# VECTOR CALCULUS

Directional derivative
The derivative of a point function (scalar or vector) in a particular
direction is called its directional derivative along the direction.
The directional derivative of a scalar point function in a given
direction is the rate of change of in the direction. It is given by the
The directional derivative of a scalar point function
(x,y,z) in the direction of

a is given by

a
.a
.
Directional derivative of is maximum in the direction of .
Hence the maximum directional derivative is or grad
Unit normal vector to the surface
If (x, y, z) be a scalar function, then (x, y, z) = c represents
A surface and the unit normal vector to the surface is given by

Equation of the tangent plane and normal to the surface
Suppose

a is the position vector of the point ( , , )
On the surface (x, y, z) = c. If

000

xyz

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r x i y jz k is the position vector of
any point (x,y,z) on the tangent plane to the surface at

a , then the
equation of the tangent plane to the surface at a given point

a on it is
given by 0 . 

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