VECTOR CALCULUS

Directional derivative
The derivative of a point function (scalar or vector) in a particular
direction is called its directional derivative along the direction.
The directional derivative of a scalar point function in a given
direction is the rate of change of in the direction. It is given by the
component of gradin that direction.
The directional derivative of a scalar point function
(x,y,z) in the direction of

a is given by


a
.a
.
Directional derivative of is maximum in the direction of .
Hence the maximum directional derivative is or grad
Unit normal vector to the surface
If (x, y, z) be a scalar function, then (x, y, z) = c represents
A surface and the unit normal vector to the surface is given by




Equation of the tangent plane and normal to the surface
Suppose

a is the position vector of the point ( , , )
On the surface (x, y, z) = c. If

000

xyz



r x i y jz k is the position vector of
any point (x,y,z) on the tangent plane to the surface at

a , then the
equation of the tangent plane to the surface at a given point

a on it is
given by 0 . 






r a grad

then the divergences of  F is defined by z F k y F j . z)  is a continuously differentiable vector point function in a given region of space. ) (x.z) = c is z zz y yy x xxo           000 x y z on the surface 00 Divergence of a vector If F(x. The vector equation of the normal at a given point  a on the surface is 0       r a grad The Cartesian form of the normal at ( .If  r is the position vector of any point on the normal to the surface at the point  a on it. y.y. .

z F y F x F div F        123 Solenoidal Vector A vector  F is said to be solenoidal if 0 .x F F div F i             .then . x F i     Σ If  F F i F jF k 123 .( ) 123  div F F i F jF k i..e.

y. 0  F Curl of vector function If F(x. z)  is a differentiable vector point function defined at each point (x. then the curl of  F is defined by  curl F F = z F k y F j x F i             = x F i     Σ If  F F i F jF k 123 .then ( )  curl F F i F jF k 123F F F 123 . div F (ie) . z). y.

xyz ijk curl F        =                        y F x F k z F x F j .

z F y F i 323121 Curl  F is also said to be rotation  F Irrotational Vector A vector  F is called irrotational if Curl 0  F (ie) if 0  F Scalar Potential If  F is an irrotational vector. If f and g are two scalar point function that f gf g (or) gradf ggradf gradg Solution: f g . then there exists a scalar function  Such that   F . Such a scalar function is called scalar potential of  F Properties of Gradient 1.