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Vm235 homework

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Vm235: Thermodynamics

Homework 8

Assigned Tues Jul 12, 2016; Due Thur Jul 21 at the start of class

Homework

These problems should be completed according to the

solution format posted on the course website.

1) Computer lab cooling. A refrigeration cycle having a coefficient of performance of 3 maintains a

computer laboratory at 18 C on a day when the

outside temperature is 30 C. The thermal load at

steady state consists of energy entering through the

walls and windows at a rate of 30,000 kJ/h and

from the occupants, computers, and lighting at a

rate of 6000 kJ/h. Determine the power required

by this air conditioner and compare this with the

minimum theoretical power required for any refrigeration cycle operating under these conditions,

each in kW. (P5.48 [1])

2) Tropical storm engine. A tropical storm can

be approximated as a Carnot cycle. Air is heated

nearly isothermally as it flows along the sea surface

(typically 27 C). The air is lifted adiabatically

in the eye wall to a height above the tropopause

where it begins to cool due to loss of infrared radiation to space. The temperature where this occurs

is about 73 C. Finally the air descends to the

surface adiabatically. Calculate the thermodynamic

efficiency of this heat engine (P4.12 [2]).

3) Magnetic cooling to 0.01 K. In this process,

a strong magnetic field is imposed on a paramagnetic salt, maintained at absolute temperature

below single digit by transfer of energy to liquid

helium boiling at low pressure. The salt is then

thermally isolated from the helium, the magnetic

field is removed, and the salt temperature drops

further. Assume that 1 mJ is removed at an average

temperature of 0.1 K to the helium by a Carnotcycle heat pump. Find the work input to the heat

pump and the corresponding COPR of refrigeration

at an ambient temperature of 300 K. (P7.55 [3])

4) Nuclear cooling to 1 106 K. To achieve this,

an additional stage of cooling is requires beyond

that described in the previous problem, namely,

nuclear cooling. This process is similar to magnetic

cooling, but it involves the magnetic moment asso-

with certain ions in the paramagnetic salt. Suppose

that 10 J (approximately the potential energy loss

of a pin dropping 3mm) is to be removed from

a specimen at an average temperature of 105 K.

Find the work input to a Carnot heat pump and its

refrigeration COPR required to do this, assuming

the ambient temperature is 300 K. Answer: 300 J,

3.3 108 (P7.56 [3])

5) An inventor claims to have developed a device

requiring no work input or heat transfer, yet able

to produce steady-state hot and cold air streams

as shown below. Evaluate this claimdoes it violate the laws of thermodynamics?employing the

ideal gas model for air and ignoring kinetic and

potential energy effects. (P6.91 [1])

QCV = 0, WCV = 0

Air at 60C,

2.7 bars

Air at

20C, 3 bars

Air at 0C,

2.7 bars

can be approximated with a polytropic expansion.

Consider air in a cylinder volume of 0.2 L at

7 MPa, 1800 K, shown in Fig. 1. It now expands

in a reversible polytropic process with exponent

n = 1.5 through a volume ratio of 8:1. Show this

process on P v and T s diagrams, and calculate

the work and heat transfer for the process. Answer:

0.96 kJ, 1.8 kJ. (P8.99 [3])

a current of 10 A with a voltage of 220 V. The

output shaft rotates at 1000 RPM with a torque

of 16 Nm applied to an external load. The rate of

heat transfer from the motor to its surroundings

is related to the surface temperature Tb and the

ambient temperature T0 by Q = hA(Tb T0 ),

where h = 100 W/m2 K, A = 0.195 m2 , and

T0 = 293 K. Energy transfers are considered

positive in the directions indicated by the arrows

on Fig. 2. (P6.70 [1])

(a) Determine the temperature Tb , in K.

(b) For the motor as the system, determine the rate

of entropy generation, in kW/K.

(c) If the system boundary is located to take in

enough of the nearby surroundings for heat

transfer to take place at temperature T0 , determine the rate of entropy generation, in kW/K,

for the enlarged system.

T0 = 293 K

Welec

Tb = ?

Wshaft

The exhaust gases enter the turbine at 450 C

at a rate of 0.02 kg/s and leave at 400 C. Air

enters the compressor at 70 C and 95 kPa at a

rate of 0.018 kg/s and leaves at 135 kPa. The

mechanical efficiency between the turbine and the

compressor is 95 percent. (That means 5 percent of

turbine work is lost during its transmission to the

compressor.) Using air properties for the exhaust

gases, determine (a) the air temperature at the

compressor exit, and (b) the isentropic efficiency

of the compressor. Ans.: (a) 126.1 C, (b) 0.642

(Textbook, P7216, 7th ed.)

9) The nozzle in a turbojet engine receives air at

180 kPa and 707 C with a velocity of 70 m/s.

The air expands adiabatically to 70 kPa. If the

mass flow rate is 3.0 kg/s and the nozzle isentropic

efficiency is 93 percent, determine (P8-76 [4])

a)

b)

c)

d)

the

the

the

the

inlet area, in cm2

actual discharge temperature, in C, and

entropy generation, in kJ/kg K.

state at 0.6 bar, 3 C, and 260 m/s and exits

at 130 m/s. Employing the ideal gas model and

ignoring potential energy changes, determine

(a) the temperature of the air at the exit, in C

(b) the maximum attainable exit pressure, in bars

Answer: 0.818 and 22. (P6.95 [1])

R EFERENCES

[1] M. J. Moran and H. N. Shapiro, Fundamentals of Engineering

Thermodynamics, 3rd ed. Wiley, 1996.

[2] G. R. North and T. L. Erukhimova, Atmospheric Thermodynamics, Oxford, 2009.

[3] C. Borgnakke and R. E. Sonntag, Fundamentals of Thermodynamics, SI Version, 7th ed. Wiley, 2009.

[4] K. Wark and D. E. Richards, Thermodynamics, 6th ed. McGrawHill, 1999.

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