A fire sprinkler system is an active fire protection method, consisting of a water supply system

providing adequate pressure and flowrate to a water distribution piping system, onto which fire
sprinklers are connected. Although historically only used in factories and large commercial
buildings, systems for homes and small buildings are now available at a cost-effective price. Fire
sprinkler systems are extensively used worldwide, with over 40 million sprinkler heads fitted
each year. In buildings completely protected by fire sprinkler systems, over 96% of fires were
controlled by fire sprinklers alone.

Dry Pipe Fire Sprinkler System
A dry pipe sprinkler system is one in which pipes are filled with pressurized air or nitrogen,
rather than water. This air holds a remote valve, known as a dry pipe valve, in a closed position.
Located in a heated space, the dry-pipe valve prevents water from entering the pipe until a fire
causes one or more sprinklers to operate. Once this happens, the air escapes and the dry pipe
valve releases. Water then enters the pipe, flowing through open sprinklers onto the fire.
Advantages of using dry pipe fire sprinkler systems include:

Dry pipe sprinkler systems provide automatic protection in spaces where freezing is
possible. Typical dry pipe installations include unheated warehouses and attics, outside
exposed loading docks and within commercial freezers.

Many people view dry pipe sprinklers as advantageous for protection of collections and other
water sensitive areas. This perceived benefit is due to a fear that a physically damaged wet pipe
system will leak while dry pipe systems will not. In these situations, however, dry pipe systems
will generally not offer any advantage over wet pipe systems. Should impact damage happen,
there will only be a mild discharge delay, i.e. 1 minute, while air in the piping is released before
water flow.
Disadvantages of using dry pipe fire sprinkler systems include:

Increased complexity - Dry pipe systems require additional control equipment and air
pressure supply components which increases system complexity. Without proper
maintenance this equipment may be less reliable than a comparable wet pipe system.

Higher installation and maintenance costs - The added complexity impacts the overall
dry-pipe installation cost. This complexity also increases maintenance expenditure,
primarily due to added service labor costs.

Following the work.  Increased fire response time .Wet pipe sprinkler systems have the least number of components and therefore.Due to their overall simplicity. Lower design flexibility . Wet Pipe Fire Sprinkler System Wet pipe systems are the most common fire sprinkler system. This produces unexcelled reliability which is important since sprinklers may be asked to sit in waiting for many years before they are needed. Advantages to using a wet pipe fire sprinkler system include:  System simplicity and reliability . the system is pressure tested and restored. This will delay fire extinguishing actions. These savings become important when maintenance budgets are shrinking.  Increased corrosion potential . . which may produce increased content damage.Up to 60 seconds may pass from the time a sprinkler opens until water is discharged onto the fire.  Ease of modification . dry pipe systems do not offer any significant advantages over wet pipe systems. wet pipe sprinklers require the least amount of installation time and capital.Wet pipe fire sprinkler systems are advantageous since modifications involve shutting down the water supply. These limitations may impact the ability of an owner to make system additions. A wet pipe system is one in which water is constantly maintained within the sprinkler piping. When a sprinkler activates this water is immediately discharged onto the fire. This simplicity aspect also becomes important in facilities where system maintenance may not be performed with the desired frequency. Otherwise remaining water may cause pipe corrosion and premature failure. draining pipes and making alterations. This is not a problem with wet pipe systems where water is constantly maintained in piping.Following operation.There are strict requirements regarding the maximum permitted size (typically 750 gallons) of individual dry-pipe systems. dry-pipe sprinkler systems must be completely drained and dried. Additional work for detection and special control equipment is avoided which again saves time and expense. Maintenance cost savings are also realized since less service time is generally required compared to other system types. With the exception of unheated building spaces and freezer rooms. the lowest number of items to malfunction.  Relative low installation and maintenance expense .

Wet pipe sprinkler systems require the least amount of effort to restore. this special type of system is generally found within industrial type hazards that require the application of water over a large hazard or area. Deluge systems are needed where high velocity suppression is necessary to prevent fire spread. Typically they are employed on hazards that contain low flash point flammable liquids or hazards with large amounts of combustible liquids. sprinkler protection is reinstated by replacing the fused sprinklers and turning the water supply back on. aircraft hangars and chemical storage or processing facilities. In most instances. . Deluge Fire Sprinkler System A deluge fire sprinkler system is similar to a pre-action system except the sprinkler heads are open and the pipe is not pressurized with air. Pre-action and drypipe systems may require additional effort to reset control equipment. These types of hazards may include.  There may also be a concern where piping is subject to severe impact damage and could consequently leak. A detection system which may incorporate the use of heat. transformers. Deluge Fire Sprinkler Systems differ from conventional Fire Sprinkler Systems in the sense that all nozzles employed in the system are open and when water is released into the system it flows from all discharge devices. Disadvantages to using a wet pipe fire sprinkler system include:  Wet pipe systems are not suited for sub-freezing environments. All system piping is filled with water which discharges from the open sprinklers and nozzles used in the system. Deluge Fire Sprinkler systems protect extra hazard occupancies that require significant amounts of water to cool and control the growth or development of a fire. The detection system is installed in the same area as the sprinklers. Deluge systems are used in places that are considered high hazard areas such as power plants. smoke. Deluge systems are connected to a water supply through a deluge valve that is opened by the operation of a smoke or heat detection system. or flame detectors is used to open the Deluge Valve when a fire or its products of combustion are detected. In addition to the application of water some deluge systems will incorporate the use of a foam concentrate to mix with water and form a foam solution which can then provide a protective blanket of foam to help control the development of a fire. As such. When the detection system is activated water discharges through all of the sprinkler heads in the system. oil extraction processes. Short term down time following a fire . The control of water is accomplished by the use of a Deluge Valve which is a device that prevents water from entering the system piping until required.

which effectively creates a wet pipe sprinkler system.As with dry-pipe systems. The most common application for this system type is in freezer warehouses. fine art storage rooms.Pre-action systems are more complex with several additional components. system modifications must incorporate changes to the fire detection and control system to ensure proper operation. The purpose of this feature is twofold: first to monitor piping for leaks and second to hold water from system piping in the event of inadvertent detector operation.tank or vessel protection.The pre-action valve must operate and sprinkler heads must fuse. This allows water to flow into system piping. is that water is held from piping by an electrically operated valve.The higher level of complexity associated with pre-action systems creates an increased chance that something may not work when needed. For this reason. pre-action sprinkler systems have specific size limitations which may impact future system modifications.  Potential decreased reliability . the pre-action fire sprinkler system may be set up with a double interlock in which pressurized air or nitrogen is added to system piping. Advantages of using pre-action fire sprinkler systems include:  The dual action required for water release . Disadvantages of using pre-action fire sprinkler systems include:  Higher installation and maintenance costs . Second. The difference. notably a fire detection system. First. the detection system must identify a developing fire and then open the pre-action valve. Regular maintenance is essential to ensure reliability. known as a pre-action valve. Valve operation is controlled by independent flame. This feature provides an added level of protection against inadvertent discharge.  Modification difficulties . Two separate events must happen to initiate sprinkler discharge. individual sprinkler heads must release to permit water flow onto the fire. however. Pre-action Fire Sprinkler System Pre-action fire sprinkler systems employ the basic concept of a dry pipe system in that water is not normally contained within the pipes. pre-action systems are frequently employed in water sensitive environments such as archival vaults. . heat. or smoke detection. This adds to the overall system cost. In some instances. Water or Foam Deluge systems are used in the protection of large Aircraft Hangers as one primary means of fire protection. distillation processes. rare book libraries and computer centers. In addition.