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# UP

EEEI

EEE 41
Lecture 12
PN Junction I-V Characteristics

## EEE 41 Lecture 12 (Alarcon 2016)

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Announcement
First Exam: October 15, 2016 (Saturday)
1pm 4pm
VLC, LC1, LC2, 120, 123

## EEE 41 Lecture 12 (Alarcon 2016)

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Today
PN Junctions
I-V Characteristics

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## EEE 41 Lecture 12 (Alarcon 2016)

Biased PN Junctions

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Forward Bias

Equilibrium

Reverse Bias

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## PN Junction Electrostatics (VA 0)

Built-in potential, Vbi (non-degenerate doping):

Depletion width, W:

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## PN Junction Electrostatics (VA 0)

Electric field distribution, E(x):

Note:

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Therefore:

## EEE 41 Lecture 12 (Alarcon 2016)

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Current Flow
(Qualitative Analysis)

Forward Bias:

Equilibrium:

Reverse Bias:

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## Current Flow in a PN Junction

When a forward bias (VA > 0) is applied, the potential barrier to

np > 0, pn > 0

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## Current Flow in a PN Junction

Current density: J = Jn(x) + Jp(x)

J is constant throughout the diode, but Jn(x) and Jp(x) vary with

position

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## Ideal Diode Analysis: Assumptions

Non-degenerately doped step junction
Low-level injection conditions prevail in the quasi-neutral regions
Recombination-generation is negligible in the depletion region
Jn and Jp are constant in the depletion region

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## Ideal Diode Analysis Approach

Solve the minority carrier diffusion equations in the quasi-neutral

## regions to obtain np(x,VA) and pn(x,VA)

Apply the boundary conditions:
P-side: np(-xp) and np(-)
N-side: pn(xn) and pn()

neutral regions

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## Carrier Concentrations at xp and xn:

Consider the equilibrium (VA = 0) carrier concentrations:
P-side:

N-side:

when VA 0, then:

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## Law of the Junction

The voltage VA applied to a PN junction falls mostly across the

depletion region

regions

EFP

EC
EFN
Ei
EV

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P-side:

N-side:

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## Example: Carrier Injection

A PN junction has NA = 1018 cm-3 and ND = 1016 cm-3. The applied

voltage is 0.6V.

edges?

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## Excess Carrier Distribution

From the minority carrier diffusion equation:
And using the boundary conditions:

P

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## Excess Carrier Distribution

Applying the boundary conditions:
gives
gives
Therefore,
for
Similarly, we can derive:
for

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P-side:

N-side:

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[UCB]

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## I0 can vary by orders of magnitude, depending on the

semiconductor material
In an asymmetrically doped PN junction, the term associated with
the more heavily doped side is negligible
NA >> ND:

ND >> NA:

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## EEE 41 Lecture 12 (Alarcon 2016)

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Summary
The total voltage dropped across a PN junction is (Vbi VA)
Depletion Layer Width:

## Peak Electric Field:

Under forward bias (VA > 0), the potential barrier to carrier

diffusion is reduced

Minority carriers are injected and diffuse into the quasi-neutral regions

Diode Current:

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Next Meeting
PN Junctions
Reverse bias current
Reverse bias breakdown

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