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Introduction in Water Treatment



Factors for selection of a treatment process
1. Characteristics of the wastewater
- Form of pollutants  suspension 
colloidal 
dissolved
- Biodegradability
- Toxicity of the components

Availability of treatment devices and area (land) 5. Required effluent quality 3. Cost 4.2. Consideration for future use .

and Primary treatment runoff Secondary Treatment Tertiary treatment .Water treatment process Effluent Pre.

Types of Water Treatment  Mechanical Treatment  Physical Treatment  Chemical Treatment  Biological Treatment Pretreatment & Primary treatment Secondary & Tertiary treatment .

Sedimentation Coagulation filtration Adjust the pH Neutralization . grit Screening Remove oils. grease and suspended solids Flotation.AND PRIMARY TREATMENT • to prepare the wastewater for biological treatment Purpose Treatment Remove large solids.PRE.

SECONDARY TREATMENT .Microorganisms and solids will be allowed to settle .Biological degradation of organic compounds (aerobic / anaerobic) .Recycle of a fraction of sludge ** toxic residues have to be removed prior to biological treatment ** .

TERTIARY TREATMENT • to remove specific types of residuals . chemical oxidation : removal of organics .Adsorption.Ozonation. chlorination : disinfection ** all these processes have their place in overall Wastewater treatment scheme ** .Filtration : removal of suspended or colloidal solids .

Pretreatment & Primary treatment technologies Oil separation Equalization Spill basin Source control Flotation Neutralization Coagulation and precipitation Sedimentation Filtration .

EQUALIZATION To minimize or control fluctuations in wastewater characteristics in order to provide optimum conditions for subsequent treatment process Purposes of equalization for industrial treatment facilities : 1. To prevent shock loading of biological systems . To provide adequate dampening of organic fluctuations.

To minimize flow surges to physical-chemical treatment systems and permit chemical feed rates compatible with feeding equipment. 4. . To provide continuous feed to biological systems over period when the manufacturing plant is not operating. 3.Purposes of equalization for industrial treatment facilities : 2. To provide adequate pH control or to minimize the chemical requirements necessary for neutralization.

6.5. To distribute waste loads more evenly. . To provide capacity for controlled discharge of wastes to municipal systems. To prevent high concentrations of toxic materials from entering the biological treatment process.

Example Controlled discharge of an industrial wastewater to a municipal plants. Cumulative discharge Hours of the day Municipal Industrial Hours of the day Industrial rate of flow (gal/h) Maximum storage required Municipal rate of flow (gal/h) Cumulative volume (million gal) Cumulative flow .

a variable volume to provide a constant effluent flow or .constant volume and effluent flow that varies with influent .Equalization basin Example: Submerged mixers  most common method Equalization basin may be designed with .

. .The maximum volume with respect to the constant Discharge line is the equalization volume required.Flow Equalization .The cumulative flow is plotted versus time over the equalization period.

b b a  empty basin b  full basin a a .

Application of flow equalization in the process in-line equalization off-line equalization .

Off-line equalization: only the flow above some predetermined flow limit is diverted into the equalization Basin. .Application of flow equalization in the process In-line equalization: all the flow passes through the equalization basin.

4th ed.2003. . Franklin L. George Tchobanoglous. David Stensel.. 2000. Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse. Burton. W.. 3rd ed. Wesley Eckenfelder. McGraw-Hill.References 1. Jr.. 2. Inc. Industrial water pollution control. H. Metcalf & Eddy.