Engineering Material

Stress
-scientific area of applied mechanics
for study of strength material
-internal resistance applied by unit
area
Strain
-change per unit length in linear
direction
-deformation caused by stress
Stress
Simple Stress
-stress is constant
Bearing Stress
– Forces acting perpendicular to the
area
Shearing Stress
-force acting parallel to the area
-also called modulus of rigidity
Proof Stress
-stress caused permanent deformation
Bending Stress
-perpendicular to its long axis
Ultimate Stress
-highest ordinate in stress strain curve
Mechanical Properties
Shear Strength
-maximum shear stress before rupture
Yield Strength
-plastic deformation of tensile test
Fatigue Strength
-can withstand stress in body
Bearing Strength
-pressure soil can withstand
(perpendicular)
Specific Strength
-ratio of ultimate strength to specific
wait
Creep Strength
-cause a specified quantity of creep in
a given time of constant temperature
Creep
-occurs over period of time w/
constant stress and temp

Modulus
Poisson Ratio
-ratio of unit lateral deformation to the
unit longitude deformation
-range 0.25 to 0.35
-theoretical max value ½
Modulus of Elasticity
-ratio of stress over strain
-measure of stiffness
-also called tensile modulus
-something about stretch and elastic
Bulk Modulus
-volumetric strain is proportional to
hydrostatic
-shape of elasticity of material
Modulus of Resilience
-limit of material is reached
Secant Modulus
-average ratio of stress and strain at
nonlinear region
Johnson Modulus
-point which natural tangent equal to

Dimensional Property
Camber - edge straightness
Out of Flat – surface from a flat plane
Lay – direction of predominating
surface pattern
Roughness - surface irregularities
Surface Finish - macro and
microscopic that describe the surface
Waviness – wavelike variation
Stress Strain Diagram
Yield Point
-stress increases without
accompanying increase in stress
-yielding of material
-significant increase w/ little or no
stress
Elastic Limit
-stress without causing permanent
deformation
-without returning to original shape
after removal of load
Tensile Point
-highest value of apparent stress
Maximum Shear Stress
-occurs at highest point or lowest
point on the moment diagram

break.Engineering Material -supported horizontally and carries transverse load Goodman’s Line -relationship of yield strength and endurance limit Cold Flow -gradual extrusion of deformation of non-elastic material Resistance Stiffness -resistance of plastic bending Hardness -resistance to penetrator Toughness -absorb applied energy without failure -resistance to fracture. rupture Ductility -sustain plastic deformation without rupture Endurance -measure of ductility in tensile test Strut -prevent structure moving toward each other Force Axial Force -measure pulling or pushing action perpendicular to the section Shear Force -resistance to sliding Torque -resistance to twisting Direct Shear -cutting action Ductile Material -greater than 5% percent elongation Brittle Material -Less than 5% of percent elongation Shaft -torque and twist Beam -bar that lie in a plane containing longitudinal bar Dilation – Sum of stress in 3 coordinates direction Damping -decrease amplitude Steiner’s Theorem -parallel axis second moment Method of joint/section/virtual work -determining bar of force in truss Compressibility -reciprocal of Bulk Modulus Compression -material tend to compact Point of Contraflexure -point which bending moment change sign through zero value Fatigue -permanent structural change Relaxation/Stress Relaxation -rate of reduction of stress Factor of Safety -ratio of ultimate stress to allowable stress Mohr’s Circle -determine graphically the principal of stress Shear Strain -distance of surface displaced in the direction of force divide by thickness of body Endurance Limit -endure infinite number of stress cycle Magnet Magnet – attract iron .

8% carbon and 100% pearlite Iron -5% of earth crust Gray Iron – high carbon.Engineering Material Lodestone – natural magnet Diamagnetic – slightly less Paramagnetic –slightly greater Ferromagnetic – very high Polymeric Material Crosslinking –formed by strong chemical bond Homopolymer – without additive Copolymer – two alternating mer Elastomer – rubber like properties Steel Steel – carbon restricted within concentration Carbon Steel – hardening agent Alloy Steel – significant addition of element Tool Steel – hardened and tempered Stainless Steel – resist corrosion Eutectoid – 0.heat treated White Iron – hard and wear resistant Ductile Iron Gangue – earth and stone mixed with iron oxide Coke – burned in an oxygen poor environment Zinc . iron carbon silicon alloy / widely used Malleable Iron .common alloying ingredient .