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**Dept. Of Mechanical Engineering
**

Self Study

Fluid Mechanics

(15ME3DCFME)

Student Name: Mahesh Tom

USN: 1BM14ME073

III Semester, Section:B

November 2, 2015

1

termed the minor loss and denoted hL-minor. these losses are minor compared to the total head loss in the pipes (the major losses) and are called minor losses LOSS COEFFICIENT The most common method used to determine these head losses or pressure drops is to specify the loss ∆p hLminor = 1 2 coefficient. Thus. The head loss in various pipe components. The same condition is found to be true for flow through pipe components. which is defined as KL = V 2 /2g 2 ρV The actual value of is strongly dependent on the geometry of the component considered. 2 . That is. This is true because of the relatively large accelerations and decelerations experienced by the fluid as it flows along a rather curved. 8.The velocity at section 1 is v1 and at 2 is v2 . For many practical applications the Reynolds number is large enough so that the flow through the component is dominated by inertia effects. KL = φ(geometry.LOSSES DUE SUDDEN EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION Introduction It is often necessary to determine the head loss. with viscous effects being of secondary importance. For a pipe system that contains many components and a relatively short length of pipe. termed the major loss and denoted hL-major. In a typical system with long pipes. variable area 1perhaps even torturous2 path through the component 1see Fig.212. For any type of system there are additional so-called minor losses due to • Sudden Expansion • Sudden Contraction • Inlets and Exits • Valves • Bends and other fittings These components interrupt the smooth flow of the fluid and cause additional losses because of the flow separation and mixing they induce. This is the reason why the friction factor for very large Reynolds number. hL. that occur in a pipe flow so that the energy equation. The overall head loss for the pipe system consists of the head loss due to viscous effects in the straight pipes. It may also be dependent on the fluid properties. the minor loss may actually be larger than the major loss. LOSS DUE TO SUDDEN EXPANSION Consider a fluid which is entering a section 1 of a pipe having area of A1 and let us analyse the fluid upto a cross sectional area A2 at some distance L from A1 . in most cases of practical interest the loss coefficients for components are a function of geometry only. That is: hL = hLmajor + hLminor The head loss designations of major and minor do not necessarily reflect the relative importance of each type of loss. it is usually found that pressure drops and head losses correlate directly with the dynamic pressure.The fluid is flowing due to a pressure gradient existing between A1 and A2 Let the pressure at A1 be p1 and the pressure at A2 be p2 . can be used in the analysis of pipe flow problems. In a flow that is dominated by inertia effects rather than viscous effects. Re) where Re = ρV D η is the pipe Reynolds number. fully developed pipe flow is independent of the Reynolds number.

This sets up another pressure at thies point . the velocity again becomes uniform at a far downstream section 2 Applying Bernoulli’s equation at 1 and 2 1 1 p1 + ρV12 + ρgz1 = p2 + ρV22 + ρgz2 + he 2 2 where z1 and z1 are the heights of the sections 1 and 2 respetively. Due to the vigorous mixing caused by the turbulence. Rearranging the above equation and equating to he we get he = p1 − p2 V 2 − V22 + 1 (1) ρg 2g 3 . due to their low kinetic energy cannot overcome the adverse pressure hill in the direction of flow and hence follow up the reverse path under the favourable pressure gradient.expansion graph.png Figure 2: Loss co-efficient for sudden contraction Figure 3: Loss due to sudden expansion Now.Let us call this p0 .Since this is a viscous flow this form of Bernoulli’s equation holds good.Since both are equal in this case they cancel out .This further results in a loss of mechanical energy.at the point where the fluid undergoes sudden expansion. Note that if we were discussing about an inviscid fluid the term he would not exist. the fluid particles near the wall.png Figure 1: Loss co-efficient for sudden expansion contraction graph.

This section of the stream tube 4 . Hence Fx = (p1 − p2 )A2 (3) Momentum of liquid/sec at section 1 = ρA1 V12 Momentum of liquid/sec at section 1 = ρA2 V22 From continuity equation A1 V1 = A2 V2 (4) Change of momentum of liquid/sec = ρA2 V22 − ρA1 V12 = ρA2 (V22 − V1 V2 )(5) (after substituting (4) in change in momentum equation) Now from Newton’s Second Law.Consider a control volume of liquid between sections 1 and 2. Resolving the forces acting on the liquid inside the control volume.it is necessary that the fluid pass through a vena contracta or the location where the streamlines flow through the least area. we get Fx = p1 A1 − p2 A2 + p0 (A2 − A1 )(2) wher p’ is pressure of the liquid eddies in the area A2 − A1 . immediately downstream of the junction of area contraction. the cross-sectional area of the stream tube becomes the minimum and less than that of the smaller pipe. F = dp dt Net force=Rate of change of momentum or (p1 − p2 )A2 = ρA2 (V22 − V1 V2 ) Dividing By ρ ( p1 − p2 ) = (V22 − V1 V2 ) ρ Dividing By g ( or Substituting this value of p1 − p2 V 2 − V1 V2 )=( 2 ) ρg g p1 p2 V 2 − V1 V2 − =( 2 )(6) ρg ρg g p1 p2 − in equation (1) we get ρg ρg he = ( or he = V22 − V1 V2 V2 V2 )+ 1 − 2 g 2g 2g 2V22 − 2V1 V2 + V12 − V22 V 2 + V22 − 2V1 V2 = 1 2g 2g Thus he = (V1 − V2 )2 2g LOSS DUE TO SUDDEN CONTRACTION Consider a viscous fluid flow throw a pipe between 2 sections section 1-1 and section 2-2.The fluid is flowing across a pressure gradient.The section 1-1 has area A1 and the section 2-2 has area A2 . However. Experimentally it is known that p’=p1 . An abrupt contraction is geometrically the reverse of an abrupt enlargement.Here also the streamlines cannot follow the abrupt change of geometry and hence gradually converge from an upstream section of the larger tube.Let the pressure at A1 be p1 and the pressure at A2 be p2 and For The fluid to enter the section 2-2 after contracting.

losses due to separation cannot take place. But in the decelerating part of the flow from Sec. V2 and Vc rspectively.7 5 . we can say that the losses due to contraction is not for the contraction itself. c-c to Sec.under a favourable pressure gradient. Hence eddies are formed between the vena contracta c-c and the downstream Sec. In an accelerating flow. after which the stream widens again to fill the pipe. Therefore. 2-2. Head loss due to expansion from section c-c to 2-2 V2 1 V2 (Vc2 − V22 ) = 2( − 1)2 = k 2 2g 2g Cc 2g where k=( 1 − 1)2 Cc The value of k varies from0. The flow pattern after the vena contracta is similar to that after an abrupt enlargement. c-c (vena contracta) increases due to continuity and the pressure decreases in the direction of flow accordingly in compliance with the Bernoullis theorem.Figure 4: Loss due to sudden contraction is known as vena contracta. The velocity of flow in the converging part of the stream tube from Sec. 1-1 to Sec. where the stream tube expands to fill the pipe. c-c to Sec. Let the area of cross section at the vena contracta be Ac and velocities of the water at sections 1-1 2-2 and c-c be V1 . 2-2. If we consider sections c-c and 2-2 and if we apply continuity equation we get Ac Vc = A2 V2 (1) This implies A2 1 Vc = = V2 Ac Cc Cc is a new term and is called the coefficient of contraction. losses take place in the similar fashion as occur in case of a sudden geometrical enlargement. but due to the expansion followed by the contraction. 2-2. and the loss of head is thus confined between Sec.5 to 0.

1m/s)2 − (3.7 ∗ 103 6 .25 from graph when the ratios of area is 0.12m D2 = 0.12-m-diameter pipe that contains a sudden contraction to a 0.0 ∗ 103 2 = 133kP a 2 m m This represents a 39.png Figure 5: Problem 1 Given data: D1 = 0.54 2 A1 s 4 (0.06 0..12m) V2 = Q 0.PROBLEMS Problem 1 Water flows at a rate of 0.04m3 /sec in a 0.(1) 2 2 2g where z1 = z2 and V1 = Q 0.12 2 = 0.7 Kpa drop losses and a 93 kPa drop due to increase in Kinetic energy p1 − p2 = 39.4(14.06m-diameter pipe.04m3 /s m = π = 14.54m/s)2 2 2 or N N + 93.06m Q = 0.1 2 A2 s 4 (0.04m3 /sec where Q is the flow rate 1 1 V2 p1 + ρV12 + ρgz1 = p2 + ρV22 + ρgz2 + KL 2 .4 Hence from equation 1 we have p1 − p2 = 1 1 ρ KL V22 + V22 − V12 = 999kg/m3 0.06m) and A2 = A1 D2 D1 2 = 0.1m/s)2 + (14.25 then KL = 0.04m3 /s m = π = 3. How much of this pressure difference is due to losses and how much is due to kinetic energy changes 1. Determine the pressure drop across the contraction section.

.png Figure 6: Problem 2 Problem 2 At a sudden enlargement of water main from 240mm to 480mm diameter.2.(2) 2g From continuity equation we have A1 V1 = A2 V2 π 2 2 D A2 V 2 4 2 V = D2 V1 = = π V2 2 A1 D1 D12 4 2 0.the hydraulic gradient rises by 10mm..Calculate the rate of flow..48 V1 = V2 = 4V2 0. Given D1 = 240mm D2 = 480mm Note: The Rise of Hydraulic gradient refers to the difference p1 p2 + z1 − + z2 = 10mm = 0.(1) 2 2 Here he is the loss due to sudden expansion and he = (V1 − V2 )2 ....24 substituting in (2) we get he = (4V2 − V2 )2 9V 2 = 2 2g 2g substituting the value of he and V1 in (1) p1 (4V2 )2 p2 (V2 )2 9V 2 + + z1 = + + z2 + 2 ρg 2g ρg 2g 2g 7 .01m ρg ρg The term Hydraulic gradient refers to p +z ρg Applying Bernoulli’s equation at section 1 and 2 1 1 p1 + ρV12 + ρgz1 = p2 + ρV22 + ρgz2 + he .

01 2g or V2 = 0.482 ∗ 0.Rearranging the terms V2 9V 2 16V22 − 2 − 2 = 2g 2g 2g p1 + z1 ρg − p2 + z2 ρg 6V22 = 0.181 = 0.03275m3 /s 4 (Answer) 8 .181m/s therefore the rate of flow Q = A2 V 2 = π ∗ 0.

08 The pressure rise will be maximum when D1 1 =√ D2 2 √ √ D2 = 2D1 = 2 ∗ 0.49 − 1.S = 0.8 is flowing at the rate of 6.81 2 ∗ 9.0125m3 /s • Loss of energy in sudden contraction Velocity of flow V1 = 0.0125 V2 = π = 1.2442 = − − he = − − 0.49m/s 2 Area 4 ∗ 0.Problem 3 In an 80mm diameter pipeline oil of specific gravity 0.244)2 (V1 − V2 )2 = = 0.029m 2g 2 ∗ 9. Find: • Loss of energy in sudden contraction • Differential gauge length indicated by an oil-mercury manometer connected between the two pipes 3.11312 4 Loss of energy in sudden expansion he = (2.81 (of oil) p1 (V1 )2 p2 (V2 )2 + + z1 = + + z2 + he ρg 2g ρg 2g ( z1 = z2 (as pipe is horizontal) p2 − p1 (V1 )2 (V2 )2 2.08 = 0.492 1.08m Diameter of larger pipe is D2 Specific gravity of oil .81 of oil Let h be the reading of the U-tube oil-mercury manometer where limbs are connected across the expanded transition p2 − p1 Sm =h −1 ρg So 9 .A sudden expansion takes place in a such diameter that maximum pressure rise is obtained.1131m 0.0125 Q = π = 2.8 Discharge Q = 0.244m/s ∗ 0.png Figure 7: Problem 3 Given: Diameter of small pipe D1 = 80mm = 0.0125m3 /s.158 ρg 2g 2g 2 ∗ 9.079 = 0.

where Sm is the specific gravity of mercury(=13.8 h= 0.009875m 16 or 9.875mm(Answer) 10 .6 0.158 = 0.158 = h − 1 = 16h 0.6) 13.

5m Area .2899 2 2g Cc 2g 0.65 • Flow rate Q : Head loss due to contraction is given by.1963m3 4 π 0.65 2g From continuity equation.the pressure changes from 105KN/m2 to 69KN/m2 .Problem 4 When a sudden contraction is introduced in a horizontal pipeline from 500mm diameter to 250mm diameter.calculate the flow rate Following this if there is sudden enlargement from 250mm to 500mm and if the pressure at the 250mm section is 69KN/mm2 .If the co-efficient of contraction is assumed to be 0.25m Area . 2 2 V2 1 1 V2 V2 hc = 2 −1 = 2 − 1 = 0.what is the pressure at the 500mm enlarged portion? 4. A1 = D2 = 250mm = 0.04908m3 4 Pressure inside the large pipe = 105KN/m2 Pressure inside the small pipe = 69KN/m2 Co-efficient of contraction Cc = 0. A2 = π 2 0.252 = 0.65.png Figure 8: Problem 4 Given D1 = 500mm = 0.25 V2 V1 = V2 = 0.50 4 Applying Bernoulli’s equation at 1 and 2 we get p1 (V1 )2 p2 (V2 )2 + + z1 = + + z2 + he ρg 2g ρg 2g ( z1 = z2 (as pipe is horizontal) p1 (V1 )2 p2 (V2 )2 + = + + he ρg 2g ρg 2g 11 . we have A1 V1 = A2 V2 A2 V1 = ∗ V2 = A1 π 2 2 D A2 V 2 4 2 V = D2 V1 = = π V2 2 A1 D1 D12 4 2 0.5 = 0.

Sibstituting values we get (V2 /4)2 69 (V2 )2 V22 105 + = + + 0.915)2 = m = 1.187 + 1.376m3 /s(Answer) • Pressure at the enlarged section p4 (V3 )2 p4 (V4 )2 p3 + + z3 = + + z4 + he ρg 2g ρg 2g ( z3 = z4 ) (as pipe is horizontal) p3 = 69KN/m2 V3 = V2 = 7.915m/s 4 4 (V3 − V4 )2 (7.68 9.68m 2g 2 ∗ 9.81 or 210 + V22 = 138 + V22 + 0.81 or p4 = 80kN/mm2 (Answer) 12 .81 9. 69 7.04908 ∗ 7.915)2 + = + + 1.66 = 0.81 or 7.68 9.662 p4 (1.033 + 2.81 2 ∗ 9.2899 9.66 − 1.99 = p4 + 0.2274V22 16 V2 = 7.81 Substituting values in the above equation.66 V2 = = 1.81 2 ∗ 9.2899V22 16 72 = 1.81 2 ∗ 9.81 2 ∗ 9.81 2 ∗ 9.81 9.66m/s V4 = V1 = he = 7.66m/s Hence rate of flow Q = A2 V2 = 0.2899V22 − V22 = 1.

You are to install a 200mm diameter section of pipe and a water manometer to measure the pressure drop at the sudden contraction.4 Applying Bernoulli’s equation between 1 and 2 we get p1 V2 p2 V2 + 1 + gz1 − + 2 + gz2 = hL ρ 2 ρ 2 where terms have their usual meaning and hL is the loss due to contraction.png Figure 9: Problem 5 Given data: D1 = 400mm D2 = 200mm and also KL = 0. and hL = KL V22 2 Hence the pressure drop is δp = p1 − p2 = ρ( for sudden contraction so V22 V2 V2 − 1 + KL 2 ) 2 2 2 π π V1 D12 = V2 D22 = Q 4 4 " # 4 D1 ρV12 (1 + KL ) − 1 δp = 2 D1 For the pressure drop we can use the manometer equation δp = ρgδh Hence ρV 2 ρgδh = 1 2 " D1 D1 # 4 (1 + KL ) − 1 In terms of flow rate Q ρ ρgδh = 2 Q2 π 2 2 4 D1 " D1 D1 13 4 # (1 + KL ) − 1 . 5.Derive an expression for the theoretical calibration constant k in √ Q = k ∆h where Q is the volume flow rate in L/min and ∆h is the manometer deflection in mm.you have been assigned the task of developing a crude flow meter for measuring the flow in a 400mm diameter water pipe system.Problem 5 In a laboratory.

or Q2 gδh = 8 2 4 π D1 " D1 D1 # 4 (1 + KL ) − 1 we can rearrange this equation so as to get Q in the form √ Q = k δh that is v u gπ 2 D14 u k = u 4 t D1 (1 + K ) − 1 L D1 Substituting value of D1 . D2 andKL we get L min k = 228 mm1/2 14 .

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