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dan Integrasi

Disusun Oleh :
Aknesia Fransiska Saragih (1105130017)
Nadia Tri Jayanti (1105132007)
Gede Eka Adi Sanjaya (1105134129)
Antonius Valentino (1105134133)

Kelas :
EL 37 A
Halaman 55

2.2 a. The French and Chinese prime ministers need to come to an agreement by telephone, but
neither speaks the others language. Further, neither has on hand a translator that can
translate to the language of the other. However, both prime ministers have English
translators on their staffs. Draw a diagram similar to Figure 2.12 to depict the situation,
and describe the interaction and each level.
Answer :

The PMs speak as if they are speaking directly to each other. For example, when the
French PM speaks, he addresses his remarks directly to the Chinese PM. However, the
message is actually passed through two translators via the phone system. The French PM's
translator translates his remarks into English and telephones these to the Chinese PM's
translator, who translates these remarks into Chinese.
b. Now suppose that the Chinese prime ministers translator can translate only into Japanese
and that the French prime minister has a German translator available.A translator between
German and Japanese is available in Germany. Draw a new diagram that reflects this
arrangement and describe the hypothetical phone conversation.
Answer :

An intermediate node serves to translate the message before passing it on.


A TCP segment consisting of 1500 bits of data and 160 bits of header is sent to the IP
layer,which appends another 160 bits of header.This is then transmitted through two
networks, each of which uses a 24-bit packet header.The destination network has a
maximum packet size of 800 bits.How many bits,includingheaders,are delivered to the
network layer protocol at the destination?
Answer :
Data ditambah transport header ditambah internet header sama dengan
1820 bits.
1500 bits + 160 bits + 160 bits = 1820 bits.
Data ini dikirim dalam paket berurutan melalui dua jaringan, masing-masing
memakai 24-bit packet header dengan ukuran paket maksimum sebesar 800
bits. Dikurangi untuk packet header, maka tersisa 776 bits. Dibutuhkan tiga
paket network. Maka:
1820 + 3 * 24 = 1892 bits.


Why is UDP needed? Why cant a user program directly access IP?
Answer :
Sebuah aplikasi tidak bisa mengakses IP secara langsung karena tidak
memiliki kemampuan port addressing.UDP menyediakan kemampuan port
addressing pada IP. Selain itu, UDP memiliki proses yang cepat dan overhead
yang pendek. UDP dipakai untuk aplikasi yang membutuhkan koneksi realtime, seperti streaming video.

Halaman 97

Differentiate between guided media and unguided media.

Answer :

With guided media, the electromagnetic waves are guided along an enclosed physical path
whereas unguided media provide a means for transmitting electromagnetic waves but do
not guide them.

3.13 a. Suppose that a digitized TV picture is to be transmitted from a source that uses a matrix
of picture elements (pixels), where each pixel can take on one of 32 intensity
values.Assume that 30 pictures are sent per second. (This digital source is roughly
equivalent to broadcast TV standards that have been adopted.) Find the source rate R
Answer :
(30 pictures/s) (480 500 pixels/picture) = 7.2 106 pixels/s
Each pixel can take on one of 32 values and can therefore be represented by 5 bits:
R = 7.2 106 pixels/s 5 bits/pixel = 36 Mbps
b. Assume that the TV picture is to be transmitted over a channel with 4.5-MHz bandwidth
and a 35-dB signal-to-noise ratio.Find the capacity of the channel (bps).
Answer :
We use the formula:
C = B log2 (1 + SNR)
B = 4.5 106 MHz = bandwidth, and
SNRdB = 35

= 10 log10 (SNR), hence

SNR = 1035/10 = 103.5, and therefore

C = 4.5 106 log2 (1 + 103.5) = 4.5 106 log2 (3163)
C = (4.5 106 11.63) = 52.335 106 bps
c. Discuss how the parameters given in part (a) could be modified to allow transmission of
color TV signals without increasing the required value for R.
Answer :
Allow each pixel to have one of ten intensity levels and let each pixel be one of three
colors (red, blue, green) for a total of 10 3 = 30 levels for each pixel element.


Given an amplifier with an effective noise temperature of 10,000 K and a 10-MHz

bandwidth,what thermal noise level,indBW,may we expect at its output?
Answer :
N = 10 log k + 10 log T + 10 log B
= 228.6 dBW + 10 log 104 + 10 log 107
= 228.6 + 40 + 70 = 118.6 dBW


What is the channel capacity for a teleprinter channel with a 300-Hz bandwidth and a
signal-to-noise ratio of 3 dB,where the noise is white thermal noise?
Answer :
Using Shannon's equation:
C = B log2 (1 + SNR) We have W = 300 Hz

(SNR)dB = 3

Therefore, SNR = 100.3

C = 300 log2 (1 + 100.3) = 300 log2 (2.995) = 474 bps


A digital signaling system is required to operate at 9600 bps.

a. If a signal element encodes a 4-bit word,what is the minimum required bandwidth of the
Answer :
Using Nyquist's equation:
C = 2B log2M We have
C = 9600 bps a. log2M = 4,
because a signal element encodes a 4-bit word Therefore,
C = 9600 = 2B 4, and B = 1200 Hz
b. Repeat part (a) for the case of 8-bit words.
9600 = 2B 8, and B = 600 Hz


What is the thermal noise level of a channel with a bandwidth of 10 kHz carrying 1000
watts of power operating at 50C?
Answer :
N = K T =1.38 10^23 (50 + 273) 10,000 = 4.5 10^17 watts


If the received signal level for a particular digital system is -151 dBW and the receiver
system effective noise temperature is 1500 K, what is Eb/N0 for a link transmitting 2400
Answer :
(Eb/N0) = 151 dBW 10 log 2400 10 log 1500 + 228.6 dBW = 12 dBW

Halaman 135

What is the difference between unshielded twisted pair and shielded twisted pair?
Answer :
Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is ordinary telephone wire, with no form of
electromagnetic shielding around the wire. Shielded twisted pair (STP) surrounds the
wire with a metallic braid or sheathing that reduces interference.


What is refraction?
Answer :
Refraction is the bending of a radio beam caused by changes in the speed of propagation
at a point of change in the medium.

Halaman 177

Consider a stream of binary data consisting of a long sequence of 1s followed by a zero

followed by a long string of 1s, with the same assumptions as Problem 5.6. Draw the
waveform for this sequence using

a. NRZ-L
b. Bipolar-AMI
c. Pseudoternary

Answer :


The bipolar-AMI waveform representing the binary sequence 0100101011 is transmitted

over a noisy channel. The received waveform is shown in Figure 5.26; it contains a single
error. Locate the position of this error and explain your answer.
Answer :
The error is at bit position 7, where there is a negative pulse. For AMI, positive and
negative pulses are used alternately for binary 1. The pulse in position 1 representsm the
third binary 1 in the data stream and should have a positive value.


Given the bit pattern 01100, encode this data using ASK, BFSK, and BPSK.
Answer :