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Univerzitet u Zenici

Filozofski fakultet
Odsjek za engleski jezik i književnost

Mewlan Alić

Emocije i učenje
Dodiplomski završni rad

Mentor: doc.dr. Nebojša Vasić

Zenica, 2016. godina

University of Zenica
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Faculty of Philosophy
Department of English Language and Literature

Mewlan Alić

Emotion and Learning
Bachelor’s Thesis

Mentor: Nebojša Vasić, PhD

Zenica, 2016

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hipokampus. njihove specifične strukture. afektivni filter kojeg Stephen Krashen opisuje u sklopu svoje teorije je uzet kao konkretan primjer uzajamne veze amigdale i hipokampusa. te je izveden naučni zaključak o zajedničkoj ulozi amigdale i hipokampusa u pogledu deklarativnog pamćenja i reprodukcije. Zarad prikazivanja suštinske veze između amigdale i hipokampusa prikazani naučni dokazi su dostignuti na najprostiji način testiranja kako bi se spriječio utjecaj karaktera. Kao treća stavka se izdvajaju zajedničke crte amigdale i hipokampusa u smislu njihove zajedničke funkcije u pohranjivanju informacija u pamćenje. afektivni filter. lokacije unutar mozga i njihove opće funkcije uz priložene MR snimke. amigdala. stoga su istraživanja vršena nad osobom sa disfunkcionalnom amigdalom. Zatim slijedi u kratkim crtama opis glavnih aktera (amigdale i hipokampusa) odnosno uzajamnog odnosa emocija i učenja. Naposljed.Apstrakt Tema ovog dodiplomskog završnog rada jeste značaj emocija na proces učenja i ovaj kompleksni fenomen je objašnjen prevashodnim iznošenjem osnovne definicije emocija i njene najčešće podjele. Detaljni snimci mane na amigdali kao i snimak zdrave amigdale su također priloženi. naime. također su ovi eksperimenti zasnovani na uslovljavanju iz istog razloga. Stephen Krashenova hipoteza o inputu je navedena kao primjer međuodnosa emocija i učenja koji je uključen u neku teoriju učenja. deklarativno pamćenje 3 . motivacije i ostalih očekivanih inhibitorskih faktora. ali bez ikakvih drugih moždanih nedostataka u pogledu anatomije. učenje. Također je naveden eksperiment koje je baziran na ubrizgavanju hemijskih supstanci u amigdalu i hipokampus i pojašnjene su posljedice ubrizgavanja. Podaci dobijeni iz niza eksperimenata sprovedenih nad ovom osobom su upoređena sa kontrolnom grupom osoba bez ikakvih moždanih mana. Ključne riječi: emocije. Rezultati ovih eksperimentata su također potkrepljeni dijagramima i MR snimcima kako bi se slikovito prikazale sve posljedice i rezultati disfunkcije hipokampusa ili amigdale. nakon čega slijedi opšta definicija učenja i najčešće podjele koja se vežu uz učenje.

in addition to these experiments being based on conditioning. the main actors in the emotion/learning correlation which would be the amygdala and the hippocampus are presented in short notes on their specific structure. declarative memory 4 . location within the brain and their overall function with respective figures and MRI scans. hippocampus. The findings of these experiments are also aided by diagrams and MRI scans to visually present all the consequences and results of amygdala or hippocampus disfunction. Key words: emotion. Detailed images of the affected amygdala together with a healthy amygdala MRI scan are also presented as reference. a correlation is drawn between the amygdala and the hippocampus in terms of their intertwined function regarding memory storage. Stephen Krashen’s Input hypothesis is taken as one example of the emotion/learning correlation being incorporated into a theory of acquisition. affective filter. Lastly. hence learning. For the purpose of showing the core linkage between these two brain structures the evidence is attained in the crudest way possible where little influence due to personality. amygdala. Furthermore. hence the experiment showcases a person with brain damage in the area of the amygdala with no damage to other brain structures and in a series of experiments the data of this person is compared to a control group of humans without brain damage.Abstract This bachelor’s thesis revolves around the topic of the importance of emotions in the learning process and this intricate issue is explained by describing first of all the basic definition of emotion and its most common classification followed by the general definition of learning and its most common classification. Thirdly. motivation and other detrimental factors is to be expected. namely the Affective filter Stephen Krashen proposes is taken as a concrete example of the amygdala/hippocampus relationship. Secondly. an experiment is even included which revolves around drug administration to the amygdala and the hippocampus and it also explains the effects of such action and a general scientific conclusion about the shared function of both the amygdala and the hippocampus in terms of declarative memory encoding and reproduction is drawn. learning.

Conclusion....................................................7 2............... Introduction............................................................................15 7..............24 9......................................................6 2........................7 2......................................13 6..............10 5.......................................................................... The Hippocampus: Physiology....................... Learning............................................................................................................................................................................2..........................9 4.... Emotion.....................22 8.......................................1........ The Amygdala: Physiology.................... Affective Filter.. References.....................................................................................................................................25 5 .............................................................................................Table of contents 1.......................................................................... Emotion and Learning: Definitions............................ The Amygdala and the Hippocampus: Interrelation................................................

Sometimes it is defined as a complex state of feeling that results in physical and psychological changes that influence thought and behaviour. 1971 6 . It is rather the result of unhampered participation in a meaningful setting. Appraisal Processes in Emotion: Theory. There is no general consensus among scholars on the definition of emotion. 1 Klaus R. To be more precise. this thesis is focused on the interrelationship between the hippocampus and the amygdala. Introduction The purpose of this paper is to take a closer look at the influence of emotions on the process of learning. 'In fact. learning is the human activity which least needs manipulation by others. Ivan Illich proposes the following definition of learning. i. hence a myriad of definitions are available.'1 In comparison. Utilising the information provided in the textbooks. Deschooling society.2 In the comparison of these two definitions we see the intertwined relationship between emotions and learning as learning is a natural process in a meaningful setting according to Illich. I shall set out to provide a detailed overview of the intricate internal emotional framework of humans and how it interacts with the learning module. 2004 2 Illich. Most learning is not the result of instruction. in the framework of the Component Process Model. However. Angela Schorr & Tom Johnstone.e. Scherer. synchronised changes in the states of all or most of the five organismic subsystems in response to the evaluation of an external or internal stimulus event as relevant to major concerns of the organism. Klaus Scherer defines emotion as 'an episode of interrelated.1. a process that is constant and which evokes emotions and is affected by the learner's own emotions which are triggered by a meaningful setting.

a critical peer-reviewed introduction. medicine. 4 Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) is a functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow. Even computer science has contributed significantly to the development of the research on emotion has largely advanced due to the availability of PET scans 3 and fMRI scans4 in the study of affective processes within the human brain. These five critical elements include:  Cognitive appraisal. Secaucus.E. Emotion Emotions are regarded as mind-situated experiences of limited duration involving high mental activity linked with comfort or discomfort. Maisey (2005). neuroscience. ISBN 185233-798-2. Scherer lists five critical elements of emotions. Emotions are a state of feeling that result in physiological and psychological changes that influence our conduct and learning capabilities. In the component processing model of emotions. Bailey. 3Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine. Retrieved 17 November 2014. conscious reaction presented mainly by paraphysiological expressions. According to the component processing perspective emotional experience is considered to be driven by appraisal processes and it is require that every defined process be coordinated and synchronised for a short duration. Emotion is in most cases the driving force and catalyst of motivation. biochemical reactions and mental states. In the framework of psychology and philosophy.W. R. whether positive or negative. The research on affect has made significant progress in the past few decades due to the contribution of scientists from many different fields including psychology. K. in addition to being regarded from different viewpoints for various theories and approaches. As stated before. personality and motivation. Townsend.1.1. M.N. European Magnetic Resonance Forum. evaluating events and objects. 7 . there is no scientific consensus on the definition of emotion as it blends together with mood. NJ: Springer-Verlag. Emotion and Learning: Definitions 1. functional MRI". P.L. D. Valk. D. Positron Emission Tomography: Basic Sciences. and it has therefore a direct influence on the learning process. functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body. emotion typically includes a subjunctive. "Magnetic Resonance. sociology and similar.

though at times. activating and deactivating.  Action tendencies. representing the motivational element for motor responses  Expressions. representing the subjective or emotional state once it manifests. when taking the significance of emotions into consideration regarding the learning process.e. representing the physiological element of the emotional experience.e. if the situations demands such action a slight bias is welcomed. The importance of this design may be construed in the fact that it eases the mapping of emotions which are considered pleasant or unpleasant. or too unpleasant or too pleasant. Using this multidimensional scaling map (Figure (1)). 8 . therefore the aim of every teacher and instructor should be to conform the learning environment to facilitate emotions which hang in the balance between being too deactivating or too activating. Body symptoms. The ultimate goal is to reach homeostasis in terms of learning environment which will nurture and aid significantly in the learning process. a scale of how positive or negative an experience is perceived) and arousal (i. how invigorating or devitalising the experience was) and the twodimensional theory also envisions the significant component of emotion called core affect which colours the emotion with hedonic and directly felt energy. psychologists have the ability of mapping similar emotional experiences. representing facial and vocal expressions accompanying an emotional state  Feelings. These experiences are divided into two dimensions also referred to as valence (i.

061. Source: http://journal.3389/neuro.2009/full 9 .Figure (1).09.frontiersin.org/article/10.

but sometimes a classroom brimmed with noisy children/colleagues who will have immense influence on the emotional state of the learner. In the experiments that are listed in section 6 classical conditioning is used to determine the effects of certain types of brain damage have on the functionality of the hippocampus and the amygdala. 10 . which represent the integral part to the learning system. whether purposive. reflective. also called associative learning due to the established link between stimuli. this paper shall focus on the amygdala and the hippocampus. 2. however we may postulate that learning may be defined as a change in activity due to experience and experience is regarded to be the result of the interaction of a person with its environment..1.. physical. however basic and instinctive it may be it is perhaps the most accurate way. for instance habituation and similar. engaged.) and a response in form of behaviour or association within the mind is only of importance because it the securest way of making assertions after experiments due to its crude nature. regardless of which kind of active learning we are speaking of. On the other hand. The most basic differentiation in terms of learning is:   Active learning Passive learning Passive learning is of little interest to us at this stage since passive learning includes rather subconscious non-associative learning. in a learning environment which is not always the cosy rocking chair at home whilst reading a book. critical. The gist of this paper is about the influence of emotion on active learning within a learning environment. when talking about the interrelationship between emotion and learning active learning is by far of more interest to us due to the simple fact that the human mind has to actively participate in the learning process. Learning According to Vid Pecjak there is no exact definition of learning. which in most cases equates to a stimulus (visual. Hence. situation-depending and other. on its own volition. Learning via conditioning. auditory.2.. The learning is a very complex undertaking so I shall only briefly elaborate the different factors which lie at the core of the learning process.

for instance anguish and sadness. but they are linked in storing. it was scientifically proven that through electrical stimulations of the right hemisphere amygdala negative emotions are induced. Both amygdalae have separate independent memory systems.wordpress. Hence. Research has proven that the amygdala's primary function is revolving around the processing of memory. By contrast. stimulation of the left hemisphere amygdala induced positive emotions such as happiness and it is also prominent in the brain's reward system. there is still difference between them. due to stimuli applied to the right hemisphere amygdala and memories and emotions processed by said amygdala the person’s response is tainted by fearful and unpleasant emotional markers. As stated earlier. the right hemisphere amygdala is also interesting because of its prominence in the fear conditioning process.jpg the amygdala is present in both temporal lobes. Figure (2). 11 . each side possesses a specific function as to how we construe and process emotion. However. Furthermore. in terms of physiology both amygdala nuclei are mirrored in appearance and constitution. The Amygdala: Physiology The amygdala is an shaped nucleus situated medially deep within the temporal lobe.com/2013/01/20130109-212300.almond Source: https://teddybrain.3. however.files. Namely. decision-making and emotions.

amygdala activity did not stand in a close-knit relationship with the ability to recall the information presented in the movies weeks later. H. 2003.encoding and interpreting emotion. Furthermore. on the other hand. ‘These findings thus provide strong support for the hypothesis that the degree of arousal occurring in an emotional learning situation – and not the pleasant or unpleasant nature of the emotion – is the key determinant of amygdala participation in modulating memory storage. but it also provides us with some in-depth account as to what chemical changes the amygdala undergoes during its activity. in other words pleasant. and a link with the amygdala and long-term memory could be construed. or rather inhibiting factor. Cahill used the socalled PET scan to measure glucose concentration within the amygdala and his tests using O15 blood flow measurement provided proof for the selective activation of the amygdala in memory encoding for emotional input. One interesting parcel of information regarding the amygdala which complements the research on the amygdala function in terms of memory is the following brain imaging study performed by Cahill in 1996. It is one of the major components of the learning process. with the same subjects. In Figure (3) activity of the right hemisphere amygdala while encoding data stood in a closeknit link to long-term recall of the data many weeks later. This experiment does not only present evidence for the deep-rooted role the amygdala has to play in terms of emotionally tinted input. Hill Goldsmith Handbook of Affective Sciences. not only because of its function in terms of storing information. pg. Therefore.’5 5 Richard J Davidson. The results his experiment presented provide further evidence for the role of the amygdala in long-term memory encoding and recalling for input which was received in emotionally arousing environments or the input itself was emotionally arousing. the subjects in this case study were also shown emotionally arousing material which was positively valenced. the importance of the amygdala cannot be overlooked. 108 12 . Klaus R Scherer. Hence Cahill proposed the following hypothesis after vigilant analysis of the data of his experiments. to the learning process or a catalyst. To be more detailed. but more importantly because of its function in terms of leaving an emotional mark on every piece of information which can be either a detrimental factor.

Diagram (b) shows the results of patients watching emotionally neutral films and the subsequent ability to recall the data. Hill Goldsmith Handbook of Affective Sciences. Diagram (a) shows amygdala activity (glucose levels) while subjects were exposed to emotionally arousing films and they were able to recall the material after 3 weeks. H.Figure (3) shows the results of the positron emission tomography of the amygdala in terms of participation in memory storage in healthy subjects. the right hemisphere amygdala did not participate significantly in the recall of emotionally neutral material. Klaus R Scherer. 2003 13 . Figure (3). Source: Richard J Davidson.

and hence comes the intertwined relationship with the amygdala.jpg . which was also observed for the amygdala. Furthermore. spatial awareness and emotional processing. T h e Hippocampus: Physiology According to Squire & Knowlton the hippocampus represents an entity which is thoroughly involved in episodic. contextual and spatial learning and memory.4.wikimedia. the hippocampus also secretes the hormone corticotrophin which is a countermeasure to stress and this 14 Figure (4). The hippocampus is one of the major components of the human brain and similarly to the amygdalae the hippocampus is also present in both temporal lobes and they are mirrored in respect of structure and location.org/wiki/File:Hippocampus-mri. The significance of the hippocampus lies in the short-term and long-term memory processing. Source: https://commons.

The hippocampus is located at the edge of the cerebral cortex and such structures which reside at the very edge of the cortex are part of the limbic system (which also includes the amygdala). 15 . Figure (2) provides us with the general location of the hippocampus in relation to other structures of the limbic system. whereas Figure (4) provides us with an MRI scan of a healthy person’s hippocampus. In section 6 it is proven that there cannot be a normal functioning human with an intact amygdala but damaged hippocampus or vice versa which is one of the reasons why these two are considered in detail in this thesis. shown in Figure (2) and (4).hormone in turn causes increased cortisol production which is another countermeasure to biological stress and low blood sugar. Functional brain imaging experiments have shown hippocampal activation during the exposure to the negatively valenced stimuli such as trace conditioning and threat-related words or even monetary fines.

as well as homeostatic situations of the learner. In the Handbook of Affective Sciences by J. All of the studies carried out on amygdalae function and importance are essentially case studies and there are three main aetiologies related to amygdala damage:  unilateral. non-selective amygdala damage resulting from encephalitis.e. complete. for instance anxiety disorders. non-selective.5. Channon. discrimination of sensory input based on their link with unconditioned input). The person suffering from bilateral amygdala damage was not able to acquire conditioned skin-conductance 16 . bilateral. Spencer &Phelps 1995) or eye blink magnitude (Daum. An experiment was carried out which was similar in nature to fear conditioning with a human subject suffering from amygdala lesions and the ability to learn conditioned autonomic responses to stimuli paired with an aversive startle stimulus was tested. Hence. even conditioned fear is one link we may use to establish the importance of the amygdala with the learning process. the importance of emotions and the amygdalae together with the hippocampal complex cannot be overlooked. panic attacks or PTSDs. Most commonly the lesion method is used to investigate the significance of the amygdala in terms of emotional learning and emotional responses in humans. and mostly incomplete damage resulting from neurosurgical  temporal lobectomy whilst treating epilepsy. bilateral. In certain pathological conditions. The amygdala plays also a paramount role in behaviour and responses that are induced in high arousal and stress situations. Polky. The Amygdala and the Hippocampus: Interrelation The amygdalae have paramount roles in the formation and storage of memories associated with emotional events. Gray 1991) showed impaired conditional discrimination (i. Davidson and Klaus Scherer the amygdalae are described as having the most important role in behaviour linked with high arousal and stress. these disorders are likely invoked via conditioned input as fear stemming from the amygdala. LeDoux. A number of recent lesion studies using measures such as skin conductance response (LaBar. Therefore. somewhat selective but mostly incomplete damage caused by the UrbachWiethe disease or from neurosurgical bilateral amygdalotomy for treating psychiatric  conditions.

This case study endorses the fact that the declarative and nondeclarative memory depends on the amygdala and the hippocampus respectively. at least in the boundaries of this experiment. though the patient did acquire the declarative knowledge regarding the stimuli linked to the startle stimulus. The subjects were presented with 12 slides with varying emotional arousal. 2003) 6 Figure (5) showcases the test subjects suffering from bilateral damage to the amygdala took to determine the impairment to the declarative memory system under emotionally arousing stimulus. the seventh one being the peak arousal slide. 17 . However. the amygdala is not of utmost importance for the acquisition of all forms of non-declarative knowledge as emotional a person suffering from amnesia with complete bilateral amygdala damage had the ability to avoid people with whom he had negative experiences and conversely to engage with Figure (5) (Source: Richard J Davidson. Klaus R Scherer. Data a) showcases the results of the subsequent questionnaire of the control group. On the other hand. a person suffering from amnesia due to damage to the hippocampus was tested in the same experiment and the patient failed to 6acquire declarative knowledge normal but acquired conditioned skin conductance responses. Hill Goldsmith Handbook of Affective Sciences. H. Data under b) showcases the results of the questionnaires handed in by 6 brain-damaged subjects with no damage to the amygdala and the from the subject names SM (solid line).responses.

1995. These studies surmount to undisputable evidence that the amygdala plays a role in the deepening of memory traces for emotionally arousing stimuli during the acquisition and rooting as long-term declarative memory. Cahill. There are 4 case studies (Adoplph et al. Lee & Adolphs. despite the inability to declaratively recall ever having met them. Glover ˛Gabrieli. Hill Goldsmith Handbook of Affective Sciences. 1999) of significance proving that patients suffering from selective bilateral amygdala damage require the actual amygdala for strong memory in combination with highly aversive and emotionally startling stimuli. Hamann. 1996. These case studies go hand in hand with the scientific evidence provided by several lesion studies (Cahill et al. 1998) where it was proven via functional imaging studies that amygdala activation at the first instance and encoding of a stimulus correlates to the remembrance of the stimulus weeks later.. 2003) 18 . 1993.people he had positive experiences with. Markowitsch. The effects of amygdala damage in view of the natural potentiation of emotion are represented in Figure (5). Desmond. Babinsky. though only in instance where the stimulus is highly arousing. whereas the control group showed superior Figure (6) (Source: Richard J Davidson. Canli. Babinsky et al. The experiment showcases a patient with bilateral amygdala damage recalled neutral stimuli equally well as emotionally arousing stimuli. Zhao.. H. ˛McGaugh. 1997. Klaus R Scherer.

and 7 Richard J Davidson. Now a neutral stimulus has evolved into a stimulus able to evoke reactions similar to those of an emotional stimulus. Hill Goldsmith Handbook of Affective Sciences. taboo words. hence the hippocampus. The group of patients who had suffered from damage to the hippocampus but with an intact amygdala failed to develop any declarative knowledge but showed normal skin-conductance reactions. though she failed the skin-conductance test. A similar second study using short auditory input instead of coloured slides paired with the startling auditory input lead to the same result with the normal group (presented with red bars in the figure). together with the experiments carried out with animals.. it is unambiguously proven that the amygdala may modulate hippocampal-dependent memory rooting and it was revealed that the amygdala has the primary role in such processes during tasks including aversive emotional stimulus. To be precise. Klaus R Scherer. the subjects SM with a damaged amygdala but unharmed other brain structures had full declarative knowledge. Hamann. functional imaging experiments prove that high amygdala activity during the time stimuli are encoded entail a subsequent recall of the same content weeks after (Cahill et al. Furthermore. After a number of such presentations the presentation of blue slides without the auditory input evoked the same skin conductance in normal subjects.memory capabilities over the emotionally arousing content. suggest a 'time limited role in consolidation'7. Slides with different colours lead to no response. Figure (6) presents evidence that a damaged amygdala inhibits the acquisition of autonomic responses. Grafton. The experiments regarding human imaging. On the other hand. 1999). & Kits. Blue slides were paired with a loud auditory input (unconditioned stimulus. similar studies like the abovementioned performed on humans regarding amygdala damage showed findings regarding lexical stimuli. to be precise. 1006. The study included slides of various colours – visionary/auditory conditioning. US) that evoked skin conductance responses in the subjects. Ely. This evidence clearly presents us with the individual significance of the hippocampus and the amygdala and it precisely showcases the paramount importance of emotions and similar input in terms of learning as the amygdala may not only harm the process but also significantly improve it. but it is certain that the amygdala directly affects declarative memory. 2003 19 . Even in terms of animal experiments. H. The amygdala still remains a mysterious entity within the human brain and its precise mechanisms are still not fully explored and identified.

Specifically with this patient. Namely. Adolphs & Tranel. 1998). 2003) There is one subject (name: SM) suffering from complete bilateral amygdala damage without any substantial damage to other brain structures. perimygdaloid. 2000.proved an enhance memory capability with words linked with emotion. She was studied in detail in Tranel & Hyman. H. including the hippocampal complex – this is also proven by her average performance in terms of standard tasks including declarative 20 . amygdaloidal and adjacent parahippocampal. In almost half of all noted cases patients develop avascular and atrophic mineralisation of medial temporal neural tissue which involves calcification of hippocampal. Figure (7) (Source: Richard J Davidson. entorhinal and perihinal cortices. this relationship extends over a period of time and fully depends on the amygdala (LaBar ˛Phelps. Hill Goldsmith Handbook of Affective Sciences. Klaus R Scherer. MR scans taken sporadically show the patient's selective and completely damaged amygdalae without any damage to any of the other brain structures. 1990. the subject is 32-year-old-woman suffering from Urbach-Withe disease which attacks epithelial tissue.

impairs memory when administered into either the amygdala or CA1 region of the hippocampus immediately after training. Figure (7) presents the MR imaging of patient SM with selective bilateral amygdala damage. Further evidence for the interrelation of the hippocampus and the amygdala can be found in drug administration experiments after certain training was performed.memory. In contrast. The general conclusion of that experiment found in Barros et al. These findings support the view that the amygdala influence on memory is modulatory whereas the hippocampus appears to be essential for consolidation of memory for training in this task. Hill Goldsmith Handbook of Affective Sciences. H. 103 21 . pg. KN-62. image A represents the horizontal section at the level of the amygdala. Klaus R Scherer. image B represents the coronal section at the level of the hippocampus. other brain structures remain intact. ‘Infusions of the CaMKII inhibitor. The figure shows clear damage to both amygdalae and a lesser amount of damage to the anterior . image C represents the coronal section at the level of the amygdala. 1999 stipulated that the inhibition of memory depends on both the amygdala and the hippocampus. 2003. Furthermore. infusion of any of several drugs (including 8-bromo-cAMP and norepinephrine) into the hippocampus three hours after the attenuate the memory-impairing effects of the previous KN-62 infusions administered into the amygdala. The upper left image presents SM’s brain in 3D. the drugs infused into the hippocampus three hours after training did not attenuate the memory impairment induced by post training intra-hippocampal infusion of KN-62.’8 8 Richard J Davidson.

When compared to Figure (7) the lesions of patient SM become evident.Figure (8) is a coronal MRI image a healthy person’s amygdala. 22 .

org/2012/11/a-brain-region-sensitive-to-social-rank/amygdala/ 23 .brainfacts.Figure (8). Source: http://blog.

there is no corresponding brain structure. what is more interesting is that it provides for the influence of negative emotions over the language acquisition process. the affective filter will be lowered and there is no blockade between the comprehensible input (CI) and the language acquisition device (LAD). The core gist of the hypothesis is that language acquisition is for the most part a subconscious process. Affective Filter The affective filter is a term coined by Stephen Krashen and it is one of the major methodological constructs of the Input hypothesis which is an integral part of Krashen’s second language acquisition theory. Krashen developed the Input hypothesis or the monitor model during 1970-1980 and this hypothesis represents a narrower approach and utilisation of the amygdala-hippocampus interrelation in a language learning environment. However. any learning process and therefore the language learning process as well. If the environment is of homeostatic nature.6. the addition of the affective filter makes the Input hypothesis a prime example of the importance the amygdala has over the learning process. however. even love for 24 . it may be regarded a mental structure which is made manifest within the learner depending on the individual’s environment. however the hypothesis itself is of little importance at this stage. under stress situations and learner environment which are high marked by negative emotions such as anxiety and anguish and basically any other form of emotional discomfort. The affective filter itself is a hypothetical construct.

25 . the affective filter is also based on the motivation of the learner. according to Krashen. It is important to note that the affective filter is not solely revolving around emotions and homeostatic feelings. Motivation my not be an emotion per se. though these emotions have also a major role. still the inborn tendencies and preferences of learners are also one major factor that may activate the affective filter.that matter. the affective filter will be operational and serve as an impediment to the natural acquisition process.

since memory encoding and long-term memory storing is performed by the amygdala and the hippocampus in a healthy human together.7. All of the evidence provided above point to the same thing which is the undisputable sway emotions holds over the learning process and memory encoding process. but more specifically over the hippocampal complex. Also. Stephen Krashen’s affective filter is taken as a practical prime example of the explained interrelation between the amygdala and the hippocampus. a study is quoted in which through drug administration it was proven that the amygdala and hippocampus are in fact permanently linked in the limbic system. as the coup de grace. The experiments showcase a human patient with damage to the amygdala and the result of the declarative memory tests and skin conductance tests as well as questionnaire results are then compared to a healthy control group. 26 . Finally. Conclusion When talking about the intertwined state of emotion and learning we inevitable must talk about the physiology of the amygdala and the hippocampus in order to establish a clear picture of their location and exact function in the brain. The aim of this thesis is to make an attempt at presenting hard proof of the underlying compulsion of the amygdala over the whole brain. even though their exact function is still not determined completely.

Angela Schorr & Tom Johnstone. Hill Goldsmith. Social Science Information.pvsps."What are emotions? And how can they be measured?". H. References Vid Pečjak. 2003 Klaus R.cz/data/document/20120521/Trnka_PhD_Theory_of_MultiDimensional_Emotional_Experience_2011_. Scherer. Klaus R Scherer. Handbook of Affective Sciences. Pearson Longman 2007 Richard J Davidson. 1973 Jeremy Harner. Psihologija spoznavanja.8.pdf?id=841 27 . Državna založba Slovenije. Scherer. 2005 http://www. Appraisal Processes in Emotion: Theory. 2001 Klaus R. The Practice of English Language Teaching.