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You are on page 1of 223

RESERVOIR PETROPHYSICS

Instructor/Author:

Ching H. Wu

COLLEGE STATION, TEXAS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I) Definition I-1

II) Classification I-1

III) Range of values of porosity I-2

VI) Factors affecting porosity I-3

V) Measurement of porosity I-5

VI) Subsurface measurement of porosity I-13

VII) Compressibility of porous rocks I-25

II) Reservoir systems II-15

II) Wettability III-3

III) Capillary pressure III-5

IV) Relationship between capillary pressure and saturation III-13

V) Relationship between capillary pressure and saturation history III-14

VI) Capillary pressure in reservoir rock III-17

VII) Laboratory measurement of capillary pressure III-19

VIII) Converting laboratory data to reservoir conditions III-25

IX) Determining water saturation in reservoir from capillary pressure data III-27

X) Capillary pressure variation III-29

XI) Averaging capillary pressure data III-31

II) Methods for determining fluid saturations IV-1

II) Use of electrical Formation Resistivity Factor, Cementation Factor, and

Saturation Exponent V-8

III) Laboratory measurement of electrical properties of rock V-9

IV) Effect of clay on resistivity V-18

II) Relative permeability VI-2

III) Typical relative permeability curves VI-2

IV) Permeability ratio (relative permeability ratio) VI-14

V) Measurement of relative permeability VI-14

VI) Uses of relative permeability data VI-33

ii

VII. STATISTICAL MEASURES VII-1

I) Introduction VII-1

II) Frequency Distributions VII-2

III) Histogram VII-3

IV) Cumulative Frequency Distributions VII-6

V) Normal Distribution VII-8

VI) Log Normal Distribution VII-9

VII) Measures of Central Tendency VII-10

VIII) Measures of Variability (dispersion) VII-11

IX) Normal Distribution VII-12

X) Log Normal Distribution VII-16

iii

I. ROCK POROSITY

I) Definition

rock

In general form:

Vp Vb - Vm

Porosity = φ = =

Vb Vb

where:

φ is expressed in fraction

Vb = Vp + Vm

Vb = bulk volume of reservoir rock, (L3)

Vp = pore volume, (L3)

Vm= matrix volume, (L3)

II) Classification

B. Secondary Porosity

occurring after deposition

C. Total Porosity

φt = =

Vb Vb

D. Effective Porosity

φe =

Vb

1. Clean sandstones: φe = φt

2. Carbonate, cemented sandstones: φe < φt

I-1

VI) Factors affecting porosity

A. Factors:

1. Particle shape

2. Particle arrangement

3. Particle size distribution

4. Cementation

5. Vugs and fractures

B. Particle shape

C. Packing Arrangement

50

40

SANDSTONES

30

POROSITY, %

20

SHALES

10

0

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

DEPTH OF BURIAL, ft

I-3

D. Particle Size Distribution

100 CLEAN SAND

FRAMEWORK

FRACTION SHALY SAND

WEIGHT %

INTERSTITIAL MATERIALS

AND MUD FRAGMENTS

0

1.0 0.1 0.01 0.001

Shaly sand - has more interstitial material

F. Vugs, Fractures

I-4

V) Measurement of porosity

Vb - Vm Vp

φ= =

Vb Vb

Lithology ρ m (g/cm3)

___________ ___________

Quartz 2.65

Limestone 2.71

Dolomite 2.87

A. Laboratory measurement

1) bulk volume, Vb

2) matrix volume, Vm

3) pore volume, Vp

b. bulk volume

2) displacement method

of liquid

space of sample

(b) presaturate sample with test liquid

(c) use mercury as test liquid

prevent test liquid from entering pore space

when sample is introduced

I-5

c. matrix volume

dry weight

Vm =

matrix density

2) displacement method

a) volumetric

b) gravimetric

a)

P(1)

V(1)

VALVE CLOSED

c) Open valve

P(2)

CORE

VALVE OPEN

volume of second chamber-matrix

volume or core ( calculated)

volume second chamber (known)

4) Vm =V T - V2

I-6

d. pore volume

1) gravimetric

Vp =

density of saturated fluid

a)

P(1)

V(1) CORE

VALVE CLOSED

c) Open valve

P(2)

V(1) CORE

VALVE OPEN

volume of core (calculated)

3) Vp = V2 - V1

I-7

2. Application to reservoir rocks

a. intergranular porosity

(sandstone, some carbonates)

laboratory measurements

b. secondary porosity

(most carbonates)

Boyle's Law procedure

I-8

Example I-1

A core sample coated with paraffin was immersed in a Russell tube. The dry sample weighed 20.0

gm. The dry sample coated with paraffin weighed 20.9 gm. The paraffin coated sample displaced

10.9 cc of liquid. Assume the density of solid paraffin is 0.9 gm/cc. What is the bulk volume of

the sample?

Solution:

Example I-2

The core sample of problem I-1 was stripped of the paraffin coat, crushed to grain size, and

immersed in a Russell tube. The volume of the grains was 7.7 cc. What was the porosity of the

sample? Is this effective or total porosity.

Solution:

φ= b = = 0.22

Vb 9.9 cc

It is total porosity.

I-9

Example I-3

Calculate the porosity of a core sample when the following information is available:

water = 269.6 gm

Solution:

density of water

Vp = 448.6 gm - 427.3 gm

1 gm/cm3

Vp = 21.3 cm3

density of water

Vb = 448.6 gm - 269.6 gm

1 gm/cm3

Vb = 179.0 cm3

Vp

φ = = 21.3 cm3 = .119

Vb 179.0 cm3

φ = 11.9%

I - 10

What is the lithology of the sample?

Vm = Vb - Vp

matrix vol. 157.7 cm3

I - 11

Example I-4

A carbonate whole core (3 inches by 6 inches, 695 cc) is placed in cell two of a Boyles

Law device. Each of the cells has a volume of 1,000 cc. Cell one is pressured to 50.0 psig. Cell

two is evacuated. The cells are connected and the resulting pressure is 28.1 psig. Calculate the

porosity of the core.

Solution:

P V = P V

1 1 2 2

V = 1,000 cc

1

1

2

2

V = 1,512 cc

2

V = VT - V2

m

m

VT - Vm 695 cc - 488 cc

φ = = = .298 = 29.8%

VT 695 cc

I - 12

VI) Subsurface measurement of porosity

1. Density log:

ρ -ρ

φd = m L

ρm - ρf

2. Sonic log:

∆tL - ∆tm

φs =

∆tf - ∆tm

3. Neutron log:

e-kφ = CNf

(Schlumberger, Log Interpretation Principles, Volume I)

Lithology

I - 13

B. Density Log

M UD CAKE

FORM ATION

GAM M A RAY

SOURCE

SHORT SPACE

DETECTOR

LONG SPACE

DETECTOR

2. Gamma rays are stopped by electrons - the denser the rock the fewer gamma

rays reach the detector

3. Equation

ρL = ρm 1 - φ + ρf φ

ρ -ρ

φd = m L

ρm - ρf

I - 14

FORMATION DENSITY LOG

4100

4120

4140

4160

4180

4200

4220

4240

0 40 80 120 160 200 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0

I - 15

Example I-5

Use the density log to calculate the porosity for the following intervals assuming ρ matrix = 2.68

gm/cc and ρ fluid = 1.0 gm/cc.

Interval, ft ρ φd ,%

L, gm/cc

__________ _________ ______

4143-4157 2.375 18

4170-4178 2.350 20

4178-4185 2.430 15

4185-4190 2.400 17

4197-4205 2.680 0

4210-4217 2.450 14

Example:

ρ = 2.375 gm/cc

L

φd = m L = = 0.18

ρm - ρf 2.68 gm/cc - 1.0 gm/cc

I - 16

C. Sonic Log

one foot of formation

T A

C

R1

D

E

R2

2. Sound travels more slowly in fluids than in solids. Pore space is filled with

fluids. Travel time increases as porosity increases.

3. Equation

I - 17

SONIC LOG

4100

4120

4140

4160

4180

4200

4220

4240

0 100 200 140 120 100 80 60 40

I - 18

Example I-6

Use the Sonic log and assume sandstone lithology to calculate the porosity for the following

intervals.

φs ,%

Interval ∆tL

(ft) µ second/ft

4,144-4,150 86.5 25

4,150-4,157 84.0 24

4,171-4,177 84.5 24

4,177-4,187 81.0 21

4,199-4,204 53.5 1

4,208-4,213 75.0 17

Example:

φs = = = 0.25

∆tf - ∆tm 189.0 µ sec/ft- 51.6 µ sec/ft

I - 19

D. Neutron Log

Maximum

Average Energy

Number Loss/ Atomic Atomic

Element Collisions Collision, % Collision Number

Chlorine 316 10 35.5 17

Silicone 261 12 28.1 14

Oxygen 150 21 16.0 8

Carbon 115 28 12.0 6

Hydrogen 18 100 1.0 1

SLOWING DOWN POWER

RELATIVE PROBABILITY

103 1

O

FOR COLLISION

102 10-1

Si H

10 10-2

O

H

Si

1 10-3

.1 1 10 102 10 3 10 4 105 106 107 .1 1 10 102 10 3 10 4 105 106 107

NEUTRON ENERGY IN ELECTRON VOLTS NEUTRON ENERGY IN ELECTRON VOLTS

porosity. Neutron log gives porosity directly.

3. If the log is not calibrated, it is not very reliable for determining porosity.

Run density log to evaluate porosity, lithology, and gas content.

I - 20

NEUTRON DENSITY LOG

4100

4120

4140

4160

4180

4200

4220

4240

0 200 30 -10

I - 21

Example I-7

Use the neutron log to determine porosity for the following intervals.

Solution:

Interval φ

n

(ft) (%) .

4,143-4,149 23

4,149-4,160 20

4,170-4,184 21

4,198-4,204 9

4,208-4,214 19

I - 22

Example I-8

Calculate the porosity and lithology of the Polar No. 1 drilled in Lake Maracaibo. The depth of

interest is 13,743 feet. A density log and a sonic log were run in the well in addition to the

standard Induction Electric Survey (IES) survey.

travel time = 62.73 µ-sec/ft

Solution:

Assume sandstone:

ρ m = 2.65 gm/cc

φd = m L = = 7.76%

ρm - ρf 2.65 gm/cc - 1.0 gm/cc

φs = = = 5.42%

∆tf - ∆tm 189.0 µ sec/ft - 55.5 µ sec/ft

Assume limestone:

ρm = 2.71 gm/cc

φd = m L = = 10.99%

ρm - ρf 2.71 gm/cc - 1.0 gm/cc

φs = = = 10.76%

∆tf - ∆tm 189.0 µ sec/ft - 47.5 µ sec/ft

I - 23

Assume dolomite:

ρm = 2.87 gm/cc

φd = m L= = 18.619%

ρm - ρf 2.87 gm/cc - 1.0 gm/cc

φs = = = 13.22%

∆tf - ∆tm 189.0 µ sec/ft - 43.5 µ sec/ft

φlimestone = 11%

Since both logs "read" nearly the same porosity when a limestone lithology was

assumed then the hypothesis that the lithology is limestone is accepted.

The density log measures total compressibility because is "sees" the entire rock

volume,including all pores. The sonic log tends to measure the velocity of

compressional waves that travel through interconnected pore structures as well as the

rock matrix. The general consensus is that the sonic log measures effective porosity

when we use the Wyllie "time-average" equation.

It is expected that the effective porosity is always less than ,or equal to,the total

porosity.

I - 24

VII) Compressibility of porous rocks

∆V

∂V V T

c=- 1 ≅ -

V ∂P T ∆P

A. Normally pressured reservoirs

the matrix and the fluid

Fo

Fm Ff

2. Thus,

Fo = Fm + Ff

it follows that

Po = pm + pf

3. Po ≅ 1.0 psi/ft

Pf ≅ 0.465 psi/ft

I - 25

4. As fluid is produced from a reservoir, the fluid pressure,

Pf will usually decrease:

b. causing a decrease in bulk volume

c. and a decrease in pore volume

B. Types of compressibility

1. Matrix Compressibility, cm

cm ≅ 0

2. Bulk Compressibility cb

2) internal rock stress changes

3) change in stress results in change in

Vp, Vm, Vb

4) by definition

∂Vp

cf = - 1

Vp ∂pm

dPm = - dP f

I - 26

1) Thus,

∂Vp

cf = - 1

Vp ∂pm

"formation" and the subscript of f on Pf

means "fluid"

3) procedure

function of "external" pressure

represent overburden pressure, Po

dPo = dP m

volume, vp, decreases, thus,

dVp = - dVexpelled

∂Vp

cf = - 1

Vp ∂pm

it follows that

∆ Vp expelled

cf = + 1

Vp ∆Po

I - 27

(f) plot

VOLUME EXPELLED

PORE VOLUME

CUMULATIVE

slope = cf.

I - 28

C. Measurement of compressibility

2) Equipment

Internal

Pressure

Gauge

Hydraulic

Pump

Overburden

Pressure

Gauge

Hydraulic

Pump

Copper - Jacketed

Core

I - 29

Example I-9

Given the following lab data, calculate the pore volume compressibility for a sandstone sample at

4,000 and 6,000 psi.

1000 0.244

2000 0.324

3000 0.392

4000 0.448

5000 0.500

6000 0.546

7000 0.596

8000 0.630

Solution:

from graph

@ 4,000 psi:

Slope = 0.009

4000 psi

cf = 2.25 X 10-6 1

psi

@ 6000 psi:

Slope = 0.011

6000 psi

cf = 1.83 X 10-6 1

psi

I - 30

0.015

VOLUME EXPELLED, cc

PORE VOLUME, cc

0.010

0.005

0.000

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000

I - 31

PORE-VOLUME COMPRESSIBILITY AT 75 %

LITHOSTATIC PRESSURE VS INITIAL SAMPLE

POROSITY FOR CONSOLIDATED SANDSTONES.

100

CONSOLIDATED SANDSTONES

10

HALL'S CORRELATION

1

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

PORE-VOLUME COMPRESSIBILITY AT 75 %

LITHOSTATIC PRESSURE VS INITIAL SAMPLE

POROSITY FOR UNCONSOLIDATED SANDSTONES.

PORE VOLUME COMPRESSIBILITY X 10-6 psi-1

100

UNCONSOLIDATED SANDSTONES

10

HALL'S CORRELATION

1

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

I - 32

E. Abnormally pressured reservoirs

"abnormal pressure": fluid pressures greater than or less than the hydrostatic fluid

pressure expected from an assumed linear pressure gradient

PRESSURE

NORMAL LINEAR

DEPTH

SUBNORMAL

(LOWER)

SURNORMAL

(GREATER)

I - 33

Compressibility/Porosity Problem No. 1

A limestone sample weighs 241.0 gm. The limestone sample coated with paraffin was found to

weigh 249.5 gm. The coated sample when immersed in a partially filled graduated cylinder

displaced 125.0 cc of water. The density of the paraffin is 0.90 gm/cc.

What is the porosity of the rock? Does the process measure total or effective porosity?

Solution:

Vm = = = 88.9 cc

ρ ls 2.71 gm/cc

Vparaffin =

ρ

249.5 gm - 241.0 gm

Vparaffin = = 9.4 cc

0.90 gm/cc

Vp = Vb - Vm

Vp 26.7 cc

φ = = = 0.231

Vb 115.6 cc

I - 34

Compressibility/Porosity Problem No. 2

You are furnished with the results of a sieve analysis of a core from Pete well #1. Previous

laboratory work indicates there is a correlation between grain size and porosity displayed by those

particular particles. The correlation is seen below:

What basic assumption must be made in order to work the problem?

Solution:

remaining remaining

pore matrix

component volume porosity volume

(ft3) (%) (ft3)

___

I - 35

Compressibility/Porosity Problem No. 3

A sandstone reservoir has an average thickness of 85 feet and a total volume of 7,650 acre-feet.

Density log readings through the fresh water portion of the reservoir indicate a density of 2.40

gm/cc.

The Highgrade #1 Well was drilled and cored through the reservoir. A rock sample was sent to the

laboratory and the following tests were run.

(psig) (-cc)_________

1,000 0.122

2,000 0.162

3,000 0.196

4,000 0.224

5,000 0.250

6,000 0.273

7,000 0.298

8,000 0.315

The dry weight of the core sample was found to be 140 gm while the sample dimensions were

1.575 inches long and 1.960 inches in diameter.

Assuming the compressibility at 4,500 psi is the average compressibility in the reservoir, how

much subsidence occurs when the reservoir pressure declines from 5,500 psi to 3,500 psi?

Calculate:

A. Reservoir Porosity

Solution:

A. Reservoir Porosity

ρ -ρ

φ = m L = 2.65 - 2.40 = 15.22%

ρ m - ρ f 2.65 - 1.00

I - 36

B. Sample Pore Volume

= bulk volume = πD h =

2

Vb = 78.5 cc

4 4.0

Vm = matrix volume = 140 gm cc = 52.8 cc

2.65 gm

Vp = Vb - Vm = 78.5 cc - 52.8 cc

Vp = 25.7 cc

Vp = 25.7 cc

D. Subsidence

∆H = H cp φ ∆P

∆H = 0.026 ft

∆H = 0.32 inches

Note: the pore volume (formation) compressibility is somewhat smaller than usually

encountered. An experienced engineer would be wary of this small number. Also it was

assumed that the formation compressibility was exactly the same as the bulk volume

compressibility. Experience shows that this is not the case.

I - 37

POROSITY PROBLEM No. 3

0.0140

.0118 - .0068

SLOPE =

0.0120 7000 - 2000

VOLUME EXPELLED, cc

PORE VOLUME, cc

0.0100

0.0080

0.0060

0.0040

0 2000 4000 6000 8000

PRESSURE, psig

I - 38

Compressibility Problem

A 160-acre and 100 ft thick reservoir has a porosity of 11%. The pore compressibility is 5.0 x 10-

6 (1/psi). If the pressure decreases 3,000 psi, what is the subsidence (ft)? Assume Cf = Cb

Solution:

dVp

Cp = - 1

Vp dp

dVp

5 x 10-6 (1/psi) = -1

76,665,600 ft3 3,000 psi

6,969,600 ft2

I - 39

II. SINGLE PHASE FLOW IN POROUS ROCK

q A

h 1 - h2

h1

h2

WATER

SAND

DARCY'S FOUNTAIN.

kA(h1 - h2)

q=

µL

Length of sand pack,L = Z

sample size

2. Darcy's work confined to sand packs that were 100% saturated with water

II - 1

kA(h1 - h2)

q=

µL

1. Equation

ρg

vs = -k dP - dz

µ ds 1.0133 x 10 6 ds

+Z

Vs +1

s

Θ

+X

-Z

-1

+Y θ

2. Nomenclature

path s) - cm/sec

ds

µ = viscosity - centipoise

k = permeability - darcies

II - 2

3. Conversion factors

L = length

m = mass

t = time

vs = L/t

µ = m/Lt

ρ = m/L3

p = m/Lt2

g = L/t2

dp ρg

vs = - k - dz

µ ds 1.0133 x 10 6 ds

t m/Lt L L

k = L2 = cross-sectional area

II - 3

5. Definition of Darcy units

c. definition of darcy

A porous medium has a permeability of one darcy when a single-phase fluid of one

centipoise that completely fills the voids of the medium will flow through it under conditions of

viscous flow at a rate of one cubic centimeter per second per square centimeter cross-sectional area

under a pressure or equivalent hydraulic gradient of one atmosphere per centimeter.

k A P1 - P2

q =

µL

II - 4

II) Reservoir systems

A

q q

P1 P2

a. Conditions

dz

1) horizontal system, ds = 0

7) constant temperature, µ, q

II - 5

b. derivation of flow equation

ρg

vs = - k dP - dz

µ ds 1.0133 x 10 6 ds

q

vs = - k dP =

µ ds A

L p2

q ds = - kA dP

µ p

0 1

qL-0 = - kA P2 - P1

µ

q = kA P2 - P1

Lµ

Note: P1 acts at L = 0

P2 acts at L = L

q is + if flow is from L = 0 to L = L

II - 6

Example II-1

What is the flow rate of a horizontal rectangular system when the conditions are as follows:

permeability = k = 1 darcy

area = A = 6 ft2

viscosity = µ = 1.0 cp

length = L = 6 ft

inlet pressure = P1 = 5.0 atm

Solution:

k = 1 darcy

P1 = 5.0 atm

P2 = 2.0 atm

q = kA P2 - P1

Lµ

(1) (182.88)

q = 91.42 cm 3/sec

II - 7

2. Non-horizontal, linear system

-Z P2

S

Θ

X

P1

a. Conditions

dz = sinθ

1) non-horizontal system, ds = constant

7) constant temperature µ, q

II - 8

b. derivation of equation

ρg

vs = - k dP - dz

µ ds 1.0133 x 10 6 ds

q k ρg sin θ

vs = - = - k dP +

A µ ds µ 1.0133 x 10 6

L P2 L

kA ρg sin θ

q ds = - kA dp + ds

µ µ 1.0133 x 10 6

0 P1 0

ρgLsinθ

q = - kA P1 - P2 +

µL 1.0133 x 10 6

II - 9

3. Vertical, upward flow, linear system

FLOW UNDER

HEAD h

a. Conditions

dz

1) vertical system, ds = sinθ = constant

8) constant temperature, µ

II - 10

b. derivation of flow equation

k dP - ρg dz

vs =

µ ds 1.0133 x 10 6 ds

q ρg

vs = = - k dP +

A µ ds 1.0133 x 10 6

kA P1 - P2 ρg

q = -

µ L 1.0133 x 10 6

ρg (h + x + L)

P1 = -

1.0133 x 10 6

ρg x

P2 =

1.0133 x 10 6

P1 - P2 ρg h ρg

= +

L 1.0133 x 10 6 L 1.0133 x 10 6

ρg h ρg ρg

q = kA + -

µ 1.0133 x 10 6 L 1.0133 x 10 6 1.0133 x 10 6

ρg h

q = kA

µL 1.0133 x 10 6

II - 11

4. Horizontal, radial flow system

re

Pw

Pe

rw

re rw

a. Conditions

dz

1) horizontal system, ds = 0

8) constant temperature, µ, q

II - 12

b. Derivation of flow Equation

ρg

vs = - k dP - dz

µ ds 1.0133 x 10 6 ds

q q

vs = + k dP = =

µ dr A 2πrh

re pe

q dr = k dp

2πh r µ

rw pw

q

1n(re) - 1n( rw) = k Pe - Pw

2πh µ

q = 2πhk P - Pw

µ 1n (re/rw) e

A

q q

P1 P2

a. Conditions

dz

1) horizontal system, ds = 0

7) constant temperature

II - 13

b. Assumptions

1) µ, Z = constant

ρg

vs = - k dP - dz

µ ds 1.0133 x 10 6 ds

q

vs = - k dP =

µ ds Ads

but

Psc qscz T

q =

PTsc

thus

L p2

Psc T qsc PdP

ds = - k

Tsc A µz

o p1

L -0 = - k

Tsc A µz 2

2

P21 - P2

qsc = kA Tsc

µL Tz Psc 2

Pq = ZnRT

n = mass flow/time

thus,

Pq

= ZnRT

Pscqsc n R Tsc

Psc qscz T 1

q =

Tsc P

Z is determined at P, T

II - 14

d. Derivation of equation for q

2

kA Tsc P1 - P22

qsc =

µL Tz Psc 2

but

qsc = = k A

Z Psc T µL T z Psc 2

q = k A 1 P12 - P22

µL P 2

k A 2 P12 - P22

q =

µL P1 + P 2 2

q = k A P - P

µL 1 2

This equation is identical to the equation for horizontal, linear flow of incompressible liquid

thus

if gas flow rate is determined at mean pressure, P, the equation for incompressible liquid

can be used for compressible gas!

Pq = ZnRT

thus

=

Pq znRT

where

P1 + P 2

P =

2

P = volumetric flow rate at P, T

z is determined at P, T

P q Tsc

qsc =

z Psc T

II - 15

2. Horizontal, radial flow system

re

Pw

Pe

rw

re rw

a. Conditions

dz

1) horizontal system ds = 0

inward flow

8) constant temperature

II - 16

b. Assumptions

µz = constant

ρg

vs = - k dP - dz

µ ds 1.0133 x 10 6 ds

q

vs = - k dP =

µ ds A

but

P q zT

q = sc sc

PTsc

and

A = 2πrh and ds = - dr

thus

re Pe

Psc T qsc dr = k ρdP

2Tsc π h r µz

rw Pw

1n r e = k e

2 Tsc π h w µz 2

qsc =

µ 1n re/rw Psc zT 2

II - 17

d. derivation of equation for q

qsc =

µ 1n re/rw Psc zT 2

but

P q Tsc

q =

z Psc T

thus

=

z Psc T µ 1n re/rw Psc zT 2

q = 2 π h k 1 (P2e - P2w)

µ 1n re/rw P 2

q =

µ 1n re/rw Pe + P w 2

q = 2πhk P - Pw

µ 1n re/rw e

Note: Equation for real gas is identical to equation for incompressible liquid when

volumetric flow rate of gas, q, is measured at mean pressure.

II - 18

C. Conversion to Oilfield Units

k darcy md

A sq cm sq ft

h cm ft

P atm psia

L cm ft

µ cp cp

r gm/cc lb/cu ft

Example:

hkA P1 - P2

q=

µL in Darcy's units

q sec

d bbl cu ft cu in 24hr 3,600 sec

cc = 1.841 q bbl

q sec

d

darcy

k darcy = k md 1,000md

k darcy = 0.001 k md

929.0 sq cm

A sq cm = A sq ft

sq ft

A sq cm = 929.0 A sq ft

14.696 psia

L cm = L ft 30.48 cm

ft

meter = 100 cm

1.841 q =

µ 30.48 L

0.01127 k A P1 - P2

q = in oilfield units

µL

II - 19

D. Table of Equations

1. Darcy Units

Horizontal, Incompressible q = kA P1 - P2

Linear Liquid µL

Linear Liquid q = kA P1 - P2 +

µL 1.0133 x 10 6

Horizontal, Incompressible q = 2 π kh Pe - Pw

Radial Liquid µ ln (re/rw)

Linear Gas qsc = kA

µ L Tz Psc 2

q = kA P1 - P2

µL

qsc = π kh Tsc

Pe 2 - Pw 2

Radial µ ln (re/rw) Tz Psc

q = 2 π kh Pe - Pw

µ ln (re/rw)

II - 20

2. Oilfield Units

Linear Liquid µL

q = res bbl/d

Linear Liquid µL

ρg L sinθ

+

1.0133 x 10 6

Radial Liquid µ ln (re/rw)

Linear Real Gas µ LzT

qsc = scf/d

q = .001127 kA P1 - P2

µL

q = res bbl/d

Radial Real Gas µ ln (re/rw) Tz

q = .007082 kh Pe - Pw

µ ln (re/rw)

II - 21

Example II-2

What is the flow rate of a horizontal rectangular system when the conditions are as follows:

permeability = k = 1 darcy

area = A = 6 ft2

viscosity = µ = 1.0 cp

length = L = 6 ft

inlet pressure = P1 = 5.0 atm.

outlet pressure = P2 = 2.0 atm.

Solutions:

We must insure that all the variables are in the correct units.

k = 1 darcy = 1,000 md

A = 6 ft2

L = 6 ft

P1 = (5.0 atm) (14.7 psi/atm) = 73.5 psi

P2 = (2.0 atm) (14.7 psi/atm) = 29.4 psi

q = 1.1271 x 10-3 kA P1 - P2

µL

1,000 6

q = 1.1271 x 10-3 73.5 - 29.4

1 6

II - 22

Example II-3

Determine the oil flow rate in a radial system with the following set of conditions:

K = 300 md re = 330 ft

h = 20 ft rw = 0.5 ft

µ = 1.3 cp

Solution:

7.082 x 10 -3 kH Pe - Pw

q=

µ ln Re / Rw

q=

1.3 6.492

II - 23

E. Layered Systems

P1 P2

q q

A

B

C

W

qt = qA + qB + qC

h = hA + hB + hC

then

k wh P1 - P2

qt =

µL

and

qt = P1 - P2 + P1 - P2 + P1 - P2

µL µL µL

then

k h = kA hA + kB hB + kC hC

n kj hj

k = ∑

j=1 h

II - 24

2. Horizontal, radial flow parallel to bedding

re re

hA rw qA

hB qB Pe

ht

hC qC

Pw

again

qt = qA + qB + qC

h = hA + hB + hC

qt = 2πk h Pe - Pw

µ ln (re/rw)

and

2 π kA hA 2 π kB hB

qt = Pe - Pw + Pe - Pw

µ ln (re/rw) µ ln (re/rw)

2 π kc hc

+ Pe - Pw

µ ln (re/rw)

then

k h = kA hA + kB hB + kC hC

and again

n kj hj

k = ∑

j=1 h

II - 25

3. Horizontal, linear flow perpendicular to bedding

A B C

P1 P2

q q

kA kB kC

∆P A ∆P B ∆P C

h

LA LB LC

qt = qA = qB = qC

L = LA + LB + LC

k wh P1 - P2

qt =

µL

P1 - P2 = = A + B + C

k wh kA wh kB wh kC wh

since qt = qA = qB = qC

L = LA + LB + LC

k kA kB kC

thus

K = L

n Lj

∑

j = 1 kj

II - 26

4. Horizontal, radial, flow perpendicular to bedding

q

PA PB PC

Pw

rw

rA

rB

rC

qt = qA = qB = qC

2 π k h Pe - Pw

q =

µ ln (re/rw)

qt µ ln (re/rw) qA µ ln (rA/rw)

Pe - Pw = =

2π k h 2 π kAh

qB µ ln (rB/rA) q µ ln (rC/re)

+ + C

2 π kB h 2 π kC h

then

ln re/rw

k =

n ln(rj/rj-1)

∑

j=1 kj

II - 27

Example II-4

k1 = 10 md r1 = 2 ft

k2 = 200 md r2 = 300 ft

rw = 0.25 ft

Solution:

ln (re/rw)

k =

n ln (rj/rj-1 )

∑

j=1 kj

ln 300

k = 0.25

ln 2/0.25 ln 300/2

+

10 200

k = 30.4 md

The permeability of the damaged zone near the wellbore influences the average permeability more

than the permeability of the undamaged formation.

II - 28

F. Flow through channels and fractures

q= πr4 P1 - P2

8µL

A = π r2, therefore

q= Ar2 P1 - P2

8µL

q = kA P1 - P2

µL

Ar2 P1 - P2 = kA P1 - P2

8µL µL

thus

2

k = r2 = d

8 32

where d = inches, k = 20 x 10 9 d2 md

II - 29

Example II-4

0.0001 inch in diameter.

B. If only 25 percent of the rock is pore channels (f = 0.25), what will the

permeability be?

Solution:

A. k = 20 x 109 d2

k = 200 md

k = 50 md

II - 30

2. Flow through fractures

q h2

v= = (P 1-P 2)

A 12 µ L

2

q = b A (P1 -P2)

12 µ L

b2 A P1 - P2 = kA P1 - P2

12 µ L µL

2

k = b in darcy units, or

12

k = 54 x 109 b2

where b = inches

k = md

II - 31

Example II-6

Consider a rock of very low matrix permeability, 0.01 md, which contains on the average a

fracture 0.005 inches wide and one foot in lateral extent per square foot of rock.

Assuming the fracture is in the direction of flow, determine the average permeability using the

equation for parallel flow.

Solution:

∑ kj Aj

k = , similar to horizontal, linear flow parallel to fracture

A

k =

total area

0.01 12 in 2 + 12 in 0.005 in

k = +

144 in2

144 in2

1.439 + 81,000

k =

144

k = 563 md

II - 32

III) Laboratory measurement of permeability

A. Procedure

TURBULENCE

qsc P sc

A SLOPE = k / m

P 12 - P 22

2L

kA P12 - P22

qsc = horizontal, linear, real gas flow with

2 µ L Psc

T = Tsc and Z = 1.0

= k

A µ 2L

k = ( slope ) m

II - 33

2. Whole core method

b. mount core in special holders and flow fluid through core as in perm

plug method

VERTICAL FLOW

LOW AIR

PRESSURE

(FLOW)

CORE

RUBBER

TUBING

HIGH AIR

PRESSURE

PIPE

TO FLOWMETER

c. the horizontal flow data must be adjusted due to complex flow path

II - 34

B. Factors which affect permeability measurement

the planes of natural weakness when cored. Thus laboratory measurements

give "matrix" permeability which is lower than in situ permeability because

typically only the unfractured parts of the sample are analyzed for

permeability.

2. Gas slippage

free path of the gas molecules

measurements are a function of type of gas used in laboratory

measurement.

II - 35

H2

N2

k CALCULATED

CO2

0

1

P

greater for measurements at low pressures - negligible at high

pressures.

Klinkenberg effect is greater for low permeability rocks.

several different mean pressures and extrapolating to high pressure

(1/p => 0)

kMEASURED

0

1

P

II - 36

Example II-7

Another core taken at 8815 feet from the Brazos County well was found to be very shaly. There

was some question about what the true liquid permeability was, since nitrogen was used in the

permeameter.

Mean Measured

Pressure Permeability

( atm ) ( md )

1.192 3.76

2.517 3.04

4.571 2.76

9.484 2.54

Solution:

From graph:

kliq = 2.38 md

5

GAS PERMEABILITY, md

2

k gas = 2.38276 + 1.64632

P bar

1

Equivalent Liquid Permeability = 2.38 md

0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

II - 37

3. Reactive fluids

to gas

WITH AIR TO THOSE MEASURED WITH WATER

1000

WATER PERMEABILITY, md

100

10

Water concentration

20,000 - 25,000 ppm Cl ion.

1

1 10 100 1000 10000

AIR PERMEABILITY, md

b. Injection water may,if its salinity is less than that of the formation water,

reduce the permeability due to clay swelling.

II - 38

Effect of Water Salinity on Permeability of Natural Cores

(Grains per gallon of chloride ion as shown).

S 34 24800 11800 10600 10000 9000 7400 147.0

S 34 40100 23000 18600 15300 13800 8200 270.0

S 34 22800 13600 6150 4010 3490 1970 19.5

S 34 34800 23600 7800 5460 5220 3860 9.9

S 34 7640 1788 1840 2010 2540 2020 119.0

T 36 2630 2180 2140 2080 2150 2010 1960.0

T 36 2640 2040 1920 1860 1860 1860 1550.0

T 36 3360 2500 2400 2340 2340 2280 2060.0

Ka means permeability to air; K500 means permeability to 500 grains per gallon chloride solution;

Kw means permeability to fresh water

a. The removal of the core from the formation will likely result in a change in

pore volume.This is likely to result in a change in permeability (+ or -).

in pore pressure and a reduction of in-situ permeability.

II - 39

III. BOUNDARY TENSION AND CAPILLARY PRESSURE

I) Boundary tension, σ

GAS

SURFACE

LIQUID

III- 1

C. the average molecule in the liquid is uniformly attracted in all directions

"boundary energy"

required to prevent destruction of surface (dynes/cm) - this is called

"boundary tension"

G. Surface Tension - Boundary tension between gas and liquid is called "surface

tension"

between a fluid and a solid is called "interfacial tension"

1. Forces

2. Liquid-Gas Boundary

inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them

3. Solid-Liquid Boundary

III- 2

4. Liquid-Liquid Boundary

some of each

II) Wettability

σow

OIL OIL

WATER

σos σw s

SOLID

B. Adhesion Tension, AT

σws ≥ σos

AT = +

cos θ = +

0° ≤ θ ≤ 90°

if θ = 0° - strongly water-wet

III- 3

D. if the solid is "oil-wet"

σos ≥ σws

AT = -

cos θ = -

90° ≤ θ ≤ 180°

θ = 1580

θ= 300 θ= 830 θ = 350

(A)

ISOQUINOLINE

(B)

III- 4

III) Capillary pressure

h Θ

AIR

WATER

1. liquid will rise in the tube until total force up equals total force down

circumference of the water-air-solid interface

= 2πr AT

converted to force

= πr2 hgρ w

d. units

dyne gm

cm cm = cm2 cm cm

sec2 cm3

gm cm

dyne =

sec2

dyne = force unit

e. adhesion tension

dyne

AT = 1 r hgρ w cm

2

III- 5

2. liquid will rise in the tube until the vertical component of surface tension

equals the total force down

between air and water multiplied by the cosine of the contact angle

acting along the water-air-solid interface

= πr2 hgρ w

d. units

dyne gm

cm cm = cm2 cm cm

sec cm3

2

gm

cm dyne = cm

cm sec2

2 σaw cos θ

h=

rg ρw

III- 6

4. capillary pressure (air-water system)

Pa

B'

Pw B

h Θ

Pa

AIR

A' A

WATER

Pa' = Pa

between A & B

pw = pa - ρ wgh

dyne dyne gm ⋅ cm

units: = - cm

cm2 cm2 cm3 ⋅ sec2

pa - pw = pa - (pa - ρ wgh)

pa - pw = ρ wgh

Pc = pa - pw = ρ wgh

e. remember

2 σgw cos θ

h=

rg ρ w

III- 7

f. thus

2 σgw cos θ

Pc = r

h Θ

OIL

WATER

1. liquid will rise in the tube until the vertical component of surface tension

equals the total force down

between oil and water multiplied by the cosine of the contact angle

acting along the circumference of the water-oil-solid interface

partially offset (bouyed) by the weight of the column of oil outside

the capillary

c. thus, total force down equals the weight of the column of water

minus the weight of an equivalent column of oil converted to force

= ρw h

= ρo h

III- 8

3) net weight per unit area acting to pull surface down

= ρ wh - ρ oh = h(ρ w - ρ o)

= πr2 gh (ρ w - ρ o)

equilibrium

2 σow cos θ

h=

rg (ρ w - ρo)

Po

B'

Pw B

h Θ

Po OIL

A

WATER

Poa = Pwa

between A and B

Pwb = Pwa - ρ wgh

c. pressure at B' equal to the pressure at A' minus the head of oil

between A' and B'

III- 9

Pob = Poa - ρ ogh

the pressure at B is

Pc = Pob - Pwb

Pc = (ρ w - ρ o)gh

e. remember

2 σow cos θ

h=

rg (ρ w - ρo)

f. thus

2 σow cos θ

Pc = r

4. same expression as for the air-solid system except for the boundary

tension term

Pc = 2 σ cos θ

r

C. remember adhesion tension is defined as

AT = σow cosθ,

and

2 σow cos θ

Pc = r

thus

III- 10

ADHESION TENSION

WATER Hg

WATER

1/radius of tube

2. thus, the pressure on the concave side of a curved surface is greater than

the pressure on the convex side

concepts - but it is a simple and ideal system

Pc = σ 1 + 1

R1 R2

R1 and R2 are the principal radii of curvature for a liquid adhering to two spheres in

contact with each other.

1 + 1 = 2 cos θ

R1 R2 r

where Pc = 2 σ cos θ

r

call it Rm(mean radius), i.e.

1 = 2 cos θ = (∆ρ)gh

Rm rm σ

III- 11

F. wettability-consolidated sand

small interstices-non-wetting phase is in contact with some of the solid

surface of solid

WATER WATER

(A) (B)

phase about intergrain contacts of spheres. (a) Pendular-ring distributions;

(b) funicular distribution

III- 12

IV) Relationship between capillary pressure and saturation

1. adhesion

2. fluid density

3. variation of tube diameter with height

diameter under atmospheric pressure. Pressure in the gas phase is increased

forcing the interface to a new equilibrium position.

ATMOSPHERIC HIGHER

PRESSURE PRESSURE

R

R

IN A NON-UNIFORM PORE

interface.

2. This illustrates:

large radius of curvature

phase saturation

curvature which means that the wetting phase will occupy smaller

pores in reservoir rock

III- 13

V) Relationship between capillary pressure and saturation history

1. tube is filled with a wetting fluid and allowed to drain until the interface

between wetting fluid and non-wetting fluid reaches equilibrium

(drainage)

allowing wetting fluid to imbibe until the interface reaches equilibrium

(imbibition)

Θ

Θ

Θ Θ

SATURATION = 100% SATURATION = 80% SATURATION = 0% SATURATION = 10%

PC = LOW VALUE CAPILLARY PRESSURE = P C P C = HIGH VALUE CAPILLARY PRESSURE = P C

(A) (B)

nonuniform pore. (a) Fluid drains; (b) fluid imbibes. Same pore, same

contact angle, same capillary pressure, different saturation history

relationship between wetting-phase saturation and capillary pressure is

dependent on the saturation process (saturation history)

saturation will be obtained from drainage than from imbibition

III- 14

B. Leverett conducted a similar experiment with tubes filled with sand.

ON CLEAN SANDS. (FROM LEVERETT)

1.6

Φ

1.4

Φ Drainage Imbibition

Sand I

1.2

(k/ø)1/2

Φ Φ Sand II

1.0

∆ρgh

Φ

0.8

σ

0.6 Drainage

Φ

0.4

0.2

Imbibition

0.0

0 20 40 60 80 100

WATER SATURATION, Sw %

function ( remember Pc = (∆ρ gh )

2. in general terms,

III- 15

DRAINAGE

PC

IMBIBITION

0 100

WATER SATURATION, S W

III- 16

VI) Capillary pressure in reservoir rock

Water Oil

ρw h ρoh

P w = Po/w - P w2 P o2 P o = Po/w -

144 144

P o1 = P w1

100% Water

Pc = P o - Pw = h ρ w - ρo

144

Where: Po = pressure in oil phase, psia

Pw = pressure in water phase, psia

h = distance above 100% water level, ft

Po/w = pressure at oil-water contact, psia

ρw = density of water, lb/cf

ρo = density of oil, lb/cf

III- 17

ρoH

PC P O = PO/W -

144

HEIGHT

ABOVE

O-W-C

ρ H

P w = PO/W - w

144

PRESSURE

III- 18

VII) Laboratory measurement of capillary pressure

A. Methods

1. porous diaphragm

2. mercury injection

3. centrifuge

4. dynamic method

B. Porous diaphragm

through the porous disk.

3. The pressure difference between the pressure in the non-wetting fluid and

the pressure in the wetting fluid is equal to Pc.

come out.

5. Measure Sw periodically.

6. Results

7. Advantages

a. very accurate

b. can use reservoir fluids

8. Disadvantages

b. pressure is limited by "displacement pressure" of porous disk

III- 19

C. Mercury Injection Method

under vacuum) is wetting phase

2. Measure pressure

4. Advantages

a. fast-minutes

b. reasonably accurate

5. Disadvantages

a. ruins core

b. difficult to relate data to oil-water systems

D. Centrifuge Method

WINDOW

TUBE BODY

pressure) is applied to the fluids in the core

related to rotational speed)

4. Advantages

a. fast

b. reasonably accurate

c. use reservoir fluids

III- 20

E. Dynamic Method

∆Po

∆P g Pc

CORE

OIL BURETTE

(HASSLER'S PRINCIPLE)

difference is capillary pressure

4. advantages

b. reservoir fluids can be used

5. Disadvantages

a. very tedious

III- 21

F. Comparison of methods

used as standard against which all other methods are compared

should be five times greater than capillary pressure of air-water

system by diaphragm method

is five times greater than scale for diaphragm air-water data

c. these comparisons plus more complex theory indicate that the ratio

between mercury injection data and diaphragm data is about 6.9

(other data indicate value between 5.8 and 7.5)

III- 22

Example VIII-1

Comparison of Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure Data with Porous Diaphragm Data

PcAH

g

, for the following data:

PcAW

θ AH = 140°

g θ AW = 0°

B. Pore geometry is very complex. The curvature of the interface and pore radius are

not necessarily functions of contact angles. Calculate the ratio using the

relationship.

g σAHg

PcAH

=

PcAW σAW

Solution:

g = AHg =

480 cos(140°)

PcAW σAWcos θ AW 72 cos (0°)

PcAH

g = 5.1

PcAW

PcAH

(B) g @ σAHg

= 480

PcAW σAW 70

PcAH

g = 6.9

PcAW

III- 23

Discussion:

A. Best way to determine the relationship between mercury and air-water data

is to generate capillary pressure curves for each set of data and compare

directly.

higher displacement pressure, must adjust ratio between scales until match

is obtained.

phase saturation. For both cases, mercury system still has higher required

displacement pressure.

III- 24

VIII) Converting laboratory data to reservoir conditions

= 2σLcos θ L

PcL r

= 2σRcos θ R

PcR r

setting r = r

2σLcos θ L 2σRcos θ R

r= =

PcL PcR

σcos θ R

∴ PcR = PcL

σcos θ L

where

R

L

III- 25

Example III-2

σAW = 0o

σOW = 20o

Solution:

σcos θ R

= PcL

PcR σcos θ L

24 cos20°

= P cL

PcR 72 cos0°

=

PcR 0.333 PcL

III- 26

IX) Determining water saturation in reservoir from capillary pressure data

B. calculate capillary pressure in reservoir for various heights above height at which

capillary pressure is zero

(∆ρ)gh

Pc =

144 gc

in English units

∆ρ = ρ w - ρ O, lb/cu ft

g = 32 ft/sec2

gc = 32 lbm ft

lbf sec2

h = ft

thus

III- 27

Example III-3

PcR = 0.313 P cL, use the laboratory capillary pressure curve to calculate the water

saturation in the reservoir at a height of 40 ft. above the oil-water contact.

20

P CL 10

8.3

0

0 50 100

SW

Solution:

ρw − ρ o h

PcR =

144

= ft3 = 2.6 psi

PcR 144

PcR

PcL =

0.313

= 2.6 = 8.3 psi

PcL 0.313

move to the right horizontally from PcL = 8.3 psi to the capillary pressure curve. Drop vertically

to the x-axis, read Sw.

Sw = 50%

III- 28

X) Capillary pressure variation

A. effect of permeability

(From Wright and Wooddy)

30 200 90

900 md

200 md

100 md

10 md

180

Height above zero capillary pressure, ft

24 160 72

Oil - Water Capillary Pressure, psi

140

(reservoir conditions)

(laboratory data)

18 120 54

100

12 80 36

60

6 40 18

20

0 0 0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Sw %

III -29

B. Effect of grain size distribution

30 225.0

25 187.5

20 150.0

Sandstone Core

15 Porosity = 28.1% 112.5

Permeability = 1.43 md

Factor = 7.5

10 75.0

5 37.5

0 0

0 20 40 60 80 100

Water

100 80 60 40 20 0

Hg

60 348

50 290

Water/nitrogen capillary pressure, psi

40 232

30 174

20 116

Limestone Core

Porosity = 23.0%

Permeability = 3.36 md

10 Factor = 5.8 58

0 0

0 20 40 60 80 100

Water

100 80 60 40 20 0

Hg

1. majority of grains same size, so most pores are same size - curve (a) (well

sorted)

2. large range in grain and pore sizes - curve (b) (poorly sorted)

III -30

XI) Averaging capillary pressure data

J-function

Pc k 1/2

J Sw =

σcos θ φ

reservoirs

where

Pc = dyne/(sq cm)

σ = dyne/cm

k = (sq cm)

φ = fraction

III -31

CAPILLARY RETENTION CURVES.

(From Rose and Bruce.)

2.0

1.9 LEDUC

1.8

1.7 LEVERETT

KATIE ALUNDUM

1.6

1.5

CAPILLARY PRESSURE FUNCTION, J

1.4

1.3 EL ROBLE

1.2

1.1 KINSELLA

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5 HAWKINS

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

WATER SATURATION, Sw

Reservoir Formation

Hawkins Woodbine

El Roble Moreno

Kinsella Viking

Katie Deese

Leduc Devonian

Alundum (consolidated)

Leverett (unconsolidated)

III -32

Capillary Pressure Problem 1

1. A glass tube is placed vertically in a beaker of water. The interfacial tension between the

air and water is 72 dynes/cm and the contact angle is 0 degree.

Calculate:

a. the capillary rise of water in the tube if the radius of the tube is 0.01

centimeters.

b. what is the difference in pressure in psi across the air-water interface in the

tube.

2. The displacement pressure for a water saturated porcelain plate is 55 psi of air. What is

the diameter in inches of the largest pore in the porcelain plate? Assume 72 dynes/cm

and 0 degrees.

Solution:

ρW = 1 gm/cm3

g = 980 dynes/gm

θ = 0o

2σAWcos θ 2 72 cos0°

h= =

rρg .01 1.0 980

h = 14.69 cm

= 14.696 psi

Pc 0.0142 atm

atm

Pc = 0.209 psi

III -33

(2) 2σAWcos θ

Pc =

r

Pc = 55 psi

= 55 psi

14.696 psi atm

r = 2σAW cos θ

Pc

r = 2 72 cos0° in

= 3.797 x 10 -5 cm

3.792 x 10 6 2.54 cm

r = 1.495 x 10-5 in

d = 2.99 x 10-5 in

III -34

Capillary Pressure Problem 2

Given the information below and graph of PcL vs. wetting phase saturation Sw , construct the

curves for PcR, h in reservoir, and J-function vs. Sw. Water is the wetting phase in both the

laboratory and the reservoir.

lab res

fluids air-water oil-water

θ 0° 25°

σ 60 dyne/cm 20 dyne/cm

k 37 md variable

φ 16% variable

Pc k/φ 1/2

J=

σ cos θ

III -35

35.0

32.5

30.0

27.5

25.0

22.5

PCL, psi

20.0

17.5

15.0

12.5

10.0

7.5

5.0

2.5

0.0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Sw %

Solution:

(1) = σR cosθ R

Pc

PcR σL cosθ L L

= 20 cos25

P

60 cos0 cL

=

PcR 0.302 P cL

III -36

hR ρw - ρo

(2) P =

cR 144

144

PcR = .103 h R

= 9.74 P cR

hR

(3) J Pc k 1/2

=

σ cos θ φ

PcL

= k 1/2

σAW cosθ L φ L

PcL

= 37 1/2

60 cos0° .16

J = .253 P cL

Sw PcL PcR hR J

% psi psi ft assorted

III -37

10

6

R

Pc

0

0 20 40 60 80 100

Sw %

100

80

60

R

h

40

20

0

0 20 40 60 80 100

Sw %

10

6

J

0

0 20 40 60 80 100

Sw %

III -38

IV. FLUID SATURATIONS

formation

Ph > Pres

and oil from the area around the well (saturations

likely change)

or may not change.

IV - 1

Example: Effects of flushing by mud filtrates

sat at surface

flushing by bit trip to surface compared to res

Sw ↑ ↓ ? probably ↑

So ↓ ↓ ↓

Sg - ↑ ↑

sat at surface

flushing by bit trip to surface compared to res

Sw ↑ ↓ ?

So - - -

Sg ↓ ↑ ?

Water zone:

sat at surface

flushing by bit trip to surface compared to res

Sw - ↓ ↓

So - - -

Sg - ↑ ↑

IV - 2

Coring With Oil Base Mud

sat at surface

flushing by bit trip to surface compared to res

Sw - - -

So - ↓ ↓

Sg - ↑ ↑

sat at surface

flushing by bit trip to surface compared to res

Sw - - -

So ↑ ↓ ↑

Sg ↓ ↑ ↓

Water zone:

sat at surface

flushing by bit trip to surface compared to res

Sw ↓ ↓ ↓

So ↑ ↓ ↑

Sg - ↑ ↑

IV - 3

b. bringing core to surface

out of solution

change

2. laboratory methods

HEATING ELEMENT

CORE

COOLING WATER IN

CONDENSER

COOLING WATER OUT

IV - 4

1) process

graduated cylinder

For converting distilled oil volume to oil volume originally in a sample, multiply

oil volume recovered by factor corresponding to gravity of oil in core

1.4

1.3

1.2

Multiplying Factor

1.1

1.0

0.9

15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65

IV - 5

e) determine saturations

V V

Sw = w So = o

Vp Vp

Sg = 1 - S o - Sw

where

So = oil saturation, fraction

Sg = gas saturation, fraction

Vp = pore volume, cc

Vw = volume of water collected, cc

Vo = volume of oil collected, cc

vaporize oil, water of crystallization from

clays also vaporizes causing increase in water

recovery

WATER

RECOVERED

PORE WATER

0

0

TIME

(change in hydrocarbon molecules) amount

of recoverable liquid decreases.

IV - 6

3) advantages of retort process

WATER OUT

WATER IN

GRADUATED TUBE

CORE

SOLVENT

HEATER

1) process

to vaporize

IV - 7

d) water condenses, collects in trap. Record

final water volume

Wi - Wdry - Vw ρ w

Vo =

ρo

where:

after leaching

after leaching

V V

Sw = w So = o

Vp Vp

2) disadvantages of leaching

a) process is slow

3) advantages of leaching

crystallization

IV - 8

3. uses of core determined fluid saturation

0 SO 50

GAS

OIL

WATER

So ≅ 0 in gas zone

IV - 9

b. cores cut with oil base mud ("natural state" cores)

2) hydrocarbon saturation

3) oil/water contact

C. Electric logs

IV - 10

Example IV-1

You want to analyze a core sample containing oil, water and gas.

Wt initial = 216.7 gm

the sample was evacuated and the gas space was saturated with water ρ w = 1 gm/cm3

Wt new = 219.7 gm

Wt dry = 199.5 gm

calculate:

(1) porosity

(6) lithology

Solution:

water vol. = 13 - 3 ; Vw = 10 cc

IV - 11

ρo = 141.5 = 0.85 gm/cc

131.5 + 35°API

Vo = 7.2/0.85 = 8.49 cc

Vp = 8.49 + 3 + 10 = 21.47 cc

φ = 21.47/95 = 22.6%

Sw = 10/21.47 = 46.57%

So = 8.49/21.47 = 39.46%

Sg = 3/21.47 = 13.97%

lithology = limestone

IV - 12

Example IV-2

A core sample was brought into the laboratory for analysis. 70 gm of the core sample were placed

in a mercury pump and found to have 0.71 cc of gas volume. 80 gm of the core sample was

placed in a retort and found to contain 4.5 cc of oil and 2.8 cc of water. A piece of the original

sample weighing 105 gm was placed in a pycnometer and found to have a bulk volume of 45.7 cc.

calculate:

(1) porosity

(5) lithology

Solution:

70 gm

80 gm

80 gm

105 gm

φ = 10.14/43.52 = 23.31%

IV - 13

Sw = 3.50/10.14 = 34.5%

So = 5.63/10.14 = 55.5%

Sg = 1.014/10.14 = 10%

ρm = (91.71/33.38) = 2.75

IV - 14

Fluid Saturation Problem 1

Calculate porosity, water, oil, and gas saturations, and lithology from the following core analysis

data.

How should the calculated saturations compare with the fluid saturations in the reservoir?

after gas space was saturated with water, weight of core = 87.95 gm

Solution: γo = 141.5

131.5 + °API

γo = 141.5 = 0.825

131.5 + 40°

ρo = 0.825 gm/cc

Vp

(1) φ = Vb

Vp = Vw + Vo + Vg

Wo = 1.66 gm

IV - 15

Vo = Wo

ρo

Vo = 1.66 gm

= 2.01 cc

0.825 gm/cc

Vw = Vwrec - Wsat - Wi / ρ w

Vw = 5.57 cc

Vg = 1.55 cc

Vp = 9.13 cc

Vb = Wsat - Wimm

ρw

Vb = (87.95 - 48.95) gm

= 39.0 cc

1 gm/cc

φ = 9.13 = 23.4%

39.0

Vw

Vp

(2) Sw =

Sw = 5.57 cc = 61.0%

9.13 cc

So = Vo

Vp

So = 2.01 cc = 22.0%

9.13 cc

Vg

Sg =

Vp

Sg = 1.55 cc = 17.0%

9.13 cc

(3) Vm = Vb - Vp

IV - 16

Vm = 39 - 9.13 = 29.87 cc

Wdry

=

ρm Vm

= gm

ρm 79.17 gm/29.87 cc = 2.65 cc

. . lithology is sandstone

(4) water saturation at surface will probably be greater than reservoir water

saturation

IV - 17

Fluid Saturation Problem 2

Calculate porosity, water saturation, oil saturation, gas saturation, and lithology from the following

core analysis data.

How should the saturations you have calculated compare with the fluid saturations in the reservoir?

Sample 1 weighed 130 gm and was found to have a bulk volume of 51.72 cc

Sample 2 weighed 86.71 gm, and from the retort method was found to contain 1.90 cc of water

and 0.87 cc of oil

141.5

Solution: γo = 131.5 + °API

γo = 141.5 = 0.825

131.5 + 40°

ρo = 0.825 gm/cc

Vp

(1) φ = Vb

Vp = Vo + Vw +Vg

86.71 gm 100 gm

86.71 gm 100 gm

50 gm 100 gm

IV - 18

Vp = 3.99 cc/100 gm

130 gm 100 gm

39.78/100

Vw

x 100

Vp

(2) Sw =

= 2.19 cc x 100

3.99 cc

Sw = 54.8%

Vo

x 100

Vp

(3) So =

= 1.0 cc x 100

3.99 cc

So = 25.1%

Vg

x 100

Vp

(4) Sg =

= 0.80 cc x 100

3.99 cc

Sg = 20.1%

(5) Vm = Vb - Vp

= 39.78 - 3.99

Vm = 35.79 cc/100 gm

86.71

Wm = 97 gm/100 gm

IV - 19

ρm = Wm

Vm

ρm = 97 gm/100 gm

35.79 cc/100 gm

ρm = 2.71 gm/cc

.. lithology - limestone

IV - 20

V. ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF ROCK-FLUID SYSTEMS

A. Definition of resistivity

ELECTRICAL

CURRENT FLOW A

given a box of length (L) and cross-sectional area (A) completely filled with

brine of resistivity (Rw)

the resistance of the brine in the box to current flow may be expressed as

r = Rw L

A

r = resistance - ohm

L = length - meters

A = area - (meters)2

V-1

B. Nonconductors of electricity

1. oil

2. gas

3. pure water

4. minerals

5. rock fragments

C. Conductors of electricity

2. clay

AP

A

ELECTRICAL

CURRENT FLOW

of the pores.

Ap < A

Lp > L

V-2

2. resistance to electrical flow through the porous media is equal to the

resistance of a container of area Ap and length Lp filled with water

(brine)

RwLp

r= , water filled cube

Ap

R L

r = o , porous media

A

thus

RwALp

Ro =

ApL

where r = resistance of rock cube with pores filled with brine, ohm

(from water sample or SP log)

with brine of resistivity, Rw, ohm-m

flow, m 2

travel through rock, m

m2

3. Since

Ap

≅ porosity, φ

A

and

Lp

≅

L tortuosity, a measure of rock cementation.

then

RwALp

Ro =

ApL

V-3

becomes

Ro = f Rw, φ, tortuosity

brine of resistivity of Rw

Ro = f Rw, φ, tortuosity

2. can be written as

Ro = F R w

Ro

F=

Rw

3. cementation factor, m

the form

F = C φ-m

where C is a constant

m is the cementation factor

b. thus

V-4

100

F 10

1

0.01 0.1 1.0

φ

when intercept = C

a. Archie's Equation

F = φ-m

b. Humble Equation

F = 0.62 φ-2.15

Lithology m values

Very slightly cemented (Gulf Coast type of sand, except Wilcox) 1.4-1.5

Slightly cemented (most sands with 20% porosity or more) 1.6-1.7

Moderately cemented (highly consolidated sands of 15% porosity or less) 1.8-1.9

Highly cemented (low-porosity sands, quartzite, limestone,dolomite) 2.0-2.2

V-5

Example V-1

Determine the porosity for a sandstone using Archie's and Humble equation .

The formation water's resisitivity was 0.5 ohm-meters. The formation rock 100% saturated with

this water was 21.05 ohm-meters.

Which of the two equations will give the most reasonable answer?

Solution:

F =21.05/0.5 = 42.1

Archie's: F = φ-m

φ2 = 1/F

φ= 1

42.1

φ = 15.41%

Humble: F = 0.62/φ2.15

φ2.15 = 0.62/F

φ = 2.15 0.62

42.1

φ = 14.06%

V-6

F. Resistivity Index, I, and Saturation Exponent, n

Rt

I=

Ro

saturated with water (brine) of

resistivity Rw, ohm-m

water (brine) saturation less than

100%, ohm-m

-1 R -1

Sw = I n = t n

Ro

3. rearrange

Rt

Sw-n =

Ro

Rt

-n log Sw = log

Ro

V-7

100

Rt

10

Ro

1

.1 1.0

Sw

NOTE:

log y1 - log y2

slope =

log x1 - log x2

II) Use of Electrical Formation Resistivity Factor, Cementation Factor, and Saturation

Exponent

-m

B. F=Cφ (usually use Archie or Humble equation)

D. Ro = F R w

Ro 1n

Sw =

Rt

V-8

III) Laboratory measurement of electrical properties of rock

A. Apparatus

AC SOURCE

CORE

VOLTMETER

B. Calculations

1. resistance of core

E = Ir

I = current, amperes

r = resistance, ohms

∴ rcore = E

I

V-9

2. resistivity of core

r A

Rcore = core

L

substituting r = E into the equation

I

Rcore = EA

IL

C. Procedure

so core does not heat up.

100%, R core = Ro

Rcore = Rt

where

(irreducible), fraction

ohm-m

brine of Rw, ohm-m

Rt = resistivity index = I

Ro

V - 10

D. Determine saturation exponent, n

Sw = Ro 1/n

Rt

= Ro

Swn Rt

Ro = Sw-n

Rt

Rt

log = -n log Sw

Ro

Rt

2. Plot log vs log Sw or log I vs log Sw

Ro

100

Rt

I= 10

Ro

1

.1 1.0

Sw

V - 11

Example V-2

Given the following data, calculate the electrical formation resistivity factor and saturation exponent

of the core.

Rw = 55 ohm-cm

I = 0.01 amp

D = 2.54 cm

L = 3.2 cm

E

Sw Voltage across

Water Saturation, % Core, volts

100.0 7.64

86.0 10.50

74.0 14.34

63.0 20.16

54.0 27.52

49.0 = Swir 34.67

Solution:

F = Ro

Rw

I .01

= = 1210 ohm cm

L 3.2

F = Ro 1210

= = 22

Rw 55

V - 12

saturation exponent

Rt

-n log Sw = log

Ro

rA Rt

Sw rt = E Rt = t Ro

I L

% (ohm) (ohm-cm)

1.00 1.000

.86 1050 1663 1.374

.74 1434 2271 1.877

.63 2016 3192 2.638

.54 2452 4358 3.601

.49 3467 5490 4.537

(.334,10)

10

Rt/Ro

1 (1.0,1.0)

.1 1

Sw

V - 13

-n = slope = log 10 - log 1

log .334 - log 1

-n = 1-0

-.4763 - 0

n = 2.10 = saturation exponent

NOTE:

Rt Et

=

Ro Eo

so

Ro

Sw divided by the voltage at Sw = 1.0

V - 14

E. Determine cementation factor, m, and constant C for electrical formation

resistivity factor equation

Ro

F=

c. Rw

resistivity factor

F = C φ-m

100

F 10

1

0.01 0.1 1.0

φ

V - 15

Example V-3

The laboratory test of Example IV-2 has been repeated for several core samples from the reservoir.

Data is given below. Calculate the cementation factor and intercept for the formation resistivity

factor equation.

φ F

0.152 40

0.168 32

0.184 26

0.199 22

0.213 19

0.224 17

Solution:

F = C φ-m

100

10

F

1

.1 1

V - 16

slope = log 50 - log 10

= -2.21

log 0.137 - log 0.284

-m = slope = -2.21

intercept

log C = -.2082

C = 062 = intercept

V - 17

IV) Effect of clay on resistivity

BRINE

CLAY

1 = 1 + 1

RoA Rclay Ro

with clay, 100% saturated with brine of

resistivity Rw, ohm-m

ohm-m

ohm-m

1 = 1 + 1

RoA Rclay F Rw

this will be RoA

V - 18

3. plot

1

ROA

(OHM - M) -1

1 -1

RW (OHM - M)

1 = 1 + 1 1

RoA Rclay F Rw

where

1 = intercept

Rclay

1 = slope

F

V - 19

D. effect of clay

RoA

FA =

1. define Rw , clays reduced the apparent formation resistivity

factor

CLEAN SAND

F

SHALY SAND

FA

RW

present in the formation

100

CLEAN SAND

F 10

SHALY SAND

1

0.1 φ 1.0

V - 20

3. saturation exponent n is not constant when clay is present in

formation.

100

n=2

CLEAN SAND

Rt

Swn-1 = I

I= 10

Ro SHALY SAND n =?

n=1

1

.1 1.0

Sw

V - 21

VI. MULTIPHASE FLOW IN POROUS ROCK

I) Effective permeability

100% saturated with one fluid - sometimes called absolute permeability

kA∆ρ

q=

µL

B. When pore space contains more than one fluid, the above equation becomes

k A∆Pο

qo = o

µoL

k A∆Pw

qw = w

µw L

kgA∆Pg

qg =

µgL

porous media to a particular fluid when the porous media is saturated with

more than one fluid

3. fluid saturations

VI - 1

E. Darcy equation for multiple fluids in linear flow, in oilfield units

k A P1 - P2

qo = 1.1271 x 10-3 o

µoL

k A P1 - P2 w

qw = 1.1271 x 10-3 w

µw L

kg A P1 - P2 g

qg = 1.1271 x 10-3

µgL

when k = md

A = ft2

P = psia

L = ft

q = res bbl/day

saturation to the effective permeability to that fluid at 100% saturated

(absolute permeability)

k

kro = o

k

k

krw = w

k

kg

krg =

k

B. It is normally assumed that the effective permeability at 100% saturation is

the same for all fluid in a particular rock. (not necessarily true in shaly sand)

VI - 2

1

1

NON-WETTING PHASE

Kr

2

WETTING PHASE

3

4

0

0 SWP, % 100

MINIMUM INTERSTITIAL S WP EQUILIBRIUM S NWP

krwp

1. = 1, only at S wp = 100%

k

2. rapid decrease in rwp as Swp decreases

krwp

3. = 0, at minimum interstitial Swp

krnwp

4. = 0, at equilibrium Snwp

VI - 3

B. Effect of saturation history

phase, i.e., wetting phase saturation is decreasing

phase, i.e., wetting phase saturation is increasing

process in which

wetting phase (Swp = 100%)

until wetting phase ceases to flow (Swp = minimum

interstitial wetting phase saturation)

(imbibition) until non-wetting phase ceases to flow (Swp =

equilibrium or residual non-wetting phase saturation)

VI - 4

1

Krnwp

DRAINAGE

Kr

IMBIBITION

Krwp

0

0 SWP, % 100

VI - 5

3. the word "hysteresis" describes the process in which the results (kr)

are different when measurements are made in different directions

laboratory must correspond to the process in the reservoir

process is imbibition

5. wetting preference for reservoir rocks is usually water first, then oil,

finally gas

Water & Gas Water

Oil & Gas Oil

VI - 6

C. Three phase relative permeability

phase system

100% GAS

VI - 7

3. relative permeability to oil in a three phase system

100% GAS

1%

10

20

40

60

other phases is established as follows:

solid

that between water and gas

the smaller pores. The extended flow path length

accounts for the change in relative permeability to oil

at constant oil saturation and varying water saturation

VI - 8

4. Relative permeability to water in a three-phase system

100% GAS

Krw

10%

20%

40%

60%

80%

function of water saturation only

Sw.

VI - 9

5. Relative permeability to gas in a three-phase system

100% GAS

50%

40

30

20

k

a. curves above indicate that rg is a function of saturations of

other phases present.

k

b. other research shows that rg is a unique function of gas

saturation

c. the other phases, oil and water, occupy the smaller pore

openings and wet the surface of the rock

k

d. therefore, rg should be dependent only on the total

saturation of the other two phases (i.e. 1-Sg) and

independent of how much of that total is composed of either

phase

k

e. thus rg can be plotted on Cartesian coordinates against So +

Sw

VI - 10

1.0

0.8

0.6

krg

0.4

0.2

0.0

0 20 40 60 80 100

So + Sw

a. water

grains

b. gas

k

2) therefore rg is a function of Sg only

k

3) thus plot rg against Sg (or So + Sw) on rectangular

coordinate

VI - 11

c. oil

certain extent in the smaller pore spaces

diagram

interstitial) kro can be plotted against So on a

rectangular diagram

1.0

0.8

0.6

kro

0.4

0.2

0.0

0 20 40 60 80 100

So, %

Minimum Interstitial

Water Saturation

VI - 12

7. Flow in three-phase system

100% GAS

5% oil

5% gas

5% water

Region of three-phase flow in reservoir centers around 20% gas, 30% oil,

50% water

VI - 13

IV) Permeability ratio (relative permeability ratio)

A. Definitions

water saturation) it is sometimes convenient to use permeability ratio

to represent the flow conductance of the rock to gas and oil as a

ratio.

kg krg

permeability ratio = =

ko kro

2. When the permeability to gas is zero (no gas or gas below "critical

gas saturation") it is sometimes convenient to use permeability ratio

to represent the flow conductance of the rock to oil and water as a

ratio

k kr

permeability ratio = o = o

kw krw

A. Methods

B. Laboratory Methods

absolute permeability)

VI - 14

c. inject a mix of wetting-phase and non-wetting phase (start

with small fraction of non-wetting phase)

phase equalize, record inlet pressure, outlet pressure and

flow rates of each phase

q µ L

ko = o o

A∆p

q µ L

kw = w w

A∆p

relatively more non-wetting phase until irreducible wetting-

phase saturation is reached

kr kro krw

0

0 Sw, % 100

VI - 15

h. determination of fluid saturations

1) resistivity

Ro 1n Eo 1n

Sw = =

Rt Et

wetting-phase, ohm-m

phase less than 100%, ohm-m

wetting phase, volts

phase less than 100%, volts

2) volumetric balance

Wf = Wt - Wd

Wf = ρ oVo + ρ wVw

and

Vf = Vo + Vw

V = volume, cc

Sw = Vw/Vf

thus

VI - 16

Wf/Vf - ρ o

Sw = ρw - ρo

non-wetting phase

phase

saturation

with capillary pressure measurements

process which is being simulated

j. end effects

phase saturation and a non-wetting phase

saturation, therefore there is a finite value of

capillary pressure

the wetting-phase and non-wetting phase

wetting-phase and the non-wetting phase are

essentially equal

Pnwp = P wp

the wetting phase must be 100% (see

capillary pressure curve)

essential 100% wetting phase at the "end" to

some value of Swp less than 100% in the

bulk of the core

VI - 17

100 100

gradient gradient

80 80

Oil Saturation, %

Oil Saturation, %

60 60

40 40

20 20

0 0

0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25

negligible (pressure gradient > 2 psi/inch

Thermometer Inlet

Copper

Packing Nut Orifice

Electrodes

Plate

Section Section Section

Differential

Pressure Taps

Outlet Inlet

VI - 18

Example VI-1

The relative permeability apparatus shown above was used in a steady-state flow process to obtain

the data given below at a temperature of 70oF. See figure on previous page.

length = 2.30 cm oil, 40oAPI

diameter = 1.85 cm µw = 1.07 cp

area = 2.688 cm2 µo = 5.50 cp

porosity = 25.5%

Oil Flow Water Flow Inlet Pressure Outlet Pressure Voltage Drop Electrical Current

cc/sec cc/sec psig psig volts amps

0.0105 0.8898 67.5 13.5 2.10 0.01

0.0354 0.7650 88.1 17.6 2.80 0.01

0.0794 0.3206 78.2 15.6 4.56 0.01

0.1771 0.1227 85.6 17.1 8.67 0.01

0.2998 0.0000 78.4 15.7 30.00 0.01

Solution:

1. Calculate absolute permeability using data with core 100% saturated with water

qwµwL

k =

A∆p

2.688 38.4 - 7.7 14.696

k = 0.482 darcy

VI - 19

2. Calculate effective permeabilities to oil and water

qoµoL

ko = A∆P

ko = 2.688 67.5 - 13.5 / 14.696

ko = 0.0134 darcy

qwµwL

kw = A∆P

kw = 2.688 67.5 - 13.5 / 14.696

kw = 0.2217 darcy

k

kro = o = .0134 = 0.028

k .482

k

krw = w = .2217 = 0.460

k .482

4. Calculate water saturations

Sw = Eo 1/2

Et

2.10

5. Results

to oil to water

Sw kro krw ko/kw

0.756 0.028 0.460 0.061

0.655 0.072 0.303 0.238

0.513 0.182 0.143 1.273

0.372 0.371 0.050 7.419

0.200 0.686 0.000 -------

VI - 20

1.0

0.8

Relative Permeability

0.6

Kro

Krw

0.4

0.2

0.0

0 20 40 60 80 100

10

Permeability Ratio, ko/kw

.1

.01

0 20 40 60 80 100

Sw, % of pore space

VI - 21

6. The data permit certain checks to be made

F = 0.62 φ-2.15

F = Ro

Rw

IL .01 2.3

F = 140 = 11.7

12

Φ = 1 1

.62 2.15 = .62 2.15

F 11.7

Φ = .255

VI - 22

2. Displacement (unsteady-state)(Welge)

ratio

b. procedure

inlet and outlet pressures

4) measure

c. conditions

effects negligible,but not enough to cause turbulent

(non-darcy) flow.

P + Po

Pm = i

2

3) flow is horizontal and core is short so that effects of

gravity can be neglected

d. calculations

Gipi

Gipv =

LAφ pm

pressure pi), cc

volume

VI - 23

pm = pi + po

, psi

2

LA φ = pore volume, cc

Np

=

Sgav LAφ

LA φ = pore volume, cc

Sgav

GAS BREAKTHROUGH

0

0 Gipv

VI - 24

4) determine fractional flow of oil, fo

d Sgav

fo =

d Gipv

koA ∆p

µoL

fo =

koA ∆p kgA ∆p

+

µoL µgL

ko/µo

fo =

ko/µo + kg/µg

kg 1 - fo

=

ko fo µo/µg

kg

where = permeability ratio of gas to oil

ko

only at the gas saturation of the outflow face, thus

must calculate Sgo

face of core

Gipv

= cumulative gas

injected, pore volumes

outlet face of core

VI - 25

e. advantages

2) rapid

f. disadvantages

k

1) results in kg/ko, not kro and rg

initial value of gas saturation may be high, resulting

in incomplete kg/ko vs Sgo curve.

VI - 26

Example VI-2

The data from an unsteady-state displacement of oil by gas in a 2 inch diameter by 5 5/8 inch long

sandstone core are given below.

14.0 14.6

50.2 19.5

112.6 22.5

202.3 25.5

401.4 28.6

546.9 30.4

769.9 32.2

1226.5 33.4

3068.9 35.3

5946.6 35.9

Other data

G

Prepare to determine kg/ko by calculating Sgav and ipv.

Solution:

1. Calculate Sgav

Np

Sgav =

LAφ

Sgav = 14.6 cc

14.3 cm 20.27 cm2 .210

Sgav = 0.24

G

2. Calculate ipv

VI - 27

Gipi

Gipv =

LAφ pm

Gipv =

14.3 cm 20.27 cm2 .210 19.7 psia + 14.7 psia /2

Gipv = 0.264 pv

3. Results

Sgav Gipv pv

0.24 0.264

0.32 0.945

0.37 2.12

0.42 3.81

0.47 7.56

0.50 10.3

0.53 14.5

0.55 23.1

0.58 57.8

0.59 112.0

VI - 28

Example VI-3

A core sample initially saturated with oil is flooded with gas. The following data was obtained:

Sgav Gipv pv

0.24 0.264

0.32 0.945

0.37 2.12

0.42 3.81

0.47 7.56

0.50 10.3

0.53 14.5

0.55 23.1

0.58 57.8

0.59 112.0

µo = 2.25 cp

µg = 0.0185 cp

S

Calculate and construct a fg verses Sgo plot. Convert gavg to Sgo. Determine kg/ko for each of

the given saturations. Construct a graph of kg/ko versus S go.

Solution:

1 - fo

kg/ko =

µ

fo o

µo

0.32 .94 .075 .249 .101

0.37 2.17 .0357 .294 .222

0.42 3.81 .0214 .338 .376

0.47 7.56 .0118 .381 .689

0.50 10.3 .0092 .405 .886

0.53 14.5 .0046 .463 1.78

0.55 23.1 .0013 .521 6.32

0.58 57.8 .0005 .550 16.4

0.59 112.0 .0001 .581 82.2

VI - 29

0.6

0.5

Sgav 0.4

fraction

0.3

0.2

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Gipv, pv

100

10

kg/ko 1

.1

.01

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Sg, %

VI - 30

C. Field determination of permeability ratios

1. equations

kg A ∆p

qg µgL

qo = k A ∆p

o

µoL

vol/time

vol/time

thus,

kg qg µg

=

ko qo µo

qg Bg Rp - Rs

qo = 5.615 B o

separator gas and stock tank gas)

thus

kg µgBg Rp - Rs

=

ko µo 5.615 Bo

2. procedure

Bo, R s, µg, µo must be determined at some known

reservoir pressure

production data and material balance calculations

VI - 31

Example VI-4

Discovery pressure for your well was 4250 psia, temperature is 200oF, and initial producing gas-

oil ratio was 740 SCF/STB. Stock tank oil gravity is 30oAPI and surface gas gravity is 0.7.

Production history and correlations indicate the bubble point at 3500 psia. Reservoir pressure is

now 3000 psia. Producing gas-oil ratio is 18,100 SCF/STB. What is kg/ko in the reservoir at this

time.

Solution:

Correlations covered in the fluid properties portion of this course yield the following value

of the physical properties of the gas and oil at 3000 psia and 200o F.

Rs = 560 SCF/STB

z = 0.86

µg = 0.0192 cp

µo = 0.75 cp

kg = µgBg Rp - Rs

ko µo 5.615 Bo

=

ko 0.75 5.615 1.314

kg = 0.325

ko

VI - 32

VI) Uses of relative permeability data

kr

Log Response

0 Diagram

0 Sw, % 100

SP Log RT Log

h, ft

100% Water Production

100 % Sw

0

0 Sw, % 100

VI - 33

B. Determination of height of 100% oil production

kr

0 Log Response

0 Sw, % 100 Diagram

SP Log RT Log

h, ft

100 % Sw

0

0 Sw, % 100

VI - 34

C. Effect of permeability on thickness of transition zone

kr Low K

High K

0

0 Sw, % 100

h = height of zone

of interest

h, ft

Low K

High K

0

0 Sw, % 100

VI - 35

D. Fractional flow of water as a function of height

kw A ∆ P

q q µw L

fw = q w = q +wq = = 1

tot o w ko A ∆ P kw A ∆ P ko µw

+ 1+

kw µo

µo L µo L

fw

100

0

0 Sw 100

100

0

0 1

fw

h

0

0 Sw 100

VI - 36

160

10 md

140

120

Height above free water level, ft

100

80

50 md

60

40

100 md

20

200 md

0

0 20 40 60 80 100

This figure indicates that lower permeabilities result in longer transition zones

Oil

Water

kr

0

0 Sw 100

Residual Oil

Saturation

∆Sw

VI - 37

F. Interpretation of fractional flow curve

4

fw

2 3

0

0 Sw 100

1. fw at water breakthrough

3.

4. slope

VI - 38

1 3

Water input

fw Pore vols.

0 0

0 100

Oil Rec - % Oil in Place

VI - 39

VII. STATISTICAL MEASURES

I) Introduction

Usually we can not examine an entire "population" (i.e. we can not dig up an entire

reservoir, cut it into plugs, and measure the porosity of every plug). We can only

"sample" the population and use the properties of the sample to represent the

calculations.

The classification of data for a large number of samples will often provide

VII - 1

II) Frequency Distributions

all data to respective class intervals. The midpoint of each class interval is called the

class mark.

B. Divide the range of numbers into a convenient number of equal sized class

intervals. The number of class intervals depends on the data but is usually

C. The number of observations for each class interval is the class frequency.

D. The relative frequency of a class is the frequency of the class divided by the

VII - 2

III) Histogram

The vertical scale is the number of data points - the class frequency - in each class.

The width of the rectangle corresponds to the class interval.

Frequency of Occurence

Mean

Magnitude of Variable

8

6

# of Samples

0

12 16 20 24

Porosity, %

8

6

# of Samples

0

20 60 100 140

Permeability, md

VII - 3

Net pay thickness data from 20 wells summarized as relative frequency data

Range of (No. of wells (No. of wells having thickness Relative

thickness, having thickness values in each range, Frequency

ft. values in the range) fraction of total wells) as percentage.

81-110 7 0.35 35%

111-140 5 0.25 25%

141-170 3 0.15 15%

171-200 1 0.05 5%

20 1.00 100%

10

8

Frequency

0

0 50 80 110 140 170 200

VII - 4

Sometimes the relative frequency is plotted on a histogram

.5

.4

Relative Frequency

.3

.2

.1

0

0 50 80 110 140 170 200

VII - 5

IV) Cumulative Frequency Distributions

Relative frequencies are summed and plotted at the higher ends of the class intervals

Cumulative frequency less than for equal to

1.0 100%

.8 80%

.6 60%

.4 40%

.2 20%

0 0

0 50 80 110 140 170 200

VII - 6

Occasionally a "cumulative frequency greater than or equal to" distribution is

plotted. Relative frequencies are summed from the highest class interval and plotted

Cumulative frequency greater than for equal to

1.0

Cumulative % greater than or equal to

100%

.8 80%

.6 60%

.4 40%

.2 20%

0 0

0 50 80 110 140 170 200

Probability graph paper has been constructed so that data from certain probability

distributions plot as a straight line. Different probability paper is used for data with

different distributions

VII - 7

V) Normal Distribution

f(x)

Inflection point

of curve

a a

µ −a µ +a

Random variable x

This distribution is completely and uniquely defined by two values - the mean, m,

and standard deviation, σ.

VII - 8

VI) Log Normal Distribution

similar to a normal distribution except that it is skewed to one side. It is also called

an exponential distribution.

Mode

f(x)

Median (geometric mean)

Random variable x

This distribution can also be completely and uniquely defined by the mean, m, and

the standard deviation, σ.

If random variable xi are log normally distributed then the variables log xi are

normally distributed.

VII - 9

VII) Measures of Central Tendency

of data is arranged according to magnitude the average value tends to lie in the

center of these data. These averages are called measure of central tendency.

n

Σ xi

µ = i =1n

where xi = values of the variable of interest for each sample

nµ = number of samples

n 1/n

µg = π xi

i=1

VII - 10

VIII) Measures of Variability (dispersion)

variables, however it does not show the spread or variability of the variables on

A. Standard deviation - The square root of the mean of the squared deviations

about µ, where deviation is defined as the distance of the variable from µ.

n

Σ xi - µ 2

σ =

2 i=1

n-1

tendency

n

Σ xi - µ

MD = i=1 n

Σ fi xi - µ 2

j

σ2 =

Σ fi

j

xj = class mark

or

σ2 = Σ frj xj - µ 2

j

f

where rj = relative frequency for each class

VII - 11

IX) Normal Distribution

For the normal distribution the mean, median and mode have the same numerical

n

Σ xi

µ = i=1n

where i refers to each individual data point and, for classified data

Σ fj xj

j

µ=

Σ fj

j

fj is the frequency of the class

or

µ = Σ frj xj

j

f

where rj is the relative frequency of the class.

xj is the class mark

VII - 12

.999 .999

Cumulative Frequency

Cumulative Frequency

.001 .001

Random variable x Random variable x

on coordinate graph paper on normal probability paper

.999 .999

µ+a

distributed normally

distributed normally

Random variable x,

Random variable x,

µ µ

.001 .001

50% 50% 84.1%

VII - 13

Porosity and permeability data from a well in the Denver-Julesburg Basin

Porosity Interval

Interval Frequency Midpoint

(xi - µ)2 fi(xi - µ)2

i Percent fi xi fixi (xi - µ)

2 10.0<x<12.0 0 11.0 0.0 -6.7 44.89 0.00

3 12.0<x<14.0 1 13.0 13.0 -4.7 22.09 22.09

4 14.0<x<16.0 10 15.0 150.0 -2.7 7.29 72.90

5 16.0<x<18.0 12 17.0 204.0 -0.7 0.49 5.88

6 18.0<x<20.0 8 19.0 152.0 +1.3 1.69 13.52

7 20.0<x<22.0 7 21.0 147.0 +3.3 10.89 76.23

8 22.0<x<25.0 3 23.5 70.5 +5.8 33.64 100.92

42 745.0 376.18

Σ fi xi

µ= = 745.0 = 17.7%

Σ fi 42

Σ fi xi - µ 2

j

σ2 = = 376.18 = 8.96

Σ fi 42

j

σ = 8.96 = 2.99%

VII - 14

Cumulative

Frequency Cumulative

Than or Equal to Frequency

Porosity Upper Limit of Expressed as

Interval, % Frequency Interval Percentage

7.0<x<10.0 1 1 2.4%

10.0<x<12.0 0 1 2.4%

12.0<x<14.0 1 2 4.8%

14.0<x<16.0 10 12 28.6%

16.0<x<18.0 12 24 57.1%

18.0<x<20.0 8 32 76.2%

20.0<x<22.0 7 39 92.9%

22.0<x<25.0 3 42 100.0%

42

26

24

22

20

Core porosity, %

18

16

14

12

10

8

2 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 96

at 84th percentile f + σ = 20.7%

σ = 20.7 - 17.7 = 3%

VII - 15

X) Log Normal Distribution

For log normal distribution the median, mode, and mean have different numerical

values. The median has been chosen as the value of central tendency which best

n 1/n

µ = π xi

i=1

or

n

log (m) = 1 Σ log xi

n i=1

VII - 16

Cumulative

Frequency Less Cumulative

Permeability Than or Equal to Frequency

Interval Upper Limit of Expressed As

(millidarcies) Frequency Interval Percentage

0-50 2 2 4.8%

51-100 2 4 9.5%

101-150 4 8 19.0%

151-200 4 12 28.6%

201-250 4 16 38.1%

251-300 8 24 57.1%

301-350 4 28 66.7%

351-400 2 30 71.4%

401-450 4 34 81.0%

451-500 1 35 83.3%

501-700 5 40 95.2%

701-1000 2 42 100.0%

42

1000

Core permeability, md

100

10

2 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 96

VII - 17

PETE 306 HANDOUT 3/5/92

Purcell Approach

(ABW: pages 167-172)

P c = 2 σ cosθ

r

π r4

i ∆p

qi =

8µL

3. Darcy's equation,

qt = kA ∆p

µL

P c = dynes

cm2 k = cm2

σ = dynes

cm A = cm2

r = cm L = cm

q = cm

2 µ = poise = dynes-sec

sec cm2

∆p = dyne

cm2

1

2

Let V i = πr i L,

2

qi = Vr i ∆p, V = cm3

2

8µL

Since

r i = 2σ cosθ

Pci

σ cosθ 2 Vi

qi = ∆p

Pci 2 2 µ L 2

i = n σ cosθ 2 ∆p i=n V

qt = Σ Σ i

i=1 2µL 2

i=1 Pci 2

Since,

qt = k A ∆p

µL

i=n

σ cosθ 2

k = Σ Vi 2

2 A L i=n Pci

2

Define the fractional volume of ith capillary

Vi ,

si = s i = fraction

VT

and

φ = VT , φ = fraction

AL

i=n

σ cosθ 2

k=

2

φ Σ Si

Pci 2

i=1

space,

i=n

σ cosθ 2

k=

2

φλ Σ Si

Pci 2

i=1

In integral form,

S=1

σ cosθ 2

k= φλ dS

2 2

S=0 Pc

3

PETE 306 HANDOUT 4/16/92

Capillary Pressure Data

(ABW: pages 196-199)

Purcell approach:

S=1

σ cosθ 2

k= φλ dS

2 2

S=0 Pc

S=Swt

σ cosθ 2

kwt = φλ dS

2 P2c

S=0

The relative permeability of the wetting phase is the ratio of the wetting

phase effective permeability to the absolute permeability

S=Swt

dS

P2c

S=0

krwt = kwt =

k S=1

dS

2

S=0 Pc

1

Similarly, the effective permeability of the nonwetting phase may be

expressed as

S=1

σ cosθ 2

knwt = φλ dS

2 2

S=Swt Pc

nonwetting phase effective permeability to the absolute permeability

S=1

dS

2

S=Swt Pc

krnwt = knwt =

k S=1

dS

2

S=0 Pc

2

Burdine Approach:

systems and modified the Purcell equations for the effective

permeabilities.

λrwti = λi

λwti

The relative permeability of the wetting phase is the ratio of the wetting

phase effective permeability to the absolute permeability

S=Swt

dS

P2c

S=0

krwt = kwt = λrwt 2

k S=1

dS

2

S=0 Pc

Sm, as

λrwt = Swt - S m

1 - Sm

3

Similarly, the relative permeability of the nonwetting phase is the ratio

of the nonwetting phase effective permeability to the absolute

permeability

S=1

dS

2

S=Swt Pc

krnwt = knwt = λrnwt 2

k S=1

dS

2

S=0 Pc

The tortuosity ratio for the nonwetting phase is related to the minimum

wetting-phase saturation, Sm, and the equilibrium saturation to the

nonwetting phase, Se, as

λrnwt = Snwt - S e

1 - Sm - Se

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