3 Digital Audio Broadcast-derived technology
4.3.1 Introduction
Satellite Digital Radio Broadcasting is currently in full expansion worldwide.
WorldSpace, the first worldwide Digital Radio Broadcasting satellite system, has
started satellite broadcasting in developing countries of Africa and Asia. XM™
Satellite Radio and Sirius Satellite Radio, the two Digital Audio Radio System (DARS)
for the United States, are implementing their systems, which will operate by year
2001, and at least two satellites programs are being started in Japan.
These systems offer at the same time wide service areas, high digital sound quality,
user friendliness, and portable and mobile reception. In addition to sound and
thanks to the digital format, complementary services such as broadcasting of
multimedia and internet data are part of the delivery to enrich the content received.
The expansion of these systems, demonstrates that satellite is now optimized for
radio broadcasting, particularly to portable or mobile receivers, compared to
terrestrial broadcasting that requires far more investment.
Europe has been involved for several years in the development of terrestrial DAB,
but this system has a lot of difficulties to emerge commercially, partly due to its
lack of coverage outside large cities.
4.3.2 The WorldSpace system Overview
WorldSpace is the first satellite Digital Radio Broadcasting system providing
portable reception [1].
The WorldSpace system offers a worldwide coverage, over developing countries,
using geostationnary satellites, and broadcasting in L-band. The service targets are
mainly underserved radio markets, where low cost radio and radio portability are
key. Alcatel Space was contracted in 1995 by WorldSpace for the turn-key delivery
of the entire system.
The WorldSpace system is composed of 3 medium size geostationary satellites:
AfriStar™, launched in late 1998, covering Africa and Middle East, AsiaStar™,
launched in early 2000, covering Asia, and AmeriStar™, to be launched in 2001,
covering Latin America. Each satellite provides three beams of coverage (see figure
In addition to the satellites, the system comprises a comprehensive ground
infrastructure deployed on the five continents comprising various control centers
(satellite, mission and broadcast) and service providers feeder link stations.
Obviously such service needed the development of a new generation of radio
receivers, available today on the market. These receivers are based on chipsets
developed by ST Microelectronics and Micronas. First generation receivers are
manufactured by Hitachi, JVC, Panasonic, Sanyo.
There are currently about fifty radio programs per beam, a large part of them
provided by well-known broadcasters, such as BBC, RFI, CNN, Bloomberg.

directly to the hard drive of the user's PC.3 Uplink access to the satellite To cope with the various broadcaster requirements.2. Whatever the mission.3.3. Each satellite has the capacity to transmit a capacity of 50 to 200 programs per beam. using small antennas. as well as in interference environments. including high efficiency concatenated FEC (Convolutional and Reed Solomon codes). of about 2 to 3 meters diameter.3.2. WorldSpace is also providing multimedia contents. the complete WorldSpace transmission path is transparent to the overall channel capacity allocated to a broadcaster.2 Key parameters of the system The WorldSpace system is referenced as System D within ITU recommended systems for Broadcasting Satellite Service (Rec.4 The WorldSpace satellites . The WorldSpace system uses a TDM QPSK transmission on downlink. DMS provides huge amounts of the best web content. portable and mobile.In addition to audio content. Use of FDMA for the uplinks offers the highest possible flexibility between multiple independent Feeder Link stations. Each downlink beam offers a link margin which helps combat typical signal losses in the path between the satellite and the receiver. 4.2. such as Direct Media Service (DMS). for which a hub station is preferred.  A transparent communication mission deals with time division transmission of bouquets of programs and with broadcasters that have no direct access to the satellite. worldwide known as MP3. These Feeder Link stations for the processed mission are VSAT-type terminals. so that the broadcaster has full dynamic control. and may configure it at his discretion. providing full quality reception. The early experience with the system has confirmed the sound technical choices and demonstrated excellent performance in the various reception conditions. ITU-R BO. well suited for satellite broadcasting.1130) [2]. or to antennas located in a unobstructed positions. FM quality. without the need for a telephone line. reception in large buildings may need a common roof antenna for the entire building or an individual reception antenna near a window. The signal audio sources are digitally coded using the ISO/Audio MPEG 2 layer III standard. 4. Radio receivers in disadvantaged locations can be connected to high gain antennas. selected by the subscriber. the WorldSpace system uses two communication missions:  A processed communication mission offers the capability for all potential broadcasters to have a direct access from theirs own facilities to the satellite using a Frequency Division Multiplex Access (FDMA) mode. The digitally coded source bit rates range from 16 kbps for monoral near AM quality to 64 kbps for stereo. For example. 4. less than 100 W RF power. and low power amplifiers.

compatible with any audio compression scheme and data transmission. a specific payload design has been implemented by Alcatel Space on a standard Eurostar 2000+ platform from Matra Marconi Space (now Astrium) to form the WorldSpace satellites. To improve availability in dense urban areas suffering blockages. Figure 2 shows the block diagram of the satellite payload. such as EU 147 DAB (ITU system A) or DVB-T. WorldSpace mobile applications The WorldSpace system was primarily tailored for portable and fixed reception. The key elements of the payload are:  Baseband processing: It offers higher performance than a "classical" transparent payload. These satellites are 3 axis stabilized geostationary satellites. A complementary terrestrial component retransmits the satellite TDM signal using Multi-Carrier Modulation (MCM) in L band. widely used on commercial programs. together with the high satellite EIRP also allows for straightforward mobile reception. allowing for Single Frequency Network. WorldSpace is the first commercial satellite to use this technology. but only recently emerging on commercial programs. Solar arrays generate more than 6 kW of power.  The WorldSpace transparent mission is based on the bent pipe concept of the satellite payload. with an improved link budget. identified as System D h within ITU [2]. already used on advanced technology satellites. have a 2. except that it specifically uses a small frequency band with narrow channel bandwidth leading to a unique payload design for filtering and demultiplexing.  High power amplification: RF power is 300 W for each downlink signal. and used in digital terrestrial broadcasting systems. with a 15 years maneuver lifetime. .  L band antenna : 2 antennas offer a total of 3 spot beam coverages. WorldSpace MCM has been optimized for L band mobile reception in high multipath environment. and provides flexibility to broadcasters on the uplink. MCM also benefits from the same high efficiency FEC as the satellite component. But the selected waveform (TDM QPSK). WorldSpace has extended its system to an hybrid satellite/terrestrial system.75 tons launch mass. MCM is a Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex technique. especially designed for multipath environment. The WorldSpace satellite includes two communication payloads to cope with the two possible uplink accesses:  The WorldSpace processed mission is based on the baseband processing concept of the satellite payload.To meet the system requirements. It is common use to listen to the WorldSpace programs in a car with the receive antenna behind the windscreen or on the roof! Achieved availability is very high in rural and sub urban areas. performed with paralleling of two 150 W TWTA. even in Southern Europe.

This hybrid system has been implemented and successfully tested in Germany (Erlangen) and in South Africa (Pretoria). To improve the availability in conditions where only a satellite signal is present. with seamless hand over between the two. A dedicated receiver is able to combine the two contents for a seamless reception. based on the broadcasting of the same content twice but with a time interval of several seconds. The time interval makes the two contents uncorrelated with respect to blockages for mobile reception.Dedicated radios receive signals from both satellite and terrestrial components. WorldSpace has also incorporated a time diversity technique. . using the AfriStar satellite.