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Leadership refers to the individuals who are the leaders in an organization, regarded

collectively. Leadership is the activity of leading a group of people or an organization or the


ability to do this.
Leadership is the ability to guide, direct or influence people. Its the office position of the head
or a manager who is regarded to be a leader of this team. Thus, for a business leader or a
manager, the leadership is the activity of leading a group of people by establishing a clear vision
and sharing it in a way that they can follow it willingly.
Leadership is scarce based on a number of reasons as presented below;
Leadership isn't about having a C-level title, a corner office or the power to make important
company decisions. The best leaders know that their success or failure depends on their ability to
inspire and guide their teams. Meanwhile, official corporate culture statements often highlight
traits like "integrity" and "collaboration" as core values from the top down.
Leadership cannot be taught, although it may be learned and enhanced through coaching or
mentoring. Someone with great leadership skills today is Bill Gates who, despite early failures,
with continued passion and innovation has driven Microsoft and the software industry to success.
Over- or under-confidence. Most workers, whether they're in a leadership position or not, know
what they'd like to see in a boss. They often feel confident that they could rise to the challenge
and become that boss if they had to. When it comes time to act, though, this can be a little more
difficult than expected.
Approaching leadership with the wrong expectations. It's one thing to be a team member; it's
another to lead those team members. Leaders are frequently unprepared to deal with the realities
of managing a group, so they either ignore problems that arise or react poorly to them. Rarely do
new leaders have a clue about what they are really getting into. For many of them, it's not what
they expected, or had the desire or competencies to do well.
Lack of training in the right skill set. You need many different competencies to master the
discipline of leadership. People must learn how to lead well, and the skills and motivations
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needed to lead are the opposite of those needed to be an individual contributor. It's no longer
about just you: You only succeed when your people succeed, and many new leaders don't make
this shift gracefully. Instead of focusing on tasks, leaders need to support the other people doing
the tasks, so those people are successful.
Ignoring the need to build relationships. Leading is all about relationships growing trust,
building teams and utilizing excellent interpersonal skills. Leaders pay a high price for ignoring
the important process of building healthy relationships. To create these relationships, leaders
need to pay attention to their teams, keep learning and never assume anything.
Failure to listen. Leaders tend think they have or need to act like they have all the answers
they don't have the answers, and they shouldn't act like it, Hewertson said. Listening is not a
strong suit for many new leaders, and too often they jump in quickly rather than listening,
learning and building on what they see.
Leadership scarcety is generally the result of succumbing to the three shortcomings that are
discussed in this section. Highly effective leaders learn to analyze the factors behind these
shortcomings that hinder their ability to lead consistently, creatively and responsibly.
Barriers, unforeseen situations and negative influences are guaranteed to surface at one time or
another to test ones ability to lead effectively. These moments of adversity can disclose areas of
ineffectiveness or challenge successes that have been achieved. Leaders need to take preventative
action

to

make

sure

they

do

not

succumb

to

these

shortcomings.

To some extent, leadership cannot be scarce is not confronted by the following approches;
Leadership is always responsible. It is not simply a position, job title or a manager overseeing
employees. It is both a science and an art that is constantly operating. It requires motivating,
monitoring, talking and training through active hands-on involvement. It removes barriers to
effectiveness. In sum, leadership is responsible for everything the organization does or fails to
do.

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Leadership means understanding that the factual basis of the organization continues to change.
In other words, the thinking that made an organizations success possible yesterday is the same
thinking that can result in its failure tomorrow.
Technology will never be able to replace leadership. The question leaders answer is, What is
the organization going to depend on when technology undermines it? It is dangerous to believe
computers and technicians can replace leaders.
Leadership is about looking below the surface, since the greatest dangers and the biggest
opportunities reside there, hidden unless searched out. Leadership also means seeing employees
as an untapped resource that can collectively identify some of the best ideas and solutions to an
organizations problems. Leaders in this role look to workers for ideas, identification of problems
and possible solutions.
Leadership requires looking beyond the horizon. It means acknowledging that success can blind
an organization. Leadership skills encourage leaders to watch for changing trends, needs,
potential devastating occurrences, and possible problems that can hinder an organizations
progress.
Many organisations simply do not tap into the potential that their people can provide, and one
reason for this is a self-limiting belief in leadership myth number. If you shift your perspective
from one of scarcity to one of abundance, you will see potential leaders everywhere about you.
Your job is then to nurture and coach them to build their confidence, ownership and skill, so they
can grow and step up to the challenge.
A potent access to building a leadership culture is having leaders take responsibility for
developing leadership in others throughout the organisation, through coaching and mentoring.
Its also important that current leaders reflect on and openly share what they are learning from
their own most recent successes and failures.
Lastly; with any leadership failure, one must strive to distill the reasons and causes behind it.
Such failures prevent leaders and their organizations from moving forward because the
subsequent barriers and voids stifle a companys ability to seek new opportunities. Consequently,
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the company will not be able to take advantage of situations that increase its competitiveness,
productivity and market strength.

References
Arvey, R. D.; Rotundo, M.; Johnson, W.; Zhang, Z.; McGue, M. (2006). "The determinants of
leadership role occupancy: Genetic and personality factors". The Leadership Quarterly
Judge, T. A.; Bono, J. E.; Ilies, R.; Gerhardt, M. W. (2002). "Personality and leadership: A
qualitative and quantitative review". Journal of Applied Psychology 87(4):
Kenny, D. A.; Zaccaro, S. J. (1983). "An estimate of variance due to traits in leadership". Journal
of Applied Psychology 68 (4): 678685.
Lewin, K.; Lippitt, R.; White, R. K. (1939). "Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally
created social climates". Journal of Social Psychology

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NDEJJE

UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES


KAMPALA CAMPUS

NAME

KIBIRIGE DANIEL

REG NO.

14/2/360/W/888

COURSE UNIT

LEADERSHIP AND DEVELOPMENT

COUSRE

BPAM

FACILITATOR

MR. NDINAWE BYEKWASO

YEAR

TWO

SIGNATURE

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QUESTION;

Examine the statement that Leadership is scarce.

Inflexible Goals
Goal setting is a powerful toolbut only a tool; leaders should not make more of it than what it
is. Leaders are masters of their goals: their goals serve them. Leaders often fail when goals are
not adjusted to reflect their current knowledge about what is best for themselves or the
organization.
Setting specific goals builds commitment to achieving results. However, maintaining an
inflexible commitment to a goal is dangerous. The time invested or the costs associated with a
specific goal can impair the leaders ability to objectively assess the value of one goal over
another.
As goals are pursued, leaders also need to continually seek new opportunities. They can
accomplish both simultaneously by doing the following:

Think strategically each and every day.

Actively seek out daily opportunities.

Realize a leaders job is to identify new opportunities and quickly take advantage of
them.

Have employees think in terms of, What if? or, How could? or, Why couldnt
we? and other mind-expanding questions.

Talk with others outside the organization to discover their views on future directions.

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Seek information from people that have a different perspective. Leaders often gravitate
toward people who are similar to them, who dont challenge them sufficiently to make a
difference.

Remember that goal setting does reign supreme when achieving organizational success.
However, to prevent leadership failure, never let goals obstruct the identification of new
opportunities that may be more valuable.

Timothy F. Bednarz, Ph.D. is an accomplished author, researcher, consultant, entrepreneur and innovator.
As a critical thinker and problem solver, he has acquired strong critical and cognitive thinking skills, linked with an inquisitive
mind, seeking comprehensive and meaningful solutions and answers to problems. He has the ability to view complex issues,
identifying specific causes to develop meaningful solutions in simple terms.
He has developed comprehensive expertise to generate insightful perspectives regarding what works in leadership, based upon a
historic perspective cultivated through extensive research, and applying them into current leadership roles and models.
Additionally, he is skilled in paradigm thinking to devise innovative learning solutions to establish leadership proficiency and
mastery that generates individual accountability and overall resul

Leaders can get the best out of people. "Today's top leaders are consistent with their approach,
get their hands dirty and create a company culture that will last long after he or she [has left].
'Comfort zones' are almost nonexistent under strong leadership, because each team member is
pushed to their full potential. Great leaders also hire and inspire other great leaders, whom they
trust to carry out the company mission and instill a sense of purpose that touches each and every
staff member." Tom Villante, co-founder, chairman and CEO of payment processing company
YapStone
Leadership is all about giving and serving. "It is lonely at the top, but that's no excuse for not
giving generously of your time, your experience and your encouragement to your team and
never expecting any of that in return. You are the person in the unique position of finding or
uncovering strengths in people, leveraging them and celebrating them. If you're going to lead,
and lead well, you have to put it all out there every day, regardless of the outcome. Leaders who
hold back will eventually hold their teams back." Tricia Sciortino, president of eaHELP, a
provider of virtual assistant services
Leadership requires ambition. "Leaders are described with a mouthful of adjectives, such
as passionate, visionary, charismatic, motivational and encouraging. However, I propose
leadership is something simpler. It is ambition. Ambition creates hard work, determination and
an unconditional desire to achieve. It generates an absolutely contagious energy that people
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follow and join naturally. If you are a leader in your organization, there is only one thing you
need to understand about your role: never let your ambition fade." Corey Baggett, co-founder
of ad technology firm AdBoom Group
Good leaders have a good attitude. "A good leader can hold his or her emotions in check,
especially in tough situations. For example, maybe you lost your best client, or a deal you've
been working on falls through. Regardless, it's important for leaders to guide a team through
challenging times, encouraging them and remaining positive along the way. Team morale is
heavily contingent upon a leader's attitude." David Moore, founding partner and regional vice
president of Addison Group staffing firm
Leadership means being in touch with your people. "A leader places the people around him or
her in a position that sets them up for success. This is a difficult task, because a leader must have
an in-depth understanding of each individual, such as understanding their career goals and
knowing what motivates them. By being committed to helping each person achieve their own
personal goals, the leader sets the organization up for greatness. Leaders are [also] good listeners.
They listen to verbal and nonverbal cues to understand [what is] occurring in the organization.
This allows you to address problems before they become big issues." Andor Kovacs, CEO and
founder of property restoration brand Restoration 1
Leaders set the right example. "Leadership is setting an example in the way you act each day,
while focusing on the bigger picture. It's about setting the tone for your team and organization in
the way you interact with your own staff, your business partners and your customers. As a leader,
it is your responsibility to establish goals, innovate, motivate and trust. A passionate and
compassionate leader can energize a company. Set an example of cooperation, trust and
openness. Focus on solutions and positivity instead of finding faults and blame for actions."
Richard Kissane, president and CEO of Premium Franchise Brands, parent company of JANPRO and Maid Right Franchising
Leaders can't stand alone. "The out-and-out leader in today's volatile and uncertain business
environment had better not distance him or herself from the heat of the action. Demonstrating
the competence to assess, decide and execute in a growing business drives confidence in the
leader. Similarly, a great leader of an enterprise stands on the shoulders not of 'managerial
Muppets' who obediently do as they are directed, but of other leadership giants who have
different and complementary leadership skills. A business with only one leader will remain
forever a small business." Richard Hytner, deputy chairman of Saatchi & Saatchi Worldwide
and author of "Consiglieri: Leading from the Shadows" (Profile Books, 2014)

Leaders become selfish.


Leaders who have responsibilities seem to forget that they are there to support their team instead
of themselves. They become power hungry and seek control instead of giving advice, mentoring
and ensuring that the team benefits from their leadership.

2. They stop navigating the team.


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When a leader is satisfied with the current state of the company and group, they stop directing
people forward. Leaders need to have clear visions and goals to make sure that everyone is
constantly delivering high quality results and that the overall company is benefiting. Leaders
have to set expectations, keep track of everyones progress and hold themselves accountable.

3. Leaders become greedy.


Good leaders are those who can delegate tasks and make sure that everyone on their team is
learning, growing and is being challenged. When leaders start to do the work that they should be
passing down to their employees, they end up hurting themselves. They become stressed out
because they are overloaded with work and their employees get bored and want to leave.

4. They get arrogant.


Even the best leaders think they know everything and it becomes their downfall. Leaders need to
be continuous learners if they want to keep up with the challenging demands of todays
economy. Your employees and the people you meet outside of the office can really help you
make better decisions and you should listen to them. If you ignore what other people say, its
going to make your job harder because people may oppose it and you might be left stranded.

5. They focus too much on politics.


Leaders have to play politics all the time at the office. They have to do the right thing, at the right
time and make the right allies without angering too many people. This tends to get in the way of
productivity and makes them lose focus. Leaders should instead focus on doing excellent work
and managing their team.

6. They dont give enough criticism.


Its very easy for leaders to try and please everyone and to befriend co-workers but thats not
always effective. You have to take a step back and look at the weaknesses of your team and talk
to them about what they can improve. If all you do is compliment everyone, then you are doing
them a disservice. At the same time, you should accept criticism from them. Some of your
leadership tactics might not be best for the group and you need to know that.

7. Leaders refuse to adapt.


You will always have to change how you lead based on how your work and company are
changing. If your company is headed in a new direction, or if you have new team members,
youre going to want to adapt your leadership style to that new environment. If you fail to do
that, then its going to be hard to align your group to what the company is doing.

8. They dont understand self-leadership.


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You have to know yourself, control yourself and communicate your core values, expectations
and beliefs. You need to understand your strengths, weaknesses and goals in order to be able to
give your best self to your team and to have fulfillment.

9. They are too reactive.


Leaders need to be proactive, not just reactive. If you find yourself spending all of your time
trying to put out fires, then you arent using your time effectively. Proactive leaders have an
influence on the future and form the right alliances to advance their causes. Of course you should
make sure your group is getting all the answers and resources they need, but dont ignore the
future.

10. Leaders dont communicate well.


If you want to lead a team, youre going to have to constantly communicate with them and make
sure they are all in the know. You can use Skype, instant messaging, email and team meetings in
order to get your message to them, but the important part is that it gets there. If you dont
communicate effectively, people wont know what to do next or where the group is heading.

A Shift in Focus
Leaders are usually distinguished by their ability to think big. But as their focus shifts, their
thinking shrinks. Often, leaders simply lose sight of whats important. They micromanage, get
caught up in minutiae, and succumb to perfectionism in trivial decisions better left to others.
Even more subtle is an obsession with doing rather than becoming. A leaders greatest
influence flows from inner vision and integrity, but its possible for a leader to become infatuated
with action and, in the process, lose touch with the all-important development of character.
Busier isnt always better. What is your primary focus right now? If you cant write it on the
back of your business card, then your leadership suffers from a lack of clarity.
Warning Sign #2: Poor Communication
Lack of focus disorients a leader and sets the stage for poor communication. Followers cant
possibly understand a leaders intent when the leader isnt even sure what it is! Sometimes,
leaders delude themselves into believing that committed followers can sense their goals and
carry out their wishes without being told. When misunderstandings arise, managers blame their
people for lack of effort (or commitment) rather than recognizing their own communication
negligence. Say what you mean, and mean what you say is timeless advice, but it must be
preceded by knowing what you mean! Clarity of purpose is the starting point for all effective
communication.
Warning Sign #3: Risk Aversion
Past victories create pressure for leaders: Will I be able to sustain outstanding performance?
The longer a leader is successful, the higher his or her perceived cost of failure will be. When
driven by the fear of failure, leaders are unable to take reasonable risks. They limit themselves to
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tried and proven pathways. Attempts at innovationkey to their initial successdiminish and
eventually disappear. Which is more important to you: the journey or the destination? Are you
still taking reasonable risks? Prudent leadership avoids reckless risk, but neither is it paralyzed
by fear.
Warning Sign #4: Ethics Slip
A leaders credibility depends upon two qualities: what he or she does (competency) and who he
or she is (character). Deficiencies in either create an integrity problem. The highest principle of
leadership is integrity. When ethical compromise is rationalized as necessary for the greater
good, a leader is on the slippery slope of failure. All too often, leaders see their followers as
pawns, mere means to an end. As a result, they confuse manipulation with leadership. Such
leaders rapidly lose respect. To save face, they cease to be people perceivers and become
people pleasers, using popularity to ease the guilt of lapsed integrity. Are there areas of conflict
between what you believe and how you behave?
Warning Sign #5: Poor Self-Management
If a leader doesnt take care of him/herself, no one else will. Unless a leader is blessed with
unusually perceptive followers, nobody will pick up on signs of fatigue and stress. Leaders are
counted on to produce, but they arent superheroes with limitless energy. While leadership is
invigorating, it is also tiring. Like anyone other mere mortal, leaders are susceptible to feeling
drained, depressed, and demotivated. Those who neglect their physical, psychological,
emotional, or spiritual needs are headed for disaster. Make time for refreshment and
replenishment. Take care of yourself. Self-preservation isnt selfish; its vital to the health of
those you lead.
Warning Sign #6: Lost Love
Leaders face impending disaster when they abandon their first love. The hard work of leadership
should be fulfilling and fun. However, when divorced from their dreams, leaders may find the
responsibility of leadership to be frustrating and fruitless. To stay motivated, leaders must stick
to what they love and rediscover what compelled them to accept the mantle of leadership in the
first place. To make sure that you stay on the track of following your first love, frequently ask
yourself these three questions: Why did I initially pursue leadership? Have those reasons
changed? Do I still want to lead?

1. Awareness There is a difference between management and employees, bosses and workers.
Leaders understand the nature of this difference and accept it; it informs their image, their
actions, and their communication. They conduct themselves in a way that sets them apart from
their employees--not in a manner that suggests they are better than others, but in a way that
permits them to retain an objective perspective on everything that's going on in their
organization.
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2. Decisiveness All leaders must make tough decisions. It goes with the job. They understand
that in certain situations, difficult and timely decisions must be made in the best interests of the
entire organization, decisions that require a firmness, authority, and finality that will not please
everyone. Extraordinary leaders don't hesitate in such situations. They also know when not to act
unilaterally but instead foster collaborative decision making.
3. Empathy Extraordinary leaders praise in public and address problems in private, with a
genuine concern. The best leaders guide employees through challenges, always on the lookout
for solutions to foster the long-term success of the organization. Rather than making things
personal when they encounter problems, or assigning blame to individuals, leaders look for
constructive solutions and focus on moving forward.
4. Accountability Extraordinary leaders take responsibility for everyone's performance,
including their own. They follow up on all outstanding issues, check in on employees, and
monitor the effectiveness of company policies and procedures. When things are going well, they
praise. When problems arise, they identify them quickly, seek solutions, and get things back on
track.
5. Confidence Not only are the best leaders confident, but their confidence is contagious.
Employees are naturally drawn to them, seek their advice, and feel more confident as a result.
When challenged, they don't give in too easily, because they know their ideas, opinions, and
strategies are well-informed and the result of much hard work. But when proven wrong, they
take responsibility and quickly act to improve the situations within their authority.
6. Optimism The very best leaders are a source of positive energy. They communicate easily.
They are intrinsically helpful and genuinely concerned for other people's welfare. They always
seem to have a solution, and always know what to say to inspire and reassure. They avoid
personal criticism and pessimistic thinking, and look for ways to gain consensus and get people
to work together efficiently and effectively as a team.
7. Honesty Strong leaders treat people the way they want to be treated. They are extremely
ethical and believe that honesty, effort, and reliability form the foundation of success. They
embody these values so overtly that no employee doubts their integrity for a minute. They share
information openly, and avoid spin control.
8. Focus Extraordinary leaders plan ahead, and they are supremely organized. They think
through multiple scenarios and the possible impacts of their decisions, while considering viable
alternatives and making plans and strategies--all targeted toward success. Once prepared, they
establish strategies, processes, and routines so that high performance is tangible, easily defined,
and monitored. They communicate their plans to key players and have contingency plans in the
event that last-minute changes require a new direction (which they often do).
9. Inspiration Put it all together, and what emerges is a picture of the truly inspiring leader:
someone who communicates clearly, concisely, and often, and by doing so motivates everyone to
give his or her best all the time. They challenge their people by setting high but attainable

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standards and expectations, and then giving them the support, tools, training, and latitude to
pursue those goals and become the best employees they can possibly be.

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