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H 1tr 6f;ts8{fi

Fig. I


Indicator zero corrector

Rangeselectorswitch knob
Measuringterminal f
Measuringterminal -COM
OUTPUT (seriescondenser)
6 0Q adjustingknob
7 Nameplate


for safety operation and maintenance

To be sure, a circuit tester is a very useful device capable of
measuring voltage, current, resistance, and various other
electric and electronic quantities. Accordingly, the object
of me'asurementit coversvaries widely from minute current
to high voltage. Furthermore, the input impedance changes
from a few ohms up to high megohm level with the
measurement range cut over. These properties of a circuit
t e s t e r d e m a n d t h e o p e r a t o r t o u s e u t m o s t ca r e i n , th e
operation and maintenance of his instrument to ward himself off danger and damage to the meter. Especially when
checking high power equipment, no operation mistake
should be committed. Remember a circuit tester needs
periodical inspection and calibration to maintain it in good
condition. A tester known to be defective, or laid away
unused for many months must not be used to measure a
voltage above 100V. Be certain for a tester to undergo
warrantable inspection at least once a year, when correct
indication of the range must be ascertainedand withstand
v o l t a q et e s t n o t b e o m i t t e d .

R e a rc a s e
Connectorforhrr test
Connectionpin to tester

general description


Viewed in the light of a circuit tester measuring voltage,

current, resistance,etc., the YX-360TR is no more than a
standard multitester in function. But the added versatility
of performing as a transistor analyzer distinguishes it from
averagemeters. For the particulan of its bounds of hidden
possibility, you can examine for yourself the specification
data along with the benefits and advantagesthe instrument
For all this, the YX-360TR is by no means a large-built
equipment, but it is a lightweight and handy-sized device to
be seated anywhere on your bench. As a matter of fact, it is
suitable for carrying service. From beginners to professionals, you can enjoy a good command of it so as to get
the best of the instrument on your original idea according
to your own service desigt,

General description
Measurement ranges and performance
I As a circuit tester
2 As a transistor tester .
Operation I - as a circuit tester
I Zero correction of indicator
2 Test lead connections
3 Selectionof range
4 Measurement ranges and scale reading . . . . . .
5 Difference between voltage and current
.......1 0
6 Voltage measurementand internal impedance .
7 Use of HV probe for TV servicing
8 ACV measurement on OUTPUT terminal . . . .
9 Resistancemeasurement and 0S-ladjustment . .
I 0 dB scale
Operation II - as a transistor tester .
I Preliminaries ..
2 Measurementof Icro (leakagecurrent) . . . . . .
3 Measurementof hre (DC amplification factor)
4 Measurementof diode including LED . .
I Choosing a proper range.
2 Measurementof unknown values
3 Protection of tester
. .
4 Burnout damage through misapplication
Supplementary data
I Arrangement of parts
2 Partslist...

-2 -



. 13
. 13
. 17

5 One-handedoperation control and rational arrangement


of ranges.

All-purpose function.
The YX-360TR will entertain you with expanded vision
of application. Optional use of the connector readily
transfers the meter to a regular transistor tester to
directly read hrr (DC amplification factor) of transistors for you to determine if they are suitable for circuit
use. Few testersperform such unique double service.

Ability no less better than a large-sizedtester.

Excellent resolution factor of 0.2mV and above, and
widened resistance measurement range reading from
0.2Q up to 20MQ, and that energizedby the small-size
internal batteries, compare the instrument favorably
with a bulky test gear.

Seriescondenserterminal (OUTPUTI.
Applied use of this extra terminal serves to check TV
circuits for detecting AC signals with DC element
present mixed isolated.

All measurementsare controlled by a single knob. Into

the bargain, the 1000V DC and AC rangeslie adjacent
each other on the selector switchboard to evadepossible
danger caused by misplaced range selection. In most
testers are found these rangesadjoined at the ohm range,
and there is a fair chance of the circuit resistorsbeing
burnt out rendering the instrument out of service.[n the
worst case, it might bring on serious accident to the

6 Non-skid rubber support.

The rubbers supplied may be fitted in the pits on the
rear to tilt the meter to a convenient viewing angle on
the bench. They also serve to prevent the meter to skid.
Glassindicator cover.
In consideration of the portable use of the instrument,
scratch-, heat- and dust-proof glass is used for the
protection of the indicator instead of a soft metacrylicresin cover.

3-volt internal battery power.

It is impossible for a usual handy tester with a 1.S-volt
battery built - in to check the linear continuity of
semiconductors like LED whose forward voltage exceeds
1.5V, being unable to read either their forward or
backwald resistance. In this respect, the 1.s-volt batteries lined up in seriesspread the measurementrange of

- 4-


measurement ranges and performance

operation | - as a circuit tester

1 As a circuittester.
1 Zero correction of indicator,
Zero.corrector@is adjusted to place
t h e p o i n te r @o n 0
of the scale left.

M e a s u r e m e n tr a n g e s

0- 0.I V-0.5v-2.5V-10V-s0V-25gy
l 000v-(25kV)
25kV with HV probeextra

0- l0v-50v-250V- 1000v

Input impedance
( l0 0 m V
for 50uA)

0 - 5 0 uA -2 .5m A- 25m A- 0. 25A
50uA at 0.lVDC position

S T gr

b,t t;: ;::$*':rtilJ"l:lj;*

must be confirmedbeforestarting*earuiem.nt. :i

X I - x l O -x l k -x tOk

2 -zoo-zob[iol
Yi4.qMidscale 9.220

lrlaximum2k -20k- 2M-20M irl)
-l0dB-+22dB for I0VAC
0dB/0.775V( lmW throush600a)

UM-3 x 2
0061x 1

2 As a transistortester.
Leakage current (lc e o )
(LI )

0- l50uA at X lk ranee
0- l5mA at X l0 ranei
0-l50mA at Xl ranle

t5 % o f Currentaiuc

DC current
factor (hre)

0 -10 00 a t Xl0 r ange( f )

x3 % o f

- 6-

With connecto r e xtra


2 Test leadconnections.
The test leadsattachedare inserted
well down, the red
going to the + jack and the Ufu"t
f."O L the _COM
3 Selectionof range.
When selectinga range,the white
correctlypositionedat the prescrib.d on the knob is
3-I D C vol rage(D C V ).
DC voltagesof batteries,amplifier
circuits, power
sourceof communicationequipment,
tuUeand tran_
sistorcircuit biases,.etc.-ar.
_.urur.d. Eich of the 7
rangenotations(0. l-1000) indicates
the rnaxrmum
voltagereadingfor that range.
3-2 AC voltage(ACV).
Voltages of commercialAC supply,
circuits, AF signatlevel, erc. .r";;aiu;;;.AC powered
Each of
the 4 rangenorations_(10_rooo)
mum voltagereadingfor that range.
3-3 D C current(D C A )..
Current consumptionof DC power

ment, bias cunent of tube and transistor circuits, etc.

are measured. Each of the 4 range notations
(50uA-0.25A) indicates the maximum current reading for that range. (uA= l0-3 mA and A- 103mA)

4 Measurement ranges and scale reading.

Scale mark

(l) o (black)


3-4 Resistance(Q)
Resistance is measured, and line and circuit continuity (- or 0Q) tested. Each of the 4 range
notations indicates the multiplication of the reading
for that range, where k stands for I 000.

For accuracy reading, the pointer

itself and its image in the mirror must
be l i ned up.

(2) Mirror

(3) DCV.A

0-10, 0-50 and 0-250 lines each

reading0-10V, 0-50V and0-250V
0 .1 V , 0 . 5 V , 2 . 5 Va n d 1 0 0 0 Va r er e a d
DC voltage
and current multiplied. For current, G250(A)
line reads 0-0.254., 0-25mA and
0-2.5mA. 0-50uA is readon 0-50

(4) A C V (red)

AC voltage


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Scale reading

Xl rangedirectly reads0.2fi-2kS-|.
For Xl0, Xlk and XlOk ranges,
multiply readingsby the multiples.

(bl ue)

Common scale with DCV reads

0-250V, 0-50V and 0-l0V directly. For 0-1000V, multiply the readine on 0- l0 line.

DC amplihca- E xtra connector rea ds 0-1000

tion factor
X lO('fi) rarge.


(6) LE A K , Iceo,
LI (bl ue)

Reads cunent flow across + and

Reverse leak- -CONt while measuring resistance,
X l 0 range readi ng 0- 15mA . E mi tter
age current
of transistors and collector connected instead read
f or
0-l 5OuA
0-l 50mA for X 10k r ans es .

( 7 ) LV (blue)

Voltage across Reads reverse DC voltage of 3V-0

while measuring resistance; X lk
through X 1.

(8) dB (red)

A F output

- 1 0 - +2 2 d B f o r 10VACrange.OdB
is established a t 0 .7 7 5 V ( l m W
ACV rdg
dB =20l og,o
0.7 75 V

Difference between voltage and current measurements.

Fig. 2-A is a standard voltage measurement,where the
potential difference between 2 points is checked, for
which the meter is connected in parallel with load, while
-B checks the current supplied by power and consumed
by load, where the meter is connected in serieswith the
circuit. Basically, the difference is whether the meter is
connected in parallel or in serieswith ioad. The latter
connection accompaniesthe trouble of cutiing open the
circuit being checked.
h'Zu ( Ep


It) tu


Fig. 2
In respect of measurement loss, the bigger the impedance of the meter(Zu) is, the smaller is the current
(Iu) required for measurement for the former, and, on
the contrary, the smaller the impedance of the meter is,
( I r - c un e n t
the volta ge lo ss (dr op) by I r x Zu.
consumption) Thus, high accuracy data are obtained by
the YX-360TR because of its very small current loss of
50uA for DCV and l25uA for ACV measurementsat
full scale, the voltage drop for current measurement
being 250mV.

-1 0 -

6 Voltage measurementand internal impedance.

There are 2 instancesof voltage measurementby parallel
connection. In case of Fig. 2-A, there exists no high
impedance corresponding to Re of Fig. 3. Power supply
source has its own internal resistance,but it is so small as
can be ignored for voltage measurement,and the loss of
current consumption by a tester is practically nil the
m e t e r r e a d i n g E p . B u t , a s c a n b e n o t e d i n Fi g .3 , th e
circuit condition changeson account of R4 present and
200kQ of the tester connected in parallel for measurement. Consequently, the YX 3 6 !TR I'VR AN G'
meter reads 3.77V against R ,=l 0 i V X2 0 kl =l Ski
the actual 4V resulting in

some error. Therefore,when

measuring such a circuit,
where R is usually replaced
with a tube or a transistor,
the circuit impedance and
Fig. 3
internal resistance of the
voltage range of the tester used for. measurement
must be referred to each other in reading the data
o b t a i n e d . I n F i g . 3 , t h e c i r c u i t i m p e d a n ce i s a b o u t l /1 0
of the impedance of the tester, and reading error of
within -5% can be ignored, though the bigger the
internal impedance of a tester, the better.
The high impedanceof 20kCl/V for DCV and 8kC2/V for
DCV of this instrument displays its full ability in the
voltage measurementof high impedancevoltage amplifying circuit, AVC, AGC and transistor bias circuit to
obtain high accuracy data.


ACV measurementon OUTPUT terminal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4 above is a sample measurement of a transrstor
circuit. It will be useful for trouble-shooting and
discrimination of the type of the transistors used if you
are acquainted in advance with the proper use of NpN
and PNP transistors and the fact that Ge type shows low
V ne a nd Si typ e h igh Voo.
Use of HV probe for TV servicing.
25kV HV p rob e is av ailable ex t r a. I t is c onnec t e d a s
shown in Fig. 5 placing the range selector switch at the
positio n ma rke d PRO BE. The DCV
0-25 0 scale is used r eading 25k V
at full scale.This probe can only be
used for measurement of hieh impedance circuit voltage like thc
anode and focusing voltages of a
CRT for television use.
Fig. 5


The negative lead is connected as usual to the -COM

a n d t h e p o s i t i v e l e a d t o t h e O U T P U T te r m i n a l . A
condenser is interconnected in series with the OUTpUT
and * terrninals to cut off DC element present on the
circuit to read AC signal alone on the meter.
Besides checking AF output voltage, this terminal is
available to detect signalsin TV servicing. For instance,
on the AC 50V range is detected the presence of the
horizontal signal on the horizontal amplifying circuit
and, similarly, the presence of the input signal on the
synchronous detaching and synchronous amplifying circuitsResistancemeasurementand 0O adjustment.

Resistance measurement is powered by internal batteries. They wear by use resulting in reading error of the
measured value. For correct reading of resistance,the
sensitivity of the indicator must be adjusted according to
the voltage supplied by batteries. This is what is called
Gohm adjustment for the indicator
to read 0Q at full scale. It is
adjusted in the following way:
As shown in Fig. 6, the range
selector is placed at the range being
used. With the + and -COM terminals shorted together, the pointer
moving toward 0,il is adjusted by
A ... OO ADJ
turning 00ADJ to the right or left
B ... ReadingO
in order to place it exactly on 0 of
the scale right. The pointer must
Fig. 6
be adjusted each time the range is


Polarity of terminals for resistancemeasurement

Replacement of batteries

As shown in Fig. 7, the polarity of terminals is reversed

for resistance measurement, the +
jack being in negative and -COM
jack in positive potential, the batI
tery terminals being inverted in the i6t_"o*
me ter. It must be remembered
i[O ., :"^
when testing polarized resistance
like transistorsand diodes (iunction
type), etc. So must it be when
testing the leakageof electrolytic capacitors.

Wh e n t h e i n t e r n a l l . 5 V
batteries are worn out, it
becomes impossible to
make 0Q adjustment for
the X I range becattse it
dissipatescurrent most. So
is it for the Xl0k range
where 9V battery (006P)
i s c o n s u m e d .T h e b a t t e r i e s
needs immediate replacement. Uncover the meter
by moving the rear bolt.
Fig, 8 shows how to replace the worn-out batterie s.

Currentconsumptionin resistance
Subject to the unit being tested, its impedance changes
while measuring resistance on account of the current
flowing in the unit, or the voltage it is impressed with.
Some abnormal state may be recognized due to selfheating. It must be well noted for each ranse used
when, fo r instan ce . m eas ur ing t he DC r es is t anc eo f a
thin-wire coil an d a bulk - t y pe s em ic onduc t or l i k e a
thermistor. The LI and LV scaies provided check
current consumption and voltage load very effectively in
t hes e mea su reme nts .
Sw. position

M a x. cu r r e n t
co n su m p tio n

N{ax. voltage
across terminals

x l0k

l5 Om A
150 uA
( 6 0 u A)

( 12v )

Fig. 8

10 dB scale.
dB (decibel) is measured in the same way as ACV
measurementreading the dB scaleinstead.
Because the human ear is analogous to logarithmic
variation, the input/output ratio of an amplifier and
transistor circuit is expressedby logarithmic value dB to
save complicated calculation. For a coupled circuit of a
definite impedance, power can be compared by simply
expressing the voltage (current) ratio by dB. The dB
scale provided is graduated to read from OdB to +22d8
on the reference of OdB at 0.7'75Y which is the voltage
when I mW is dissipatedacross600C2.
Most frequently, the input and output circuit impedances of audio amplifiers are not necessarilystand-

ardize d fo r 60 0Q, and t he dB v alues m eas ur ed

by a
t ester are no thin g but v olt age v alues r ead
in d B
corre sp on din g to them . Howev er , when c om par in g
v.oltagelevels by dB, the scale provided will
surely save
the trou ble of making c om plic at ed c alc ulat ion when
it is
nece ssaryto con ve rt t hem int o dB v alues .

F or mea su reme nt on t he I 0V r ange, t he dB

(-l0dB-+2 2d 8)
is r ead dir ec t ly , buq when m eas u r e d
on. t he 5 0V ra ng e, 14dB is added t o t he r eading
on t h e
scale, a nd o n the l50V r ange, 2gdB is added. Thus ,
nraxrmu rn d B rea da ble is 22+ 19= 56( dB) m eas ur e d
t he l5 0V ran ge .

operation ll - as transistor tester

1 Preliminaries.
This instrument uses its resistancerange for
tests,and so the pointer must be exactly-adjusted
to zero
.colnecting a transistor fo. .n"usu.e_ent, tor
w h i c h t h e P a n d N t e r n i n a l sa r e s h o r t e d
t o g e i h e r a n d th e
p o r n t e r i s a d j u s t e db y O e A D J .
2 Measurementof lcEo (leakagecurrentl.
2-l A small-sizeTR (hereinafter a transistor
is referred to
as TR) is checked on the Xl0 e(l5mA) range,
and a
large-sizeTR on the X I f2 range.
2-2 An NPN TR is connected as shown in Fig.
9_A, and a

.ll,\ ;[j, :




Fig. 9
Represented electrically, Fig.
9 may otherwise be as Fie.
lO. where the section on thl
right of the N and P terminals .\'"'l_enclosed in the dotted line
r +i l
corresponds to the internal t!!el
crrcuit of the tester.
Fig. l0




In Fig. 10, the current flowing across the p and N

terminals is I..o (reverseleakage current) of the TR,
and the quantity of the leakagecurrent is read on the
L EAK sca lein m A.

d e t e r m i n e d b y R . F o r a g o o d T R , I c xh ,n i s l e r i to
the collector resulting in so much clrrrcnt increase
a n d h i g h e r r e a d i n g o f t h e m e t e r . T h e q u a n ti ty o f th e
c u r r e n t c h a n g e c a n b e s c a l e do u t a s h r r o n th e m e te r
to read the amplification degree.

For a Si TR, this current is too small to read.

2-5 There will be some leakage current read even for a


good quality Ge TR, though there is some difference

sub ject to its t y pe. I t will be 0. lm A- 2m A
for a
small- and medium-size TR, and lntA-SmA for a



2-G lf the reading falls within the red LEAK zone of the
I."o scale, the TR tested is passabie,but if it goes
be yo nd the zon e c om ing near t o t he f ull s c ale,t h e T R
is definitely defective.

Fig. 12

2-1 Leakage current is little to do with voltage value

showing constant current characteristic, but it is a
great deal subject to temperature. Be aware of
temperature rise while testing; it reads twice as much
fo r +10 "C.
3 Measure men to f h re ( DC am pt if ic at ion f ac t or ) 0- 1 0 0 0 .
3-l Besides reverse leakage current, the amplification
degree of a TR kinetically measuredalso determines
the quality of a TR on a
very simple theory. As a
TR is con ne cted t o t he
te ste r a s sho wn in Fig. 11,
Fig. I l
there flows I.r.o. A certain
r e sistan ce (R) c onnec t ed
across the N terminal and
I B a h FE
g i Iceo+
the base of the TR causes
r., = -l!
the current I^ to flow
- 18-

Extra connector for h|e fie?sDlemeflt.

The connector is connected either to the N or P

terminal subject to the polarity of the TR. To the
other P or N terminal unemployed is connected the
emitter of the TR. The range switch is set for Xl0.

The clips of the connector are connected to the

c o l l e c t o r a n d b a s e , a n d t h e l e a d f r o m th e o th e r
terminal of the tester, to the emitter.


For a good TR, there will be a

difference of
between O and @ of Fig. I 3. In
@, when h =0 and with base Fie.
open, only a little is read,
and in ), I" flows and Ic changes
reading an increasedvalue by Iu
x hrr.



For a fa ulty TR:

i t b y t h e c o n n e c t i o n s o f F i g . 1 4 t o m ea su r eIr ;i t i s
impossible to have light emitted. The 3-volt internal
battery layout of the instrument effectively checks it
on the Xl range. While light is being emitted, the LI
scale reads the current lr. and the LV scale the
f o r w a r d v o l a g eV r .

(a) No reading at all for the

c onnec t ion Q ) ;
(b) No difference of reading bet ween, ! and O ;
(c) For the Q,, reading gces beyond the hre scale and near to
full scale.

3-5 Under the condition of Fig. l2-@ read_ing

is noted on
the blue hre scale. The value read is *.- which is the
DC amplification degree of the TR test6"d.

1 Choosinga proper range.

3-6 Speaking exactly of a Ge TR, leakage current always

flows to the collector resulting in so much reading
error. Therefore, true value is obtained by deducting
from hrr the value correspondingto Icco read.

For increasedaccuracy, use the range nearestin value to

the value being checked. For instance, a l.5V dry cell
should be checked on the DC 2.5V range. Error will be
bigger on the left half of the scale. For resistance
measurement, reading is most accurate around in the
middle of the scaie.

Measurementof diode including LED.


The connections of Fig. l4 read I, (forward current)

or In (reversecurrent) on the LI scale provided. For
the lk range, the scale reads 0-l50uA. for the Xl0
ran ge 0 -15 mA, and f or t he Xl r ange 0- l5O m A.

2. Measurementof unknown values.

When measuring an unknown value, start with the
highest range. After the first reading, the switch can be
reset to a lower range for a more accurate reading.

4-2 lr reads high close to full scale, and I n v er y l o w

practically no current flowing.
4-3 While measuringIr, the LV scale
reads the
linear (forward)
voltage of the diode tested. For
a Ge diode, it is usually
0. 1-0 .2V, an d f or Si diode,

3 Protection of tester.


A tester is a precision instrument, and severeshock or

vibration should be avoided. Do not leave it long where
there is high temperature or moisture.


4-4 The forward voltage of LED is
generally more than 1.5V, while
average testers will fail to check

-2 0 -

; $<.,
Fig. l4

' "' '

Burnout damagethrough misapplication.

4-1 Misapplication occurs most burning out some internal
resistor when high AC voltage of 100-200V is
inadvertently applied to a resistanceor current range


with the selector switch placed on them unawares.

4-2 By virtue of the automatic protection circuit by Si

diodes placed in parallel with the meter movement,
th e pu lse cu rrent f lowing int o t he m ov em e n t i s
absorbed by them to safeguardthe moving coil from
ge tting bu rnt.

of Parts
1 Arrangement

4-3 A resistor may be burnt out on account of a high

volta ge o f a bo ut l00V m is applied. but it c a n b e
replaced to restore the instrument to normal performance. Resistors most liable to burn are | 9Q
(R2l) for th e X l ( Q ) r ange,and lQ ( Rl2) f or 0 . 2 5 4 ,
range. Refer to " supplementary
data " at the
end of the manual.

4-4 For a high power circuit of more than 200V, sparking

can cause some abnormality in the tester. Be certain
to have the meter damaged repaired and undergo
regular inspection and calibration by a warrantable
test facility.

@, -g>@


R t6 N R E


-2 2 -

_ L J_

2 Partslist

R. S.




YX Ri :)

R e si s to r

2kO) , mV calibr ation

240Q) , ser ies

5 k0) ,


YX Rr,3


YX R 0 4

R e si sto r

{OkO) , 2.5\' DC mulr jplier

YX R0 5

R e si sto r

(l50kt2) , l0V DC m ulr ipjier

YX R 0 6

R e si sto r

(800k4) , 50V DC m ultiplier

\ . X R O'

R e si sto r

R 08

R e si sto r


0.5V DC m ultiplier

4M Q) ,250V

DC nultiplie

5N{ Q) , 1000V DC multiplie

3 kQ) , ser ies

R e si s to r

920) , 2.5m A DC shunt


Y' X R I]


9O) '

25mA DC shunt

Y X R 12

R e si stg r

lA) ,

0.25A DC shunt

YX R1 3

Res is to

7.lk0) , 10V AC multiplier


320kQ) , 50V AC multipiier

YX R 1 5

Re si sto

YX R 6

YX R(rg


YX RIi )

6NlQ) , 250V AC mulr iplier


6 M Q) , lo0{ ) V AC m ulr inlr er




\.X R 8

Res s l.r

Yl i i t1 9


\' .\ R 3r)

R csrst

YX R 2 I




1k!l) , shunt


1kf2) , obm ser ies


Q ,l


Re si sto r


YX R 2 ]



YX R 2 5

Re s



200Q) , S2 X10 shur t

\ ' . \ R :3
YX R2 3


Q xlk
!2 Xl0k




R ec ti f i er ( c opper - ox i de)




Capac i tor



Var i s ter

B 001

D r y c el l U M - 3


D r y c el l 006P ( 9V)


( 1. 5V)



P0l 6

Panel fr am e ( YX- 360T R )

P 017

Panel di al

x0l 6

R ear c as e ( YX - 360T R )

M Bl O



T er m i nal j ac k ( 2d) '



K 00?


2 r equi r ed



( YX- 360T R )




3 r equi r ed


R ange s el ec tor k nob

0g adj us ter k nob
N am e pl ate ( YX - 360T R )


T es t l eads pai r 126)





( 4d)

R t!)

R . S. - R efer enc e

R 2l
R 2l


0 [2 adjuste

-2 4 -


Y X R 26

R es i s tbr ( l 6k Q) , s hunt



D es c r i pti on

Par t N o



S y mb o l