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Lecture Notes
Zulkepli Muhamad

Solidification Processes
• Starting work material is either a liquid or is in a
highly plastic condition, and a part is created
through solidification of the material
• Solidification processes can be classified
according to engineering material processed:
– Metals
– Ceramics, specifically glasses
– Polymers and polymer matrix composites


Classification of solidification processes Classification of casting processes Metal casting processes Expandable mold Sand Shell Expandable pattern Plaster Ceramic investment Permanent mold Composite mold Slush Pressure Die Centrifugal Squeeze semisolid Foundries Single-crystal growing Single-crystal for microelectronics Single-crystal turbine blade Directional solidification 2 .

and similar materials. plaster. less commonly.Casting Processes 1. and cleaning the finished casting ™ Workers who perform casting are called foundrymen 3 . Expendable mold processes – uses an expendable mold which must be destroyed to remove casting ™ Mold materials: sand. a ceramic refractory material Overview of Casting Technology ™ Casting is usually performed in a foundry Foundry = factory equipped for making molds. melting and handling molten metal. 2. performing the casting process. plus binders Permanent mold processes – uses a permanent mold which can be used many times to produce many castings ™ Made of metal (or.

Let it solidify 5. Melt the metal 3. Pouring melt into a mould/die 4.Casting Process in which molten metal flows by gravity or other force into a mold where it solidifies in the shape of the mold cavity • The term casting also applies to the part made in the process • Steps in casting seem simple: 1. Prepare mould/die 2. Finishing processes Metal casting components 4 .

Metal casting components Metal casting components 5 .

Production steps Molding Sand Melting Furnaces Pattern making Core Making Gating system Mold Pouring Solidification Casting Shakeout Removal of risers and gates Heat treatment Finishing Cleaning & Inspection -additioanl heat treatment -defects -dimensions 6 .