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Ayah Al-Anani

Eukaryotic cell: more complex cell type that contains a nucleus and

membrane bound organelles such as mitochondria, nucleus, or chloroplasts.

Compromised of four major macromolecules:
1. Carbohydrates i.e. starch, sucrose, and glucose: a macromolecule/polymer, made
up of repeating subunits called monomers. They have the general molecular formula
(CH2O)n (where n is the number of carbon rings). Monomer: simple sugar unit called
glucose. They are known to provide the main source of energy for cells and are the
most abundant macromolecule.
Releasing energy to cells: Animals, which are composed of eukaryotic cells,
obtain energy to carry out cellular processes using energy released from a type
of carbohydrate called a monosaccharide (which is the simplest type of
carbohydrate): simple sugar; made up of a single sugar molecule. i.e. glucose.
Since these sugars contain many hydroxyl groups (-OH bonds, given the
chemical formula of glucose is C6H12O6) this means they interact with water
easily and are highly soluble. Thus, this allows them to dissolve and transported
in the blood of animals easily (since the blood plasma is 90% water), where it
breaks down and releases energy to the cell process of respiration
2. Proteins i.e. fibrous proteins, channel proteins: a macromolecule/polymer, where
the building block/monomer is amino acids. Proteins are formed when; two or more
amino acids take part in a dehydration reaction (one water molecule is removed)
where the carboxyl (-COOH) group of one amino acid reacts with the amine (-NH 2)
group of another amino acid forming a polypeptide or protein.
Structural Support: As the polypeptide begins its initial folding (achieving
secondary structure), it begins to form what is called an alpha-helix (spiral
shaped). An alpha helix is formed when amino acid chains (polypeptides) are
linked together by hydrogen bonds between their carbonyl and NH groups that
stabilize the helix. These helices then wind around each other to form extremely
stable coils that are found in fibrous proteins (proteins that provide structural
support for cells and tissues) such as keratin. Keratin is a protein that
strengthens hair, nails, hooves, horns and beaks; thus, providing structural
support to organisms composed of these eukaryotic cells.
3. Nucleic acids i.e. DNA, RNA: they are composed of subunits or monomers called
nulceotides. A nucleotide is composed of 3 parts: 1/ a five carbon sugar: ribose in
RNA; deoxyribose in DNA
2/ a nitrogen base: ONE of the following:
a. Pyrimidines (one carbon ring): Uracil, cytosine, and thymine.
b. Purines (two carbon rings): Adenine and guanine.
***Note: Uracil is only found in RNA, while thymine is only found in DNA***
Nucleic acids are formed when two or more nucleotides are joined together with
phosphodiester bonds.

Stores genetic information: In eukaryotic cells, genetic information is stored in
the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), which is made up of the nucleic acids thymine,
adenine, guanine, and cytosine. The genetic information is passed from parent to
offspring. This DNA is then used to direct protein synthesis, maintaining the
health and homeostasis (maintenance of an internal environment) of eukaryotic
***Note: lipids are not large enough to be considered polymers/macromolecules***


Endoplasmic reticulum:
Consists of a complicated system of membranous channels
Comprised of the rough endoplasmic reticulum: studded with ribosomes on the
side of the membrane that faces the cytoplasm produces protein.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum: continuous with the rough endoplasmic
reticulum but has no attached ribosomes produces lipids

Golgi apparatus: consists of a stack of slightly curved flattened saccules, found

in both plant and animal cells.

The rough endoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes embedded in its membrane, which
produce proteins. These proteins are folded into the cisternae spaces (inner membrane
foldings) called a lumen. When enough proteins are produced, the lumen pinches off
these folds and produces what is called a transport vesicle. The Golgi apparatus then
receives these vesicles at the cis face, (sometimes carbohydrates are added to the
proteins produced forming glycoproteins) and may further modify these proteins and
the proteins are again packaged in another vesicle called the secretory vesicle that
leaves the Golgi apparatus from the trans face and moves using the cytoskeleton
through the cytoplasm. The vesicle then fuses with the cell membrane and releases the
contents outside the cell by exocytosis. The same applies with the
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum and the production of lipids.
In conclusion, the Golgi Apparatus packages, sorts and releases the products
produced by the rough/smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

Have true nucleus or nuclear envelope
(membrane bound nucleus)


Contain membrane bound organelles

i.e. Golgi Apparatus
Larger ribosomes
Contains RNA
DNA associated with histones, no
Cells are larger
Cell wall present
Cytoplasm present
Flagella present (microtubules present)
Cilia present (microtubules present)
Cell membrane composed of
Contains chromosomes

No membrane bound organelles i.e. no

Golgi Apparatus
Smaller ribosomes
Contains RNA
Circular, naked DNA, plasmid

No true nucleus or nuclear envelope

Cells are very small

Cell wall present
Cytoplasm present
Flagella present (no microtubules)
Cilia NOT present
Unicellular ONLY
Cell membrane is composed of
peptidoglycans (protein sugars)
Contains chromosomes