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Vm235: Thermodynamics
Homework 8
Assigned Tues Jul 12, 2016; Due Thur Jul 21 at the start of class

Homework
These problems should be completed according to the
solution format posted on the course website.
1) Computer lab cooling. A refrigeration cycle having a coefficient of performance of 3 maintains a
computer laboratory at 18 C on a day when the
outside temperature is 30 C. The thermal load at
steady state consists of energy entering through the
walls and windows at a rate of 30,000 kJ/h and
from the occupants, computers, and lighting at a
rate of 6000 kJ/h. Determine the power required
by this air conditioner and compare this with the
minimum theoretical power required for any refrigeration cycle operating under these conditions,
each in kW. (P5.48 [1])
2) Tropical storm engine. A tropical storm can
be approximated as a Carnot cycle. Air is heated
nearly isothermally as it flows along the sea surface
(typically 27 C). The air is lifted adiabatically
in the eye wall to a height above the tropopause
where it begins to cool due to loss of infrared radiation to space. The temperature where this occurs
is about 73 C. Finally the air descends to the
surface adiabatically. Calculate the thermodynamic
efficiency of this heat engine (P4.12 [2]).
3) Magnetic cooling to 0.01 K. In this process,
a strong magnetic field is imposed on a paramagnetic salt, maintained at absolute temperature
below single digit by transfer of energy to liquid
helium boiling at low pressure. The salt is then
thermally isolated from the helium, the magnetic
field is removed, and the salt temperature drops
further. Assume that 1 mJ is removed at an average
temperature of 0.1 K to the helium by a Carnotcycle heat pump. Find the work input to the heat
pump and the corresponding COPR of refrigeration
at an ambient temperature of 300 K. (P7.55 [3])
4) Nuclear cooling to 1 106 K. To achieve this,
an additional stage of cooling is requires beyond
that described in the previous problem, namely,
nuclear cooling. This process is similar to magnetic
cooling, but it involves the magnetic moment asso-

ciated with the nucleus rather than that associated


with certain ions in the paramagnetic salt. Suppose
that 10 J (approximately the potential energy loss
of a pin dropping 3mm) is to be removed from
a specimen at an average temperature of 105 K.
Find the work input to a Carnot heat pump and its
refrigeration COPR required to do this, assuming
the ambient temperature is 300 K. Answer: 300 J,
3.3 108 (P7.56 [3])
5) An inventor claims to have developed a device
requiring no work input or heat transfer, yet able
to produce steady-state hot and cold air streams
as shown below. Evaluate this claimdoes it violate the laws of thermodynamics?employing the
ideal gas model for air and ignoring kinetic and
potential energy effects. (P6.91 [1])
QCV = 0, WCV = 0
Air at 60C,
2.7 bars
Air at
20C, 3 bars

Air at 0C,
2.7 bars

6) The power stroke in an internal combustion engine


can be approximated with a polytropic expansion.
Consider air in a cylinder volume of 0.2 L at
7 MPa, 1800 K, shown in Fig. 1. It now expands
in a reversible polytropic process with exponent
n = 1.5 through a volume ratio of 8:1. Show this
process on P v and T s diagrams, and calculate
the work and heat transfer for the process. Answer:
0.96 kJ, 1.8 kJ. (P8.99 [3])

Fig. 1. Internal combustion engine power stroke, P8.99 [3].

7) An electric motor operating at steady state draws


a current of 10 A with a voltage of 220 V. The
output shaft rotates at 1000 RPM with a torque
of 16 Nm applied to an external load. The rate of
heat transfer from the motor to its surroundings
is related to the surface temperature Tb and the
ambient temperature T0 by Q = hA(Tb T0 ),
where h = 100 W/m2 K, A = 0.195 m2 , and
T0 = 293 K. Energy transfers are considered
positive in the directions indicated by the arrows
on Fig. 2. (P6.70 [1])
(a) Determine the temperature Tb , in K.
(b) For the motor as the system, determine the rate
of entropy generation, in kW/K.
(c) If the system boundary is located to take in
enough of the nearby surroundings for heat
transfer to take place at temperature T0 , determine the rate of entropy generation, in kW/K,
for the enlarged system.

T0 = 293 K

Welec

Tb = ?

Wshaft

Fig. 2. Electric motor, P6.70 [1].

8) Consider the turbocharger of an internal combustion engine (described in Problem 4 of HW6).


The exhaust gases enter the turbine at 450 C
at a rate of 0.02 kg/s and leave at 400 C. Air
enters the compressor at 70 C and 95 kPa at a
rate of 0.018 kg/s and leaves at 135 kPa. The
mechanical efficiency between the turbine and the
compressor is 95 percent. (That means 5 percent of
turbine work is lost during its transmission to the
compressor.) Using air properties for the exhaust
gases, determine (a) the air temperature at the
compressor exit, and (b) the isentropic efficiency
of the compressor. Ans.: (a) 126.1 C, (b) 0.642
(Textbook, P7216, 7th ed.)
9) The nozzle in a turbojet engine receives air at
180 kPa and 707 C with a velocity of 70 m/s.
The air expands adiabatically to 70 kPa. If the
mass flow rate is 3.0 kg/s and the nozzle isentropic
efficiency is 93 percent, determine (P8-76 [4])
a)
b)
c)
d)

the
the
the
the

actual discharge velocity, in m/s


inlet area, in cm2
actual discharge temperature, in C, and
entropy generation, in kJ/kg K.

10) Air enters an insulated diffuser operating at steady


state at 0.6 bar, 3 C, and 260 m/s and exits
at 130 m/s. Employing the ideal gas model and
ignoring potential energy changes, determine
(a) the temperature of the air at the exit, in C
(b) the maximum attainable exit pressure, in bars
Answer: 0.818 and 22. (P6.95 [1])
R EFERENCES
[1] M. J. Moran and H. N. Shapiro, Fundamentals of Engineering
Thermodynamics, 3rd ed. Wiley, 1996.
[2] G. R. North and T. L. Erukhimova, Atmospheric Thermodynamics, Oxford, 2009.
[3] C. Borgnakke and R. E. Sonntag, Fundamentals of Thermodynamics, SI Version, 7th ed. Wiley, 2009.
[4] K. Wark and D. E. Richards, Thermodynamics, 6th ed. McGrawHill, 1999.