

524

41,400

Berlin

Berlin

892

3,375,200

118

34,200

Brandenburg

Potsdam

29,477

2,449,500

62

25,300

Bremen

Bremen

404

654,800

30

46,000

Hamburg

Hamburg

755

1,734,300

104

59,000

Hesse

Wiesbaden

21,115

6,016,500

252

41,400

MecklenburgVorpommern Schwerin

23,174

1,600,300

39

24,200

LowerSaxony

Hanover

47,618

7,779,000

255

32,600

NorthRhineWestphalia

Dsseldorf

34,043

17,554,300

627

35,600

RhinelandPalatinate

Mainz

19,847

3,990,300

128

32,000

Saarland

Saarbrcken

2,569

994,300

34

34,000

Saxony

Dresden

18,416

4,050,200

109

26,900

SaxonyAnhalt

Magdeburg

20,445

2,259,400

56

24,900

SchleswigHolstein

Kiel

15,763

2,806,500

84

29,900

Thuringia

Erfurt

16,172

2,170,500

55

25,300

Foreignrelations

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Germanyhasanetworkof227diplomaticmissionsabroad[114]andmaintains
relationswithmorethan190countries.[115]Asof2011,Germanyisthe
largestcontributortothebudgetoftheEuropeanUnion(providing20%)[116]
andthethirdlargestcontributortotheUN(providing8%).[117]Germanyisa
memberofNATO,theOECD,theG8,theG20,theWorldBankandtheIMF.
IthasplayedaninfluentialroleintheEuropeanUnionsinceitsinceptionand
hasmaintainedastrongalliancewithFranceandallneighbouringcountries
since1990.GermanypromotesthecreationofamoreunifiedEuropean
political,economicandsecurityapparatus.[118][119]

GermanyhostedtheG8summitin
Heiligendamm,68June2007

ThedevelopmentpolicyofGermanyisanindependentareaofforeignpolicy.
ItisformulatedbytheFederalMinistryforEconomicCooperationandDevelopmentandcarriedoutbythe
implementingorganisations.TheGermangovernmentseesdevelopmentpolicyasajointresponsibilityofthe
internationalcommunity.[120]Itistheworld'sthirdbiggestaiddonorin2009aftertheUnitedStatesand
France.[121][122]
In1999,ChancellorGerhardSchrder'sgovernmentdefinedanewbasisforGermanforeignpolicybytakingpartin
theNATOdecisionssurroundingtheKosovoWarandbysendingGermantroopsintocombatforthefirsttimesince
1945.[123]ThegovernmentsofGermanyandtheUnitedStatesareclosepoliticalallies.[37]Culturaltiesand
economicinterestshavecraftedabondbetweenthetwocountriesresultinginAtlanticism.[124]

Military
Germany'smilitary,theBundeswehr,isorganisedintoHeer(Armyand
specialforcesKSK),Marine(Navy),Luftwaffe(AirForce),Bundeswehr
JointMedicalServiceandStreitkrftebasis(JointSupportService)branches.
Inabsoluteterms,Germanmilitaryexpenditureisthe9thhighestinthe
world.[125]In2015,militaryspendingwasat32.9billion,about1.2%ofthe
country'sGDP,wellbelowtheNATOtargetof2%.[126]
AsofDecember2015theBundeswehremployedroughly178,000service
TheEurofighterTyphoonispartof
[127]
theLuftwaffefleet
members,including9,500volunteers.
Reservistsareavailabletothe
ArmedForcesandparticipateindefenceexercisesanddeployments
abroad.[128]Since2001womenmayserveinallfunctionsofservicewithoutrestriction.[129]About19,000female
soldiersareonactiveduty.AccordingtoSIPRI,Germanywasthefourthlargestexporterofmajorarmsintheworld
in2014.[130]
Inpeacetime,theBundeswehriscommandedbytheMinisterofDefence.In
stateofdefence,theChancellorwouldbecomecommanderinchiefofthe
Bundeswehr.[131]

AGermanNavyBrandenburgclass
frigate

TheroleoftheBundeswehrisdescribedintheConstitutionofGermanyas
defensiveonly.ButafterarulingoftheFederalConstitutionalCourtin1994
theterm"defence"hasbeendefinedtonotonlyincludeprotectionofthe
bordersofGermany,butalsocrisisreactionandconflictprevention,ormore
broadlyasguardingthesecurityofGermanyanywhereintheworld.Asof
January2015,theGermanmilitaryhasabout2,370troopsstationedin
foreigncountriesaspartofinternationalpeacekeepingforces,includingabout
850BundeswehrtroopsintheNATOledISAFforceinAfghanistanand
Uzbekistan,670GermansoldiersinKosovo,and120troopswithUNIFILin

Lebanon.[132]
Until2011,militaryservicewascompulsoryformenatage18,andconscriptsservedsixmonthtoursofduty
conscientiousobjectorscouldinsteadoptforanequallengthofZivildienst(civilianservice),orasixyear
commitmentto(voluntary)emergencyserviceslikeafiredepartmentortheRedCross.In2011conscriptionwas
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officiallysuspendedandreplacedwithavoluntaryservice.[133][134]

Economy
Germanyhasasocialmarketeconomywithahighlyskilledlabourforce,a
largecapitalstock,alowlevelofcorruption,[136]andahighlevelof
innovation.[137]Itistheworld'sthirdlargestexporterofgoods,[135]andhas
thelargestnationaleconomyinEuropewhichisalsotheworld'sfourth
largestbynominalGDP[138]andthefifthonebyPPP.[139]
Theservicesectorcontributesapproximately71%ofthetotalGDP(including
informationtechnology),industry28%,andagriculture1%.[90]The
unemploymentratepublishedbyEurostatamountsto4.7%inJanuary2015,
whichisthelowestrateofall28EUmemberstates.[140]With7.1%Germany
alsohasthelowestyouthunemploymentrateofallEUmemberstates.[140]
AccordingtotheOECDGermanyhasoneofthehighestlabourproductivity
levelsintheworld.[141]

Germanymaintainsalarge
automotiveindustry,andisthe
world'sthirdlargestexporterof
goods. [135]

GermanyispartoftheEuropeansinglemarketwhichrepresentsmorethan
508millionconsumers.Severaldomesticcommercialpoliciesaredetermined
byagreementsamongEuropeanUnion(EU)membersandbyEUlegislation.
GermanyintroducedthecommonEuropeancurrency,theEuroin
2002.[142][143]ItisamemberoftheEurozonewhichrepresentsaround338
millioncitizens.ItsmonetarypolicyissetbytheEuropeanCentralBank,
whichisheadquarteredinFrankfurt,thefinancialcentreofcontinental
Europe.
Beinghometothemoderncar,theautomotiveindustryinGermanyis
regardedasoneofthemostcompetitiveandinnovativeintheworld,[144]and
isthefourthlargestbyproduction.[145]Thetop10exportsofGermanyare
vehicles,machinery,chemicalgoods,electronicproducts,electrical
equipments,pharmaceuticals,transportequipments,basicmetals,foodproducts,andrubberandplastics.[146]
Frankfurtisaleadingfinancialcentre
inEuropeandseatoftheECB.

Companies
Oftheworld's500largeststockmarketlistedcompaniesmeasuredbyrevenuein2014,theFortuneGlobal500,28
areheadquarteredinGermany.30GermanybasedcompaniesareincludedintheDAX,theGermanstockmarket
index.WellknowninternationalbrandsincludeMercedesBenz,BMW,SAP,Volkswagen,Audi,Siemens,Allianz,
Adidas,Porsche,andDHL.[147]
Germanyisrecognisedforitslargeportionofspecialisedsmallandmediumenterprises,knownastheMittelstand
model.Around1,000ofthesecompaniesareglobalmarketleadersintheirsegmentandarelabelledhidden
champions.[148]Berlindevelopedathriving,cosmopolitanhubforstartupcompaniesandbecamealeadinglocation
forventurecapitalfundedfirmsintheEuropeanUnion.[149]
ThelistincludesthelargestGermancompaniesbyrevenuein2014:[150]

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Rank

Name

Headquarters

Revenue
(bil.)

Profit
(bil.)

Employees
(thousands,world)

Germanyispartofamonetaryunion,
theeurozone(darkblue),andofthe
EUsinglemarket.

Rank

Name

Headquarters

Revenue
(bil.)

Profit
(bil.)

Employees
(thousands,world)

1.

Volkswagen

Wolfsburg

269

15

593

2.

Daimler

Stuttgart

172

280

3.

E.ON

Dsseldorf

151

59

4.

Allianz

Munich

137

147

5.

BMW

Munich

107

116

6.

Siemens

Berlin,Munich

74

360

7.

BASF

Ludwigshafen

99

113

8.

Metro

Dsseldorf

59

228

9.

DeutscheTelekom Bonn

83

228

10.

MunichRe

82

43

Munich

Transport
WithitscentralpositioninEurope,Germanyisatransporthubforthe
continent.[151]LikeitsneighboursinWesternEurope,Germany'sroad
networkisamongthedensestintheworld.[152]Themotorway(Autobahn)
networkranksasthethirdlargestworldwideinlengthandisknownforits
lackofageneralspeedlimit.[153]
Germanyhasestablishedapolycentricnetworkofhighspeedtrains.The
InterCityExpressorICEnetworkoftheDeutscheBahnservesmajorGerman
citiesaswellasdestinationsinneighbouringcountrieswithspeedsupto
300km/h(186mph).[154]TheGermanrailwaysaresubsidisedbythe
government,receiving17.0billionin2014.[155]

TheICE3inColognerailwaystation

ThelargestGermanairportsareFrankfurtAirportandMunichAirport,bothhubsofLufthansa,whileAirBerlinhas
hubsatBerlinTegelandDsseldorf.OthermajorairportsincludeBerlinSchnefeld,Hamburg,Cologne/Bonnand
Leipzig/Halle.[156]ThePortofHamburgisoneofthetoptwentylargestcontainerportsintheworld.[157]

Energyandinfrastructure

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In2008,Germanywastheworld'ssixthlargestconsumerofenergy,[158]and60%ofitsprimaryenergywas
imported.[159]In2014,energysourceswere:oil(35.0%)coal,includinglignite(24.6%)naturalgas(20.5%)
nuclear(8.1%)hydroelectricandrenewablesources(11.1%).[160]Thegovernmentandthenuclearpowerindustry
agreedtophaseoutallnuclearpowerplantsby2021.[161]Italsoenforcesenergyconservation,greentechnologies,
emissionreductionactivities,[162]andaimstomeetthecountry'selectricitydemandsusing40%renewablesources
by2020.GermanyiscommittedtotheKyotoprotocolandseveralothertreatiespromotingbiodiversity,low
emissionstandards,watermanagement,andtherenewableenergycommercialisation.[163]Thecountry'shousehold
recyclingrateisamongthehighestintheworldataround65%.[164]Nevertheless,thecountry'sgreenhousegas
emissionswerethehighestintheEUin2010.[165]TheGermanenergytransition(Energiewende)istherecognised
movetoasustainableeconomybymeansofenergyefficiencyandrenewableenergy.[166]

Scienceandtechnology
Germany'sachievementsinthescienceshavebeensignificant,andresearchand
developmenteffortsformanintegralpartoftheeconomy.[167]TheNobelPrizehas
beenawardedto104Germanlaureates.[168]Inthebeginningofthe20thcentury,
Germanlaureateshadmoreawardsthanthoseofanyothernation,especiallyinthe
sciences(physics,chemistry,andphysiologyormedicine).[169][170]
NotableGermanphysicistsbeforethe20thcenturyincludeHermannvonHelmholtz,
JosephvonFraunhoferandGabrielDanielFahrenheit,amongothers.AlbertEinstein
introducedtherelativitytheoriesforlightandgravityin1905and1915respectively.
AlongwithMaxPlanck,hewasinstrumentalintheintroductionofquantum
mechanics,inwhichWernerHeisenbergandMaxBornlatermademajor
contributions.[171]WilhelmRntgendiscoveredXrays.[172]OttoHahnwasapioneer
inthefieldsofradiochemistryanddiscoverednuclearfission,whileFerdinandCohn
andRobertKochwerefoundersofmicrobiology.Numerousmathematicianswere
borninGermany,includingCarlFriedrichGauss,DavidHilbert,BernhardRiemann,
GottfriedLeibniz,KarlWeierstrass,HermannWeylandFelixKlein.

EuropeanSpaceOperationsCentre
(ESOC)inDarmstadt

AlbertEinstein,physicist.
TheNobelPrizehasbeen
awardedto104German
laureates.

Germanyhasbeenthehomeofmanyfamousinventorsandengineers,
includingHansGeiger,thecreatoroftheGeigercounterandKonradZuse,
whobuiltthefirstfullyautomaticdigitalcomputer.[173]SuchGerman
inventors,engineersandindustrialistsasCountFerdinandvonZeppelin,[174]
OttoLilienthal,GottliebDaimler,RudolfDiesel,HugoJunkersandKarl
Benzhelpedshapemodernautomotiveandairtransportationtechnology.
GermaninstitutionsliketheGermanAerospaceCenter(DLR)arethelargest
contributortoESA.AerospaceengineerWernhervonBraundevelopedthe
firstspacerocketatPeenemndeandlateronwasaprominentmemberof
NASAanddevelopedtheSaturnVMoonrocket.HeinrichRudolfHertz's
workinthedomainofelectromagneticradiationwaspivotaltothe
developmentofmoderntelecommunication.[175]

ResearchinstitutionsinGermanyincludetheMaxPlanckSociety,theHelmholtzAssociationandtheFraunhofer
Society.TheWendelstein7XinGreifswaldhostsafacilityintheresearchoffusionpowerforinstance.[176]The
GottfriedWilhelmLeibnizPrizeisgrantedtotenscientistsandacademicseveryyear.Withamaximumof
2.5millionperawarditisoneofhighestendowedresearchprizesintheworld.[177]

Tourism
Germanyistheseventhmostvisitedcountryintheworld,[178]withatotalof407millionovernightsduring2012.[179]
Thisnumberincludes68.83millionnightsbyforeignvisitors.In2012,over30.4millioninternationaltourists
arrivedinGermany.BerlinhasbecomethethirdmostvisitedcitydestinationinEurope.[180]Additionally,morethan
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30%ofGermansspendtheirholidayintheirowncountry,withthebiggest
sharegoingtoMecklenburgVorpommern.Domesticandinternationaltravel
andtourismcombineddirectlycontributeoverEUR43.2billiontoGerman
GDP.Includingindirectandinducedimpacts,theindustrycontributes4.5%
ofGermanGDPandsupports2millionjobs(4.8%oftotalemployment).[181]
Germanyiswellknownforitsdiversetouristroutes,suchastheRomantic
Road,theWineRoute,theCastleRoad,andtheAvenueRoad.TheGerman
TimberFrameRoad(DeutscheFachwerkstrae)connectstownswith
TheBerchtesgadenalpineregion.
examplesofthesestructures.[182][183]Thereare40UNESCOWorldHeritage
Bavariaistheoverallmostvisited
SitesinGermany,includingtheoldtowncoresofRegensburg,Bamberg,
Germanstate,andMecklenburg
Lbeck,Quedlinburg,Weimar,StralsundandWismar.Germany'smost
Vorpommernbydomestictourists.
visitedlandmarksincludei.e.NeuschwansteinCastle,CologneCathedral,
BerlinBundestag,HofbruhausMunich,HeidelbergCastle,Dresden
Zwinger,FernsehturmBerlinandAachenCathedral.TheEuropaParknearFreiburgisEurope'ssecondmostpopular
themeparkresort.[184]

Demographics
Withapopulationof80.2millionaccordingtothe2011census,[186]risingto
81.5millionasat30June2015[187]andtoatleast81.9millionasat31
December2015,[188]GermanyisthemostpopulouscountryintheEuropean
Union,thesecondmostpopulouscountryinEuropeafterRussia,andranksas
the16thmostpopulouscountryintheworld.[189]Itspopulationdensitystands
at227inhabitantspersquarekilometre(588persquaremile).Theoveralllife
expectancyinGermanyatbirthis80.19years(77.93yearsformalesand
82.58yearsforfemales).[90]Thefertilityrateof1.41childrenbornper
Germanpopulationdevelopment
woman(2011estimates),or8.33birthsper1000inhabitants,isoneofthe
from1800to2010[185]
[90]
lowestintheworld. Sincethe1970s,Germany'sdeathratehasexceeded
itsbirthrate.[190]However,Germanyiswitnessingincreasedbirthratesand
migrationratessincethebeginningofthe2010s,[191]particularlyariseinthenumberofwelleducated
migrants.[192][193]
Foursizablegroupsofpeoplearereferredtoas"nationalminorities"becausetheirancestorshavelivedintheir
respectiveregionsforcenturies.[194]ThereisaDanishminority(about50,000)inthenorthernmoststateof
SchleswigHolstein.[194]TheSorbs,aSlavicpopulationofabout60,000,areintheLusatiaregionofSaxonyand
Brandenburg.TheRomaandSintilivethroughoutthewholefederalterritoryandtheFrisiansliveonSchleswig
Holstein'swesterncoast,andinthenorthwesternpartofLowerSaxony.[194]
Approximately5millionGermansliveabroad.[195]

Immigrantpopulation
In2014,aboutsevenmillionofGermany's81millionresidentsdid
nothaveGermancitizenship.Ninetysixpercentofthesepeople
livedinwesternGermanyandmostlyinurbanareas.[197][198]
Inthe1960sand1970s,theGermangovernmentsinvited"guest
workers"(Gastarbeiter)tomigratetoGermanyforworkinthe
Germanindustries.Manycompaniespreferredtokeeptheseworkers
employedinGermanyaftertheyhadtrainedthemandGermany's

Germanyishometothesecondhighest
numberofinternationalmigrants. [196]

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immigrantpopulationhassteadilyincreased.Asof2011,aboutsixmillionforeigncitizens(7.7%ofthepopulation)
wereregisteredinGermany.[186]
TheFederalStatisticalOfficeclassifiesthecitizensbyimmigrantbackground.Regardingimmigrantbackground,
20%ofthecountry'sresidents,ormorethan16millionpeople,wereofimmigrantorpartiallyimmigrantdescentin
2009(includingpersonsdescendingorpartiallydescendingfromethnicGermanrepatriates).[199]In2010,29%of
familieswithchildrenunder18hadatleastoneparentwithimmigrantroots.[200]
In2015,thePopulationDivisionoftheUnitedNationsDepartmentofEconomicandSocialAffairslistedGermany
ashosttothesecondhighestnumberofinternationalmigrantsworldwide,about5%or12millionofall244million
migrants.[201]Germanyranks7thamongstEUcountriesand37thgloballyintermsofthepercentageofmigrants
whomadeuppartofthecountry'spopulation.Asof2014,thelargestnationalgroupwasfromTurkey(2,859,000),
followedbyPoland(1,617,000),Russia(1,188,000),andItaly(764,000).[202]Since1987,around3millionethnic
Germans,mostlyfromtheformerEasternBloccountries,haveexercisedtheirrightofreturnandemigratedto
Germany.[203]

Religion

TheRomanCatholic
CologneCathedral

TheEvangelical
DresdenFrauenkirche

Sinceitsfoundationin1871,Germanyhasbeenabouttwothirds
Protestant[f]andonethirdRomanCatholic,withanotableJewish
minority.Otherfaithsexistedinthestate,butneverachieveda
demographicsignificanceofthesethreeconfessions.Germany
almostlostitsJewishminorityduringtheHolocaustandthe
country'sreligiousmakeupchangedgraduallyinthedecades
following1945,withWestGermanybecomingmorereligiously
diversifiedthroughimmigrationandEastGermanybecoming
overwhelminglyirreligiousthroughstatepolicies.Itcontinuesto
diversifyaftertheGermanreunificationin1990.[204]

Accordingtothe2011GermanCensus,Christianityisthelargest
religioninGermany,claiming66.8%ofthetotalpopulation.[205]
Relativetothewholepopulation,31.7%declaredthemselvesasProtestants,includingmembersoftheEvangelical
ChurchinGermany(EKD)(30.8%)andthefreechurches(German:EvangelischeFreikirchen)(0.9%),and31.2%
declaredthemselvesasRomanCatholics.[206]Orthodoxbelieversconstituted1.3%,whileJews0.1%.Other
religionsaccountedfor2.7%.In2014,theCatholicChurchaccountedfor23.9millionmembers(29.5%ofthe
population)[207]andtheEvangelicalChurchfor22.6million(27.9%ofthepopulation).[208]Bothlargechurcheshave
lostsignificantnumberofadherentsinrecentyears.
Geographically,Protestantismisconcentratedinthenorthern,centralandeasternpartsofthecountry.Theseare
mostlymembersoftheEKD,whichencompassesLutheran,Reformedandadministrativeorconfessionalunionsof
bothtraditionsdatingbacktothePrussianUnionof1817.RomanCatholicismisconcentratedinthesouthandwest.
In2011,33%ofGermanswerenotmembersofofficiallyrecognisedreligiousassociationswithspecialstatus.[206][g]
IrreligioninGermanyisstrongestintheformerEastGermanyandmajormetropolitanareas.[210][211][212]
Islamisthesecondlargestreligioninthecountry.Inthe2011census,1.9%ofGermansdeclaredthemselvestobe
Muslims.[206]Morerecentestimationsuppose,therearebetween2.1and4millionMuslimslivinginGermany.[213]
MostoftheMuslimsareSunnisandAlevitesfromTurkey,butthereareasmallnumberofShi'ites,Ahmadiyyasand
otherdenominations.[214]
OtherreligionscomprisinglessthanonepercentofGermany'spopulation[206]areBuddhismwith250,000adherents
(roughly0.3%)andHinduismwithsome100,000adherents(0.1%).AllotherreligiouscommunitiesinGermany
havefewerthan50,000adherentseach.[215]

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Languages
GermanistheofficialandpredominantspokenlanguageinGermany.[216]Itis
oneof24officialandworkinglanguagesoftheEuropeanUnion,[217]andone
ofthethreeworkinglanguagesoftheEuropeanCommission.Germanisthe
mostwidelyspokenfirstlanguageintheEuropeanUnion,witharound100
millionnativespeakers.[218]
RecognisednativeminoritylanguagesinGermanyareDanish,LowGerman,
Sorbian,Romany,andFrisiantheyareofficiallyprotectedbytheEuropean
CharterforRegionalorMinorityLanguages.Themostusedimmigrant
languagesareTurkish,Kurdish,Polish,theBalkanlanguages,andRussian.
Germansaretypicallymultilingual:67%ofGermancitizensclaimtobeable
tocommunicateinatleastoneforeignlanguageand27%inatleasttwo.[216]
KnowledgeoftheGermanlanguage

StandardGermanisaWestGermaniclanguageandiscloselyrelatedtoand
inEUmemberstates(2010)[h]
classifiedalongsideLowGerman,Dutch,FrisianandEnglishlanguages.Toa
lesserextent,itisalsorelatedtotheEastGermanic(extinct)andNorth
Germaniclanguages.MostGermanvocabularyisderivedfromtheGermanicbranchoftheIndoEuropeanlanguage
family.[219]SignificantminoritiesofwordsarederivedfromLatinandGreek,withasmalleramountfromFrench
andmostrecentlyEnglish(knownasDenglisch).GermaniswrittenusingtheLatinalphabet.Germandialects,
traditionallocalvarietiestracedbacktotheGermanictribes,aredistinguishedfromvarietiesofstandardGermanby
theirlexicon,phonology,andsyntax.[220]

Education
ResponsibilityforeducationalsupervisioninGermanyisprimarilyorganised
withintheindividualfederalstates.Optionalkindergarteneducationis
providedforallchildrenbetweenthreeandsixyearsold,afterwhichschool
attendanceiscompulsoryforatleastnineyears.Primaryeducationusually
lastsforfourtosixyears.[221]Secondaryeducationincludesthreetraditional
typesofschoolsfocusedondifferentacademiclevels:theGymnasiumenrols
themostgiftedchildrenandpreparesstudentsforuniversitystudiesthe
RealschuleforintermediatestudentslastssixyearsandtheHauptschule
preparespupilsforvocationaleducation.[222]TheGesamtschuleunifiesall
secondaryeducation.

TheHeidelbergUniversity,
establishedin1386,isaGerman
universityofexcellence.

AsystemofapprenticeshipcalledDualeAusbildungleadstoaskilled
qualificationwhichisalmostcomparabletoanacademicdegree.Itallows
studentsinvocationaltrainingtolearninacompanyaswellasinastaterun
tradeschool.[221]Thismodeliswellregardedandreproducedallaroundtheworld.[223]

MostoftheGermanuniversitiesarepublicinstitutions,andstudentstraditionallystudywithoutfeepayment.[224]The
generalrequirementforuniversityistheAbitur.However,thereareanumberofexceptions,dependingonthestate,
thecollegeandthesubject.Tuitionfreeacademiceducationisopentointernationalstudentsandisincreasingly
common.[225]AccordingtoanOECDreportin2014,Germanyistheworld'sthirdleadingdestinationfor
internationalstudy.[226]
Germanyhasalongtraditionofhighereducationreflectingtheglobalstatusasamoderneconomy.Theestablished
universitiesinGermanyincludesomeoftheoldestintheworld,withHeidelbergUniversity(establishedin1386)
beingtheoldest.[227]ItisfollowedbytheLeipzigUniversity(1409),theRostockUniversity(1419)andthe
GreifswaldUniversity(1456).[228]TheUniversityofBerlin,foundedin1810bytheliberaleducationalreformer
WilhelmvonHumboldt,becametheacademicmodelformanyEuropeanandWesternuniversities.Inthe
contemporaryeraGermanyhasdevelopedelevenUniversitiesofExcellence:HumboldtUniversityBerlin,the
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UniversityofBremen,theUniversityofCologne,TUDresden,theUniversityofTbingen,RWTHAachen,FU
Berlin,HeidelbergUniversity,theUniversityofKonstanz,LMUMunich,andtheTechnicalUniversityof
Munich.[229]

Health
Germany'ssystemofhospices,calledspitals,datesfrommedievaltimes,and
today,Germanyhastheworld'soldestuniversalhealthcaresystem,dating
fromBismarck'ssociallegislationofthe1880s,[231]Sincethe1880s,reforms
andprovisionshaveensuredabalancedhealthcaresystem.Currentlythe
populationiscoveredbyahealthinsuranceplanprovidedbystatute,with
criteriaallowingsomegroupstooptforaprivatehealthinsurancecontract.
AccordingtotheWorldHealthOrganization,Germany'shealthcaresystem
was77%governmentfundedand23%privatelyfundedasof2013.[232]In
2005,Germanyspent11%ofitsGDPonhealthcare.Germanyranked20thin
theworldinlifeexpectancywith77yearsformenand82yearsforwomen,
andithadaverylowinfantmortalityrate(4per1,000livebirths).[232]

TheHospiceoftheHolySpiritin
Lbeck,establishedin1286,isa
precursortomodernhospitals. [230]

In2010,theprincipalcauseofdeathwascardiovasculardisease,at41%,
followedbymalignanttumours,at26%.[233]In2008,about82,000GermanshadbeeninfectedwithHIV/AIDSand
26,000haddiedfromthedisease(cumulatively,since1982).[234]Accordingtoa2005survey,27%ofGermanadults
aresmokers.[234]ObesityinGermanyhasbeenincreasinglycitedasamajorhealthissue.A2007studyshows
GermanyhasthehighestnumberofoverweightpeopleinEurope.[235][236]

Culture
CultureinGermanstateshasbeenshapedbymajorintellectualandpopular
currentsinEurope,bothreligiousandsecular.HistoricallyGermanyhasbeen
calledDasLandderDichterundDenker("thelandofpoetsand
thinkers"),[237]becauseofthemajorroleitswritersandphilosophershave
playedinthedevelopmentofWesternthought.[238]
GermanyiswellknownforsuchfolkfestivaltraditionsasOktoberfestand
Christmascustoms,whichincludeAdventwreaths,Christmaspageants,
Christmastrees,Stollencakes,andotherpractices.[239][240]Asof2016
AWeihnachtsmarkt(Christmas
[241]
market)inGermany
UNESCOinscribed40propertiesinGermanyontheWorldHeritageList.
ThereareanumberofpublicholidaysinGermanydeterminedbyeachstate
3OctoberhasbeenanationaldayofGermanysince1990,celebratedastheTagderDeutschenEinheit(German
UnityDay).[242]
Inthe21stcenturyBerlinhasemergedasamajorinternationalcreativecentre.[243]AccordingtotheAnholtGfK
NationBrandsIndex,in2014Germanywastheworld'smostrespectednationamong50countries(aheadofUS,
UK,andFrance).[244][245][246]AglobalopinionpollfortheBBCrevealedthatGermanyisrecognisedforhavingthe
mostpositiveinfluenceintheworldin2013and2014.[247][248]

Music
Germanclassicalmusicincludesworksbysomeoftheworld'smostwellknowncomposers.DieterichBuxtehude
composedoratoriosfororgan,whichinfluencedthelaterworkofJohannSebastianBachandGeorgFriedrich
HndelthesemenwereinfluentialcomposersoftheBaroqueperiod.Duringhistenureasviolinistandteacheratthe
Salzburgcathedral,AugsburgborncomposerLeopoldMozartmentoredoneofthemostnotedmusiciansofalltime:
WolfgangAmadeusMozart.LudwigvanBeethovenwasacrucialfigureinthetransitionbetweentheClassicaland
Romanticeras.CarlMariavonWeberandFelixMendelssohnwereimportantintheearlyRomanticperiod.Robert
SchumannandJohannesBrahmscomposedintheRomanticidiom.RichardWagnerwasknownforhisoperas.
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RichardStrausswasaleadingcomposerofthelateRomanticandearlymoderneras.
KarlheinzStockhausenandHansZimmerareimportantcomposersofthe20thand
early21stcenturies.[249]
GermanyisthesecondlargestmusicmarketinEurope,andfourthlargestinthe
world.[250]Germanpopularmusicofthe20thand21stcenturyincludesthe
movementsofNeueDeutscheWelle,pop,Ostrock,heavymetal/rock,punk,pop
rock,indieandschlagerpop.Germanelectronicmusicgainedglobalinfluence,with
KraftwerkandTangerineDreampioneeringinthisgenre.[251]DJsandartistsofthe
technoandhousemusicscenesofGermanyhavebecomewellknown(e.g.Paulvan
Dyk,PaulKalkbrenner,andScooter).[252]
LudwigvanBeethoven
(17701827),composer
SymphonyNo.5

Art
Germanpaintershaveinfluencedwesternart.AlbrechtDrer,
HansHolbeintheYounger,MatthiasGrnewaldandLucas
CranachtheElderwereimportantGermanartistsofthe
Renaissance,PeterPaulRubensandJohannBaptistZimmermann
oftheBaroque,CasparDavidFriedrichandCarlSpitzwegof
Romanticism,MaxLiebermannofImpressionismandMaxErnst
ofSurrealism.[253]SuchGermansculptorsasOttoSchmidtHofer,
FranzIffland,andJuliusSchmidtFellingmadeimportant
contributionstoGermanarthistoryinthelate19thandearly20th
centuries.[254][255]

C.D.Friedrich,Chalk FranzMarc,RoeDeerin
CliffsonRgen
theForest(1914)
(1818)

SeveralGermanartgroupsformedinthe20thcentury,suchasthe
NovemberGrouporDieBrcke(TheBridge)andDerBlaue
Reiter(TheBlueRider),bytheRussianbornWassilyKandinsky,
influencedthedevelopmentofExpressionisminMunichandBerlin.TheNewObjectivityaroseasacounterstyleto
itduringtheWeimarRepublic.PostWorldWarIIarttrendsinGermanycanbroadlybedividedintoNeo
expressionism,performanceartandConceptualism.EspeciallynotableneoexpressionistsincludeGeorgBaselitz,
AnselmKiefer,JrgImmendorff,A.R.Penck,MarkusLpertz,PeterRobertKeilandRainerFetting.Othernotable
artistswhoworkwithtraditionalmediaorfigurativeimageryincludeMartinKippenberger,GerhardRichter,Sigmar
Polke,andNeoRauch.LeadingGermanconceptualartistsincludeorincludedBerndandHillaBecher,Hanne
Darboven,HansPeterFeldmann,HansHaacke,JosephBeuys,HASchult,ArisKalaizis,NeoRauch(NewLeipzig
School)andAndreasGursky(photography).MajorartexhibitionsandfestivalsinGermanyarethedocumenta,the
BerlinBiennale,transmedialeandArtCologne.[253]

Architecture
ArchitecturalcontributionsfromGermanyincludetheCarolingianandOttonianstyles,whichwereprecursorsof
Romanesque.BrickGothicisadistinctivemedievalstylethatevolvedinGermany.AlsoinRenaissanceandBaroque
art,regionalandtypicallyGermanelementsevolved(e.g.WeserRenaissanceandDresdenBaroque).Amongmany
renownedBaroquemasterswerePppelmann,BalthasarNeumann,KnobelsdorffandtheAsambrothers.The
WessobrunnerSchoolexertedadecisiveinfluenceon,andattimesevendominated,theartofstuccoinsouthern
Germanyinthe18thcentury.TheUpperSwabianBaroqueRouteoffersabaroquethemedtouristroutethat
highlightsthecontributionsofsuchartistsandcraftsmenasthesculptorandplastererJohannMichaelFeuchtmayer,
oneoftheforemostmembersoftheFeuchtmayerfamilyandthebrothersJohannBaptistZimmermannand
DominikusZimmermann.[256]VernaculararchitectureinGermanyisoftenidentifiedbyitstimberframing
(Fachwerk)traditionsandvariesacrossregions,andamongcarpentrystyles.[257][258]
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WhenindustrialisationspreadacrossEurope,ClassicismandadistinctivestyleofhistorismdevelopedinGermany,
sometimesreferredtoasGrnderzeitstyle,duetotheeconomicalboomyearsattheendofthe19thcentury.
RegionalhistoriciststylesincludetheHanoverSchool,NurembergStyleandDresden'sSemperNicolaiSchool.
AmongthemostfamousofGermanbuildings,theSchlossNeuschwansteinrepresentsRomanesqueRevival.Notable
substylesthatevolvedsincethe18thcenturyaretheGermanspaandseasideresortarchitecture.Germanartists,
writersandgalleristslikeSiegfriedBing,GeorgHirthandBrunoMhringalsocontributedtothedevelopmentofArt
Nouveauattheturnofthe20thcentury,knownasJugendstilinGerman.[259]

ResortarchitectureonRgen,timberframinginBernkastel,theSchlossNeuschwansteinandtheElbePhilharmonicinHamburg.

Expressionistarchitecturedevelopedinthe1910sinGermanyandinfluencedArtDecoandothermodernstyles,
withe.g.FritzHger,ErichMendelsohn,DominikusBhmandFritzSchumacherbeinginfluentialarchitects.
Germanywasparticularlyimportantintheearlymodernistmovement:itisthehomeofWerkbundinitiatedby
HermannMuthesius(NewObjectivity),andoftheBauhausmovementfoundedbyWalterGropius.Consequently,
Germanyisoftenconsideredthecradleofmodernarchitectureanddesign.LudwigMiesvanderRohebecameone
oftheworld'smostrenownedarchitectsinthesecondhalfofthe20thcentury.Heconceivedoftheglassfaade
skyscraper.[260]RenownedcontemporaryarchitectsandofficesincludeHansKollhoff,SergeiTchoban,KK
Architekten,HelmutJahn,Behnisch,GMP,OleScheeren,J.MayerH.,OMUngers,GottfriedBhmandFreiOtto
(thelasttwobeingPritzkerPrizewinners).[261]

Literatureandphilosophy
GermanliteraturecanbetracedbacktotheMiddleAgesandtheworksofwriters
suchasWalthervonderVogelweideandWolframvonEschenbach.Wellknown
GermanauthorsincludeJohannWolfgangvonGoethe,FriedrichSchiller,Gotthold
EphraimLessingandTheodorFontane.Thecollectionsoffolktalespublishedbythe
BrothersGrimmpopularisedGermanfolkloreonaninternationallevel.[262]The
GrimmsalsogatheredandcodifiedregionalvariantsoftheGermanlanguage,
groundingtheirworkinhistoricalprinciplestheirDeutschesWrterbuch,orGerman
Dictionary,sometimescalledtheGrimmdictionary,wasbegunin1838andthefirst
volumespublishedin1854.[263]
Influentialauthorsofthe20thcenturyincludeGerhartHauptmann,ThomasMann,
HermannHesse,HeinrichBllandGnterGrass.[264]TheGermanbookmarketisthe
thirdlargestintheworld,aftertheUnitedStatesandChina.[265]TheFrankfurtBook
Fairisthemostimportantintheworldforinternationaldealsandtrading,witha
traditionspanningover500years.[266]TheLeipzigBookFairalsoretainsamajorpositioninEurope.[267]
TheBrothersGrimm
collectedandpublished
popularGermanfolktales.

Germanphilosophyishistoricallysignificant:GottfriedLeibniz'scontributionstorationalismtheenlightenment
philosophybyImmanuelKanttheestablishmentofclassicalGermanidealismbyJohannGottliebFichte,Georg
WilhelmFriedrichHegelandFriedrichWilhelmJosephSchellingArthurSchopenhauer'scompositionof
metaphysicalpessimismtheformulationofcommunisttheorybyKarlMarxandFriedrichEngelsFriedrich
Nietzsche'sdevelopmentofperspectivismGottlobFrege'scontributionstothedawnofanalyticphilosophyMartin
Heidegger'sworksonBeingthedevelopmentoftheFrankfurtschoolbyMaxHorkheimer,TheodorAdorno,
HerbertMarcuseandJrgenHabermashavebeenparticularlyinfluential.

Media
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ThelargestinternationallyoperatingmediacompaniesinGermanyarethe
Bertelsmannenterprise,AxelSpringerSEandProSiebenSat.1Media.The
GermanPressAgencyDPAisalsosignificant.Germany'stelevisionmarketis
thelargestinEurope,withsome38millionTVhouseholds.[268]Around90%
ofGermanhouseholdshavecableorsatelliteTV,withavarietyoffreeto
viewpublicandcommercialchannels.[269]Therearemorethan500public
andprivateradiostationsinGermany,withthepublicDeutscheWellebeing
themainGermanradioandtelevisionbroadcasterinforeignlanguages.[270]
Germany'snationalradionetworkistheDeutschlandradiowhileARD
stationsarecoveringlocalservices.

DeutscheWelleheadquartersinBonn
(centre).

ManyofEurope'sbestsellingnewspapersandmagazinesareproducedinGermany.Thepapers(andinternetportals)
withthehighestcirculationareBild(atabloid),DieZeit,SddeutscheZeitung,FrankfurterAllgemeineZeitungand
DieWelt,thelargestmagazinesincludeDerSpiegel,SternandFocus.[271]
TheGermanvideogamingmarketisoneofthelargestintheworld.[272]TheGamescominCologneistheworld's
leadinggamingconvention.[273]PopulargameseriesfromGermanyincludeTurrican,theAnnoseries,TheSettlers
series,theGothicseries,SpellForce,theFIFAManagerseries,FarCryandCrysis.Relevantgamedevelopersand
publishersareBlueByte,Crytek,DeepSilver,KalypsoMedia,PiranhaBytes,YagerDevelopment,andsomeofthe
largestsocialnetworkgamecompanieslikeBigpoint,Gameforge,GoodgameandWooga.[274]

Cinema
Germancinemahasmademajortechnicalandartisticcontributionstofilm.ThefirstworksoftheSkladanowsky
Brotherswereshowntoanaudiencein1895.TherenownedBabelsbergStudioinBerlin'ssuburbPotsdamwas
establishedin1912,thusbeingthefirstlargescalefilmstudiointheworld.TodayitisEurope'slargeststudio.[275]
EarlyGermancinemawasparticularlyinfluentialwithGermanexpressionistssuchasRobertWieneandFriedrich
WilhelmMurnau.DirectorFritzLang'sMetropolis(1927)isreferredtoasthefirstmajorsciencefictionfilm.[276]In
1930JosefvonSternbergdirectedTheBlueAngel,thefirstmajorGermansoundfilm,withMarleneDietrich.[277]
FilmsofLeniRiefenstahlsetnewartisticstandards,inparticularTriumphoftheWill.[278]
After1945,manyofthefilmsoftheimmediatepostwarperiodcanbe
characterisedasTrmmerfilm.SuchfilmsincludedWolfgangStaudte'sDie
Mrdersindunteruns(TheMurderersareamongus)(1946).NotableEast
GermanfilmsincludedDerUntertan(1951)KonradWolf'sDergeteilte
Himmel(DividedHeaven)(1964)andFrankBeyer'sJacobtheLiar(1975).
ThedefiningfilmgenreinWestGermanyofthe1950swasarguablythe
Heimatfilm("homelandfilm")thesefilmsdepictedthebeautyofthelandand
themoralintegrityofthepeoplelivinginit.[279]
Duringthe1970sand1980s,NewGermanCinemadirectorssuchasVolker
BabelsbergStudionearBerlin,the
Schlndorff,WernerHerzog,WimWenders,andRainerWernerFassbinder
world'sfirstlargescalefilmstudio
broughtWestGermanauteurcinematocriticalacclaim.Germanmoviessuch
asDasBoot(1981),TheNeverEndingStory(1984),GoodBye,Lenin!
(2003),HeadOn(2004),TheWhiteRibbon(2009),AnimalsUnited(2010),andCloudAtlas(2012)alsohad
internationalsuccess.TheAcademyAwardforBestForeignLanguageFilm("Oscar")wenttotheGerman
productionDieBlechtrommel(TheTinDrum)in1979,toNirgendwoinAfrika(NowhereinAfrica)in2002,andto
DasLebenderAnderen(TheLivesofOthers)in2007.[280]
TheannualEuropeanFilmAwardsceremonyisheldeveryotheryearinBerlin,homeoftheEuropeanFilm
Academy.TheBerlinInternationalFilmFestival,knownas"Berlinale",awardingthe"GoldenBear"andheld
annuallysince1951,isoneoftheworld'sleadingfilmfestivals.[281]The"Lolas"areannuallyawardedinBerlin,at
theGermanFilmAwards,thathavebeenpresentedsince1951.[282]

Cuisine
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Germancuisinevariesfromregiontoregionandoftenneighbouringregions
sharesomeculinarysimilarities(e.g.thesouthernregionsofBavariaand
SwabiasharesometraditionswithSwitzerlandandAustria).International
varietiessuchaspizza,sushi,Chinesefood,Greekfood,Indiancuisineand
donerkebabarealsopopularandavailable,thankstodiverseethnic
communities.
BreadisasignificantpartofGermancuisineandGermanbakeriesproduce
about600maintypesofbreadand1,200differenttypesofpastriesandrolls
(Brtchen).Germancheesesaccountforaboutathirdofallcheeseproduced
inEurope.[283]In2012over99%ofallmeatproducedinGermanywaseither
pork,chickenorbeef.Germansproducetheirubiquitoussausagesinalmost
1,500varieties,includingBratwursts,Weisswursts,andCurrywursts.[284]In
2012,organicfoodsaccountedfor3.9%oftotalfoodsales.[285]

BlackForestGteau,aGerman
dessert

AlthoughwineisbecomingmorepopularinmanypartsofGermany,especiallyinGermanwineregions,[286]the
nationalalcoholicdrinkisbeer.Germanbeerconsumptionperpersonstandsat110litres(24impgal29USgal)in
2013andremainsamongthehighestintheworld.[287]Germanbeerpurityregulationsdatebacktothe15th
century.[288]
The2015MichelinGuideawardedelevenrestaurantsinGermanythreestars,thehighestdesignation,while38more
receivedtwostarsand233onestar.[289]Germanrestaurantshavebecometheworld'ssecondmostdecoratedafter
France.[290][291]

Sports

TheGermannationalfootballteam
afterwinningtheFIFAWorldCup
forthefourthtimein2014.Football
isthemostpopularsportinGermany.

TwentysevenmillionGermansaremembersofasportsclubandan
additionaltwelvemillionpursuesportsindividually.[292]Associationfootball
isthemostpopularsport.Withmorethan6.3millionofficialmembers,the
GermanFootballAssociation(DeutscherFuballBund)isthelargestsports
organisationofitskindworldwide,andtheGermantopleague,the
Bundesliga,attractsthesecondhighestaverageattendanceofallprofessional
sportsleaguesintheworld.[292]TheGermanmen'snationalfootballteam
wontheFIFAWorldCupin1954,1974,1990,and2014,andtheUEFA
EuropeanChampionshipin1972,1980and1996.GermanyhostedtheFIFA
WorldCupin1974and2006andtheUEFAEuropeanChampionshipin1988.

Otherpopularspectatorsportsincludewintersports,boxing,basketball,
handball,volleyball,icehockey,tennis,horseridingandgolf.Watersportslikesailing,rowing,andswimmingare
popularinGermanyaswell.[292]
Germanyisoneoftheleadingmotorsportscountriesintheworld.ConstructorslikeBMWandMercedesare
prominentmanufacturersinmotorsport.Porschehaswonthe24HoursofLeMansrace17times,andAudi13times
(asof2015).ThedriverMichaelSchumacherhassetmanymotorsportrecordsduringhiscareer,havingwonmore
FormulaOneWorldDrivers'Championshipswithseventitles,thananyother.Heisoneofthehighestpaid
sportsmeninhistory.[293]SebastianVettelisalsoamongthetopfivemostsuccessfulFormulaOnedriversofall
time.[294]
Historically,GermanathleteshavebeensuccessfulcontendersintheOlympicGames,rankingthirdinanalltime
OlympicGamesmedalcount(whencombiningEastandWestGermanmedals).Germanywasthelastcountryto
hostboththesummerandwintergamesinthesameyear,in1936theBerlinSummerGamesandtheWinterGames
inGarmischPartenkirchen,[295]andinMunichithostedtheSummerGamesof1972.[296]

Fashionanddesign
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Germandesignerswereleadersofmodernproductdesign,withtheBauhaus
designerslikeMiesvanderRohe,andDieterRamsofBraunbeing
essential.[297]
Germanyisaleadingcountryinthefashionindustry.TheGermantextile
industryconsistedofabout1,300companieswithmorethan130,000
employeesin2010,whichgeneratedarevenueof28billionEuro.Almost44
percentoftheproductsareexported.[298]TheBerlinFashionWeekandthe
fashiontradefairBread&Butterareheldtwiceayear.[299]

ClaudiaSchiffer,Germansupermodel

Munich,HamburgandDsseldorfarealsoimportantdesign,productionand
tradehubsofthedomesticfashionindustry,amongsmallertowns.[300]RenownedfashiondesignersfromGermany
includeKarlLagerfeld,JilSander,WolfgangJoop,PhilippPleinandMichaelMichalsky.Importantbrandsinclude
HugoBoss,Escada,Adidas,PumaandTriumph.TheGermansupermodelsClaudiaSchiffer,HeidiKlum,Tatjana
PatitzandNadjaAuermannhavecometointernationalfame.[301]

Seealso
IndexofGermanyrelatedarticles
OutlineofGermany

Notes
a.InrecognizedminoritylanguagesofGermany:
Danish:ForbundsrepublikkenTyskland
LowGerman:BundesrepubliekDtschland
UpperSorbian:ZwjazkowaRepublikaNmska
LowerSorbian:NimskaZwzkowaRepublika
Romani:FederalniRepublikaJermaniya
Frisian:BnsrepublykDtsln
b.From1952to1990,theDeutschlandliedwasthenationalanthembutonlythethirdversewassungonofficialoccasions.
Since1991,thethirdversealonehasbeenthenationalanthem.[1]
c.Danish,LowGerman,Sorbian,Romany,andFrisianarerecognisedbytheEuropeanCharterforRegionalorMinority
Languages
d.EuropeanUnionsince1993.
e.IPAtranscriptionof"BundesrepublikDeutschland":[bndsepublikdtlant]
f.GermanProtestantismhasbeenoverwhelminglyamixtureofLutheran,Reformed(i.e.Calvinist),andUnited(Lutheran&
Reformed/Calvinist)churches,withBaptists,Pentecostals,Methodists,andvariousotherProtestantsbeingonlyarecent
development.
g.Suchorganizationsarecorporationsunderpubliclawwiththepowertolevycompulsorytaxesontheirmembers.Thetax
rateiseightpercentofincometax(andcertainothertaxes)inBavariaandninepercentinotherstatesinmostcasesthetax
iscollectedbythestateandinothercasesdataonchurchmembers'incomeisshared.[209]Mostpeoplewholeavethe
churchdosoinordertoavoidpayingthesetaxes.[209]
h.ThemapincludesinformationforthenonmemberstatesBosniaandHerzegovina,SwitzerlandandTurkey.

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