You are on page 1of 31

R d ~ & + d b o ~ ~ u d 4 s 4m.a 5m i ( t S k J ;

w.%

dbdram~kwadisrplnatdupmd.~-(21
~Ehcrmdoao~rddaeSanAtmdaasmt~h

F r d s a & t f W + h t ~ ~ & ~ B ~ m p .
i a ~ F r P l s c i e e P , # d b ~ ~ ~ E a d ~ ~ +
'
dmc thp. BlkCtlmm maim

r

kvMg.Mwtr

~ ~ ~ ~ d T e m m a n d ~ . p p h d t a

~ c a m ) w l r p t u p i n u t Lwem~ahoebndght.
y~
As

c h e c i t y ~ ~ d h e h e a t a o d r c r h e h e ~ f
wp~~~atlwt3,aW,&haddisdand$4Wdh1
finl~*~ofdomagchad~donc~mdthe
d e m & m r n f n s d b y h b .

As 504 Ear. on Ocoober 13, 1989, San F
h was
~ & P k k c n & r 1 5 m n & ~ ~ l a m a h d *

~ ~ m f b F ~ t h ~ t t ~ S a t l ~ & d
~ ~ u g h d ~ld ei d n o t r c r a r b g c w a d ~ i s
~tomebuikeaspdfrrmy~bu~tvpon
t h e a a F r a t r a y ~ u ~ h ~ ~ a n d ~ A
~ o f o f t h e B a y B ~ ~ . J 1906,ragingh
~ a s i n
~ f d b y b r u h ~ ~ f a t k r c ~ ~ t x o f S P r n
~ , o r a B ~ b a r d w f i g l l c ~ o f b ~ m w
hdpd &@ah
rhem. Very mm
d i n d r Q w ~ r h E ~ Q f d x
~d1#rUa%b3,md~was$6biflloh
At 530 RM. on M a d 2?,1%4, tarpthm Ahdm wos
U&
that had Bor thret minutes.
&wastwiceasmngw
the 1#6 San P m c b d q
, Im of life and p m p q
was & t i d y low beam of*t
and p
~ 1
pcopledii
a W d r afthchkhg, and damage
m a i d m t,dy rn$300m&n (in 1 %4 dclllarsr). Tkc
~ r ~ f b l t ~ a n a m o E m o ~ t t r a n 1 m i l luarekiiaion
tnau.(350,000rqrniln).A naian of the
mrfip.
5 0 b y 2 0 0 k i l o ~ ( 3 Q bL
y25&1was~wdua
1 3 m c t m ~ 4 O f & c ) , a n d a a i m i a r ~ o f l a nsank
d 1 to2
ni(3 tb 6 fed). H o r h n d movement w a b'lighr, In

t

~

~

5

2%

coliapd onto the [lower mry, m
n
g 16 p p k @m 74,i

pt~ska@$c~~+
34ory=-*
drwrm,mppitigawok r w & 3 m ~ o f ~ (
Gasandwotermujnswcmbmkerr,~omtPlM-to
fi%kt 6rw &our 100 homa buntadat a S y h w naobiluhom

R

by had m-c
wwbd wirh tbc d q +
dmmx 100 p p l e h o d in A h s h and a few p p b
atd

park.m~chodaGwtywf~~~~mU

d r v r w a a a d ~ f a r ~ ~ Q ~ a a d n o r t h r t r l ~ m im
~ r,aa,snd
n ~tau o f t b o d ofpr9pk h d no mtc:r, U t y
mrpmd over the Pacific O w .
orps~ddays.Thc~tdofQ~wwwry
jzmwy 17, 19*, at 4:31 A.M., the N o r t h r i b eotrh~udc~qunlreoccuPssdcatlytn&cma~~cm
q u a I r e ~ r h t S m k d V ~ j u e t ~ o f, h hk K
~ i a g h o k y , m wtyhwcommm~wmonthccd
I ~ , ~ b i br4Oaeco&Tbeq&abwt
o ,
2&hm
h p d tkmvq%Damage a u d d $10 bdim.
W h i a State Uniwtiity, N o n W p , dmagud at drsrroyad
dl 53 CSUN buhhp, md h u s l y h a p i 300 ocher
dook Nmrreus frcmay
caltapd {including
some that had pmbualy eohpd in a n w b y 1971 q d ) ,
dosing four hmmm and men orher highways Eor m ~ ~ l r h s ,
Thc two uppw mrim of the Northridge M
&
Apanmuru
160

-7

rock lmah suddenly,
be vurtid,

essrhguake. Tm m;lsarcsr of
a fiault, The movement may
7.3).T h e main on rbe
rotlzhdad&eenqgyis
cxpetldcd by ,moving the rock

into new poultl0ns and by atating h i c
Recently mme modifications h m been suggcstcd fbr
thc aequmte of w t n t s &OWJI
7.2, The dwic
m
i m p k that existing
kulm arc stroil%;a very hr t
atm muat act to k a k m
dong a fault, T h e new idea is
h a t Eaulrs arc weak, and only
need a s d I a m to a w e
rupture and an earthquake.
Tt evidence for the new idis su&w,
but not yct can-

-.

hP

L

cluaivc, w we curmdy

bnve

wo rnodeb for fiult behavior.
-I&weak-fault d c l
serious problem for earthquake pdcrion, as you wi 1 ace
l a m in thc cbapm.
Tht britde behnior of b d i q rock is c h i m ~ w h i only
c
of rocb near the &I h,
Roclcs at dcpth arc mabjrm m
inaascd tempttoturc and prssrw, which m d m d w e k
t l e m , Dacp rodrs dcf$rm p h i t i d y (&
instead of b d n g (&rihd
v i o r ) t h a ,them is a limit to
the depth where faults can occur,
Most archquakes are d a t e d with m m m t on hdm,
but in some &q
tk mnncction with fhulting may be md t ta d h h . Your seccnt Mfomia q h , indudiclg the
1994 Northridge quske, d on buried h fib,
some d which were unknown and none of d i & inwalved

P""

bvw

mm?a
~ ~ ~ o f r a w a I n r I ~ 1979,€1CeMo,
e s W ,
Culttornla.
Photo by UnIv, d Cdwado: murfeay NatWet Q B a p W Data Cwrter,
Rouldaf,

~~

b w a t c r w a v w i ~ o ufwm t apcbble thrc inro a p m d Rock & & a d with seismic mil waves dim outwith d q & k w & & just as water m ~tin~wav*sdiEs~*dcpt-h.The~aueofclqq&isminw. Wc discussed the importan= of this Facl m y eruptions. S i sqgMioa9 br the awe uf k p wm.bbfbshawnin@m?. bur mapa fodly N s unhrpund m a p a chambers prior to S wave wnnot.00Q&perhour).aara~dingsdonfdhiqm&q& Thcsmmdbdd~ywnehmlledanSwapt(sd aodbaskoww~wavcthat~rhroughaeatsua ~ ~ t 2 m 5 ~ p t r ~ d A n S ~ w i a~motionmuchk~ina~&ad.8wrrrnesarem#r&S~~#ithathaveaove~id1 ~ ~ l n i n c d i n t o a ~ b m I n b ~ t s hplacement.hirLaveryik~~vd'ingdmu@nwsw ~at@~f4a. l i k e s ~ r u n d w a v c s m w i q t r h r o u g h a k ~ ~ s&dc wave that t r a d *. lensplane that is m the direction tfte wave is tm && Ws of the n m . Although the downgoii p b are colder than the p d . Lwew a w ~ a h e r t f i e p ~ o c n r ~ s o n a h r g c d t o p r o d u a enot ~ mad &rough liquids and would not be Mt on a bod] qualces is unknm. Like S wavw. ~ ~ t 8 ~ ~ t h c w a v arc a h not assacaatadwith d o t displat#mmr.& d ' s & away h n l epicenter. BBdyWpae Tkearembdsofbdy~. and the m d w .named after thc p p h y s i c h who d k w a e d than.shaksnmpe. ing or propagating (figutc 7.l o ~ o n depth. ~ w a ~ e s ~ ~ ~ r o p c r r y ~ r t m r m d h g rock the high tcmpcmmc and p m at depth bsu&m #ramp m d w more ground rnwcm s w g a m to some geologists that dx rock in die @a should mdmdmo~s~. the point of initial b d age and mawnetit on a fauIt. mic waves was an jmpor~vlrscientific admmce. Eta+@ Rayid& war suddedy on small fbmm in lab mpcrimmt8. Most d q & in tbe man U M t h a t i s . these q& may not be associated with fault chapter 2.' r c r d r l l j b ~ ~ t o t t i c ~ m o f w e p m h e d i s p b e n t . alt ofwhich rn found on mid.7ldaQ~pg~(9.~~&l~rtopass. d mdbmacions widin the downgoing rock as p m r e dfnv.5D). denset m i n d dong -.BOtb h e behave like rolling man waves.50.! P ~ i s a c u m p ~ f a r b ~ w a v e i n w h i & m vitrarates -and fbr&p&iw tht direction ofwave prop doa.4).Beaure of the horizontal movement. The point witbin rhe d where seismic warn origiaate is d e d JI* h m (orhptmw)of the a d q u a b lfiguff 7. mowmenr*all A n o t h c t ' ~ a 1 ~ 6 ~ h a s ~ ~ d y ~ f b i ~ e a r t h &(100 to 670 1310metm Mow thc &I. LDve mB qualm include the dchydmion o f w a m ~ serpentine n ~ to knock buildings ofFthcir fbundarions.E d Botb P waves and S mvcspass mily through solid rc q w h a h oc~urduring mplasivc volcanic eruptions and as A P wave can also p a s through a fluid {gas or liquid). ~~ - . They m a Two types of &mic waves ate generarcd during eambthe amount of ground motion and can be used ra h d q& Bdy are seismic waves that trawl through the .aPwwcisdx6m (m* wwmtr. d m h g plats sMhg dawn into S~wa~e$arethe~~seto~byearthq dat mantle. a w The ground moves side to side in a h o h ~ s h m rfiese rsanstbmuons oocur d e n l y .0a0rna: dma 15. spreadhg o u d from rhe h in ail k .Thetwon Wm p h d d l y mthe Jlan b&g in the bride m c r of i m p o m t h d s of surfiace w a w arc Lovt w a w and Raylr ~&mdu. fwmltg. This is &e center of the carchquace.Faultsaw I tiom. afwpmttnt inw &ssp. The piat on rhc The invention ofimmments&t could acauately rtcdrds ds&directlyabmethefmtisisrhe~~. R q k g h waves wnd ta be i n a d dem& ro buildinp became they produce more gro~ mwemeat and take longtr to p. waves c aw Ehc ground to awve in an elUptid path a~ wave passes (@re 7. Rupture begins at dx focus and then spreads rapidly dong the 6dt plane. and sizc ofan d q h d s interior.

I. t The instrument wed to detect seismic warn irr a seismorne --The principle of the s&marncccr i~ to keep a havy emm m as motionlm as p d b 1 ~ r p e n d i a git by A &mameter by iwlf cannot reeord ehc motion that it rncasum. . 1 I '. . . " ' I I. W~thin mimuteti h e r an m ~ .C Lwe w a w .- =-? .* .7). &dly in the form of a wiggly h e h w n on a moving swip of paper (fip 7. A danqmph is a mrding dcvicx that produces a pwmmcnt rccord of mtf~motion detected by a seismometer. ' . .I . The paper m r d ofdvibmcion is called agtrraaPrPm. I . A nuwork of seismograph scarions b d n & d dl over the world to record and study w t h q d a (and nuclew bomb nrplasioasl.

nrst a M s of P.8erkdey occurs. when Courlesy UnWIty d CaHfornie. and swhm waves are shown. OQI#tlrBddrum A wlr€4 F@#n7*7 ( A ) A sehmgraph for h o ~ t &n.A At& 1 7. A pen to the mws records the motton on a rnwlng strip of paper.mckd In 8abtw. distant seismographs begin to pick up seismic waves. thcy arrive at seismograph stations in a d h i t e o r d firirtthePway~s.300 miles away. California.The mass k suspended by a wire from the column and wings tike a pendulum ground m s horizontally. A large e a r c b q k an be detected 4 seismographs all over the world.andfiaallythesw k e ~ T b ~ ~ ~ n t ~ a n b e d i g t i n g 4 i s h e rhe sekmgam.6 5 A simple selsmogmph for detectingv w t rock ~ motion. Inertia of the weight k#pe P and me n e d h nlativeiy motionless. m. 6. iaduding its lmtion and she. gaologhps can learn a gmt dEal abwa an d q & . S. B c c ~ u sthe t d i f h n t typei ofacismic waves u a d at Maent speeds.2. (8)A seismogram of a 1967 ewlhquslse in Taiwan magnitude 6. By d y z h g b~~. . ~ th~rhcSwa~~~. The pen mr&the ground motion on the s d s ~ r a r n as spring m h e s 1 and compmws wfth up and d w n mwemenl of the Fmme and recwdirrg drum maw with the ground. WInsPeper. d Modern sdsmqraphe record earth motion on moving strips of paper.

- - A Stuth near focrro .

Bmw ap g n d y k u x -wit& dbwc. such as ddb md.c h e dkrmct b a w m ~ . k r ~in~sm ~ am ). St. €ach d i m m is u d f w b rdtusof a d r d e w t h e M ~ 1 . If this h done on a map. b r t ~ ~ c i ~ i ~ .so~nota dl quaka mn lx asipd i a r d a . they can. The o w s v Li i & advantage t h E of i n w i t y ratings is that no i a s m o am rtguircdw~&allavlw~ol~to~tet W t t h q ht b a t o ~ ~ r e ~ o g m p h s w e ~ e The m n d m d d of mcasuring the size of a quakt is m: ddau the a m a t af c n q y r e I d by the quake.d b qkm-hr mdq& is &ur ~ ~ d ~ R o m m ~ ~ n g ~ r n 1 t mmtihd MercPUr d e (table 7-11.lM $Istamf m d of three staWm (Darwr.11). Alhugh intensitia are widely rcpaned ar tarcbq* l ~ ~ a d ohughour ns rhc mdd. fIauscs b d t on d i d m& m d I yure dwqd I= than IIOWr awn hose sediment. m hmtfonofthe emhqlm is just offshore ot Vmeouver. For the paat d& magnitude has been r e p o d on the W SG& a nunurid d c of mapi&. Ii-er. Inredty q anbedram f a r a ~ e m n h q & t o g h ~ f ~ t h e a p p damage ovu a wide @on (fiw7. E bor more d a m have determind the distance t~ a dn$e quake. Tbtsiwofcaxttquhisdintwoways. Andy= ofscismo&rouns can also iodiuw at w&t deprh bd die s&ee the q& o&.rocks do. The Rkhm d e is open ended. but &om t k idomation recodEd tlxy are nor . and LW)IsdeterrnInedfrOrnseismogmms and the lmvd-timecurves shown In itgun 73. The scienrists at the station know tbar the q& dS O ~ C Z 0x1 T that W e . m u r h d e e p .4 a r e a t Iacations report d h inrmitics for the mej d q & (figure 7. merhodis 4 9 done by measuring the Wt (amplitude) OF a n e o f t h e ~ o n a ~ ~ T h c ~ t h e q u mbrc dw growd vibmta and tbe hqp the wiggle. higher numbers indiue 5-d-P. Brick and moue h o w usw& mr&r much gmtd{ d m a p thm w d e n b. or bay Hi. Btmb C o l u ~w. The durn dqth m f k w .c from a q W s e p i . rneadq thm axe no w d q u a b .10). But such maps GUW nor be dmm fbr uninhabited arms (the open ocan. they a t e 0 4 #bt 85% of total. $ci- k t i s t s c a n a s s i g n a a u m b e r d d t b e ~ m d kh i s a m sase of the map released during the edqudcc.able to d &arc. This. they ad W f e to store and suddenly r e f m e e ~ r g yas bride st&& . usinginrdnsity as a mmsure d q w h ~ 9 c t 9 a g t b aamber h ofdrawbacb. dnmpe to bvildings an& other smmum dcpmds @y an the type of p I o g i c mat+ tidonwhi&agttuaurrwas~twsdutherppeof+ d o n .111. the intersdon of the btIstguake.AciKfci~draw~ona~~ oenm of rhe ci& king the amtion and im dhthe chance to &c q & (+ 7.-b ln&d L-ng an ear#qwb.c d 8 a&.quake cmw r d d lntcnztcdiate (12 W and drcp (3%) focus q a k -aterarer bcmusc most b w p l d y when 4 or debrmd. With on from other stations. WMdmmhadon c9n o h be mldc very *idly* even ~erbepundisdmxub1'hghmtfrEq~ A s ~ e s r t a t i m ~ ~ o t r t p o h q~not~~on. Moreover. t a e h ~ j w I afnn d q h ' s mpiema. al&ougha& m .apdo~fwtk of &ugaph and hx the dimnce from rbe quake.Onemdw$ htohdourk muEbdhkindaf+ thcq* * h i ~ ~ ~ d ~ d d ~ t . a tide is drawn hs & sation.! W h w focus anhquekcr ate most common. After 7 surhga@cwveonaseismo~p". which are somewhat k i b 1 Damage escitmws are dm subjwtiw people may damage repom d o e or uncudously. pinpoint & location o f h quake. m edlqdw o c f u t w h to t h .Johns.

South Catrd'kta. D i b t seismic m v a (body M m r k ) can k measured ro make the d e mom useful over I a q p arcas. Vcrg s d earthquh mn have negative mapimEfEB.4. wbich is d e w m i d Etom the wer. mrthquake.6 Maximum r m r d d 1 or 2 Tbcn are mrd m e b d s of d n g magnitude. A further c~mp0cationis that magnitudes d & h m ~Q~ tend ra be i m m a t c (muallytoo low) &ow magnitude7. d a b Ihe mddiatfp3sofearth-.QOO p newsworthy A fmthousand 16 w 18 8 uGmtn 8.f l a m 7*1t Zones of dbrsnt IntmsNy from the 1EBB Charleston. howRichter scale appfied o+ to shllow dqualm in southern Calihmia.5 Damp%cd 7 *Majora More than lOO. Smallw e w t h q d are ~ ~much mom common thaa largr ona: too Number PerYmr 2 Just f& 4. but these arc seldom q r t d The l a f g c ~Richter magnitude m m a u d m Far is 8.S. U. A new d o d ofdddq magnitude h v o k rbt urae of h e scjgmic -em of a quak. The o r @ d . he bgkz numbers in* Iacga d q u a k q .GedwW S u w large or too small to fit iton ttic scale.fhemap illustrates the general decrease in isltenwwJth hm1ng dhmca froin lhe epbnter. so 4 &ent mgnirudc6 arc scrmetima reportad fbr a single q&.

~ md Unfommatdytkmedkmdyi~w~~gpeof~tu&thEfrare~and~drns~idy&m. Lone AfW. N.q.T& :?a.~~drhe~pturc.p 85-1.~ofthcrodr.2 h Rkhm mapid m add moment rnagnhuh for many d q & of inmR i c h magnitudes arc the most popularly q u o d Becausc the Richter gcrrle b logarithmic.5.7- ?&: 53- %a: ~ ~ ~ .. rbe &Eemce between rwo consecutive whole numbers on the d c means ~~ 1811-1 2 iW 1072 lam la 1915 1933 1952 ~ew~~a.@ < .-. s. Wa&?mtVal& M tong M.$ $$g I * .#*$ T& 7.~i&#ih r tTajon.rgnittl~h~d~~aqtLakCastheyre&emote m tryhgm W out E h e m t m l *o f~a m t quake can be c o n b i q . ~ !&-& .The~964Ahhquakisdmadtohawa mOmMt d?9& d tbf 1MC q& 3. 3. S.attdthe~t o f ~ d @ ~ & * * ~ A be~h9.. Wlrd Kern &Wy. C h San Fmchm.?. . Fa- ?*& @ 6. CWlt ~ - .3- .w.Wif. T able 7.

a stismogqh iz urmaUy q u i d to measure is measure b m y advahtagesover inmiry as c a r t h q d suwrgth. and more bride in the east than in h e wcst and seismic wava travel more &~iendy. Magniwdcs a n be and usually (but nat alwaps] iav01ve 6rupture of the ground.Id.zho. They arc not associated with surface rupture. and am gcntrdy smaller and d v r than earthqualm in the weswn U n i d Sram. M d w m . and the press reports magnitlfdm For a l l of iatsrcsr to rhe United Sam.3 2 #ions of dama@rrg ea&q& (msrgn'hde 4. A worldwide network OF graph stations now dammining mapine mam. rdativdy inactive hula of old dimgmplrsfc b o ~ d t i c and l fiile8 rifi (arr+~l. Note oceurinefiew~mtcs. chapter 4. Plym~uth.W m r had an h&ty E q d e in 1638. T h e quakes may'besrmrriag on the d q l y buried. when t h y do accur they can be very dmnctivc and widely MG bcwuc the c a d s a w r is older. A series ofqdcw [htensiyXn .5 and greater) In the United Satm and southern C~nada. and a quake of inrcasiv VlII din 1775 ll~arCambridge. &I989 in thew&. a sinde number can be mi& to a single &quake1 mity varies for a sir+ Earrhquke. depending on t and kina of local dam-. an earthquakc of intensity IX knucked ovtr 2% &mnq9. E r e n d y . b t b of which arc described in e is no proprry ro a f k .1668-1989 In the east. The Saint Lawrence River Valley dong &c C m a d h border has had s d irttmsiry IX wd X dq& most m t l y in 1944.MOnmna. . M g d u in &Ira orxur d y bclow ehe Aleutian Mands where the Pacific plate is mwwghg with aad king s u b d u d under the NoKh h c r h phte. coola.7. Earthquakes east of the Rocky Mountains are mare rare. wdl- Afthough large quPkes art ~lttremelyrare in the! ad and United States. In 1929 in A t t k New York. d Size of Earrhquakes of d dmlagbg d q d m rrcd in the United Stam through 1989 ( s d have been ornitred). Geobgleal Survey.

M t u d e quake near l a w m c d e . Illinois was Mt from Kansas to S o d G d h a to O n 6 0 h 1987. k d m t i o n shown has only a I-1n-f 0 c h a m of bing mwded In a w a r pwkd. A 5 . D. U. The 1886 quake in Chdeston. char ocnvred n a New Madrid Missouri. Virginia. mcekmdons of ~ X Yof%gravity have been In mm IoWms.ded history The k n d d ow chimneys as far away as Richmond.7. Ir 1988 a 6.43 M. 8 h 0 as ~ a pemnt of g W .131 pr-y an the sumption h a luge d q d w wiU csur in the Euntre in p k s where rhe] have din the past.1 magnifisderodredNmsYorKsAdbndacI Mouneaias. 0 .a d rang church bells in h n . Maximum m e h t h (in M b d a ) is 8046 of mlty.O-magnitude q& north ofQuebec City was fdt as E away as Inchma and Wasbhgmn. Geological Survey and Carsadian H m d a Program. 1.100 miles v.ap of seismic risk for Canada and the U n M Bta€es.C. in the winter of 1811-1812 were the mom widdy M t d q & to o~curin N o d Amcriw in rewl.8. GaoIagks have mapped regions of seismic risk in du United Stacts (&re 7. D a m g usually ~ W n s at 10% ot pvity.1 1) and W sky M e . South Camha.and hio in 1983 aquakeof5. ~ q ~ h i t A t k a n s a e a n d ~ H u n p h1982. it was sharply fdt in New Yoxk Cirj. . ( i )$) wasfdt tbqghoutaImosthalftheUnited Smm (figurt 7.The riak is sttam as the expected maximum horizontal m e h a t i o n of the ground an eadhquab.

GeologicalSu*. the location of buildings also n d s to be conmrlld buildings built on soh &ent are damaged more than building on hard rock mnmwtion .S. As we have seen. c a b d m be both strict and strictly enforcad in d q u a k e prom aras. photo 8 0 Rdando hit by fhILing &is from b d d h p .Mendenhall. U.icles. ( D )Collapse of the upper portion of Anaheim Northridge quake. 1994. W C. Becaw p r o p building ean w t l y rcduw the d t i n g ~ building .

and subsidencc causd exrensivc damage in d o w n r m and suburban Anchorage during the 1964 Alaskan quake (mqpitudt 8.1). and h e 1995 Kobc. japan.168). chan cs in building constru~tionand improved Prc-fighting metho have d u d (but not eliminated) rhe tire dangr to modcrn cities. rhc 1364 Alaska. Liquefaetian may occur several nlinures aftcr an earthquake.16). burying more than 17. cluakca. Landslides. uuqing buildinp to sink and t~ndcrgroundranks KO fluat: aa: otm-solid sedirnenr flows likr water (figure 7. Thc 1959 Madison &yon landslide in Montana was u i a e d by a nearby quake of magnitude 7. Phulo A @ Al Seib/l oa Angolos Tlmos Syndicate. In 1920 itl China over 100. I : Plgurv 7. The 1 970 Peruvian earthquake (maglitude 7. 1994.Fiw is a parricularly rcrinus prublcm just after an earthquakc hccausc of broken g.Iwater-saturated soil or sedinlcnr turns From a solid to a liquid a. southern Callfornla. Although fire was the cause of mosr of the damage to Sm Frandsco in 1906.6).1 8 Almost 100 homes burned at a Sytmar moblle. f Figure 7. 1994. tiquefacrion was responsible for much of the damag in rhc I983 Lorna Priau q&.7. pholo 8 hy Nat10nFil Gttnphyslcal Data Contor .000 peoplc (scc box 13.5 a rcsult uf ruthquakt shitking. The stubborn Marina dimicr fires in San Francisco in 1989 arcest to modern dangers of broken gas and water mains.homs park following the Northrldge earthquake. caused earthquake-rmsiatant apartment bulldlngs to topple over Intact. ( B ) Llquefactlon of soit by a 1964 quake In MYgata.000 prclplr living in hollowed-out cavcs in cliffs of lacss (described in cllaprer 8) werc killcd when a quake cullapsed h e cliffi. Phoro Q Ken I.18 ( A ) Landslide in PacHlc Rllsades triggered by the Northrldge earthquae.ubadLos Angolcs Tlmos Syndicat13 h d l i & s can be triggered by the r h d q of the ground (fiaure 7.75) set off thou~andriuf Iurlslidrs in the steep Andes Maunrains. This occurs when . A s p e d type of ground failure mused by earthquakes is liqtrtfattion. Japan. and conrribl~rcdto rhc darnage in dl2 1906 San Francisco.15 ) .ls and water mains and fallen dm rrical wires (%re 7.

D ' i n d m m e n t both v d c d and horizonfa components a n aha occur mt 1971. U S w M Survey. Rocla rn move d a l l y . In rn instanm d lcracks opea during a q& (but not to rhe exrent ahat Hollywood . Such movement cm &CY huge areas. R 8 + h m m t qf tkb b d EU+ may be the along a ME. K. sm Rwnando Wey.17). photo 8 by (3.(c]Fm p m dby ground movement. CabAlaiska.F@m 7. Gdwical SUWW dwbg a single q&. (D)Compression of wnmte fw. 1959.47 w w of ground displacement caused by m u a h . thnbose on one side of a g past &OHon tbc ather sick. Thc m of a Lulr an the d 8 mikem y a p p w as a low d e d a scutp. ground mar Olema. (A) t3Meen-t cscarp (cliff)fMmed by vertical ground m h h . (8)T w h g of 1m6.U. photo C by I. t ofa fault rising while h s e on the otha side a h mme h o r i z o d y . bmm. Phato A by US. 1964. Wlattn County. Wnd.C&k. Gilbert.S. or as n dosed tear in the ground (figure 7. G-lcal Survey. d. although the displacement in a sin#c earthquake d d o m c d 8 met^ (25 fcet).

.

W KYomm!y .I L w f i o Ocean 4 1.

d the water over the moving area L li a hd A Before- ordroppdforaninmn~Asthcwaterrenrrnstosealm setsuplong. ralsings8almlaHgWy hl5meters(50~1hi#-Acwnami. The large.Theb b k of mck an the right has h e n displaced upward as much as 5 meters (1 6 fee sea Id.Thc waw high[ w it bmtm an may be &.AIargewind-vted wave mayhave a d ~ n g dofi m-(1. In dccp wata wareheightmay beonlgO. m a r the town of Latouehe. t i g h t c o area ~ to the right d the fault is &ached reef rock that was once sea b r hut is now Photo by George Plafb. -- .Q m 3 metem (2 m lofi aithough in rhe middle of hwriana the waves can t~ rx C Water rushes Int~&premn and o w m w t M s . U S.but1 shore thetsunami may@ up ro heightg of15 ro 30 w ta 100 ~ ) .20).-. low^ thatspreadverprapidiywer the oc (figure7.300h)andbtIlnovinghfimataspoedo kilomctem per hour (55 mila hourl.nyh wwele+af180kilomma (100 mh).- F I m 7-19 Uplift of the sea floor mimd wtth Uw A W m earthquake.6to2mcoers{2~oG~~. 7964.. Tdarertalilte~~~wavesan~sc kc.andmaybemovia 725 kilomctas pa hour (450 & hour).191.The tram of the Uanning Bay fautt run diagamliy thrwgh the oenter of the phobg~apR.h~. T h i s g m t ~ ~ i n ~ h e i & ~ Flgur~ 7hPO Generation d tsunamb by a aubmarb ewihqwb (rod!and water displssmenta are not d m to W e ) . .rfloordd&ri~orWdurir q& (figure 7. Gea4ogal Survey dscrcalsdsddcwa~Thcy*arr:d$g d q u h (mgnimdc 8') chat disturb the sm 0094but 1 t &om mbmuhc W l i d c s br volcanic q h s h Whrna~secEionofse. ' I .

.One is along the sum- .228.The rmmcndous . Within rhit belt occur appmlrimately 80% of f the intrrme&att+ the dccpfom quakes (fig- major concentration mrthquakcs is the ~~~ bstt. New Qdm.Rwtscua workers bellmw that Ie wen wept to their deaths when thrm glmt tidal w a w atruck july I f .In the nm&rrorthwml of P w a .1064 carried a iiehing boat Inland in Rwunecltton Bay et Sewad. the Mideast and Himalam of et DCCU- can crow in the the circum-Wc r t h q u h occur in two . The boundarie of plotra in thc platetmonic theory arc defined by these earthquake bdts (figure 7.'I. md mastated seven maat4 towns.July 20. (8)A man wlvagms ram #B rulrwt Of thls hwsm In 5l8iumu. U ) . SE 'mami damqp In Alaskan ~larlhquake. which encircles the rim of the P d c Ocwn. 1998. whi& runs through the Set.although soma c a r t h q u h havc occurred in most regions on earth.Thc most i m p mnocnmtion of earthqurkes by fPT h iCl h e dmm-ppd6cbelt. Mosr whualtpn arc roncmtratcd in n m w geographic Mrs (figure 7 .

(8)The majot p l m of Hha world in thm theory of plate Wonlcs. B u l M n d S ~ c w n d ~ ~ c e ~ S o e ~1869. Geo@leal Sunray Flguru7. ~ o fBAmmo~d. A W d M tmm Bwwangl and D o r m .~ l W f m W. Compare the locations d plate bounMw with l o d o n s shown In Mure 7.h t ( A ) World d4trbtlon of erslrthquah reooover e dx-year psrlod with loeat depth8 k-n 0 and 700 Wbmeten. Dwbte Ifnett show div#'g@ plate bwmriariwr.22A.. Ii . US. Heavy llnm with Mangles show cwrverglng boundaries. dngle llnes show transformhundarles.sa . Hamilton.eriangke poht dawn subdudon zone.

.

~ n r i a l l ydl thr: world's intermediate. notably in the eastern Mediterranean Sen md in the Eost India. many locations m u n d n g a q&. If the h t motion h away fmm the sution pull). ofEarthqoakes 0y atudyiq ~reismapmrden g a o w m ELflI which way & m Rock motion la h & e d by entation is not known. Each seismograph tiun mn d wbethcr the &st rock motion recorded &ere w push or a pull (figwc 7.Andaidc volaoes may hrm the h d s of the isIand a ~ ar . Benioff wnc9 slope ttn& a mntincnr at tl c u r d line of islands called am i d ~ arc d (figure 7. d rock motlon h s t w n by the arrows. Asdt&uibdbridy inchapter 1. Th@star mwks W epbnter. that mnlr tonics is on a k t Cdt. (A)If ths firid motton I8 a push (from the epicenter to the a t e l a m Btaflon). then the pen is deflected down. tbeeonceprut' htcm ha he mhl.arc rigid slaba of rock.I M a p + d h n o ~ m l ~ ~ f w t h e ~ m e ~ m o f m h .and decp-fbm earrhqtdw occur in Bedoff zonm. As k p in mfnd rhar there ue E a x t h q k and Phte Teaonics .25). they may be hund new the edge of a continent that overlies a BeniofF mnc. d Jemg rhat Wt. If the rock m d r m r d the tion (a push). PI. (8)It It lr a pull (away from the Wflon). te i- fimn P Rw across the earth's surfice. Bemuse rhe piam indu& continmi . Eauh solution hae a dlfhimt huh orlentatlon. t h ddleaIon Is downward. Dhe wkrnogam trace Is d e W M upward. h n th pen dnwing the nchogmm dc&cted up. One ofthu pd a m o f h t m m t ofplaae twonica~ its abiliy to explain the distribution o mrthqusrb and t i rock marion a~socioredwith b.26). Abnl&zonecanbeginatsbemhand~ufickwmEslandan: (such as the Abutbn i~Iand8). Most of the Jrcum-Pacific belt is made up of Benioff mnes &d in thia manner with oceanic trenches and andairic volcmow. A mum 7SsMo$jrarnr&owing how Am! horizontal motbrrs of mdm along a fault are determined. the coneots~lutlonmn be chosen.m&cc is divided into a gbi PLW. Parts OF rbe Medicerranwl-Mayan hctt r c p m t Iknioff wms. too. If tho fault orlan!a#on & knwn. tho-& of 1Jlomm wide and 70 to 125 (or more) kilometen thick.

a -- - 4 &.has a &mcwistic p a a m of &quake distribution and rock motion. One example d t h e relation of rbe rtrrec t y p of bowdark to each other is shown in fi$ure 7. dlytq%rm kdrdcE where plate move horizontally pasr mcb other. The plate's warern boundary is lbcarcd at the crest of the East MC Risc. E a r t h q b at P b Boundaries As you have leamod chert arc thra ypcs of'phc boundaries. (figure 7.23). The rock motion that is d c d d from &stmotion mclita show that the Mts here are n o r d fida p a d 4 to rhe rift d e y . rfizmpt hvmkrics where plates move away from each other. CWs is ise most likely solution of the .Each is marked by a rift valley and shallwv-focus earthquakes (shown as slam). At a divergent boundaty. and its eastern b o d u y is at: the bottom ofthe Peru-Chile Trcnch. Each type of bmund. (A) On the ocean Amr.m Divergent plate wndaries. and m n w m hto8eticr where plats move t d each orher.2W. The N i m plate mom c a s d away h m the mest of rhc mid-oceanic ridge and toward the subduction lofic at the trench. Tfte c z r t h q h arc t d dong the sides of the rife valley ersd b e n d its floor. whew plates m w e away from a& ather.28. Note how the motion at ~bwndacy(&~~~lbpthepairsdsmall~)~w themodon o f h e ptare (showabythe laqy arrows).&II') RR valley on m i d a m d o ridge. (8)On a contln~rrt. earthquaka arc shallow and d d w a m w band A divtrgcnr b u n + on the pea h r is mafkOd by the mat of the rnid-madc ridge and the m i rhat is often (but not always) found on the ridge cmz ( f i p 7. where tht plate p l q a d m into the mantlc.msntbundary Transformboundah ocmbmneh: a w m n t b a W ttriangk point dam the subdudon z-l b y at divergent boundary and Ward m n i c Fig7. Depth of rtft valleys Is extxaggmted.

wmplex system of faults.304.t h cmore fiUy wlution.30 lhn&rrn bundarle~(A) N m bPnd QT s ~ ~ o w .fqu in mrem A f k Ifipm7.~A. aomc of which con* h.12)hh t 8 rgnrrn ofUP b a h @mdarttm&mrht~hd#shmsh* ~~ % lmmsry h a . -ring thr fi d o y e .f m u t ~ ewthquahm &own as a t m along sh@e faM. Thc cardqu#kes m y k in la narrtrw band dong oac fouit I&wiz*?*3[lA). which b m d y wing h e sa contlnem. W moybcm aampIe a f a ~ ~ u t ~ f v ~ ~ n p l a boudary. bur maap &a&ts W m that the bwod zone of Adcityalo t k e B a a i n m d R m p f i t u l t s 1 n t h e ~ ~ d n Sd~ ~ C S & W 7. shldlc& Kmp in minduu ym 4thb section that 6 hcrearcdmyls~ml~~forfb~don.The Wan Rik Va.29B.) gypma mat ion of the (A) A eomrgent boundary m & r Mby the colIidon of two h r m o t h b comcc. (8)A convergent boundary dth m a n ftoor subductlng under a cuntlnent. Earthquakes occur near th0 top of the wbdudng plate due to A divergrnt t m m d q widrin a #-<is W I y aha tendon.228)stern to be such a bowby.m o h d m indiarc mike-srip motion on huh&ld ro dx boundtfug. or d q map fotm b m u h zone if plate niarion 16 d m up movement don8 a $pttm bf paralf. ond n a d fa& (+ 7. A wry broad ma of ahdlow-fauu~#arthquakw h o r o p e ~ ~ h m ~ ~ r h e r i f t ~ d ~ occurrr t h ealong d a. it Implies that dw r* a t is underpiw h o r h t d memian. firat-m40n rf what two p h move past & 0 t h ~dong rt tm&m b o d q the am shalltm F a . HNRtiaonwl enenaion hcrt may be twing mam Mia d d y apm. sh n Andrea &nlt in California (figu r e 7 . and oompr&sbn.(8)Eirorad band of WUquakes a l o q a ayatsm of paralkl hub.34 o t l ~ . undwthruatlng.wogivfonl~ m#um7. marked by a rift h I I a w .A B plourv 7.d fiultg (fip 7.

nym ayl m u U O W U Z ~art qmb * ( E ~ L~ L Jm] p ~ b~ w u mro m m A m s u o y p ~a y m ~ s q a & a q d %! -mpqns B uo rpd?p ypa ~ b g u 30 wuopnqysrp 3~ .>no? p qa&p B 01 Xpwuodxa m a p put .

. b y plat= stnrt subducting at a gentle angle. probably bemuse of poxwiity & m p within thc sur- 4 &. k p r h w &mrs @ at 450 ta 6m kilornttcn. me cracks: pmvide pathways for the dwe of &active d n n p a from mcks (radon is r product ofradioactive deay of uranium and' ather dcrnena). Chinese seiantipts claim a d pmii&tions by watching a n i m l b c h u i d ~ r s abwmc skittish and snakcs Itaw rheir holcs sh~rtlyb e h e a q& U n i d S t a m scientists are conducting a few pilot propins a 1 0 4 these Pnes. In 1975 a 7. d q d c a are v q clad d d ro p h tecroaics.ryr 7rim munding d~ In some m rhc sn&c 4th c a d tih a d c h e ~k e hftdighdy Wurc an ~JlquPkc. Just as a bcnr stick m y d e and pop before it b d l with a Iaud snap. phrc motion cpn be d e d d by the first motionti of the q d w .2). Faldjng and tearing of 4 &ending p k may a h be required p d cally to dw subductinn of a r u d ri#d phce to successively paat depth. such as rhw rhar ocntt in chc J d d mntw of p h .34 A deimndtng plate may bar Into segments.e i m &n d o # f i a t w&hmap be a pdude to an Earti! wake. mch as tension and m m p d n . a m o r wily bc r e l a d TO plate modon. Subewion @a wry considably from trench to M&. but m y am skcptid ofthr C h i w claims. rind rubdutrs ac a pelt aryde. 'l'hia. about to b d B& a I q e quake. d c w b may opal within the rock. AnaIysi d b t motions can & help determine the and orirnwion o f stresses: that act on plrta. Mom plate ~QURWE~ w d& by rhe disuibution of m ~ a k w and . ond h m m noisily. pahap as w rcsult of G t y w i a d w within a dwdiqg PI* The hi&m n k c m o f a $&marine lrlliarrie or lamu is buqmt.&s and during diubdurrian it sinke to rcgiom of pmgemivdy malb d i w * In summary. d h p c s ro p c m d b st 670 Mornerers. usually ar depths below 200 kilomcrem O k plates rrpr hta s c p c n t s during sdxldbn (6pm7. or seismic docicy may gi-1 some warning of an hpmding qwkc.subduaicln begins (and continues) at almurt a v c d d angle. ' Japanese m d Russian ~ I + P were the fint tu predict wrrfiquakar succaafuily. or mimstrkmf. but manyquha h m 450 to 670 lcil o n a a ~ p h e & o d d ~ i r s w t c r i u*" d e p t b s 300 kiIomcm pwhPprr d n g q& if the dehydration k 1 u d b ~ i Y f n + ~ t o & ~ g I n c l l ~ 1 ~ 4 0 0 kilo-. hI&m they dacend. 'ng of tiny ma& dmp the rock's porosity. The divine-sfinel: and s p i n e l .S c i c n h usc highly srnsit tive inauurnenrs TO masure rhia increasing wain. "r I t. in northeasern China was pre- .s#m to matk the bwer bowrdnriw d quakc dcpttr=U=~ P m- 7. Qunke disrtribution with depth indim* thc! an e of subducrion and bas h that somu plates ctw$c Frction angle and m n break up aa they b d . A kw q w h . in h o p 05 pdichgq w h . The p k form with n d i m of cumcure qd to that af thr d s .34). t~ ?'he p m p ' c x of aCIc rvck next to thc &ult may h~ & a n d by h e opening of such Cbanp in tbc roc& magnetism.p d r c 4. Subduction Angle The h o r h t d a d mid dimibution of mhquakes can be wed to determine the angle of aukluccion of a dawngok g plarr. S e v d techniqw arc being qlored for r c i t ~ j F c 4foreasring a coming earthq k One group of methods inwIva monitoring fight changa that occur in rock next to a fault b&re the d. @ m ewith atsrrpar sukiwth angles than othsnr. which becomes much stecpu with depth (figure f -33). Some plam crumpIc in#.rpj ws#r in w& often rise or fill before q k . musing small ucmors. no ocetanic crust w l w in a h e r plate mpant. which subducrs at r mcp angle.3-magnitude earthquake near HJcheng. e l e m i d reaiwivity. b& and mmw these methods assume large amounts strain a r ~ lstored in rock &re it b& (figure 7.3 0 0 k t l o m c t ~ f s ~ ~ a r c f e w q u a k c sw ~ 345000 tern. Thsc mriom watt &y. a rock may give warning signals that it fi. At a fkw ~ c n c h c ain the open Paci&ic. in the I a b a q Thm h &te dour whthey w c m t e q d m in p h . A very I r r d method of pdict-~ ing quaka is M rime t e i n k k m c rr in Y c h n c National Par Img-nm tucorch o the time Letween eruptions h v c shown that W in& c h a p in a q d a r way Wre a large 1-1 earthquakc. and Chinlrse geologiscs have made some very accurate predictions. An i . Paople who Eve in eorrhqhdprone regions are plagued by unscient i c predictions ofimpenhg crrrhqdia by populw writem and self-pmclhed prophets. Subduction angle is probably controlled by plate &mity and by the ratc OF plate convtrpce.

W& h e wsm reducing h c hinion. dowing the rocks tu mow. m we will never have mgular sequence h r nme to four.occurmi. at& can be r c l d in smaller. &ted Eve hours hfow tt happmod. Such '?'Ib' % 1 d tilt is dm a d by mountain building.S S u m y &mat4 a 5. The dvpnmgc i s in riming At rdwc of the ncrain.c Uniped S m m ore mmcdmcrs &k to forcast e m h t p k don some qmne of some hula In 1988 the U. By studying h e sehmic history of Ma. W:&out e c . Sinai the mhdqy art new and tn some aw only p d y & d some arrors will undoubdy bc Pfsun 7au A s p l a t e A s M d w d f ~ m l l p u n z J e r p t a t e & ~ o ~ ~ ~ r dh ae . but ody rr hundred liws some c i t h ncat kultar i~m dm thc p h n d uf lost. The m c of such n progtam might p m ro bt p f o h r ' b ~ . so many of &em nrc being a d i d l y d i e d (mb x T02). d strain would build up und a ~YPIY. Controlling the d d n g ofepnhqunh. The wm k nut c m the quakc. The endre ssquersrxt may n some +om. The porential For death and nrmucdon in with m a y entire villap. much as people da when a B u r h e mning Is given. Aa a d h ad funding Eor quakc prodiction we ammdy ewthq&bavt:udwrredotwnda&~wllncarDkmer and in an oil 6dd in Colado when watw w s l ~f b d unkund. I f p knew the a c t rime at which an &qualee was to w u r . ey could try to p m w rhdr bdongings snd temporarily c ~ e u a c crbt ma. One method ofearthquake control w &mmd by accident den water wdcf high pwas pumpad down Into the ground. authoritia m t dabout tt million pm ie from Tu homo. b y bulm arc not maeimd or studied himaridly b m w c of lark ofmoncy and pemnnd.and the liability problem would I x mormams. u h w w near a c h u ta such s &c SPn A-ndms.3. Lt: is impmiant to r a k e thar such eqwknena d that Is W y here.W r h c buildinpz in Hich were dcscroycd. In grim canmast. Sti& it is &ring to comider thar in ttre futm the danger of uakes along m e faults might he greatly herid byeontm rckaueofmain.0 percent ehaaoc of r niagniA7 qualce dong:rhe w e n t of& Soa Admu fPult near Santa Cruz. mwy d e .la 1989 the nqdtudc-7 h m a Prim qwke o c c u d on rhb very rwcdon.for t k kt: future.(Duwer g& d d Richter n& m @ d c 4. Atcrtcd by rr scrics of *hocks. The water vig@ d q u b rafeasbd a&n cbnr had k e n acmnuhting in h rofks.T h e qre M y thought ra be the most likely sites for fueute dq&. Far large a wPmitlg of impn +at w. &us caw@ e w d q h . cattbquakrddrsigmylcsscnrhc danger ofan eanhqu&'s occming without warning.*la* in th. howevrr. The p m of the of thWE m e d l d water may dm thE amm balding the rock wPIla of a Eadc m+ At the aame time.) Cad3 guch P metbd of q& h be usud on the danp u s portions of the San A n d m SjJd P&apI but only &f ~~of~mondrhmodyasaa. timed quak~.quakca hnve not dfor a long k.iafka&dvely uninhabited w t b ofthe bdt. b m i n u i r g ider. the warn um rrct aa r lubricant. it would occur wmewmc myof a quakt mytobcmlr d kthcYL . t ourdoor ~ mwiw in tpc opcn bwnq m . huwwcrJ the China program dq& might be dMimbfe. d wctting and drying of the knd).

.

t h u d m i by M d &rodz. Mamcat . tandal'i and mw~ir. wuwt Fram h d ThE mom noti& rft"aeur d cartfrq& mgmuad motbn and dirrpismear w/nvcr (P mmp and (which b c m y b u ~ c h Md p h b y iujw ar MI pcqpIel.~wtdalydtr?dPymdofmare chan R i c k mqpirudes. h wnqipt. is r n d an the Rkbw I&.of+ ~ t c m ~ ~~ masrwhqudm~b&gcadbyiaww tiow h w i e ~ a w p k a t t h E ib r ds. fiFE. arid the +a c64erttimnsarhhd~fies. h ~ d * ~ d d @ . ~ m of* m huahd-.the mpltwtie of Jamkvw. m x d c t d . a d *h--1# amQ&ted with mdroiric d c m w . F!q& a h ow#an the hidhmwl-uwMt. a n d h 6 a i o nwrttr wk WIGUIW. &&wks cao mdnw to dmqe m n d u &c cht main && -*=&I=+- Ma The hit w& in of LhC wart$'# asrrlq*. Plpte baundprio am gmotally d e h d bp .rva nn a kmagntm.

What arc wmc arguments in h r of lrnd against predi&g: +&? W h would happm in your communiry if a pradictiotr wre made today that within r monrh a &c earrhqunkc wodd occur nePrbyZ 2.1. horn How crrn you check the reg!od. Most d q h accurst p h bindarias whcrcplaw itmawith mch a h How migfir oatthquukes be cauxd in the interior of z rigid ptarc! 3. &aolagy for d q d c dmgm?Thc dbuildin8 sim?The home iweR . Suppow you want wr &dbr wstttquaka bigsM a buyinga new. How can you pwpm for an wtctrqruke in ynur own h e ? 4.

C.calsrarcla.4th ed. Geological S w .S. GcotQ$d S u m 1990.html Seismognphic information pagc maintained by U. Also a good starring plaot 6 r links to 0rhtrdquakr:sftwr.usgs. +& w. &dqwk&. and l? H. *'. &W . 1998 a d %PW N f i ~ ' G h a linkFroMbrruitw.Srimtific Amcricm 260(6): prepdnebs. S ~ d h d d & . dquakrs. 1993. m~uak:Navz -Shw>k: NKUIcr~TheHismty~d .Y.1991. Menla Park.I Eunlnrin~Resources Bolr. 1999. R J. ~ E.S.hrrnl Gcnual information about the oize of an earthquake. no. 345 Middlefieid bud.G.hm1 General infomarion about plare teaonics. earthquakes minmincd by the U. T. ~ o n .tdu/sdsmd Homqmgc. and how w amdid.berkeley. FKK*Or.euthquakc pmpamina. Discussion of Richter and eMuollid raks.. .bc -'pi& ~pphgic ~ ~ .usg. Gives information on rcdvC. Cmtc and analyze an e.wrAusp~povt~I .. 1993. &mcrsurfiq. &quakc U. ]at& quakc ~ m r a t i o n . New Yo& T H.Freeman. ht~p:ll&~.g dq&~. and infomtion on earthquake U S . Snrwy Emthqwkr I@mmhtl. Nortbridge earthquakc rupnrre movia. 1971. 1995.*-p!u! PMGhamchd' us*&I+ S u m q web PB&l: &k infomarion b u r the d w a m h g July I?. 9.S. 1990. CA 9 4 2 5 or on & I n b r at: hrpp:lI~. G d o g i d Survey.pvl http:/lvquakr.B. CaIiffiMd g u P $ E to &a big one?N a t i ~ dGm# dond Amb 3. 1971.hrml h i w list of worldwide Internet sit= for i n f o d o n h u c d c p k e ~ . Pmhional Paper 733- rsyU. ?h nmt B& (Tkhmagahc-1'i pampht is avail& free from U. Los Angdes Y t L f f i r t b p a k e .dd California Starc University.S. W reant arthquakcs. s k y . htpllwwwaeiEm~wr~mkd Uviwnib~ N &m~d 5 b m W sitr conrains i n f o d o n about bcfp://puh. ~~ .scsismo.u5p. Thr Saff R m @ & ~ + w h g ~and linh ut other cardquakc sitw. qn4nc wrjon: htfp:llp&. 3-D earthquake movie.mme-w Q d o m about -t .S.1568-1989 (MUM. u / hrrp:l/pu bs. 1990. kp3r. 26011): 48-55. i%&u &&idW o n a t Paper 1515.govIpub1'~11tion?~itc~l dynamic. http:Ilwww.p~lgiplerrrrhq41 smritygip. M t y o f th UiriidState~. b r i d dq&. CrBerkdey thar has many links to othcr earthquake sites (partidady in California).u~+@ US. 1989. A. T. Geological Survey. B. .. 3 : 5 a 3 . * C. B PmMond &per 1527.