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We need this knowledge because it is essential for designing of air port
It is essential for determining of building configurations, site
clearance ,size of parking apron etc. It includes wing span, fuselage
length, distance between gears, wheel base, height and tail width.
2. AIRCRAFT weight
Aircraft weight is important for determining the thickness of the
runway, taxiway, and apron pavements, and it affects the takeoff and
landing runway length requirements at an airport.
Manufacturer's empty weight (MEW)
Also called Manufacturer's Weight Empty (MWE) or Licensed Empty Weight
• It is the weight of the aircraft "as built" and includes the weight of the
structure, power plant, furnishings, installations, systems and other
equipment that are considered an integral part of an aircraft. This
excludes any baggage, passengers, or usable fuel2.
• Basic wt of a/c + Crew members + Gear assembly varies with seating
Zero-fuel weight (ZFW)
This is the total weight of the airplane and all its contents (including
unusable fuel), but excluding the total weight of the usable fuel on board.
As a flight progresses and fuel is consumed, the total weight of the airplane
reduces, but the ZFW remains constant.
Maximum zero fuel weight (MZFW) is the maximum weight allowed before
usable fuel and other specified usable agents (engine injection fluid, and
other consumable propulsion agents) are loaded.
Zero fuel weight, ZFW.
Weight above which all weight is fuel.

4)Maximum Structural Payload. whether this load be pax.PL Revenue Producing Load PL=PAX + BAGG + CARGO + MAIL. extra fuel. people.. Maximum load a/c is certified to carry.2 B – 747 44 2.9 TONS A – 310 35. Typical Payload of Transport (Table 3 – 5). In the case of a commercial airliner. MSTOW= OEW + FUEL (TRIP + RESERVE) + PAYLOAD Maximum landing weight (MLW) . water. all fluids necessary for operation such as engine oil. Pay Load . MSPL. cargo or both MSPL = ZFW – OEW Max payload is actually less than MSPL because of space limitations( seats and other items) Maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) This is the maximum weight at which the pilot of the aircraft is allowed to attempt to take of3. It includes cargo. B – 707 17. it may refer only to revenuegenerating cargo or paying passengers. engine coolant. Maximum Structural Take Off Weight(MTOW) Maximum weight authorized at brake release for takeof.Operating empty weight (OEW) (Roughly equivalent to basic empty weight on light aircraft) It is the basic weight of an aircraft including the crew. Payload It is the carrying capacity of an aircraft. unusable fuel and all operator items and equipment required for flight but excluding usable fuel and the payload.

2. The main gear is design to absorb the encountered during landing.7 Lb . speed.Run up fuel –It depends on travel distance and queue time. Maximum Structural Landing Weight (MSLW). It is the structural capability of the a/c in landing. Maximum Ramp Weight (MRW) Maximum weight authorized for ground maneuver.It depends on distance to nearest air port .amount of specified waiting time and length of trip 1 GALLON OF JET FUEL WEIGHS= 6.It depends on range.Reserve fuel.3.This maximum weight at which an aircraft is permitted to land3. MRW = OEW + FUEL (TRIP + RESERVE + TAXI + RUNUP) + PAYLOAD As the aircraft taxis between apron and the end of the runway.1.8. it burn fuels and consequently loses weight.8.payload and weather conditions. Maximum ramp weight (MRW) also called maximum taxi weight (MTW) It is the maximum weight authorized for maneuvering (taxiing or towing) an aircraft on the ground.2. Trip fuel. FUEL WEIGHT 2. altitude . 2.8. Slightly greater than MTOW.

The maximum landing weight is what the manufacturer has certified for landings. systems and other equipment that are considered an integral part of an aircraft before additional operator items are added for operation. power plant.Trip Fuel . baggage. or MTW . The aircraft has:       Basic Empty Weight (BEW) is the weight of the aircraft "as built" and includes the weight of the structure. furnishings. cargo. mail and fret) Maximum Taxi Weight (MTW) MZFW + Ramp fuel Maximum Takeoff Weight (MTOW) MZFW + Takeof fuel.Taxi fuel  Maximum Landing Weight (MLW) MTOW . passenger.g.e. this is MTOW minus some fuel. e.Taxi fuel) Maximum Zero Fuel Weight (MZFW) DOW + Payload (anything put on the aircraft that generates revenue to the company. Ramp Fuel . Dry Operating Wieght (DOW) BEW + Weight of Crew (Pilot + Cabin including their bags) + Pantry Operating Weight (OW) DOW + Takeof fuel (i. installations. Generally.

5 3 2.5 1 0. This decreases during flight due to fuel and oil consumption.PAY LOAD VS RANGE 4 3. 8 9 .5 PAY LOAD 2 1.5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 RANGE It is the total aircraft weight at any moment during the flight or ground operation.

2.B-747 and A-300. expands and escapes through the tail giving a thrust to A/C.During cruising A/C utilizes ¼ 38000 lb.R.TO ground.4.R. Thrust and Performance Thrust –the force exerted in any direction by a fluid. .B-707 –18000 lb.1. more economical.The speed at which A/C takes of.Cruise speed. to wind 4.e.Concord – Performance A/C performance can be measured by BYE pass ratio and specific fuel consumption’s. . Of Pax+Baggage +Cargo +Fuel That Can Be Accomodated In A/C.ignited by a fuel.Similar to turbojet except the propeller is provided in it.1. Turbine extracts enough power to drive both compressor and propeller. CAPACITY • No.Turbofan-Turbojet + large dia blades in front of compressor .3. 4. 3. 4. or by a powered screw.Turbojet -Compressor is rotated with a motor. B-707. Stall speed.Air speed – Speed W.Turboprop.Take of decision speed. 3.The speed at which a/c travels W.Speed at which pilots decides to t/of.3. 5.A/C Noise .From an indicator in cockpit.Indicated Air Speed.5. jet.3. A/C SPEED 4.Piston Engine –Powered by gasoline fed reciprocating engines and drawn by propeller or air screw. 3. – 1/5th thrust. Th. Less efective than turbo jet. 4. air sucks in .Rated in pound of thrust in static position at any level. Expressed as Epndb (db+12) 6.2.A/C ENGINES 3. . 4.g Cessna. Machinery noise + jet exhaust.4.

or adj.Measure from center of rotation to wing tip.largest radius is most critical for stand point of view of clearance to bldg. A/C.nose or tail tip.• It helps in detrmining the pay load(200 lb/seat) 7.(60-80 ) . .A/C Turning Radius. .