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Humanspaceflight
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Humanspaceflight(alsoreferredtoasmannedspaceflight)is
spacetravelwithacreworpassengersaboardthespacecraft.
Spacecraftcarryingpeoplemaybeoperateddirectly,byhumancrew,
oritmaybeeitherremotelyoperatedfromgroundstationsonEarth
orbeautonomous,abletocarryoutaspecificmissionwithnohuman
involvement.
ThefirsthumanspaceflightwaslaunchedbytheSovietUnionon12
April1961asapartoftheVostokprogram,withcosmonautYuri
Gagarinaboard.Humanshavebeencontinuallypresentinspacefor
15yearsand341daysontheInternationalSpaceStation.Allearly
humanspaceflightwascrewed,whereatleastsomeofthepassengers
actedtocarryouttasksofpilotingoroperatingthespacecraft.After
2015,severalhumancapablespacecraftarebeingexplicitlydesigned
withtheabilitytooperateautonomously.
SincetheretirementoftheUSSpaceShuttlein2011,onlyRussia
andChinahavemaintainedhumanspaceflightcapabilitywiththe
SoyuzprogramandShenzhouprogram.Currently,allexpeditionsto
theInternationalSpaceStationuseSoyuzvehicles,whichremain
attachedtothestationtoallowquickreturnifneeded.TheUnited
Statesisdevelopingcommercialcrewtransportationtofacilitate
domesticaccesstoISSandlowEarthorbit,aswellastheOrion
vehicleforbeyondlowEarthorbitapplications.

Apollo11crewmemberBuzzAldrinwalksonthe
Moon,1969

Whilespaceflighthastypicallybeenagovernmentdirectedactivity,
commercialspaceflighthasgraduallybeentakingonagreaterrole.
Thefirstprivatehumanspaceflighttookplaceon21June2004,when
SpaceShipOneconductedasuborbitalflight,andanumberofnon
governmentalcompanieshavebeenworkingtodevelopaspace
tourismindustry.NASAhasalsoplayedaroletostimulateprivate
InternationalSpaceStationcrewmemberTracy
spaceflightthroughprogramssuchasCommercialOrbital
CaldwellDysonviewstheEarth,2010
TransportationServices(COTS)andCommercialCrewDevelopment
(CCDev).Withits2011budgetproposalsreleasedin2010,[1]the
ObamaadministrationmovedtowardsamodelwherecommercialcompanieswouldsupplyNASAwithtransportation
servicesofbothpeopleandcargotransporttolowEarthorbit.Thevehiclesusedfortheseservicescouldthenserveboth
NASAandpotentialcommercialcustomers.CommercialresupplyofISSbegantwoyearsaftertheretirementofthe
Shuttle,andcommercialcrewlaunchescouldbeginby2017.[2]

Contents
1 History
1.1 Firsthumanspaceflights
1.2 US/Russiancooperation
1.3 China
1.4 Abandonedprogramsofothernations
1.5 UnitedStatespostSpaceShuttlegap
1.6 Commercialprivatespaceflight
2 Milestones
3 Spaceprograms
3.1 Currentprograms
3.2 Plannedfutureprograms
4 Nationalspacefaringattempts
5 Safetyconcerns
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5.1 Environmentalhazards
5.1.1 Lifesupport
5.1.2 Medicalissues
5.1.2.1 Microgravity
5.1.2.2 Radiation
5.1.2.3 Isolation
5.2 Mechanicalhazards
5.2.1 Launch
5.2.2 Reentryandlanding
5.2.3 Artificialatmosphere
5.2.4 Reliability
5.3 Fatalityrisk
6 Seealso
7 References
7.1 Citations
7.2 Bibliography
8 Externallinks

History
Firsthumanspaceflights
HumanspaceflightcapabilitywasfirstdevelopedduringtheColdWarbetween
theUnitedStatesandtheSovietUnion(USSR),whichdevelopedthefirst
intercontinentalballisticmissilerocketstodelivernuclearweapons.Theserockets
werelargeenoughtobeadaptedtocarrythefirstartificialsatellitesintolowEarth
orbit.Afterthefirstsatelliteswerelaunchedin1957and1958,theUSworkedon
ProjectMercurytolaunchmensinglyintoorbit,whiletheUSSRsecretlypursued
theVostokprogramtoaccomplishthesamething.TheUSSRlaunchedthefirst
humaninspace,YuriGagarinintoasingleorbitinVostok1onaVostok3KA
rocket,onApril12,1961.TheUSlauncheditsfirstastronaut,AlanShepardona
suborbitalflightaboardFreedom7onaMercuryRedstonerocket,onMay5,
1961.UnlikeGagarin,Shepardmanuallycontrolledhisspacecraft'sattitude,and
landedinsideit.ThefirstAmericaninorbitwasJohnGlennaboardFriendship7,
launchedFebruary20,1962onaMercuryAtlasrocket.TheUSSRlaunchedfive
morecosmonautsinVostokcapsules,includingthefirstwomaninspace,
ValentinaTereshkovaaboardVostok6onJune16,1963.TheUSlaunchedatotal
oftwoastronautsinsuborbitalflightandfourinorbitthrough1963.
USPresidentJohnF.KennedyraisedthestakesoftheSpaceRacebysettingthe
goaloflandingamanontheMoonandreturninghimsafelybytheendofthe
1960s.[3]TheUSstartedthethreemanApolloprogramin1961toaccomplish
this,launchedbytheSaturnfamilyoflaunchvehicles,andtheinterimtwoman
ProjectGeminiin1962,whichflew10missionslaunchedbyTitanIIrocketsin
1965and1966.Gemini'sobjectivewastosupportApollobydeveloping
AmericanorbitalspaceflightexperienceandtechniquestobeusedintheMoon
mission.[4]

Vostokspacecapsule,whichcarried
thefirsthumanintoorbit

Mercurycapsule,whichcarriedthe
firstAmericansintospace

Meanwhile,theUSSRremainedsilentabouttheirintentionstosendhumanstotheMoon,andproceededtostretchthe
limitsoftheirsinglepilotVostokcapsuleintoatwoorthreepersonVoskhodcapsuletocompetewithGemini.They
wereabletolaunchtwoorbitalflightsin1964and1965andachievedthefirstspacewalk,madebyAlexeiLeonovon
Voskhod2onMarch8,1965.ButVoskhoddidnothaveGemini'scapabilitytomaneuverinorbit,andtheprogramwas
terminated.TheUSGeminiflightsdidnotaccomplishthefirstspacewalk,butovercametheearlySovietleadby
performingseveralspacewalksandsolvingtheproblemofastronautfatiguecausedbyovercomingthelackofgravity,
demonstratinguptotwoweeksenduranceinahumanspaceflight,andthefirstspacerendezvousanddockingsof
spacecraft.

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TheUSsucceededindevelopingtheSaturnVrocketnecessarytosendtheApollo
spacecrafttotheMoon,andsentFrankBorman,JamesLovell,andWilliam
Andersinto10orbitsaroundtheMooninApollo8inDecember1968.InJuly
1969,Apollo11accomplishedKennedy'sgoalbylandingNeilArmstrongand
BuzzAldrinontheMoonJuly21andreturningthemsafelyonJuly24alongwith
CommandModulepilotMichaelCollins.AtotalofsixApollomissionslanded12
mentowalkontheMoonthrough1972,halfofwhichdroveelectricpowered
vehiclesonthesurface.ThecrewofApollo13,Lovell,JackSwigert,andFred
Haise,survivedacatastrophicinflightspacecraftfailureandreturnedtoEarth
safelywithoutlandingontheMoon.
Meanwhile,theUSSRsecretlypursuedhumanlunarlunarorbitingandlanding
programs.TheysuccessfullydevelopedthethreepersonSoyuzspacecraftforuse
inthelunarprograms,butfailedtodeveloptheN1rocketnecessaryforahuman
landing,anddiscontinuedthelunarprogramsin1974.[5]OnlosingtheMoonrace,
theyconcentratedonthedevelopmentofspacestations,usingtheSoyuzasaferry
totakecosmonautstoandfromthestations.TheystartedwithaseriesofSalyut
sortiestationsfrom1971to1986.

NeilArmstrongbecamethefirst
humantolandandwalkonthe
Moon,July1969.

AftertheApolloprogram,theUSlaunchedtheSkylabsortiespacestationin
1973,manningitfor171dayswiththreecrewsaboardApollospacecraft.
PresidentRichardNixonandSovietPremierLeonidBrezhnevnegotiatedan
Soyuz7KOKspacecraft,1967
easingofrelationsknownasdtente,aneasingofColdWartensions.Aspartof
this,theynegotiatedtheApolloSoyuzTestProject,inwhichanApollospacecraft
carryingaspecialdockingadaptermodulerendezvousedanddockedwithSoyuz19in1975.TheAmericanandRussian
crewsshookhandsinspace,butthepurposeoftheflightwaspurelydiplomaticandsymbolic.
NixonappointedhisVicePresidentSpiroAgnewtoheadaSpaceTaskGroupin
1969torecommendfollowonhumanspaceflightprogramsafterApollo.The
groupproposedanambitiousSpaceTransportationSystembasedonareusable
SpaceShuttlewhichconsistedofawinged,internallyfueledorbiterstageburning
liquidhydrogen,launchedbyasimilar,butlargerkerosenefueledboosterstage,
eachequippedwithairbreathingjetenginesforpoweredreturntoarunwayatthe
KennedySpaceCenterlaunchsite.Othercomponentsofthesystemincludeda
permanentmodularspacestation,reusablespacetugandnuclearinterplanetary
ferry,leadingtoahumanexpeditiontoMarsasearlyas1986,oraslateas2000,
SpaceShuttleasoriginallydesigned
dependingontheleveloffundingallocated.However,NixonknewtheAmerican
byNorthAmericanRockwell,1969
politicalclimatewouldnotsupportCongressionalfundingforsuchanambition,
andkilledproposalsforallbuttheShuttle,possiblytobefollowedbythespace
station.PlansfortheShuttlewerescaledbacktoreducedevelopmentrisk,cost,andtime,replacingthepilotedflyback
boosterwithtworeusablesolidrocketboosters,andthesmallerorbiterwoulduseanexpendableexternalpropellanttank
tofeeditshydrogenfueledmainengines.Theorbiterwouldhavetomakeunpoweredlandings.
Thetwonationscontinuedtocompeteratherthancooperateinspace,astheUS
turnedtodevelopingtheSpaceShuttleandplanningthespacestation,dubbed
Freedom.TheUSSRlaunchedthreeAlmazmilitarysortiestationsfrom1973to
1977,disguisedasSalyuts.TheyfollowedSalyutwiththedevelopmentofMir,
thefirstmodular,semipermanentspacestation,theconstructionofwhichtook
placefrom1986to1996.Mirorbitedatanaltitudeof354kilometers(191
nauticalmiles),ata51.6inclination.Itwasoccupiedfor4,592days,andmadea
controlledreentryin2001.

TheSpaceShuttleorbiter,asbuilt

TheSpaceShuttlestartedflyingin1981,buttheUSCongressfailedtoapprove
sufficientfundstomakeFreedomareality.Afleetoffourshuttleswasbuilt:Columbia,Challenger,Discovery,and
Atlantis.Afifthshuttle,Endeavour,wasbuilttoreplaceChallengerwhichwasdestroyedinanaccidentduringlaunch
whichkilled7astronautsonJanuary28,1986.TwentytwoShuttleflightscarriedaEuropeanSpaceAgencysortiespace
stationcalledSpacelabinthepayloadbayfrom1983to1998.[6]

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TheUSSRcopiedthereusableSpaceShuttleorbiter,whichitcalledBuran.Itwas
designedtobelaunchedintoorbitbytheexpendableEnergiarocket,andcapable
ofroboticorbitalflightandlanding.UnliketheUSShuttle,Buranhadnomain
rocketengines,butuseditsorbitalmaneuveringenginestoinsertitselfintoorbit
butithadairbreathingjetenginesforpoweredlandings.Asingleunmanned
orbitaltestflightwassuccessfullymadeinNovember1988.Asecondtestflight
wasplannedby1993,buttheprogramwascancelledduetolackoffundingand
thedissolutionoftheSovietUnionin1991.Twomoreorbiterswerenever
completed,andthefirstonewasdestroyedinahangarroofcollapseinMay2002.

BuranOrbiter1K1atLeBourget
airshow,1989

US/Russiancooperation
ThedissolutionoftheSovietUnionin1991broughtanendtotheColdWarand
openedthedoortotruecooperationbetweentheUSandRussia.TheSovietSoyuz
andMirprogramsweretakenoverbytheRussianFederalSpaceAgency,now
knownastheRoscosmosStateCorporation.TheShuttleMirProgramincluded
AmericanSpaceShuttlesvisitingtheMirspacestation,Russiancosmonauts
flyingontheShuttle,andanAmericanastronautflyingaboardaSoyuzspacecraft
forlongdurationexpeditionsaboardMir.
In1993,PresidentBillClintonsecuredRussia'scooperationinconvertingthe
plannedSpaceStationFreedomintotheInternationalSpaceStation(ISS).
Constructionofthestationbeganin1998.Thestationorbitsatanaltitudeof409
kilometers(221nmi)andaninclinationof51.65.

InternationalSpaceStation,
assembledinorbitbyUSandRussia

TheSpaceShuttlewasretiredin2011after135orbitalflights,severalofwhichhelpedassemble,supply,andcrewthe
ISS.Columbiawasdestroyedinanotheraccidentduringreentry,whichkilled7astronautsonFebruary1,2003.

China
AfterRussia'slaunchofSputnik1in1957,ChairmanMaoZedongintendedtoplaceaChinesesatelliteinorbitby1959
tocelebratethe10thanniversaryofthefoundingofthePeople'sRepublicofChina(PRC),[7]However,Chinadidnot
successfullylaunchitsfirstsatelliteuntilApril24,1970.MaoandPremierZhouEnlaidecidedonJuly14,1967,thatthe
PRCshouldnotbeleftbehind,andstartedChina'sownhumanspaceflightprogram.[8]Thefirstattempt,theShuguang
spacecraftcopiedfromtheUSGemini,wascancelledonMay13,1972.
ChinalaterdesignedtheShenzhouspacecraftresemblingtheRussianSoyuz,andbecamethethirdnationtoachieve
independenthumanspaceflightcapabilitybylaunchingYangLiweiona21hourflightaboardShenzhou5onOctober
15,2003.ChinalaunchedtheTiangong1spacestationonSeptember29,2011,andtwosortiemissionstoit:Shenzhou9
June1629,2012,withChina'sfirstfemaleastronautLiuYangandShenzhou10,June1326,2013.Thestationwas
retiredon21March2016andremainsina363kilometer(196nauticalmile),42.77inclinationorbit.

Abandonedprogramsofothernations
TheEuropeanSpaceAgencybegandevelopmentin1987oftheHermesspaceplane,tobelaunchedontheAriane5
expendablelaunchvehicle.Theprojectwascancelledin1992,whenitbecameclearthatneithercostnorperformance
goalscouldbeachieved.NoHermesshuttleswereeverbuilt.
Japanbegandevelopmentinthe1980softheHOPEXexperimentalspaceplane,tobelaunchedonitsHIIAexpendable
launchvehicle.Astringoffailuresin1998ledtofundingreduction,andtheproject'scancellationin2003.

UnitedStatespostSpaceShuttlegap
UndertheBushadministration,theConstellationProgramincludedplansforretiringtheShuttleprogramandreplacingit
withthecapabilityforspaceflightbeyondlowEarthorbit.Inthe2011UnitedStatesfederalbudget,theObama
administrationcancelledConstellationforbeingoverbudgetandbehindschedulewhilenotinnovatingandinvestingin
criticalnewtechnologies.[9]ForbeyondlowearthorbithumanspaceflightNASAisdevelopingtheOrionspacecrafttobe
launchedbytheSpaceLaunchSystem.UndertheCommercialCrewDevelopmentplan,NASAwillrelyon
transportationservicesprovidedbytheprivatesectortoreachlowearthorbit,suchasSpaceX'sFalcon9/DragonV2,
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SierraNevadaCorporation'sDreamChaser,orBoeing'sCST100.Theperiodbetweentheretirementoftheshuttlein
2011andtheinitialoperationalcapabilityofnewsystemsin2017,similartothegapbetweentheendofApolloin1975
andthefirstspaceshuttleflightin1981,isreferredtobyapresidentialBlueRibbonCommitteeastheU.S.human
spaceflightgap.[10]

Commercialprivatespaceflight
Aftertheearly2000s,avarietyofprivatespaceflightventureswereundertaken.Severalofthecompaniesformedby
2005,includingBlueOrigin,SpaceX,VirginGalactic,andXCORAerospacehaveexplicitplanstoadvancehuman
spaceflight.Asof2015,allfourofthosecompanieshavedevelopmentprogramsunderwaytoflycommercialpassengers
before2018.
CommercialsuborbitalspacecraftaimedatthespacetourismmarketincludeVirginGalacticSpaceshipTwo,andXCOR's
Lynxspaceplanewhicharebothunderdevelopmentandcouldreachspacebefore2017.[11]Morerecently,BlueOrigin
hasbegunamultiyeartestprogramoftheirNewShepardvehiclewithplanstotestin20152016whilecarryingno
passengers,thenadding"testpassengers"in2017,andinitiatecommercialflightsin2018.[12][13]
SpaceShipOnesuborbitalspaceplane(US,private)withWhiteKnightfromMojaveSpaceport3flightsin2004
SpaceXandBoeingarebothdevelopingpassengercapableorbitalspacecapsulesasof2015,planningtoflyNASA
astronautstotheInternationalSpaceStationassoonas2018.SpaceXwillbecarryingpassengersonDragon2launched
onaFalcon9launchvehicle.BoeingwillbedoingitwiththeirCST100launchedonaUnitedLaunchAllianceAtlasV
launchvehicle.[14]Developmentfundingfortheseorbitalcapabletechnologieshasbeenprovidedbyamixof
governmentandprivatefunds,withSpaceXprovidingagreaterportionoftotaldevelopmentfundingforthishuman
carryingcapabilityfromprivateinvestment.[15][16]Therehavebeennopublicannouncementsofcommercialofferingsfor
orbitalflightsfromeithercompany,althoughbothcompaniesareplanningsomeflightswiththeirownprivate,not
NASA,astronautsonboard.

Milestones
SvetlanaSavitskayabecamethefirstwomantowalkinspaceon25July1984.
SallyRidebecamethefirstAmericanwomaninspacein1983.EileenCollinswasthefirstfemaleshuttlepilot,andwith
shuttlemissionSTS93in1999shebecamethefirstwomantocommandaU.S.spacecraft.
ThelongestsinglehumanspaceflightisthatofValeriPolyakov,wholeftEarthon8January1994,anddidnotreturn
until22March1995(atotalof437days17h58min16s).SergeiKrikalyovhasspentthemosttimeofanyoneinspace,
803days,9hours,and39minutesaltogether.Thelongestperiodofcontinuoushumanpresenceinspaceis15yearsand
341daysontheInternationalSpaceStation,exceedingthepreviousrecordofalmost10years(or3,634days)heldby
Mir,spanningthelaunchofSoyuzTM8on5September1989tothelandingofSoyuzTM29on28August1999.
Formanyyears,onlytheUSSR(laterRussia)andtheUnitedStateshadtheirownastronauts.Citizensofothernations
flewinspace,beginningwiththeflightofVladimirRemek,aCzech,onaSovietspacecrafton2March1978,inthe
Interkosmosprogramme.Asof2010,citizensfrom38nations(includingspacetourists)haveflowninspaceaboard
Soviet,American,Russian,andChinesespacecraft.

Spaceprograms
HumanspaceflightprogramshavebeenconductedbytheformerSovietUnionandcurrentRussianFederation,the
UnitedStates,thePeople'sRepublicofChinaandbyprivatespaceflightcompanyScaledComposites.

Currentprograms
SpacevehiclesarespacecraftusedfortransportationbetweentheEarth'ssurfaceandouterspace,orbetweenlocationsin
outerspace.Thefollowingspacevehiclesandspaceportsarecurrentlyusedforlaunchinghumanspaceflights:
Soyuzprogram(USSR/Russia):spacecraftonSoyuzlaunchvehicle,fromBaikonurCosmodrome129orbital
flightssince1967,includingoneinflightabortwhichfailedtoreachorbit,asofJuly2016
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Shenzhouprogram(Chinese):spacecraftonLongMarch
launchvehicle,fromJiuquanSatelliteLaunchCenter5flights
since2003,asofJuly2016
ThefollowingspacestationsarecurrentlymaintainedinEarthorbit
forhumanoccupation:
InternationalSpaceStation(USandRussia)assembledinorbit:
altitude409kilometers(221nauticalmiles),51.65inclination
crewstransportedbySoyuzspacecraft
Tiangong2(Chinese):altitude392kilometers(212nautical
miles)crewstransportedbyShenzhouspacecraft

Countriesthathavehadhumanspaceflight
programs(darkblue)

Numerousprivatecompaniesattemptedhumanspaceflightprogramsinanefforttowinthe$10millionAnsariXPrize.
Thefirstprivatehumanspaceflighttookplaceon21June2004,whenSpaceShipOneconductedasuborbitalflight.
SpaceShipOnecapturedtheprizeon4October2004,whenitaccomplishedtwoconsecutiveflightswithinoneweek.
SpaceShipTwo,launchingfromthecarrieraircraftWhiteKnightTwo,isplannedtoconductregularsuborbitalspace
tourism.[17]
Mostofthetime,theonlyhumansinspacearethoseaboardtheISS,whosecrewofsixspendsuptosixmonthsatatime
inlowEarthorbit.
NASAandESAusetheterm"humanspaceflight"torefertotheirprogramsoflaunchingpeopleintospace.These
endeavorshavealsobeenreferredtoas"mannedspacemissions,"thoughbecauseofgenderspecificitythisisnolonger
officialparlanceaccordingtoNASAstyleguides.[18]

Plannedfutureprograms
TheIndianSpaceResearchOrganisation(ISRO)hasbegunworkonpreprojectactivitiesofahumanspaceflightmission
program.[19]TheobjectiveistocarryacrewoftwotoLowEarthOrbit(LEO)andreturnthemsafelytoapredefined
destinationonEarth.Theprogramisproposedtobeimplementedindefinedphases.Currently,thepreprojectactivities
areprogressingwithafocusonthedevelopmentofcriticaltechnologiesforsubsystemssuchastheCrewModule(CM),
EnvironmentalControlandLifeSupportSystem(ECLSS),CrewEscapeSystem,etc.Thedepartmenthasinitiatedpre
projectactivitiestostudytechnicalandmanagerialissuesrelatedtocrewedmissions.Theprogramenvisagesthe
developmentofafullyautonomousorbitalvehiclecarrying2or3crewmemberstoabout300kmlowearthorbitand
theirsafereturn.
IntheRepublicofChina(Taiwan),anindigenousTaiwanesemannedspaceflightprogramwasbegunin1991tocompete
withthemannedspaceprogramofthePeople'sRepublicofChina(PRC)andissteadilymakingprogressinthe
innovationanddevelopmentofthespacecraft,satelliteandrockettechnologywhichiscurrentlybeingdesignedforboth
orbitalspaceflightsaroundEarthaswellasfuturevoyagestothemoonandplanetMarsbyTaiwaneseastronauts.Aspart
ofthishumanspaceflighteffort,Taiwan'sNationalSpaceOrganizationhasbuiltnumerousrocketsandspacevehicle
prototypestolaunchbothsatellitesandTaiwaneseastronautsintospace.[20]Taiwanhasalsodevelopedstateoftheart
cuttingedgetechnologies,whichonlyasmallnumberofcountriesliketheUnitedStates,FranceandGermanypossess,
forspaceflightinindigenousTaiwanesebuiltsatellites.[21][22][23]Additionally,theTaiwanLunarLanderProgramwas
initiatedin2016andisatechnologicalinnovationprogramcurrentlyongoingandindevelopmentbyTaiwan'sNational
ChungShanInstituteofScienceandTechnology,whichalsodesignedandbuilttheadvancedramjetpowerednuclear
weaponscapableHsiungFengIIIhypersonicmissile,[24][25]tobuildacuttingedgeadvancedArtificialIntelligence(A.I.)
autonomouslunarlanderthatisscheduledtobesenttothesurfaceofthemoonintheyear2020.Theadvanced
innovativeTaiwanesetechnologydevelopedinthisprojectisdesignedtobeusedinpreparationforTaiwan'sManned
SpaceflightProgram'sfuturemissionstothemoon,planetMarsandasteroidsbyTaiwaneseastronauts.[26][27][28]
TheUnitedStatesNASAisdevelopingaplantolandhumansonMarsbythe2030s.Thefirststepinthismissionbegins
sometimeduring2020,whenNASAplanstosendanunmannedcraftintodeepspacetoretrieveanasteroid.[29]The
asteroidwillbepushedintothemoonsorbit,andstudiedbyastronautsaboardOrion,NASAsfirsthumanspacecraftina
generation.[30]OrionscrewwillreturntoEarthwithsamplesoftheasteroidandtheircollecteddata.Inadditionto
broadeningAmericasspacecapabilities,thismissionwilltestnewlydevelopedtechnology,suchassolarelectric
propulsion,whichusessolararraysforenergyandrequirestentimeslesspropellantthantheconventionalchemical
counterpartusedforpoweringspaceshuttlestoorbit.[31]
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Severalothercountriesandspaceagencieshaveannouncedandbegunhumanspaceflightprogramsbytheirown
technology,Japan(JAXA),Iran(ISA)andMalaysia(MNSA).

Nationalspacefaringattempts
Thissectionlistsallnationswhichhaveattemptedhumanspaceflightprograms.Thisshouldnottobeconfused
withnationswithcitizenswhohavetraveledintospaceincludingspacetourists,flownorintendedtoflybyforeign
country'sornondomesticprivatespacesystemsthesearenotcountedasnationalspacefaringattemptsinthis
list.
Nation/Organization Spaceagency
Sovietspace
UnionofSoviet program
SocialistRepublics
(OKB1
(19221991)
Design
Bureau)

Term(s)forspace
traveler

First
launched
astronaut

Date

Spacecraft Launcher

Type

(same
wordin:)(Russian)
Vostok
spacecraft

Vostok

Orbital

National
Aeronautics
Alan
UnitedStatesof
astronaut
andSpace
Shepard
5May1961
America
spaceflightparticipant
Administration
(suborbital)
(NASA)

Mercury
spacecraft

Redstone

Suborbital

National
Aeronautics
UnitedStatesof
astronaut
JohnGlenn
andSpace
20February1962
America
spaceflightparticipant (orbital)
Administration
(NASA)

Mercury
spacecraft

AtlasLV
Orbital
3B

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(Ukrainian)

kosmonavt
cosmonaut
(Kazakh)

Yuri
Gagarin

12April1961

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People's
RepublicofChina

(Chinese)
Spaceprogram
yhngyun
ofthePeople's
(Chinese)
Republicof
hngtinyun
China
taikonaut

...

1973(abandoned)

Shuguang
1

Long

March2A

People's
RepublicofChina

Spaceprogram
ofthePeople's
Republicof
China

(Chinese)
yhngyun
(Chinese)
hngtinyun

...

1981(abandoned)

Piloted
FSW

Long
March2

EuropeanSpace
Agency

CNES/
European
SpaceAgency
(ESA)

spationaute(French)
astronaut

...

1992(abandoned)

Hermes

ArianeV

Russian
FederalSpace
Agency
(Roscosmos)

(Russian)
kosmonavt
cosmonaut

Alexander
Viktorenko,
17March1992
Alexander
Kaleri

Soyuz
SoyuzTM SoyuzU2 TM14to
MIR

...

(Arabic)
rajulfa
(Arabic)
ridfa
(Arabic)
mallfaiy

...

2001(abandoned)

...

Tammouz

2or3

...

2003(abandoned)

HOPEX

HII

Russia

Ba'athistIraq
(19682003)[32]

StateofJapan

NationalSpace
Development
Agencyof
Japan
(NASDA)

People's
RepublicofChina

ChinaNational
Space
Administration
(CNSA)

(Chinese)
tikngrn
(Chinese)
yhngyun
(Chinese)
hngtinyun

Yang
Liwei

15October2003

Shenzhou
spacecraft

Long
Orbital
March2F

IndianSpace
Research
Organisation
(ISRO)

Vyomanaut
(Sanskrit)

...

after2017[33]

Orbital
Vehicle
(OV)

GSLV
MkIII

Islamic
RepublicofIran

IranianSpace
Agency(ISA)

(Persian)
kayhannavard[34]

...

2017
(planned)[35][36]

ISA
manned
spacecraft

...

EuropeanSpace
Agency

European
SpaceAgency
(ESA)

...

2020(approved
conceptuallybutfull ARV
developmentnot
phase2
begun)[37][38][39][40]

ArianeV

...

2025(planned)

HIIB

India

StateofJapan

Japan
Aerospace
Exploration
Agency
(JAXA)

(Japanese)

uchhikshior

astoronoto

astronaut

(Japanese)

uchhikshior

astoronoto

HTV
based
spacecraft

Safetyconcerns
Therearetwomainsourcesofhazardinspaceflight:thoseduetotheenvironmentofspacewhichmakeithostiletothe
humanbody,andthepotentialformechanicalmalfunctionsoftheequipmentrequiredtoaccomplishspaceflight.

Environmentalhazards
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Plannersofhumanspaceflightmissionsfaceanumberofsafetyconcerns.
Lifesupport
Theimmediateneedsforbreathableairanddrinkablewaterareaddressedbythelifesupportsystemofthespacecraft.
Medicalissues
Medicalconsequencessuchaspossibleblindnessandbonelosshavebeenassociatedwithhumanspaceflight.[41][42]
On31December2012,aNASAsupportedstudyreportedthatspaceflightmayharmthebrainofastronautsand
acceleratetheonsetofAlzheimer'sdisease.[43][44][45]
InOctober2015,theNASAOfficeofInspectorGeneralissuedahealthhazardsreportrelatedtospaceexploration,
includingahumanmissiontoMars.[46][47]
Microgravity

Medicaldatafromastronautsinlowearthorbitsforlongperiods,datingbackto
the1970s,showseveraladverseeffectsofamicrogravityenvironment:lossof
bonedensity,decreasedmusclestrengthandendurance,posturalinstability,and
reductionsinaerobiccapacity.Overtimethesedeconditioningeffectscanimpair
astronautsperformanceorincreasetheirriskofinjury.[48]
Inaweightlessenvironment,astronautsputalmostnoweightonthebackmuscles
Theeffectsofmicrogravityonfluid
orlegmusclesusedforstandingup,whichcausesthemtoweakenandget
distributionaroundthebody(greatly
smaller.Astronautscanloseuptotwentypercentoftheirmusclemasson
exaggerated).
spaceflightslastingfivetoelevendays.Theconsequentlossofstrengthcouldbea
seriousproblemincaseofalandingemergency.[49]UponreturntoEarthfrom
longdurationflights,astronautsareconsiderablyweakened,andarenotallowedtodriveacarfortwentyonedays.[50]
Astronautsexperiencingweightlessnesswilloftenlosetheirorientation,getmotionsickness,andlosetheirsenseof
directionastheirbodiestrytogetusedtoaweightlessenvironment.WhentheygetbacktoEarth,oranyothermasswith
gravity,theyhavetoreadjusttothegravityandmayhaveproblemsstandingup,focusingtheirgaze,walkingandturning.
Importantly,thosebodymotordisturbancesafterchangingfromdifferentgravitiesonlygetworsethelongertheexposure
tolittlegravity.Thesechangeswillaffectoperationalactivitiesincludingapproachandlanding,docking,remote
manipulation,andemergenciesthatmayhappenwhilelanding.Thiscanbeamajorroadblocktomissionsuccess.
Inaddition,afterlongspaceflightmissions,maleastronautsmayexperiencesevereeyesightproblems.[51][52][53][54][55]
Sucheyesightproblemsmaybeamajorconcernforfuturedeepspaceflightmissions,includingacrewedmissiontothe
planetMars.[51][52][53][54][56]
Radiation

Withoutpropershielding,thecrewsofmissionsbeyondlowEarthorbit(LEO)mightbeatriskfromhighenergyprotons
emittedbysolarflares.LawrenceTownsendoftheUniversityofTennesseeandothershavestudiedthemostpowerful
solarflareeverrecorded.ThatflarewasseenbytheBritishastronomerRichardCarringtoninSeptember1859.Radiation
dosesastronautswouldreceivefromaCarringtontypeflarecouldcauseacuteradiationsicknessandpossiblyeven
death.[58]
Anothertypeofradiation,galacticcosmicrays,presentsfurtherchallengestohumanspaceflightbeyondlowEarth
orbit.[59]
Thereisalsosomescientificconcernthatextendedspaceflightmightslowdownthebodysabilitytoprotectitselfagainst
diseases.[60]Someoftheproblemsareaweakenedimmunesystemandtheactivationofdormantvirusesinthebody.
Radiationcancausebothshortandlongtermconsequencestothebonemarrowstemcellswhichcreatethebloodand

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immunesystems.Becausetheinteriorofaspacecraftissosmall,aweakened
immunesystemandmoreactivevirusesinthebodycanleadtoafastspreadof
infection.
Isolation

Duringlongmissions,astronautsareisolatedandconfinedintosmallspaces.
Depression,cabinfeverandotherpsychologicalproblemsmayimpactthecrew's
safetyandmissionsuccess.
AstronautsmaynotbeabletoquicklyreturntoEarthorreceivemedicalsupplies,
equipmentorpersonnelifamedicalemergencyoccurs.Theastronautsmayhave
torelyforlongperiodsontheirlimitedexistingresourcesandmedicaladvice
fromtheground.

Mechanicalhazards
Spaceflightrequiresmuchhighervelocitiesthangroundorairtransportation,
whichinturnrequirestheuseofhighenergydensitypropellantsforlaunch,and
thedissipationoflargeamountsofenergy,usuallyasheat,forsafereentrythrough
theEarth'satmosphere.

ComparisonofRadiationDoses
includestheamountdetectedonthe
tripfromEarthtoMarsbytheRAD
ontheMSL(20112013). [57]

Launch
Sincerocketscarrythepotentialforfireorexplosivedestruction,spacecapsulesgenerallyemploysomesortoflaunch
escapesystem,consistingeitherofatowermountedsolidfuelrockettoquicklycarrythecapsuleawayfromthelaunch
vehicle(employedonMercury,Apollo,andSoyuz),orelseejectionseats(employedonVostokandGemini)tocarry
astronautsoutofthecapsuleandawayforindividualparachutelanding.Theescapetowerisdiscardedatsomepoint
beforethelaunchiscomplete,atapointwhereanabortcanbeperformedusingthespacecraft'sengines.
Suchasystemisnotalwayspracticalformultiplecrewmembervehicles(particularlyspaceplanes),dependingon
locationofegresshatch(es).WhenthesinglehatchVostokcapsulewasmodifiedtobecomethe2or3personVoskhod,
thesinglecosmonautejectionseatcouldnotbeused,andnoescapetowersystemwasadded.ThetwoVoskhodflightsin
1964and1965avoidedlaunchmishaps.TheSpaceShuttlecarriedejectionseatsandescapehatchesforitspilotand
copilotinearlyflights,butthesecouldnotbeusedforpassengerswhosatbelowtheflightdeckonlaterflights,andso
werediscontinued.
TheonlyinflightlaunchabortofacrewedflightoccurredonSoyuz18aonApril5,1975.Theabortoccurredafterthe
launchescapesystemhadbeenjettisoned,whenthelaunchvehicle'sspentsecondstagefailedtoseparatebeforethethird
stageignited.Thevehiclestrayedoffcourse,andthecrewseparatedthespacecraftandfireditsenginestopullitaway
fromtheerrantrocket.Bothcosmonautslandedsafely.
Intheonlyuseofalaunchescapesystemonacrewedflight,theplannedSoyuzT10alaunchonSeptember26,1983was
abortedbyalaunchvehiclefire90secondsbeforeliftoff.Bothcosmonautsaboardlandedsafely.
TheonlycrewfatalityduringlaunchoccurredonJanuary28,1986,whentheSpaceShuttleChallengerbrokeapart73
secondsafterliftoff,duetofailureofasolidrocketboostersealwhichcausedseparationoftheboosterandfailureofthe
externalfueltank,resultinginexplosionofthefuel.Allsevencrewmemberswerekilled.
Reentryandlanding
ThesinglepilotofSoyuz1,VladimirKomarovwaskilledwhenhiscapsule'sparachutesfailedduringanemergency
landingonApril24,1967,causingthecapsuletocrash.
ThecrewofsevenaboardtheSpaceShuttleColumbiawerekilledonreentryaftercompletingasuccessfulmissionin
spaceonFebruary1,2003.Awingleadingedgereinforcedcarboncarbonheatshieldhadbeendamagedbyapieceof
frozenexternaltankfoaminsulationwhichbrokeoffandstruckthewingduringlaunch.Hotreentrygassesenteredand
destroyedthewingstructure,leadingtobreakupoftheorbitervehicle.
Artificialatmosphere
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Therearetwobasicchoicesforanartificialatmosphere:eitheranEarthlikemixtureofoxygeninaninertgassuchas
nitrogenorhelium,orpureoxygen,whichcanbeusedatlowerthanstandardatmosphericpressure.Anitrogenoxygen
mixtureisusedintheInternationalSpaceStationandSoyuzspacecraft,whilelowpressurepureoxygeniscommonly
usedinspacesuitsforextravehicularactivity.
Useofagasmixturecarriesriskofdecompressionsickness(commonlyknownas"thebends")whentransitioningtoor
fromthepureoxygenspacesuitenvironment.Therehavealsobeeninstancesofinjuryandfatalitiescausedby
suffocationinthepresenceoftoomuchnitrogenandnotenoughoxygen.
In1960,McDonnellAircrafttestpilotG.B.NorthpassedoutandwasseriouslyinjuredwhentestingaMercury
cabin/spacesuitatmospheresysteminavacuumchamber,duetonitrogenrichairleakingfromthecabinintohis
spacesuitfeed.[61]ThisincidentledNASAtodecideonapureoxygenatmospherefortheMercury,Gemini,and
Apollospacecraft.
In1981,threepadworkerswerekilledbyanitrogenrichatmosphereintheaftenginecompartmentoftheSpace
ShuttleColumbiaattheKennedySpaceCenterLaunchComplex39.[62]
In1995,twopadworkersweresimilarlykilledbyanitrogenleakinaconfinedareaoftheAriane5launchpadat
GuianaSpaceCentre.[63]
Apureoxygenatmospherecarriesriskoffire.TheoriginaldesignoftheApollospacecraftusedpureoxygenatgreater
thanatmosphericpressurepriortolaunch.AnelectricalfirestartedinthecabinofApollo1duringagroundtestatCape
KennedyAirForceStationLaunchComplex34onJanuary27,1967,andspreadrapidly.Thehighpressure(increased
evenhigherbythefire)preventedremovaloftheplugdoorhatchcoverintimetorescuethecrew.Allthree,Gus
Grissom,EdwardH.White,andRogerChaffee,werekilled.[64]ThisledNASAtouseanitrogen/oxygenatmosphere
beforelaunch,andlowpressurepureoxygenonlyinspace.
Reliability
TheMarch1966Gemini8missionwasabortedinorbitwhenanattitudecontrolsystemthrusterstuckintheonposition,
sendingthecraftintoadangerousspinwhichthreatenedthelivesofNeilArmstrongandDavidScott.Armstronghadto
shutthecontrolsystemoffandusethereentrycontrolsystemtostopthespin.Thecraftmadeanemergencyreentryand
theastronautslandedsafely.Themostprobablecausewasdeterminedtobeanelectricalshortduetoastaticelectricity
discharge,whichcausedthethrustertoremainpoweredevenwhenswitchedoff.Thecontrolsystemwasmodifiedtoput
eachthrusteronitsownisolatedcircuit.
ThethirdlunarlandingexpeditionApollo13inApril1970,wasabortedandthelivesofthecrew,JamesLovell,Jack
SwigertandFredHaise,werethreatenedbyfailureofacryogenicliquidoxygentankenroutetotheMoon.Thetank
burstwhenelectricalpowerwasappliedtointernalstirringfansinthetank,causingtheimmediatelossofallofits
contents,andalsodamagingthesecondtank,causingthelossofitsremainingoxygeninaspanof130minutes.Thisin
turncausedlossofelectricalpowerprovidedbyfuelcellstothecommandspacecraft.Thecrewmanagedtoreturnto
Earthsafelybyusingthelunarlandingcraftasa"lifeboat".Thetankfailurewasdeterminedtobecausedbytwo
mistakes.Thetank'sdrainfittinghadbeendamagedwhenitwasdroppedduringfactorytesting.Thisnecessitateduseof
itsinternalheaterstoboilouttheoxygenafteraprelaunchtest,whichinturndamagedthefanwiring'selectrical
insulation,becausethethermostatsontheheatersdidnotmeettherequiredvoltageratingduetoavendor
miscommunication.

Fatalityrisk
AsofDecember2015,22crewmembershavediedinaccidentsaboardspacecraft.Over100othershavediedinaccidents
duringactivitydirectlyrelatedtospaceflightortesting.

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Date

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Mission

Accidentcause

Deaths

Causeof
death

January
Apollo1
27,1967

Electricalfireincabin,spreadquicklyby16.7psi(1.15bar)pure
oxygenatmosphereandflammablenylonmaterialsincabinandspace
suits,duringprelaunchtestinabilitytoremoveplugdoorhatchcover
duetointernalpressureruptureofcabinwallallowedoutsideairto
enter,causingheavysmokeandsoot

Cardiac
arrestfrom
carbon
monoxide
poisoning

April24,
Soyuz1
1967

Malfunctionofprimarylandingparachute,andtanglingofreserve
chutelossof50%electricalpowerandspacecraftcontrolproblems
necessitatedemergencyabort

Traumafrom
crashlanding

June30,
Soyuz11
1971

LossofcabinpressurizationduetovalveopeninguponOrbital
Moduleseparationbeforereentry

Asphyxia

Asphyxia
fromcabin
breach,or
traumafrom
water
impact[65]

Damagedreinforcedcarboncarbonheatshieldpanelonwing's
STS107
leadingedge,causedbypieceofExternalTankfoaminsulationbroken
February
SpaceShuttle offduringlaunchpenetrationofhotatmosphericgasesduringre
1,2003
Columbia
entry,leadingtostructuralfailureofwing,lossofcontroland
disintegrationoforbiter

Asphyxia
fromcabin
breach,
traumafrom
dynamicload
environment
asorbiter
brokeup[66]

SpaceShipTwo
VSS
Copiloterror:prematuredeploymentof"feathering"descentair
October
Enterprise
brakingsystemcauseddisintegrationofvehicleinflightpilot
31,2014
powereddrop survived,copilotdied
test

Traumafrom
crash

FailureoforingintersegmentsealinoneSolidRocketBoosterin
STS51L
extremecoldlaunchtemperature,allowinghotgasestopenetrate
January
SpaceShuttle casingandburnthroughastrutconnectingboostertotheExternal
28,1986
Challenger
Tanktankfailurerapidcombustionoffuelorbiterbreakupfrom
abnormalaerodynamicforces

Seealso
Listofhumanspaceflightprograms
Listofhumanspaceflights
Listofspaceflightrecords
MannedMarsrover
MarstoStay
Spacemedicine
TourismontheMoon
Womeninspace

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Externallinks
NASAHumanSpaceFlight(http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/)
HumanSpaceflightProfile(http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/missions/profile.cfm?MCode=Human_Spaceflight)by
NASA'sSolarSystemExploration(http://solarsystem.nasa.gov)
TransitioningtotheNASAConstellationProgram(http://www.nasaconstellation.com)
U.S.SpaceflightHistory(http://www.spaceflighthistory.com)
Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Human_spaceflight&oldid=742948579"
Categories: Humanspaceflight Spacepolicy Lifeinspace 1961introductions
Thispagewaslastmodifiedon6October2016,at20:40.
TextisavailableundertheCreativeCommonsAttributionShareAlikeLicenseadditionaltermsmayapply.By
usingthissite,youagreetotheTermsofUseandPrivacyPolicy.Wikipediaisaregisteredtrademarkofthe
WikimediaFoundation,Inc.,anonprofitorganization.
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