Oscillators with LC feedback circuits

-LC feedback elements are normally used in oscillators that require higher
frequencies
Colpitts Oscillator
-uses an LC circuit in the feedback loop to provide the necessary phase shift and
to act as a resonant filter that passes only the desired frequency of oscillation

f=

1
2 π √ LCt

Clapp Oscillator
-variation of the colpitts
-additional capacitor in series with the conductor

Hartley Oscillator
-the feedback circuit consists of 2 series inductors and

f=

1
2 π √ L tC

a parallel capacitor

This property of a crystal is called the piezoelectric effect. the impedance of the crystal is minimum at the series resonant frequency.Crystal-Controlled Oscillator -most stable and accurate type of feedback oscillator -uses a piezoelectric crystal in the feedback loop to control the frequency A quartz crystal (one of a number of crystal types) exhibits the property that when mechanical stress is applied across the faces of the crystal. thus providing max feedback Relaxation Oscillators . the crystal’s equivalent circuit is a series parallel RLC circuit and can operate in either series resonance or parallel resonance. a difference of potential develops across opposite faces of the crystal.use an RC timing circuit and a device that changes states to generate periodic wave form Triangular-Wave Oscillator .

- - the op-amp integrator can be used as the basis for the triangular-wave oscillator utilizes an op-amp comparator to perform the switching function Square wave oscillator its operation is based on the charging and discharging of a capacitor .