DIGESTIVE ENZYME

Dr. Pramudji Hastuti, Apt., M.S.
Department of Biochemistry
Faculty of Medicine UGM

OUTLINES
I. INTRODUCTION

II. ENZYME IN THE MOUTH
III. ENZYME IN THE STOMACH
IV. ENZYME SECRETED BY PANCREATIC

V. ENZYME SECRETED BY INTESTINE
VI. REGULATION OF ENZYME SECRETION
VII.CLINICAL ASPECT OF DIGESTIVE DEFECT

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INTRODUCTION  Most foodstuffs – ingested in unavailable for organism  It must be DEGRADED by digestion  need enzymes  Some clinical conditions arise form DEFECTS in the DIGESTIVE PROCESSES  Ulceration –HCl >>>  Achlorhydria – HCl <<  Defect bile secretion  gallstones  Malabsorption nutrients  nutritional deficiency • B12 & folate <<  anemia • Mg/Ca <<  tetany • Lactase intolerance  milk intolerance 3 .I.

(Koolman & Roehm. 2005) 4 .

ENZYME secreted by some EXOCRINE GLANDS:  Saliva : salivary glands  Stomach : cells lining the stomach  Pancreatic juice : pancreatic exocrine cells  Intestinal : lining of the gastrointestinal tract 5 .

ENZYME IN THE MOUTH  LIPASE LINGUAL  AMYLASE:  Hydrolysis starch & glycogen dextrin (polysaccharides& maltose (disaccharides)  Attach -(14) glycosidic bond  Active at pH 6.0  Betsine : maintains fluid balance as asmolytes  Bromelain : anti inflammatory agent. tenderized meat  Lysozyme : as antiseptic 6 .II.8  Inactive at pH  4.

OH H Alpha-glucose Beta-glucose .

ENZYME IN THE STOMACH PEPSINOGEN ("CHIEF CELLS“)  By acid/pepsin pepsin.  Break down protein peptide & amino acids  Endopeptidase  Specific for : o aromatic amino acids (Tyr) o dicarboxylic amino acids (Glu) 8 .III.

0 – 6. RENNIN (absent in adult) Casein (milk) + calcium Rennin Pepsin Paracasein Proteosa & pepton Rennin in infant  hydrolyze lipid (short &medium fatty acids (exp. medium & unsaturated long fatty acids (exp. LIPASE : produodenal  Low pH inactive. after feeding active  Optimum pH : 3.0  Hydrolyze lipid (short.III. ENZYME IN THE STOMACH 2. milk) 3. milk) 9 .

10 (Koolman & Roehm. 2005) .

IV. ENZYME SECRETED BY PANCREAS 11 (Koolman & Roehm. 2005) .

2005) . ENZYME SECRETED IN THE SMALL INTESTINE 12 (Koolman & Roehm.V.

Activation some enzymes Basicamino aminoacid acid Basic Broad Broad specificity specificity Uncharge/aromatic amino acids Uncharge/aromatic amino acids 13 .

Tyr (Y). Asn (N). His (H) Aromatic rings His (H). Val (V). Ala(A). Phe (F). Glu (E). Met (M) Acidic groups & their amide Asp (D).Grouping of amino acid by R GROUP AMINO ACID Aliphatic aide chain Gly (G). Trp (W) Imino acid Pro (P) 14 . Lys (K). Leu (L). Tyr (Y) Sulfur atoms (S) Cys (C). Gln (Q) Basic groups Arg (R). Thr (T). Ile (I) Hydroxylic groups(-OH) Ser (S).

15 .

2005) .(Koolman & Roehm.

taste and eating food 2. GASTRIC (STOMACH)  10% (vagal innervation)  mainly through stomach distention as it fills with food 17 . smell. REGULATION OF ENZYME SECRETION Factors triggers the pancreas to push enzymes into duodenum: 3 phases: 1.VI. CEPHALIC (BRAIN)  25% (controlled by parasympathetic nerve-control salivation)  Stimulus : sight.

fatty acids. REGULATION OF ENZYME SECRETION Factors triggers the pancreas to push enzymes into duodenum: 3 phases: 3. calcium  stimulate pancreatic secretion & bile production 18 . mediated by GI hormones  secretin : secreted when chyme acid enter to duodenum  cholecytokinin : stimulated by amino acids.VI. INTESTINE  50 – 75%.

 Chronic stress = constant “fight of flight” mode = impaired digestive enzyme output.”  In “fight or flight” mode  digestive is very low priority  digestive function (digestive enzyme output) is dialed down.BODY MODES Our body has two modes:  Sympathetic “fight or flight.” 19 .  Parasympathetic “rest and digest.

2 – 0.3 ml /minute  Increases >3 ml/min in response to a meal  Contain proteins (>>enzyme/secreted as in active) (7 mg/ml during stimulation by secretin & CCK)  The strongest stimulants : fatty acids & monoglycerides < proteins <carbohydrates 20 .PANCREATIC JUICE  Secreted between meals : 0.

and acute or chronic pancreatitis)  BRUSH BORDER DYSFUNCTION Example : Celiac disease brush border is flattened or destroyed. Crohn’s syndrome 21 .  PANCREATIC PROBLEMS Example : cystic fibrosis.DECREASE OF DIGESTIVE ENZYMES SECRETION Causes of digestive enzymes decrease secretion  DISEASES  prevent proper digestive enzyme production. pancreatic cancer.

DECREASE OF DIGESTIVE ENZYMES SECRETION  CERTAIN FOODS Certain foods have high amounts of enzyme inhibitor (soybeans & other legumes)  if high soy diet larger pancreatic enzyme secretion  AGEING decreased digestive function  LOW STOMACH ACID  CHRONIC STRESS 22 .

DIGESTIVE ENZYME DEFICIENCY How to correct a digestive enzyme deficiency?  Managing chronic stress  Sit down to eat food  parasympathetic mode 23 .

 Not chewing food well minimizes saliva enzymatic production. 24 .  Plant enzymes: more stable over a wider pH and temperature range  Many enzymes : eliminated from cooking and processing foods. Mammals lack enzymes for break down plant cell walls  Cellulose  Pectins  Resistant starches (fiber)  Organic raw foods contain enzymes for digestion.

CLINICAL ASPECTS OF DIGESTIVE DEFECTS 1.VII. PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY (PI):  Pancreas is unable to produce normal amounts of digestive enzymes into the intestine  Signs and symptoms of PI :  Stools :light-colored  Stools :foul smelling  Stools : loose  Stools : float (malabsorbed fat) 25 .

LACTOSE INTOLERANCE (DEFICIENCY OF LACTASE)  abdominal cramps. diarrhea & flatulence  accumulation lactose  fermentation irritation 3 TYPES : a. CLINICAL ASPECTS OF DIGESTIVE DEFECTS 2. Primary low-lactase activity : gradual decline activity 26 . Inherited lactase deficiency : intolerance birth b.VII. Secondary low-lactase activity c.

CLINICAL ASPECTS OF DIGESTIVE DEFECTS  Limited solubility cholesterol  GALLSTONES  Free cholesterol + phospholipid (phosphatidylcholine) + bile salt (Redinger-Small triangle)  MICELLE  Cholesterol supersaturated/precipitated)  crystals  STONE 27 .VII.

. 2nd ed. 2012.  Freuman.F. Digestive enzymes enhance nutrient absorption.REFERENCES:  Harper’s Illustrated Review Biochemistry. 28th Ed.htm  Gerstmar T. 2006  Koolman & Roehm..com)  Louis P. 2013. G. gut health and longevity.htm 28 .htm  Enzymes & Digestion. 2012. Digestive enzymes: Help or hype?-Eat + Run (Usnews. Color Atlas of Biochemistry.. Everything you ever wanted to know about digestive  Enzymes_Whole9_let us change your life.D.

Thank You .