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Directional derivative

The derivative of a point function (scalar or vector) in a particular

direction is called its directional derivative along the direction.

The directional derivative of a scalar point function in a given

direction is the rate of change of in the direction. It is given by the

component of gradin that direction.

The directional derivative of a scalar point function

(x,y,z) in the direction of

a is given by

a

.a

.

Directional derivative of is maximum in the direction of .

Hence the maximum directional derivative is or grad

Unit normal vector to the surface

If (x, y, z) be a scalar function, then (x, y, z) = c represents

A surface and the unit normal vector to the surface is given by

Equation of the tangent plane and normal to the surface

Suppose

**a is the position vector of the point ( , , )
**

On the surface (x, y, z) = c. If

000

xyz

**r x i y jz k is the position vector of
**

any point (x,y,z) on the tangent plane to the surface at

a , then the

equation of the tangent plane to the surface at a given point

a on it is

given by 0 .

r a grad

then the divergences of F is defined by z F k y F j . z) is a continuously differentiable vector point function in a given region of space. ) (x.z) = c is z zz y yy x xxo 000 x y z on the surface 00 Divergence of a vector If F(x. The vector equation of the normal at a given point a on the surface is 0 r a grad The Cartesian form of the normal at ( .If r is the position vector of any point on the normal to the surface at the point a on it. y.y. .

z F y F x F div F 123 Solenoidal Vector A vector F is said to be solenoidal if 0 .x F F div F i .then . x F i Σ If F F i F jF k 123 .( ) 123 div F F i F jF k i..e.

y. 0 F Curl of vector function If F(x. z) is a differentiable vector point function defined at each point (x. then the curl of F is defined by curl F F = z F k y F j x F i = x F i Σ If F F i F jF k 123 .then ( ) curl F F i F jF k 123F F F 123 . div F (ie) . z). y.

xyz ijk curl F = y F x F k z F x F j .

z F y F i 323121 Curl F is also said to be rotation F Irrotational Vector A vector F is called irrotational if Curl 0 F (ie) if 0 F Scalar Potential If F is an irrotational vector. If f and g are two scalar point function that f gf g (or) gradf ggradf gradg Solution: f g . then there exists a scalar function Such that F . Such a scalar function is called scalar potential of F Properties of Gradient 1.

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