Maleic Anhydride

December 2013 Report Contents

Maleic Anhydride
Table of Contents
A Report by Nexant
Process Evaluation/Research Planning (PERP) Program
PERP Report 2013-5 – Published December 2013

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Section

1

Executive Summary .................................................................................................

1

1.1

CHEMISTRY ................................................................................................

1

1.1.1

Properties ...........................................................................................

1

TECHNOLOGY ............................................................................................

4

1.2.1

Introduction ........................................................................................

4

1.2.2

Overall Process Description ...............................................................

5

1.2.3

Technology Holders and Licensing Status ........................................

6

1.2.4

Strategic and Business Considerations ..............................................

7

1.2.5

Fixed Bed Technology .......................................................................

7

1.2.6

Fluid Bed technology .........................................................................

8

1.2.7

Transport-Bed Technology ................................................................

10

1.2.8

Maleic Anhydride from Phthalic Anhydride Recovery Process ........

10

1.3

PRODUCTION COST ESTIMATES............................................................

11

1.4

END USE ANALYSIS ..................................................................................

15

1.5

REGIONAL MARKET ANALYSIS ............................................................

17

1.5.1

Global .................................................................................................

17

Introduction ..............................................................................................................

21

2.1

VALUE CHAIN ............................................................................................

23

2.2

TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW ......................................................................

25

2.2.1

Overall Process Description ...............................................................

25

2.2.2

Catalysts .............................................................................................

29

2.2.3

Benzene Based Systems .....................................................................

32

1.2

2

Page

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PERP PROGRAM
PERP REPORT 2013-5, Maleic Anhydride
A00101.0013.4105

1

.......................................................................1 INTRODUCTION .................................................... 80 www.......5 STRATEGIC AND BUSINESS CONSIDERATIONS .......................2 Scientific Design .... 34 2.......................................... 77 Process Economics ........................4 3...................................................3 Technobell................2........ 77 4.......7 4 5 December 2013 Report Contents HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES OF MALEIC ANHYDRIDE SYNTHESIS ............ 33 2............................................................ 52 3.......................... 44 3............................................................9 STORAGE AND TRANSPORTATION ........ 61 TRANSPORT BED TECHNOLOGY ............................................................................. 64 3...........4 TECHNOLOGY HOLDERS AND LICENSING STATUS ...............................................................2 INEOS .....................6 PHYSICAL AND THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES ..........................................................7 SPECIFICATIONS .nexantthinking........................... 32 2..............................2......................................... 48 FLUID BED TECHNOLOGY ...... 64 MALEIC ANHYDRIDE FROM PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE RECOVERY ....................................... 41 3....................8 HEALTH HAZARD ........................5.... 71 3.. 69 3...................1 3..........................................................................1 PA Consulting Group ........................................... 34 Commercial Technologies ......................2 3................................ 77 4........Maleic Anhydride 3 2.... 60 3............................................................................................................ 75 Developing Technologies ............. 32 2.................................................................3...3 TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS ............................1 Lummus/Polynt ..............................................5 3.................................................3..........2.................................... 33 2............................................................3 3.6 3........ 38 3................................................................................................ 71 () REVAMP OF FLUID BED MALEIC ANHYDRIDE REACTORS ............. 36 3.. 34 2.4 CONSER ...............0013............. 38 3..........1 DuPont ......................... 69 RECOVERY SYSTEMS .........3....... 52 3........2................. Maleic Anhydride A00101....... 71 3.................................................................................................1 Huntsman ......................... 36 FIXED BED TECHNOLOGY ..................................................6.........2 Aqueous Recovery .........com PERP PROGRAM PERP REPORT 2013-5.............................................................................................4105 2 ..............................6..4.........................................................................................1 Solvent Recovery .............................2 SELECTED RECENT PATENTS .................................3 Mitsubishi/BOC .....................................................

..................................................1....................................................................1........1 Overview .....................................1 Consumption .........2 Unsaturated Polyester Resins .......... 82 5............................2....1................3 Cost of Production Basis ................... Malic...........8 Other Uses ........................................... and Trade..................................... 82 5...5 SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS ........... 133 NORTH AMERICA ............ 93 5.................. 125 Regional Market Analysis ...................................... 122 6................................ 116 6.1 Solvent Recovery .............................................1 COSTING BASIS ..................3 6 7 December 2013 Report Contents 7...........................1.........................6 Agricultural Chemicals ....................................... 116 6...1.................... 98 COST OF PRODUCING MALEIC ANHYDRIDE VIA A FLUID BED PROCESS ........2 Xylenes Solvent Recovery ................................................ 132 7...............................................................................................................1.....nexantthinking... 116 6...............1...............4 Specialty Products ........................ 130 7.............................................4 COMPARATIVE ECONOMICS ......................................3 Fumaric......4 Aqueous Recovery ...............2 Pricing Basis ....................................................................... 121 6...............................1...................... 109 5. 116 6.................2................. 88 5...................3.....2 Supply ............. 80 5...........................................1..... Demand................................1..................................................... 122 6.............. 104 5............. 130 7..................................................2 www......................................2 5.................................... 122 6...3 Solvent Recovery with Recycled n-Butane ................... PERP PROGRAM PERP REPORT 2013-5............1 END USE ANALYSIS ....................................... 130 7.......5 Lubrication Oil Additives .......1..............................3 Supply....................com Consumption ................................1..................................... 134 7..........................................................................................2.. Maleic........................0013...............1................ Maleic Anhydride A00101............1 134 5.................................1 Solvent Recovery ...............2........4105 3 .................... 80 5. 114 Commercial Applications ........... 104 5.......................................................................1 Investment Basis ..........Maleic Anhydride 5.............................................2.......1 GLOBAL .......................................... 81 COST OF PRODUCING MALEIC ANHYDRIDE VIA A FIXED BED PROCESS ........7 Styrene Copolymers and Other Polymers .......................1........................................................................................................ 80 5........................................................................................................................... 116 6............................ and Succinic Acids ....................

.......5 7..3 Supply........................4............ Demand...................4....... 141 7......................... 154 9 References ................................................7..3 Supply............3........................................................................................1 Consumption ..................................................................................................7.Maleic Anhydride December 2013 Report Contents 7....................................... 136 SOUTH AMERICA ..3............................... 137 7......................................................... 143 7..................................... 139 WESTERN EUROPE ............................................................ 145 7............................... 155 7..................................... C-1 www...................................................................................... 144 MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA............................6...3 Supply....0013.. 140 7...........................6...........3 Supply.........2 Supply ........... Demand................ and Trade.. 147 ASIA PACIFIC ..6............6 7............... and Trade.............. and Trade........................................ and Trade........... Demand............................................................1 Consumption .........................................................3 Supply....................5.5..........3 Supply........................................ 148 7............2 Supply ............... 143 7...............................3 7.........................................................................................................4105 4 .................. 142 CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE ..................................... and Trade..................com PERP PROGRAM PERP REPORT 2013-5........................7..........1 Consumption ............................................................................................ 140 7................... 148 7. 146 7...............2 Supply ...4 7...................................................... 145 7. and Trade................. B-1 C PERP Program Title Index (2004 .............................................................................4......................... Demand.............7 Appendix Page A Definitions of Capital Cost Terms Used in Process Economics ..................................................................................2 Supply ...................1 Consumption ......................3...............2013) ..........nexantthinking............................ A-1 B Definitions of Operating Cost Terms Used in Process Economics ..2 Supply ........................ 152 8 Glossary ........ Demand.........5..........2....................................2 Supply ............................ 149 7............ 143 7................ 138 7................... 137 7........................ Demand.................................................. Maleic Anhydride A00101.......................1 Consumption ..............2.. 135 7...........

............................................5 CONSER MAN Process Simplified Flow Diagram .........................4 Technobell MAN Process with Continuous Dehydrator and Batch Refiner Column............................................... 54 3............ 72 3..... 87 www...............................................................................................2 Maleic Anhydride Derivatives .........3 Technobell MAN Process with Batch Dehydrator and Refiner Column ............................... 35 3...................................................................................................2 Scientific Design Maleic Anhydride Process ......1 Distillation Column Diagram ...................................... 24 2..9 DuPont Process: Transport Bed Oxidation of n-Butane to Maleic Acid ....... 3 1.China................................................. 19 1..10 Global Maleic Anhydride Supply..............8 Maleic Anhydride Fluid Bed Process with Recycle .......... 43 3............................1 Huntsman Maleic Anhydride Process ......................10 PA MAN from Off-Gas in PAN Process ...... 67 3. 78 5.............6 Maleic Anhydride Derivatives ....... 5 1....... 69 3... 63 3. Maleic Anhydride A00101.....................13 Revamp options for Fluid Bed Maleic Anhydride Reactor ...................................................................6 Lummus/POLYNT ALMA MAN Process ....................................2 Basic Maleic Anhydride Plant Configuration ............4 Summary of MAN Costs – Middle East ................. 12 1.... 40 3.9 Regional Maleic Anhydride Capacity........................................ 76 4..... 13 1......7 Lummus Initial and Improved Cyclone Systems for the ALMA® Process .................. and Trade .............................3 Basic Maleic Anhydride Plant Configuration ..........................1 Maleic Anhydride Derivative Map ..........3 Summary of MAN Costs ...........8 Global MAN Consumption by Region ..............................................................Maleic Anhydride December 2013 Report Contents Figure Page 1.. 50 3........................................................................................................................................11 MAN Solvent Recovery and Purification ....... 16 1.................. 57 3........................................ 20 2.. 18 1....................................................................................................................................................................................com PERP PROGRAM PERP REPORT 2013-5..................... 14 1.....1 Summary of Maleic Anhydride via Fixed Bed with Solvent Recovery Process ....................................................................................... 47 3...................nexantthinking........................... 25 2...4 Storage Tank Diagram for Maleic Anhydride ................................ 46 3................1 Maleic Anhydride Derivative Map ....... 17 1.......12 MAN Aqueous Recovery and Purification ........................5 Summary of MAN Costs ........................................................ 22 2.............7 Global Maleic Anhydride Consumption by End-Use ......................... Demand.............USGC ................................... 74 3...................0013........4105 5 ............................

.. 143 7................................................... 103 5.. and Trade ...........................................16 Asia Pacific Maleic Anhydride Supply...............................................................7 Summary of MAN Costs – Middle East .................. 134 7............14 Middle East and Africa Maleic Anhydride Supply........ and Trade ..................... and Trade ............... Maleic Anhydride A00101....................4 Global Maleic Anhydride Supply.12 Central and Eastern Europe Maleic Anhydride Supply. Demand..............................China......9 Western Europe Maleic Anhydride Consumption by End-Use .....................................3 www......... Demand.. 140 7....... and Trade . 131 7......... 113 6.................... 141 7....................................4105 6 .......................USGC ....................... 146 7.. and Trade ...............com PERP PROGRAM PERP REPORT 2013-5......... 153 5....... 132 7........................... 92 Summary of Maleic Anhydride via Fixed Bed with Solvent Recovery and Recycled n-Butane Process .................................1 Maleic Anhydride Derivatives ...................7 South America Maleic Anhydride Consumption by End-Use..........................Maleic Anhydride 5.............15 Asia Pacific Maleic Anhydride Consumption by End-Use ..............................................................................................8 Summary of MAN Costs ..6 Summary of MAN Costs ......... 137 7..........nexantthinking............3 Regional Maleic Anhydride Capacity................................. 135 7.... 148 7........ Demand.................................. and Trade ................. Demand........ Demand.... and Trade ................0013......................13 Middle East and Africa Maleic Anhydride Consumption by End-Use . 117 7...................... 111 5..................5 North America Maleic Anhydride Consumption by End-Use ...................6 North America Maleic Anhydride Supply........ 108 5............................... 97 5.................... 149 7..2 December 2013 Report Contents Summary of Maleic Anhydride via Fixed Bed with Xylenes Solvent Recovery Process ...........2 Global MAN Consumption by Region .. 110 5...............................5 Summary of Maleic Anhydride via Fluid Bed with Solvent Recovery Process .... Demand. 145 7........ 142 7... 133 7........8 South America Maleic Anhydride Supply...10 Western Europe Maleic Anhydride Supply..............1 Global Maleic Anhydride Consumption by End-Use . Demand.................11 Central and Eastern Europe Maleic Anhydride Consumption by End-Use ...................... 138 7......4 Summary of Maleic Anhydride via Fixed Bed with Aqueous Recovery Process ....

.............................USGC ................ Maleic Anhydride A00101.................................. Utilities............4105 7 ......... 86 5............. and Labor .4 Maleic Anhydride Licensors and Technology Holders ............... 33 2..........................4 Technobell n-Butane Feedstock Specifications ..............................................4 Maleic Anhydride Licensors and Technology Holders ...........3 Properties of Maleic and Fumaric Acids ...............9 Characteristics of MAN from Off-Gas in PAN Plants ....3 Typical Benzene Specification ....................6 CONSER MAN Licenses ....7 Summary of MAN Process Economics – Middle East . 81 5......... 28 2..........................5 Strategic/Business Considerations .............0013.......................................... Products..............6 Key Physical and Thermodynamic Properties .............................. 33 2... 83 Cost of Production Estimate for: Maleic Anhydride Process: n-Butane Feed........ 7 1...... 22 2..8 Design Parameters Used for Maleic Anhydride Reactor .................Maleic Anhydride December 2013 Report Contents Table Page 1................ 11 1........................ 3 1..........nexantthinking...........China ...............................7 Lummus/POLYNT ALMA Licenses .........................................1 Properties of Maleic and Fumaric Acids ...............................3 5............................... Solvent Recovery...............................................................1 Prices of Raw Materials................................ 42 3....2 Typical Sale Specifications for Maleic Anhydride .............1 Huntsman Maleic Anhydride Licenses ................................................ 85 Cost of Production Estimate for: Maleic Anhydride Process: n-Butane Feed. 2 1.................................................. 70 5..................2 Butane Specification for Maleic Anhydride .. Fixed Bed................................................... 13 2....... Solvent Recovery............. Solvent Recovery...... 48 ® 3............5 Technobell Maleic Anhydride Product Specifications ..............com PERP PROGRAM PERP REPORT 2013-5.........2 Scientific Design Licenses ........5 Strategic/Business Considerations ..................................................8 Summary of MAN Process Economics ............................. USGC Basis ........... Middle East Basis .7 Sale Specifications for Maleic Anhydride .... 34 3.... 27 2...........4 www..........................................6 Summary of MAN Process Economics ..... 52 3....... 32 2.. 41 3........................ 6 1............................. Fixed Bed... 2 1...........................................1 Key Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Maleic Anhydride .................... 66 3................................................ 45 3.....................................3 Scientific Design Projects during mid-2000s . Fixed Bed.............................................. 12 1. 38 3.................. China Basis .................. 45 3..............................................................2 Cost of Production Estimate for: Maleic Anhydride Process: n-Butane Feed.................................................................................................................

101 5.19 Cost of Production Estimate for: Maleic Anhydride Process: n-Butane Feed. USGC Basis ....17 Summary of Maleic Anhydride via Fixed Bed with Aqueous Recovery Process ....................................................12 Cost of Production Estimate for: Maleic Anhydride Process: n-Butane Feed.. Xylenes Solvent Recovery.. 91 Summary of Maleic Anhydride via Fixed Bed with Xylenes Solvent Recovery Process ............................................................... Maleic Anhydride A00101.. 102 5..................7 5.............. Fixed Bed........................ Middle East Basis ............. Aqueous Recovery................... USGC Basis .0013............... Fluid Bed.11 Cost of Production Estimate for: Maleic Anhydride Process: n-Butane Feed...... 87 5............. Xylenes Solvent Recovery.......16 Cost of Production Estimate for: Maleic Anhydride Process: n-Butane Feed.......4105 8 .......15 Cost of Production Estimate for: Maleic Anhydride Process: n-Butane Feed... Solvent Recovery with Recycled n-Butane.................. 95 5............................ Aqueous Recovery...................... Solvent Recovery with Recycled n-Butane..... 106 5......... 107 5.....................6 Cost of Production Estimate for: Maleic Anhydride Process: n-Butane Feed........... 109 5................ 90 Cost of Production Estimate for: Maleic Anhydride Process: n-Butane Feed..........10 Cost of Production Estimate for: Maleic Anhydride Process: n-Butane Feed......... 97 5............................... Fixed Bed......................... Fixed Bed... Fixed Bed............. Solvent Recovery.... 92 5............................................................ 111 5... Middle East Basis ..23 Summary of MAN Process Economics – Middle East . 96 5...............nexantthinking............9 www....................... Fixed Bed...Maleic Anhydride December 2013 Report Contents 5.. Solvent Recovery..........com PERP PROGRAM PERP REPORT 2013-5...................21 Summary of Maleic Anhydride via Fluid Bed with Solvent Recovery Process .... 99 5....... Fixed Bed. Fluid Bed.... 105 5....14 Cost of Production Estimate for: Maleic Anhydride Process: n-Butane Feed......22 Summary of MAN Process Economics .. China Basis ..................8 5.. USGC Basis ........................20 Cost of Production Estimate for: Maleic Anhydride Process: n-Butane Feed... Fixed Bed...........18 Cost of Production Estimate for: Maleic Anhydride Process: n-Butane Feed.. Middle East Basis ..... China Basis .... Solvent Recovery...........5 Summary of Maleic Anhydride via Fixed Bed with Solvent Recovery Process .. Xylenes Solvent Recovery...................USGC ..... Fixed Bed...................... 108 5.......... Aqueous Recovery....................................... Middle East Basis ..... 94 5.............13 Summary of Maleic Anhydride via Fixed Bed with Solvent Recovery and Recycled n-Butane Process .................... USGC Basis ....... 103 5..... China Basis . Solvent Recovery with Recycled n-Butane..... Fluid Bed................. 89 Cost of Production Estimate for: Maleic Anhydride Process: n-Butane Feed................ Fixed Bed........... China Basis .............

.............7 Western Europe Maleic Anhydride Supply.........................4 South America Maleic Anhydride Capacity ................12 Asia Pacific Maleic Anhydride Capacity...com PERP PROGRAM PERP REPORT 2013-5.................. 147 7...... 138 7...........nexantthinking.... and Trade ..................... 141 7....4105 9 .......................... and Trade ................................ 150 7........................9 Central and Eastern Europe Maleic Anhydride Supply.2 North America Maleic Anhydride Capacity ....25 Variation of Cost of Production via the Fixed Bed with Solvent Recovery Process ..................3 North America Maleic Anhydride Supply. 114 5... and Trade ................. Demand......................24 Summary of MAN Process Economics .............8 Central and Eastern Europe Maleic Anhydride Capacity . Maleic Anhydride A00101............................................................................... 135 7..5 South America Maleic Anhydride Supply................. 139 7........10 Middle East and Africa Maleic Anhydride Capacity ... 136 7......... 112 5........... and Trade ................. 144 7...................... and Trade ... Demand........................... Demand....Maleic Anhydride December 2013 Report Contents 5............ Demand...1 Global Maleic Anhydride Supply....................6 Western Europe Maleic Anhydride Capacity ............................. 144 7....26 Variation of Cost of Production via the Fluid Bed with Solvent Recovery Process .... and Trade ... 115 7.. and Trade ............... 142 7.............China ........13 Asia Pacific Maleic Anhydride Supply.. Demand.................. 133 7.... 147 7......... 152 www...........................0013................ Demand........ Demand..............11 Middle East and Africa Maleic Anhydride Supply...........................................................

including business intelligence.4105 10 . e-mail: ylsong@nexant. Maleic Anhydride A00101. For over 38 years. and London (UK).nexantthinking. e-mail: hcoleman@nexant.nexantthinking.com) is a leading management consultancy to the global energy. Copyright © by Nexant Inc. Y. and related industries. PERP reports are available as a subscription program or on a single report basis. Nexant has its main offices in San Francisco (California).com Shanghai: Dr.com Nexant.Maleic Anhydride December 2013 Report Contents NexantThinking™ PERP PROGRAM www. chemical. Nexant has helped clients increase business value through assistance in all aspects of business strategy. portfolio planning. project feasibility and implementation. Larry Song.com New York: Heidi Junker Coleman. Nexant China Phone: +86 21 6182 6791. (www.com PERP PROGRAM PERP REPORT 2013-5. e-mail: mcesar@nexant. Global Programs Support Manager Phone: + 1-914-609-0381. 2013. General Manager. and growth through M&A activities. Contact Details: New York: Marcos Nogueira Cesar.0013. www. White Plains (New York). Vice President.com The NexantThinking’s Process Evaluation/Research Planning (PERP) program is recognized globally as the industry standard source for information relevant to the chemical process and refining industries. All Rights Reserved. operational improvement. Inc.nexantthinking. Consulting Phone: + 1-914-609-0324. and satellite offices worldwide.