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2/9/12



Are Carbohydrates Misunderstood?


Carbohydrates in
Nutrition
Vegetarian Food Instructors Course!
NAD Health Summit!
Orlando, FL!
January 30 - February 3, 2012

!
• 2003- World caught up with a
Carbohydrate phobia. It seemed
like all carbohydrates were bad.!
!
• What is the problem?

Where do Carbohydrates Come From?

"
• Carbohydrates are made in
the photosynthesis process."
!

• The most simple
carbohydrate (sugar) is
glucose !
!
• Main energy source of the
body

Glucose Molecule

• Glucose is a simple sugar
or monosaccharide.!
!
• We can think of glucose as
a simple building block and
source of energy.

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2/9/12 Another disaccharide •  Galactose ( milk sugar) Double Sugars •  Sucrose = fructose + glucose! •  Maltose = glucose + glucose! •  Lactose = galactose + glucose Other disaccharides Sucrose Molecule • Fructose! ! ! 
 Polysaccharides: Complex sugars like:
 ! •  Starch .Energy Storing ! ! !(< 1300 glucose molecules from plants)! • Glycogen – Energy Storing! ! !(Glucose storage in animals) ! 2 .

Complex carbohydrates slow digestion resulting in better blood sugar control.! 3 glucose molecules •  2. Dietary Guidelines 2005! ! !Others recommend 25 to 40 grams total dietary fiber per day. vegetables and whole grains often (consistently?)! ! • 2. Fiber (complex carbohydrate) slows the digestion of glucose. ! ! ! !! ! 3 . Sucrose alone is too concentrated. Vitamins and minerals are used in metabolism of carbohydrates. ! How Much Fiber Do I Need? ! • Recommendation: 14 grams (0. Resistant Starch! –  Starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine of healthy individuals Why Use Complex Carbohydrates? Why Use Complex Carbohydrates? ! • 1. Choose and prepare foods and beverages with little added sugar or caloric sweeteners. Greater satiety Dietary Guidelines Regarding Carbohydrates • 1.! •  3. Soluble! –  Starch that retard starch digestion. Choose fiber-rich fruits. Insoluble! –  Complex structure of glucose molecules constructed in such a way as digestive enzymes cannot break then down. refined sugars have no vitamins and mineralscould result in depletion of nutrient stores in the body • 3.! ! • 2. stabilizing release of glucose in the blood stream.! ! • 3.! ! • 5.2/9/12 Dietary Fiber •  1.! ! • 4.5 ounces) of dietary fiber per 1000 calories. Reduce the incidence of dental caries by practicing good oral hygiene and consuming sugar and starchcontaining foods less frequently.

! ! • Know various names for sugar (evaporated cane juice)! ! • Plan menus to include dietary fiber on a daily basis. (What foods are high in fiber?) •  Questions and Comments? 4 .2/9/12 Summary • Choose complex carbohydrates for their health benefits.