Quality Control and Inspection


Steel plates and sections are to be checked for their physical and chemical properties by verifying the distinctive cast/heat marks stamped on each
piece with corresponding numbers mentioned in the certificates issued by
the producers. Over and above these, for important structures, independent
sample tests are often carried out to confirm the accuracy of the mill test
results. Test pieces for such additional tests should be cut out from the end of
the material and processed for testing in the presence of the inspectors and
duly documented.
Dimensional tolerances, that is, permissible variations from theoretical
dimensions, of plates and sections from rolling mills, often present problems
during fabrication. Also, materials may become twisted or bent during transit from the mills to the fabrication shops. These should be properly checked
and rectified, as necessary, before being used in the job.
For welded fabrication, lamellar tearing often presents problems.
Therefore, materials to be used for welding should be checked against presence of lamination. In particular, tests for lamination should be carried out
for materials, in which tension stresses are transmitted through the thickness or where lamination could affect the buckling behavior of the member
under compression. Lamination can be detected by nondestructive testing
(NDT) method, such as ultrasonic examination, discussed later in this chapter. Extent of lamination should not exceed those indicated in relevant code
of practice being followed.
As in the case of riveted or bolted fabrication, raw materials for welded
structures should also be stored properly at the storage yard. These should
be carefully unloaded, examined for defects, checked with documents, and
stacked as per specification and size, above the ground on platforms, skids,
or other suitable supports to ensure that these do not come in contact with
water or ground moisture. Electrodes should also be stored specification
wise and kept in dry, warm condition.

6.4  Welding Procedure
In order to ensure that acceptable quality of weld is achievable using the proposed welding procedure, it is necessary to examine the same before actual
fabrication work is taken up. For this purpose, a specimen of welded joint of
adequate length of the same cross section and material is made out with the
same welding parameters (i.e., electrode, wire, flux, current, arc voltage, and
speed of travel) that are proposed to be used in actual contraction. This joint
is then subjected to required tests for acceptance of the welding procedure
by the inspecting agency.