# AP Physics B Formula Study Sheet NEWTONIAN MECHANICS

Kinematics Net Force Friction force centripetal acceleration torque momentum impulse kinetic energy gravitational potential energy mechanical work power (general definition) power in terms of velocity spring force spring potential energy period of a spring period of a pendulum

Δx = area under v-t graph Δv = area under a-t graph Fnet = ma Ff = μFN
ac = v2 r

τ = rF p = mv J = FΔt = mΔv K=
1 2

displacement is a change in position; velocity is the rate of change of displacement, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity the sum of all forces is proportional to mass x acceleration the friction force is proportional to the coefficient of friction x the normal force the acceleration of an object experiencing UCM is equal to the speed2 / the radius torque is equal to the perpendicular distance x the force momentum is equal to mass x velocity impulse is equal to the change in momentum kinetic energy is ½ mass x velocity2 gravitational potential energy is mass x gravitational field x height work is the energy done by an external force moving through a displacement power is the rate of energy transfer power is the rate at which an external force moves through a displacement the force in a spring is equal to the spring constant x the amount of stretch or compression of the spring the energy stored in a spring = ½ x spring constant x the stretch or compression the period of a spring depends on mass and spring constant (not amplitude) the period of a pendulum depends on length and gravitational field

mv2

Ug = mgh W = FΔx P=
Wnet ∆ t

P = Fv Fs = kΔx Us = Ts = Tp =
1 2

kΔx2
m k
l g

relationship between period and frequency

T= FG = UG =

1 f

period and frequency are reciprocals of each other any two masses exert a gravitational force on each other any 2-mass system near has potential energy

gravitational force between any two objects with mass
gravitational potential energy between any two objects with mass

Gm 1 m 2 r2
Gm 1 m 2 r

FLUID MECHANICS AND THERMAL PHYSICS

absolute pressure in a fluid gage pressure buoyant force fluid flow continuity volume flow rate Bernoulli’s principle pressure (general definition) ideal gas law internal energy in a gas velocity of a gas molecule thermal work change in internal energy efficiency (general) ideal (Carnot) efficiency

P = P0 + ρgh P = ρgh Fbouy = ρVg A1v1 = A2v2 A1v1 P + ρgy + 2 ρv2 = constant P=
F A 1

PV = nRT = NkBT Kavg = vrms =
3RT M

3 2

kBT
3k B T

=

µ

W = PΔV or area under graph ΔU = Q + W e= ec =
Wnet Qin

TH − TC TH

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM

Electrostatic force Electrostatic field Electrostatic potential energy Electrostatic potential Charge on a capacitor Capacitance Energy stored in a capacitor Current (definition) Resistance of a wire Ohm’s Law Power in a circuit Equivalent resistor for series Equivalent resistor for parallel Equivalent capacitance for series Equivalent capacitance for parallel

Fe = E= Ue = V=

kq1 q 2 r2
kq1 r2

kq 1q 2 r kq 1 r

Q = VC C=
ε0 A
d

UC = ½ QV = ½ CV2 I= R=
∆ Q ∆ t

ρ l
A

V = IR P = IV =
V2 R

= I2R

Req = R1 + R2 + … Req = Ceq =
 1  1   R + R +...   2  1   1  1   C + C +...   2  1 
−1

−1

Ceq = C1 + C2 +…

Magnetic force on a moving charge in a magnetic field Magnetic force on a current carrying wire in a magnetic field Magnetic field around a current carrying wire Magnetic flux Average EMF generated by a changing magnetic field EMF generated by a loop moving into or out of a magnetic field
Force BIl’s qvB Take ast

FB = qvBsinθ FB = BIlsinθ B=
µ0 I 2πr

Φm = BAcosθ εavg =
− ∆Φ m ∆t

ε = Blv

ε Blvd when the flux is changing.

WAVES AND OPTICS

Velocity of a wave Index of refraction Snell’s Law Critical angle Mirror & lens equation Magnification Focal length in terms of radius of curvature Diffraction pattern path difference Diffraction pattern spacing

v = fλ n=
c v

n1sinθ1 = n2sinθ2 n1sinθ1 = n2sin90 or sinθc =
n2 n1
1 1 1 + = si s o f

M=

hi s =− i ho so
R 2

f=

mλ = dsinθ xm =
mλL d

ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS

Energy of a photon Maximum kinetic energy of an emitted electron deBroglie wavelength of an emitted electron Rest energy of a mass

E = hf = pc -φ + hf = Kmax λ=
h p

ΔE = (Δm)c2