2

(x − 1) ,
1for x ≥ 1.
2 that the graph is that
confirm
in question 1(b) above.

(1,1)

6. Find the natural domains
of:
x
x
−1
2
√ −1
√x
th
(e) p(x) = 2 − x
(a) ℓ(x) = x − 3
(c) s(x) = x
−1
1
1
1
(b) r(x) =
(d) S(x) = √ (−1,−1)
(f) P (x) = √
x−3
x
2−x
(i)
(j)
(k)
(l)
DEVELOPMENT
y
y
y
y
2
(a)
Solve2x – 4 ≥ 0


7. Let Q(x) = x − 2x − 4. Show
2 that: (a) Q(1 − 5 ) = 0 (b) Q(1 + 5 ) = 10

Monday 19 September 2016

1

x

Start Up Questions
1.

3

2.

8. Given that f (x) = x3 − x + 1, evaluate and simplify: 1
" 1
#
x
x
f (h) − f (0)
3
(a) f (h)
(e)−114 f (0)2 + 2f ( 12 ) + f (1)
(c)
(b)
Hence,
write down the hmaximal domain
of c(x) = x − 4
−3
x
4
"
#
f (h) − f (−h)
(f) 16 f (0) + 4f ( 12 ) + f (1)
(b) f (−h)
(d)
2h
2. What are the domain and range of each of the relations in question 1?
9. Create tables of values for these functions for n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6:
2
3. (a)
If h(x)
− 2,
find:
S(n)==x the
sum
of the positive numbers less than or equal to n
(a)
h(2)
(i) h(t2 )
(c)
h(a)
(e) h(a + 2)
(g) h( 12 )
(b) d(n)
√ = the number of positive divisors of n
(j) h(t + 1t )
(d) of
h(−a)
(f)divisors
h(x − 1)
(b) σ(n)
h( 2=) the sum
(c)
the positive
of n (h) h(3t + 2)
10. Find the natural domains of:
$
2
(a)
c(x)
=
ℓ(x)
= log
3 x Julia Shea, Derek (e)
ISBN: 9781107633322 9 − x
© Bill (c)
Pender,
David
Sadler,
Wardp(x)
2012 =

x

1
Cambridge University Press
− 5x +
6
Photocopying is restricted
transferred to another party
$ under law and this material must not be
x
+
2
x

3
(d) q(x) =
(b) h(x) = x2 − 4
(f) r(x) = 2
x+1
x −9
x2

3. 11. Given the functions f (x) = x2 , F (x) = x + 3, g(x) = 2x and G(x) = 3x, find:
"
#
(a) f F (5)
"
#
(b) F f (5)

"
#
(c) f F (x)
"
#
(d) F f (x)

12. (a) If f (x) = 2x , show that f (−x) =

1
.
f (x)

"
#
(e) g G(2)
"
#
(f) G g(2)

"
#
(g) g G(x)
"
#
(h) G g(x)

x
, show that g( x1 ) = g(x) for x ̸= 0.
+1
x
(c) If h(x) = 2
, show that h( x1 ) = −h(x) for x ̸= 0.
x −1
(d) If f (x) = x + x1 , show that f (x) × f (x + x1 ) = f (x2 ) + 3.

(b) If g(x) =

x2

Finished?
1.

Homework? Hand it in, check it, do it!

13. For each of the following functions write out the equation f (a) + f (b) = f (a + b). Then
determine
if therebelow.
are any values of a and b for which f (a) + f (b) = f (a + b).
2.
Try the problem
(a) f (x) = x (b) f (x) = 2x (c) f (x) = x + 1 (d) f (x) = 2x + 1 (e) f (x) = x2 + 3x

ISBN: 9781107633322
© Bill Pender, David Sadler, Julia Shea, Derek Ward 2012
Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party

Cambridge University Press

Functions & Logarithms
14:01

Functions

14:02

Inverse Functions

14:03

Transformations of y = f (x)

14:04

Logarithms

14:05

Logarithms and Exponential Graphs

14:06

Laws of Logarithms

14:07

Simple Exponential Equations

14:08

Further Exponential Equations

Working mathematically Strategies

Some useful strategies for problem solving are:
• Eliminating possibilities
• Working backwards
• Acting it out
• Looking for patterns
• Solving a simpler problem
• Trial and error
• Making a drawing, diagram or model
• Using algebra
• Using technology

ç

Fun, Fun Functions
⎧−4x



Given f (x) = ⎨ x 2


⎪⎩9
(a)

(i)

Piecemeal Functions

if x < 0
if 0 ≤ x < 3
if x ≥ 3

Evaluate f (−2) + f (0) + f (1) + f (4)

Polynomials a
curve
sketchi
Polynomials an
Topic 8 - Curve sketching

(ii)

⎛ 1⎞
Evaluate f ⎜ ⎟ +
⎝ 2⎠

⎛ 1⎞
f ⎜ − ⎟ + f (3) + f (a 2 + 3)
⎝ 2⎠

QUESTION 1
a

Sketch the follo

y=x

b

y

(b)

Sketch y = f (x)

0

QUESTION 2
a

x

Make sketches

y = 3x + 5

b

y

0

x

Pages 171–172

curve
(OP
curve
sketching
(OPTION
6) sketching
Polynomials
and curv
Polynomials
and curve
sketching

Classwork
& Homework
Topic 8 - Curve sketching
1.

UNIT 8:Name
Curve8 sketching
Topic
- Curve sketching

UNIT 8:

QUESTION
≤ 0 the following curves. QUESTION
if x ≤ 0 the following curves.
⎧0 1 if xSketch
⎧ x1+ 2 Sketch
5.
f ( x) = ⎨
f
x
=
( )y = ⎨x
3
a
b
y⎩3=xx
a
b
if x > 0
y = xd2
y = x2
y=x
⎩c2 − x y =if xx > 0
y

y

y

y

y

Polynomials and
curve
sketching
(OPTION
6)
Polynomials
and curve
sketching
Polynomials
and

EXCEL YEARS 9 & 1

Pages 171–172

0

0

x

Topic 8 - Curve sketching
2.

⎧ x 1 if
QUESTION
UESTION
fQ
( x) = ⎨ 2 2
x= 3xx + 5if
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y = xd
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f
x
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y
yy
y
QUESTION
Sketch
the followingy curves.
⎪2 1
EXCEL YEARS 9 & 1
if x > 1
y =⎪⎩ xx
a
b
y Pages
= x 2 171–172

Polynomials and
curve
sketching
(OPTION
6)
Polynomials
and curve
sketching
yy

0

x

y

00

00

xx

Topic 8 - Curve sketching

xx

0

00

x

0

Polynomials and
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1
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⎧1
Q
2 Sketch
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x

2

y = 3yx + 5
y = ( x − 1)2

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b

y
y

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x

0
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x
x

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0

x

3

UESTION

c
d
y = xy2 + 3
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EXCEL YEARS 9 & 1
x
if x > 0
b
a
y =⎩3 x + 5
y =Pages
x 2 +171–172
3
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this for
the
domain
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1
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y
y
x
x
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x

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y
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x
0
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Polynomials and
curve
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Polynomials
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4.

x
x

UNIT 8: Curve sketching
0

3.

y

0

0

x

y
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x

y

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00

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c
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x
0
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84 EXCEL ESSENTIAL
84
SKILLS: YEAR 10 MATHS REVISION AND EXAM WORK
Q
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a

y

y = ( xy − 1)( x + 2)( x − 3)

yy
y

b

QUESTION 4

y

y = 3(yx − 1)( x + 1)( x − 2)

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0

x

0

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0

not it is a function.
A statement such as f(7) = 23, therefore, means that when x = 7 is input into a function f, the
VERTICAL LINE TEST: A relation is a function if and only if there is no vertical line
output
22 is 23.
Mathscape 10 ext. - Ch12 Page 466 Saturday,
September 24,
2005
11:47 AM
that crosses
the
graph
more than once.
Different functions can be represented by different letters, such as g, h, G, H, F.
The ideas of domain and range apply not just to functions, but more generally
For
g(x)
= (x
+ 2)2, given above:
to example,
relations.if In
the
examples
then
g(5) =25,
(5 +
2)2 E x t e is
466
M
a tFor
h sx
c
0
ns
i o≤nx ≤ 5, and the range is −5 ≤ y ≤ 5.
2 ap
+ y 2e= 1
the domain
−5
(a)
2
=
7
(b) For y ≥ x2 , the
= 49domain is the set R of all real numbers, and the range is
Examples
y

0.
A statement such as f(7) = 23, therefore, means that when x = 7 is input into a function f, the
output
is 23. 1
Example

Answers to Previous Classwork & Homework

G Different
2 − 3x + 7,
EExercise
If f(x) = x2F
find:
functions
can
be represented by different letters, such as g, h, G, H, F.
+S
⎛ 2⎞

2, determine
aUseexample,
f(−4)
b f ( 2 )which of the following
c graphs
f --- represent functions:
1.For
the vertical
if g(x)line
= (xtest
+ 2)to
⎝ 3⎠
2
then g(5) = (5
2)
(a)
(c)
(d)
2 +(b)
Solutions
(a)
f (−4) = (−4)
+7
= 72 − 3(−4)
y
y
y
y
c
f(x) = x2 − 3x + 7
a f(x) = x2 − 3x
+ =7+49
f(x) = x2 − 3x + 7
= 16
12 + 7 b
2
2
2 2
f ( 2 ) = ( 2 )2 – 3( 2 ) + 7
f(−4) = (−4)2 − 3(−4) + 7
f ⎛ ---⎞ = 2⎛ ---⎞ – 3 ⎛ ---⎞ + 7
= 35
⎝ 3⎠
⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠
Example
= 161+ 12 + 7 2
= 2–3 2+7
4
G
x = --- − 2 + 7
(b)
2x − 3 2 + 7 = 9 – 3 2
E
2
If f(x) = =xf1235
− 23x2 =
+ 7, find:
9
+S
x
1
2⎞
−1

−1
a f(−4)
c f --- = 5 4--x
⎝ 3⎠
= 2 − 3 2−1
+ 7 b f ( 2)
9
Solutions = 9 − 3 2
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
Example
c f(x) = x2 − 3x + 7
a f(x) = x22− 3x + 7 2
b y f(x) = x2 − 3x + 7
y
y
2




EG If g(x) = x2y⎛ −2 ⎞2x,
2 g(x) =28.
2 −solve
= ⎜3(−4)
−+37⎜ ⎟ + f7( 2 ) = ( 2 ) 2 – 3 ( 2 ) + 7 (1,1)f ⎛ 2---⎞ = ⎛ 2---⎞ – 3 ⎛ 2---⎞ + 7
+ S (c) f(−4) =f ⎜(−4)


⎝ 3⎠
⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠
⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠
⎝ 3⎠ 1
=216 + 12 + 7
= 2–3 2+7
Solution
4
= --- − 2 + 7
=g(x)
35 ==x24−−2x
= 9–3 2
9
2
+
7
x
x
x
x
−1
1
4 −1
8 = x229− 2x
-=
5
9
x2 − 2x − 8 ==05 94
−1
(−1,−1)
(x − 4)(x + 2) = 0
Example 2
= 4, −2
(j)= 8.
(k)
(l)
2 −x 2x,
EG If(i)g(x) = x∴
solve g(x)
S
y
y
y
y
+
g(x)
= 8 ⇒ x 2 − 2x = 8
Solution
1
2
Exercise
12.2
Mathscape 10 ext. - Ch11
Page3441 Saturday,
24, 2005 11:29 AM
2x
g(x)
∴ x 2 − 2x
− 8 ==0x2 −September
1
1 a If f(x) 8= =3xx2+−5,2x
find:
i f(2)
ii f(−4)
iii f(0)
∴(x − 4)(x + 2) =3 0 x
x
x
1
2 − 2x − 8 = 0
3⎞
−1

x
-g
b
If
g(x)
=
11

2x,
find:
i
g(−3)
ii
iii
g(6.5)
∴ x = 4, −−32
⎝ 2t⎠ e r 11 : S i m i l a r i t y
441
x Chap
(x − 4)(x + 2) = 20
4
c If h(x) = x − 4, find:
i h(5)
ii h(2)
iii h ( 2 )
∴ x = 4, −2
d
If
F(x)
= 2x3, find:
i F(0)
ii F(4)
iii F(−2)
2. Example
What are the
3 domain and range of each of theD relations in question 1?
3
F
If u(x)
x2 − 4x|||+∆GFE.
1, find:
i u(3)
ii u(−5)
iii u ⎛ ---⎞
EG3. Exercise
2 =∆CDE
aIf eh(x)
Prove
that
18
12.2

=
x

2,
find:

4⎠
15
+ S b Hence, find the value of x.
47°iii G ( 2(i)3 h(t
If G(x) = x(x(c)
+ 5),
find:
G(4)
ii G(−5)
) 2)
(a)f h(2)
h(a)
(e) ih(a
+ 2)
(g)
h( 12 )
1 a If√f(x) = 3x + 5, find:
i f(2)
ii f(−4)
iii f(0)
E
(h)
h(3t
(j) h(t + 1t )
(f) ih(x
− 1)
Solutions
(b)g h(If φ(x)
2 ) = 2x,(d)
find:h(−a)
φ(0)
ii φ(4)
3⎞ + 2) iii φ(−3)

If g(x) =
11∆GFE
− 2x, find:
i g(−3)
ii g --iii g(6.5)
a bIn ∆CDE
and
⎝ 2⎠ 2 20
24
DE
18
h(x)
i(b)
h(5) h 2ii =
h(2) 2 − 2 =iii0 hG( 2 ) (c)
(a)c• If------h(2)
2x-22 −−= 4,
26---=find:
2
h(a) = a 2 − 2
- ==----(given)
EF
15 3 5
C
ISBN: 9781107633322
© Bill
Sadler,
Julia
Cambridge University Press
2 Pender, David
F(x) =24
2x(−a)
, find:
F(0)
ii Shea,
F(4)Derek Wardiii2012
F(−2)
CE
62 and
(d) d• is Ifrestricted
h(−a)
=
− 2this
= amaterial
− 2 musti not
Photocopying
under
be transferred to another party
-------- = -----2 = law
--- (given)
3
EG
20
u(x)+=2)
x =−(a
4x5++2)
1,2 find:
i u(3)
ii u(−5)
iii u ⎛ ---⎞
(e)e Ifh(a
−2
⎝ 4⎠
∠FEG (vertically opposite angles)
f • If∠DEC
G(x) == x(x
find:
i G(4)
ii G(−5)
iii G ( 2 3 )
= a+25),
+ 4a
+4−2
∴ ∆CDE ||| ∆GFE
x, find:
g(two
If φ(x)
i φ(0)
iii φ(−3)
pairs=of2 matching
and iitheφ(4)
included angles
are equal)
= a 2 + 4asides
+ 2 are in proportion
2
b
∠CDE
=
∠GFE
(matching
angles
in
similar
∆s
are
equal)
(f )
h(x − 1) = (x − 1) − 2
∴ x = 47
2

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )

= x − 2x + 1− 2

Example 4 = x 2 − 2x − 1
EG a Prove that
h( 12 ) =∆SVW
( 12 )2 −|||2 ∆UTS.
+ S (g)
b Hence, prove
that SV || TU.
1

= 4 −2

Solutions
= −1 43
a In ∆SVW and ∆UTS
• ∠SVW = ∠UTS = 90° (given)

S

12

V

16

W

4

(b) r(x) =

1
(d) S(x) = √
x

1
x−3

(f) P (x) = √

D E V E L O P MC
Eh
N Ta p t e r

11 :

1
2−x

Similarity

441



7. Let Q(x) = x2 − 2x − 4. Show that: (a) Q(1 − 5 ) = 0 (b) Q(1 + 5 ) = 0
Example 3
D
F
Example
3f (continued)
8.
that
(x)
= x|||3 −
x + 1, evaluate and simplify:18
G
E
aGiven
Prove
that
∆CDE
∆GFE.

15
2
"
#
+ S (h)
+ 2)the= value
(3t(c)
+ 2)
− 2 − f (0)
b(a) Hence,
offx.(h)
+ 2f ( 12 ) + f (1)
f (h)h(3tfind
(e) 14 f (0)47°
h
= 9t 2 + 12t + 4 − 2
Solutions
"E
#
f (h) − f (−h)
1
f (0)
+ 4f ( 12 ) + f (1)
(f)
(b)
f
(−h)
2
(d)
20
6
a In ∆CDE and ∆GFE
= 9t + 12t + 2 2h
24
2
2 26
DE
18
G
(i)
h(t
)
=
(t
)

2
------=
----=
-•
(given)
9. Create EF
tables 15
of values
5 for these functions for n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6:
C
=24t 4sum
− 26of the positive numbers
(a) S(n)
less than or equal to n
CE= the
• -------- = ------ = --- (given)
2
120number
1 of positive divisors of n
EG
5
(b)
d(n)
=
the
( j)
h t+ t = t+ t −2
∠DEC
= ∠FEG
opposite
angles)
(c) •σ(n)
= the
sum of(vertically
the positive
divisors
of n
= t 2 + 2 + t12 − 2
∴ ∆CDE ||| ∆GFE
10. Find the natural domains of:
(two pairs
$of =matching
t 2 + t12 sides are in proportion and the included angles are equal) 1
b(a) ∠CDE
angles
in similar
c(x) == ∠GFE
(e) p(x) = 2
9 − x2(matching
(c) ℓ(x)
= log3∆sx are equal)
x − 5x + 6
∴ x =$
47
x
+
2
x−3
(d) q(x) =
(b) h(x) = x2 − 4
(f) r(x) = 2
x+1
x −9
Example 4
12
S
V
EG
Prove
∆SVW |||f (x)
∆UTS.
11. aGiven
thethat
functions
= x2 , F (x) = x + 3, g(x) = 2x and G(x) = 3x, find:
"
#
"
#
"
#
"
#
+ S b Hence,
|| TU.
16
(a) f F (5)prove that SV (c)
f F (x)
(e) g G(2)
(g) g G(x)
"
#
"
#
"
#
"
#
Solutions
(b) F f (5)
(d) F f (x)
(f) G g(2)
(h) G g(x)
a In ∆SVW and ∆UTS
1
(a)
f (F(5)) = f (5 + 3)
W 4
.
12. (a) If f (x) = 2x , show that f (−x) =
• ∠SVW = ∠UTS
=
90°
(given)
f (x)
= f (8)
U
15
T
SV
12 x 4
-------- == ------ = 2---, (given)
(b) •If g(x)
show that g( x1 ) = g(x) for x ̸= 0.
=
8
2
TU
15
5
x +1
SW
16 =x 644
-------- == ------ = ---, (given)
(c) •If h(x)
show that h( x1 ) = −h(x) for x ̸= 0.
SU
20
2 − 15 2
x
(b)
F( f (5)) = F(5 )
hypotenuse
and
show
that f (x)
× one
f (x side
+ x1 of
) =a right-angled
f (x2 ) + 3. triangle are respectively
(d) ∴
If ∆SVW
f (x) =||| x∆UTS
+ x1 ,(the
F(25)
proportional to= the
hypotenuse and one side of another right-angled triangle).
13. b
For ∠VSW
each of= the
following
out∆sthe
∠TUS
(matching
angles inwrite
similar
areequation
equal) f (a) + f (b) = f (a + b). Then
= 25
+ 3 functions
determine
if
there
are
any
values
of
a
and
b
for
which
f (a) + f (b) = f (a + b).
∴ SV || TU (alternate
angles are equal).
=
28
(a) f (x) = x (b) f (x) = 2x (c) f (x) = x + 1 (d) f (x) = 2x + 1 (e) f (x) = x2 + 3x

(

(c)

) (

)

f (F(x)) = f (x + 3)

Exercise 11.4
= (x + 3)2

SBN: 9781107633322
© Bill Pender,
David in
Sadler,
Shea,
Derek WardHence,
2012
(d)
= F(x
)are similar
1 ProveF(
thatf (x))
the triangles
eachJulia
of the
following.
hotocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party
2

pronumeral. = x 2 + 3
(e)a Ag(G(2))x = g(3×B 2)

b

10
= g(6)

20

C

24
= 26
= 64
D
2
G(g(2)) = G(218
)

= G(4)

(f )

= 3× 4
= 12
g(G(x)) = g(3x)

(g)

= 23x
G(g(x)) = G(2 x )
= 3× 2 x

T
m
9

E

P

8

6

12

y

(e)

Q

Cambridge
University Press
find the value
of each

R
12
S

9
2
2⎞ ⎛ 2⎞ 2

f --- = --- – 3 ⎛ ---⎞ + 7
2
EG Example





2
2
If f(x) = x −83x
find: 2
3⎠
3
3
x+ 7,
= then
16 +=g(5)
12
+−=72x
= 2–3 2+7
S
(5
+
2)
+
2
G
2
4
E A statement
Ifa g(x)
= 8. b fmeans
f(7)
=g(x)
when x = 7 is input
223, therefore,
c into
( 2=) 9 that
f ⎛ ---⎞a=function
−=2xxsuch
−−82x,
=as0solve
x2f(−4)
- − 2 +f,7the
=7
–3 2
⎝ 3⎠ -+ Soutput is 23.= 35
9
Mathscape 10 ext. -(x
Ch12
Page 466
Saturday,
24,
2005
11:47
AM
− 4)(x
+ 2)
= 0 September
= 49
4
Solution
Solutions
= 5 --∴
x
=
4,
−2
Different functions
can
be
represented
by
different
letters,
such
as
g,
h,
G,
H,
F.
2
2
2
x +− 72x
c
f(x) = x92 − 3x + 7
a f(x) =g(x)
x 1−=3x
b
f(x) = x − 3x + 7
Example
2
−(x2x+ 2)
8g(x)
=2 x−2=3(−4)
example,
⎛2
⎞ = ⎛2
⎞ – 3⎛ 2
f ( 2 ) = ( 2 )2 – 3( 2 ) + 7
f(−4)
=2if
(−4)
+27,
GForExample
2
E
---⎞ + 7
--f
If
f(x)
=
x

3x
+
7,
find:
466
MExercise
ath
cap
e
1
0
2Extension
⎝ 3⎠
⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠
2 −s2x
12.2
S
then
g(5)
=
(5
+
2)

8
=
0
x
G
+
2
E
2
+ 12
+ 27 g(x) = 8. b f ( 2=) 2 – 3 2 + 7
If g(x) = =
x 16
− 2x,
solve
c f ⎛ ---⎞ 4
+ S a(x −f(−4)

4)(x=+35
2) = 0= 7
3⎠ = --- − 2 + 7
9 – 3 2 ii f(−4)
1 a If f(x) = 3x =+ 49
5, find:
i =f(2)
iii f(0) 9
Solution

x
=
4,
−2
A statement
such as f(7) = 23, therefore, means that when x = 73 is input into a function
f, the
Solutions
4
f (2)ii= g3×
⎛ ---⎞2 + 5 = 11iii g(6.5)
2−
= 5 --2bis 23.
If g(x)
==11
2x,
find:
i(i)
g(−3)

2x
g(x)
x
output
2
2
c
f(x) = x9 − 3x + 7
a f(x) = x − 3x + 7
b
f(x) = x − 3x + 7 ⎝ 2⎠
Example 1 8 = x22 − 2x
(ii)
=h(2)
3× (−4) + 5iii=2−7
2
2f (−4)
2
2
c
If
h(x)
=
x

4,
find:
i
h(5)
ii
(= 2⎛ 2

f (by 2different
) = ( 2letters,
f(−4)

3(−4)
+7
) – 3 ( such
2 ) +as7 g, h, G,
functions
can
be represented
2 =− (−4)
---⎞h F.
--)-⎞ – 3 ⎛ ---⎞ + 7
f H,
12.2
EG Different
IfExercise
f(x)
=
x
3x
+
7,
find:
2
Example
2






2x

8
=
0
x
3⎠
3
3
(iii)
f
(0)
=

0
+
5
=
5
+ SGFor example,
16g(x)
+ 2x
12=3,+(xfind:
7+ 2)2,
= 2 – 3 2 +ii7 F(4)
d If =F(x)
=
i F(0)
iii⎞ F(−2)
⎛2
2if
E a 1(x
4
-Iff(−4)
g(x)
=
x

2x,
solve
g(x)
=
8.
b
c
f
(
2
)
f

4)(x
+
2)
=
0
a If f(x)
+ 5, find:2
i f(2)
iii⎠ f(0)
=3 --- − 2 + 7
⎝3
+S
=u(x)
35==3x
= 9 – 3 2 iiii f(−4)
2=−(5
e Ifthen
4x++2)1, find:
i u(3)
u(−5)
iii u ⎛ ---⎞9
∴ xg(5)
=x4,
−2
3
⎝ 4⎠ 4
2 find:
Solution
Solutions
b If g(x) = 11=−72x,
i g(−3)
ii g ⎛ ---⎞
iii g(6.5)
⎝ 2⎠
f If G(x)
=
x(x
+
5),
find:
i
G(4)
ii
G(−5)
iii
G
(=225 -2g(x)
2 − 3x + 7
=2 49
93 )
c
f(x)
a f(x)
= xh(x)
− 3x
f(x) =i (i)
xh(5)
c If
= =x+2xx−7−4,2x
find: b
ii =h(2)
iii==h17
(x 2−)23x + 7
g(−3)
11−
2
×
(−3)
Exercise
2
g If
φ(x)28=−12.2
− 2x
=23(−4)
x,2find:
⎛ 2-iii
⎞ =φ(−3)
⎛2
f ( 2 ) =i (φ(0)
f(−4)
= (−4)
+7
2 ) 2 – 3 (3 ii2 )φ(4)
+7
---⎞ – 3 ⎛ ---⎞ + 7
Example
2
3
dx2 −If2x
F(x)
i (ii)
F(0) g( 2 )ii= F(4)
11− 2 × 23 f=⎝8--3iii
⎝ 3⎠
⎠ F(−2)
⎝ 3⎠
Example
1− 8==2x0 , find:
= 16
=i 2f(2)
– 3 2 + 7ii f(−4)
2+
1 g(x)
a If
f(x)
3x2+solve
+75, find:
iii f(0)
−=12
2x,
g(x) = 8.
3
GG
EE
If If
f(x)
=4)(x
x=2 u(x)
−x+3x
+=x7,
find:
S
(x

2)
0
e
If
=

4x
+
1,
find:
i
u(3)
ii u(−5)
u ⎛4------⎞− 2 + 7
(iii)
= 11−
+
3⎞ 2 × 6.52iii= =−2
= 35
= 9 – 3 2g(6.5)

+S
4⎠

9
b If g(x)
2x, find:
i g(−3)
ii g --- c f ⎛ --iii
∴ x===11
4,−−2
-⎞ g(6.5)
a Solution
f(−4)
⎝ 2⎠
f If G(x)
x(x
+ 5), find: b f ( 2i) G(4)
ii G(−5)
iii
G
(
3)
⎝ 3⎠ = 524
-2 )
c If h(x)
find:
i h(5)
ii h(2)
iii h ( -g(x)==x2xx2−−4,2x
9
Solutions
g If φ(x) = 2 ,2find:
i φ(0)
ii φ(4)
iii φ(−3)
2

2x
8
=
x
3
d If
= 12.2
2x , find:
iii =F(−2)
h(5)
− 4 =c 21 f(x)
Exercise
2 − 3x
2 − 3x +
x2 − 3x + 7
aExample
f(x)
xF(x)
b
f(x) =i (i)
xF(0)
7 ii= 5F(4)
2
− 8 =+0 7
x2 −=2x
2
⎛⎛3
⎞2
2
2
2
2=−x3(−4)
--2
ea− =
If
u(x)
−+ 4x
+ 71,= find:
⎞ =uf(0)
=)u(−5)
2f(−4)
EG If 1g(x)
f(−4)
=If
+find:
(u(3)
2 ) –h(2)
3 ( iiii
2
+ 7− 4 = 0f ⎛ 2
x2(−4)
−+ 2x,
solve
g(x)
8. f ( 2 ) =ii(ii)
---iii
----⎠⎞ – 3 ⎛ ---⎞ + 7
f(x)
=
3x
5,
f(2)
iii
(x
4)(x
2)
=
0

4





3⎠
3
3
+S
2
= 16
+ 7−2
=i 2G(4)
– 3 2 + 7 ii G(−5)
fb If
G(x)
==11
x(x
+2x,
5), find:
find:
iii
G
(2 3)
∴+x12
4,
⎛3

4
-g
If
g(x)
=

i
g(−3)
ii
iii
g(6.5)
(iii)
h 2 = ⎝ 2⎠2 − 4 = −2
Solution
= --- − 2 + 7
= 35
=i 9φ(0)
–3 2
9
2 x2−
gc If
φ(x)
=
2
,
find:
ii
φ(4)
iii
2x
g(x)
=
x
If h(x) = x − 4, find:
i h(5)
ii h(2)
iii φ(−3)
h( 4 2)
2 − 2x
= 5 --Exercise
8 = x12.2
9
d
If
F(x)
=
2x3, find:
i F(0)
ii F(4)
iii F(−2)
2
Mathscape 10 ext.
Ch12
Page
467
Saturday,
September
24,
2005
11:47
AM
x − 2x − 8 = 0
3

2
1 ae If
f(x)
=
3x
+
5,
find:
i
f(2)
ii
f(−4)
iii
f(0)
2 × 0 = 0 iii u 3---⎞
i(i)u(3) F(0)ii= u(−5)
Example
2 ==0x − 4x + 1, find:
(x − 4)(xIf+u(x)
2)
⎝ 4⎠
⎛ 3⎞
2g(x)
bf = If
11
g(−3) F(4)iiii= G(−5)
iii G
g(6.5)
EG If g(x)
===4,solve
−2−+2x,
x∴
−x2x,
g(x)
= 8.
2g ⎝×--2-4⎠ 3 = 128 iii
If
G(x)
x(x
5),find:
find:
ii(ii)
G(4)
(2 3)
+S
2
3
cg If
4, find:
h(5) : F(−2)
h(2)
iii
hlogarithms
( 2)
467
C h a p t e r 12
Functions
If h(x)
φ(x) == x2x,−find:
ii(iii)
φ(0)
iiii =φ(4)
φ(−3)
2 × (−2) and
=iii
−16
Solution
3, find:
d Ifg(x)
F(x)=12.2
=x22x
i F(0)
ii F(4)
iii F(−2)
Exercise
− 2x
2, find:
2 2−+
h Page 467
v(x)
1)
ii v(4)
ii v(−7)
iii vu(⎛ 3
Mathscape 10 ext. - Ch12
September
24, 2005
8Saturday,
==x(x
-2⎞)
u(x)
−2x
4x
+ 1,
find:11:47 AMi f(2)
u(3)
u(−5)
1 a2e If If
f(x)
= 3x x+ 5,
find:
ii iif(−4)
iii iii
f(0) ⎝ -⎠
4
2
8
=
0
x fi− 2xIf −G(x)
2
(i)
v(4)
=
(4
+
1)
=
25
3
, find:
ii H(0)
ii H(3)
iii HG(( 27 )3 )
H ( x )= =x(x +255),
– xfind:
G(4)
---⎞
If g(x)
i g(−3)
ii iig ⎛G(−5)
iii iii
g(6.5)
(x b− 4)(x
+ 2)==11
0 − 2x,1find:


1
2
2


x,xfind:
-(ii)
v(−7)
=
(−7
+
1)
=
36
,
find:
i
p(2)
ii
iii
p(−5)
px( x=)=4,
=
+
-p
gj If∴φ(x)
2
i
φ(0)
ii
φ(4)
iii
φ(−3)
c If h(x) = x2 −−2
4, find:
i h(5) : F uiin c
h(2)
iiidh (l o2g)a r i t h m s
2⎠n s a n
xC h a p t e r 12
467
t i⎝o
1
2
k If k(x) = (x3 − 1)(x + 4), find:
i k(1)
ii k(−6)
iii k ⎛ ---⎞
(iii)
v ii2F(4)
= 2 + 1 iii= 3+
2⎝ 2⎠2
d If F(x) = 2x , find:
i F(0)
F(−2)
Mathscape 10 ext. - Ch12 Page 467 Saturday, September 24, 2005 11:47 AM
3 1
x4x–2,+12
Exercise
he l If If
v(x)
find:
ii v(4)
iiii iiv(−7)
iii
u(x)
x2=+− 1)
1,, find:
u(3)
u(−5)
iiiiiivu(⎛L---⎛2⎞–)2 ---⎞
i L(0)
L(4)
L (==x12.2
)(x
-------------⎝ 4⎝⎠ 2⎠
x+4
2 , find:
ii H(0)
iiii H(3)
iii
H ( x=)=3x
=x(x
25
– xfind:
G(x)
G(4)
G(−5)
G(( 2 7 )3 )
1 iaf If f(x)
++
5,5),
find:
f(2)
f(−4)
iii H
f(0)
1 1
⎛ 1---⎞ .
1
2j IfIfT (px( )x )==----------,
find
T
3


2 iii p(−5)
find:
ii p(2)
iiii φ(4)
+12x,
--- ,C
pg=⎛ ------⎞25 − 0and
467
g If g(x)
φ(x) = 11
2xx,x–−find:
φ(0)
φ(−3)
h a⎝p⎠t e r 12
logarithms
b
g(−3)
(i) : Functions
H (0)
=iii5 g(6.5)
⎝⎝ 22⎠⎠
x find: 2
1


k
+ 4), find:
ii k(1)
iiii k(−6)
c If
If k(x)
h(x) == (x
x2 −− 1)(x
4, find:
h(5)
h(2)
iii4 kh⎝(-(ii)
H (3)
= 25 − 32 =iii
2⎠2 )
■ Consolidation
2, find:
( 2 )1⎞
hd IfIf v(x)
= (x2x+x3,1)
ii v(4)
iiii v(−7)
iii
–find:
12
F(x)
F(0)
F(4)
iii vL
F(−2)
2⎛ – 2 -find:the value of
i xL(0)
ii L(4)
iii
L (f(x)
x )==
-------------3l a If If
= 3x

8, ,find
for which f(x)
= 25.
⎝ =3 223

x
+
4
(iii)
H
2
=
25

2
2 , find:


2
ie bIfIf H
i
H(0)
ii
H(3)
iii
(
x
)
=
25

x
H
(
7
)
u(x)
= x= x−2 4x
+ find
1, find:
i u(3)
u(−5)
iii u --If
F(x)
+ 6,
all values of
x for which iiF(x)
= 15.


4
1
11 T ⎛ 1---⎞ .
⎛ 1---⎞
2 jIf
,+find
( xpG(x)
) ( x=) ----------2p(2)
,
find:
i
ii
iii
p(−5)
=
x
+
-p
f cTIfIf
=
x(x
5),
find:
i
G(4)
ii
G(−5)
iii
G
(
2 3)


If h ( xx)–=1 ----------⎝ 2⎠
2 h ( x ) = --- .
x– 2 , solve
1
x
3

---⎞
kg IfIf k(x)
1)(x + 4), find:
ii k(1)
iiii k(−6)
iii
φ(x)==(x2x−, find:
φ(0)
φ(4)
iii kφ(−3)
⎝ 2⎠
d If φ(x) = (x − 3)2, solve φ(x) = 49.
■ Consolidation
1
x2x–−12
(i)= 64. k(1)
(1− 1)(1+ 4)
1, find x such that g(x)
If
= -------------, find:
i L(0)
ii ==
L(4)
iii=L0⎛ – 2 ---⎞
(g(x)
x )= =3x
3 la eIf
If L
f(x)

which f(x)
25.
⎝ 2⎠
x2+8,4find the value of x for
(ii)of x such
k(−6)
= (−6
E(x)
+ 4x
− all
10,values
find allofvalues
E(x)−=1)(−6
11. + 4) = 14
b f If If
F(x)
= x=2 x+ 6,
find
x for which
F(x)that
= 15.
1⎞
1
1
1
1

2 5 . k( 2 ) = ( 2 − 1)( 2 + 4) = −2 43
) = ,1find
3x –T7 ,---solve
2 If Tg ( x If
. t ( x ) = (iii)
) =t ( x----------⎝ 2⎠ h ( x ) = 2--- .
c If h ( x ) x=– 1----------- , solve
5 2+ 4x
h If u ( x ) =x –-------------- , solve u(x) =3 −1.
2,2x
3

d
If
φ(x)
=
(x

3)
solve
φ(x) = 49.
■ Consolidation
x +x −
−x
1
4e IfIff(x)
=
2
2
,
show
that
f(−1).
g(x) = 2 , find x suchf(1)
that=g(x)
= 64.
3 a If f(x) = 3x − 8, find the value of x for which f(x) = 25.
2
E(x) = x + 4x − 10,
find all values
of x such that E(x) = 11.
5f IfIfIfF(x)
b
F(x)==6xx2−+2,6,find
findan
allexpression
values of xfor:
for which F(x) = 15.
a
g a If F(3a)
2 +5 .1)
t ( x ) = 3x
c F ⎛ ---⎞
1 – 7 , solve t ( xb) =2F(a
⎝ ⎠
466

10

Ma
thscap
Extension
Example
1e
− 2x + 7 2
=2 −x23(−4)
f ( 2 ) = ( 2 )2 – 3( 2 ) + 7
=g(x)
(−4)
For f(−4)
example,
if g(x)
= (x + 2) ,

Homework

( ) ( )

( ) (

)

( )

( )

i H(0)
ii H(3)
iii H ( 7 )
25 – x , find:
1
1
j If p ( x ) = x + --- , find:
i p(2)
ii p ⎛ ---⎞
iii p(−5)
⎝ 2⎠
x C h a p t e r 12 : Functions
and logarithms
1
k If k(x) = (x − 1)(x + 4), find:
i k(1)
ii k(−6)
iii k ⎛ ---⎞

Question 1 (continued)
2⎠
1
x – 12
2 , find:
lh If v(x)
L(0)
L(4)
iii vL( ⎛ –22)---⎞
L ( x )= =(x -------------+x 1)
ii v(4)
iiii v(−7)
iii
⎝ 2⎠
+ 4, find:
i If H ( x ) =1 25 – x 2 , 1find:
i H(0)
ii H(3)
iii H ( 7 )
0 − 12
⎛ ---⎞ .
2 If T ( x ) = ----------- , find
T
(i)
L(0)
=
=
−3
1
1
⎝ 2⎠
j If p ( x ) x=– 1x + --- , find:
i p(2)
ii p ⎛ --0-⎞+ 4
iii p(−5)
⎝ 2⎠
x
1
4 − 12
k If k(x) = (x − 1)(x + 4), find:
i k(1)
ii k(−6)
iii k ⎛ ---⎞
■ Consolidation
⎝ 2⎠
(ii)
L(4)
=
= −1
4+4
1
x− –8,12
3 al If
find
the value of xi for
25.
If f(x)
, find:
L(0)which f(x)
ii =L(4)
iii L ⎛ – 2 ---⎞
L ( x=
) 3x
= -------------1
−2

12


x
+
4
2
b If F(x) = x2 + 6, find all values of x for
F(x) 12=) 15.
(iii)whichL(−2
=
= −9 232
1
−2 2 + 4
1
1 1
2 cIf TIf( xh) ( =
, find
T ⎛ ---⎞h.( x ) = 2--- .
, solve
x ) ----------= ----------⎝ 2⎠
x – x1 – 2
3
1
x
2.d If φ(x)
(a) = (x If− 3)f 2(x)
,
show
that
f (−x) =
=
2
, solve φ(x) = 49.
f (x)
■ Consolidation
1, find x such that g(x) = 64.
e If g(x) = 2x −LHS
= f (−x)
3 fa If
If E(x)
f(x) ==3x
thefind
value
x forof
which
f(x)that
= 25.
x2 −+ 8,
4xfind
− 10,
all of
values
x such
E(x) = 11.
−x
=
2
2
b
If
F(x)
=
x
+
6,
find
all
values
of
x
for
which
F(x)
=
15.
g If t ( x ) = 3x – 7 , solve t ( x ) = 2 5 .
1
2
1
5 + 4x,=solve h ( x ) = --- .
If uh (( xx )) =
= ----------hc If
u(x) = −1.
-------------x3 –– 22x- , solve
3
2x
2
d f(x)
If φ(x)
3) , solve
49.
4 If
= 2x =+ (x
2−x−, show
that
f(1) == f(−1).
1 φ(x)
x

1
=
e If g(x) = 2 , find x such that g(x) = 64.
fexpression
(x)
5 If
= 6x=−x22,+find
for: of x such that E(x) = 11.
f F(x)
If E(x)
4x −an10,
find all values
a
= RHS b F(a + 1)
a F(3a)
c F ⎛ ---⎞
⎝ 2⎠
g If t ( x ) = 3x – 7 , solve t ( x ) = 2 5 .
5 +−4xb), showx that g(a) = g(b). 1
6 If
=( x(x) −=a)(x
h g(x)
If u(b)
-------------- , solve u(x) = −1.
If
3 –h(x)
2x = x 2 − 1 , show that h( x ) = −h(x)
f ( x) – f (3)
thethat
simplest
form of ----------------------------- .
74 aIf f(x)
If f(x)
= 2x=+x22,−xfind
, show
1 f(1) = f(−1).
x–3
i

If H ( x ) =

LHS = h( x )

g( x) – g(2)
1
1
5 bIf F(x)
= 6x=−3x2,2,find
for:
findan
theexpression
simplest
form
of ---------------------------- .
If g(x)
x
x
a
x–2
= 1 2 b= F(a
a F(3a)
+ 1)
c F ⎛ ---⎞
1


1
h
(
x
)

h
(
4
)
(
)

1
2⎠
2
x
form of ---------------------------- .
c If h(x) = x2 + 5x + 3, xfind the simplest
x

4
6 If g(x) = (x − a)(x − b), show
that2g(a) = g(b).
1
x
x
x
8 If f(x) = 2x, explain why
=×0 has
= 1f(x)
= no solutions.
2
f2( x ) – f ( 3 )
xform1−
2 −1
of x----------------------------- .
7 a If f(x) = x2, find the xsimplest
x–3
9 If L(x) = 3 − 2x, solve L(x) < 15.


x
g
(
x) – g(2)
form of ---------------------------- .
b If g(x) = 3x2, find=the
− ⎜simplest
2

x–2
■ Further applications
⎝ x − 1⎠
h( x) – h(4)
-.
find
form
c If h(x) =1 x2 + 5x +=3,−h(x)
f ( x )the
– fsimplest
(1)
1 of --------------------------x–4
10 If f ( x ) = --- , show that ----------------------------- = – --- .
x
= RHS
8 If f(x) = 2x, xexplain why
f(x) x= –0 1has no solutions.
f ( x) – f (1)
1
119 If
- = ---------------- .
f ( x )==3 − 2x,
x , show
If L(x)
solvethat
L(x)---------------------------< 15.
1x – 1
(c)
If g(x) = x + x , show that1 +f (x)x × f (x + 1x ) = f (x 2 ) + 3
■ Further applications
LHS = f (x) × f (x + 1x )

1
f ( x ) – f⎛( 1 )
11 ⎞
10 If f ( x ) = --- , show that
= x---------------------------+ 1xx –×1⎜ x -+ =1x +– --x- . 1 ⎟
x

(

11 If f ( x ) =

)

x+ x⎠

f ( x ) – f ( 1 )2
1
-.
x , show that
⎛ x 2---------------------------⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ 2

+ 1x⎞– 1⎛ x- += 11--------------+ 1x × x = x + 1 × x + 1 + x
=⎜
×
+
2
x + 1x x ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ x ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ x
x + 1⎟⎠
⎝ x ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ x
2

⎛ x 2 + 1⎞
x 4 + 2x 2 + 1
=⎜
+1=
+1
x2
⎝ x ⎟⎠
x 4 2x 2 1
1
+ 2 + 2 + 1 = x2 + 2 + 3
2
x
x
x
x
2
RHS = f (x ) + 3
=

1
+3
x2
∴ LHS = RHS
= x2 +

467

9. A year is a leap year if and only if the year number is divisible by 400 (such as
2000) or is divisible by 4 but not by 100 (such as 2012). The 200th anniversary
of the birth of novelist
Charles x Dickens
was celebrated on February 7, 2012, a
x
−x
−x
3
+
3
3

3
On=what day
the= week was Dickens born?
3.Tuesday.
Let c(x)
andofs(x)
2

2

(A) Friday
(B)) Saturday
Show that ( c(x)
= 12 ( c(2x) + 1) . (C) Sunday
2

LHS = ( c(x) )

(D) Monday

(E) Tuesday

2

10. A triangle has area 2 30, one side of length 10, and the median to that side of
⎛ 3xθ+ be
3− x ⎞the acute angle formed by that side and the median. What
length 9. =Let
is sin θ ? ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠
2012 AMC12A Solutions
4
2x
−2 x
9
2
9
3 = 3 + 2 +1 3
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
(A)
11. Answer
10 (B): 4 3
20
3
10

If Alex wins1 3 rounds, Mel wins 2 rounds, and Chelsea wins 1 round, then
RHS = 2 ( c(2x) + 1)
the game’s outcomes
will be a permutation of AAAMMC, where the ith letter
11. Alex, Mel, and
a game that has
2 xChelsea
−2 x
th 6 rounds. In each round there is a
⎛ 3initial
+ 3 of ⎞play
round. There are
represents=the
the
winner
of
the
i
1
+ 1⎟
single winner,
of
the
rounds
are independent. For each round
2 ⎜ and the outcomes
2


1
the probability2 xthat−2 xAlex wins is 2 , and
6! Mel is twice as likely to win as Chelsea.


= 60
3
+
3
+
2
What is the
that Alex wins
= 12 probability
3!2!1!three rounds, Mel wins two rounds, and
⎜⎝

2

Chelsea wins one round?
such permutations.
2x
−2 x
1
1
5 = 3 + 3 5+ 2
(D)
(E) 1 that P (M) + P (C) = 1 −
(A)
Because each(B)
round
has(C)
only one winner,
it follows
4
72 1
36
6
3
P (A) = 2 . Also P (M) = 2P (C) and so P (M) = 13 and P (C) = 16 .

Initial
Problem
The probability
that Alex wins 3 rounds, Mel wins 2 rounds, and Chelsea wins

therefore
12. 1Around
squareisregion
ABCD is externally tangent to the circle with equation x2 +y 2 =
1 at the point (0, 1) on !
the "side
A and B are on the circle with
"2 !Vertices
"
3 ! CD.
5
6!
1
1
1
60
2
2
this square?
equation x + y = 4. What is the side length
=
.
= of
3!2!1! √ 2
3
23 · 32 √
·6
36
√6


2 5
2 2
2 19 − 4
9 − 17
10 + 5
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
(A)
10
5
3
5
5
12. Answer (D):

Suppose by symmetry that A = (a, b) with a > 0. Because ABCD is tangent
to the circle with equation x2 + y 2 = 1 at (0, 1) and both A and B are on the
concentric circle with equation x2 + y 2 = 4, it follows that B = (−a, b). Then
the horizontal length of the square is 2a and its vertical height is b−1. Therefore
2a = b − 1, or b = 2a + 1. Substituting this into the equation a2 + b2 = 4 leads
formula, the positive root is
to √
the equation 5a2 + 4a − 3 = 0. By the quadratic

1
1
5 ( 19 − 2), and so the side length 2a is 5 (2 19 − 4).

13. Answer (D):

Let the length of the lunch break be m minutes. Then the