Gates & Risers

For the hobby metal caster.

The hobby metal casting
Guide To:

Foundry Practice.
Detailed illustrations
For the
Hobby Foundry Worker.
Compiled By:
“The Home Foundry Publications”
Permission granted to use drawings and material
By: C.W. Ammen
Manitou Springs Colorado USA.
Copyright 1996.
C.W. Ammen is one of the great pioneers
of the backyard hobby foundry movement.

Gates & Risers reprint rights granted to myhomefoundry by C.W.Ammen.
Copyright 1996.


Gates & Risers
For the hobby metal caster.

By studying and applying the principles of
gating and riser design shown in this ebook,
will help you to unravel the myths surrounding
the art of gating and risering.

Contents Page.
Gating & risering of metal castings. .................................................................3
The general rules for gates & riser...................................................................4
Gate ratio design..............................................................................................6
Spin Casting. ...................................................................................................7
Venting Green Sand Moulds. ...........................................................................8
Multiple Branch Gates......................................................................................9
Types of top gates. ........................................................................................10
Correct heights for cope & drag. ....................................................................11
Notched gates & risers for cast iron. ..............................................................12
Good riser design guide.................................................................................13
Styrofoam Blind Riser. ...................................................................................14
Correct shrink bob design. .............................................................................15
Horn gate Design. ..........................................................................................16
Chill Designs. .................................................................................................18
Chill application on wheel rim. .......................................................................19
Herring bone ingate design............................................................................20

Gates & Risers reprint rights granted to myhomefoundry by C.W.Ammen.
Copyright 1996.


Gates & Risers For the hobby metal caster. shrink cavities. the amount of feeder metal left attached to the casting could very well be about half the amount that was actually used to fill the mould cavity. The placement of gates and risers can be as complex as choosing where to place multiple ingates for large castings. or an ingate that delivers too little metal to the mould cavity. Compare the ideas and principles shown in this ebook with those that you are currently using. a feeder or ingate that allows the metal to enter the mould cavity at a great rush and volume will also create big problems for the inexperienced metal caster. such as hot tears. it is also one of the area’s that will give hobby metal casters the most problems. Gates and risers is just one of the many operations & techniques required to carry out metal casting successfully. Always gate into the heaviest section of the casting to provide it with feed metal. or it would shrink as it gives up its liquid metal to feed the solidifying thin section. On the other hand. 3 . Gating & risering of metal castings. The basic parts of a gating system is to allow the mould to be filled as rapidly as possible with a minimum amount of turbulence. The gating & riser illustrations provided in this book will be of great value to the novice or advanced metal caster alike. Nothing will kill a casting (or your enthusiasm for that matter) as quick as insufficient feed metal from an incorrectly placed riser. Gates & Risers reprint rights granted to myhomefoundry by C. study the illustrations carefully. It is essential to gate into the heavy section of the casting to provide it with feed metal. then there is a good chance that you will trace it back to the way you are feeding your castings. Ammen managed over a long period of time. If your’e having problems with your castings.W. or choosing the ideal place for a single ingate or riser on a single casting such as would be found in the home hobby shop. These are gate & riser designs from a master foundry worker. The metal entering the riser must be hot (the last metal to enter during pouring) to promote feed metal based on directional solidification. A given casting will solidify from the thinnest towards the heavy section. Copyright 1996. The heavy section must be supplied with a riser or reservoir of hot metal. principles that were put to good use in many foundries C. and to provide sufficient hot metal to feed the casting during solidification to prevent shrinkage defects.W.Ammen. in his long career in the foundry industry. and very bad porosity. leaving voids and an unfilled mould cavity. Very often.

Avoid any gate design that would spray the metal into the mould cavity 8. this wont always be the case. 6. A piece of paper or tin should be placed over the pouring basin of closed moulds until they are ready to pour.W. Avoid gating against a core. cut with a tapered metal sprue cutter. 10. The pouring basin should be at least three times the diameter of your sprue. Gate through the risers if possible. 13.Gates & Risers For the hobby metal caster. 9. Use round down gates. Do not cut gates by hand. ask your self… • Did I place the ingate or feeder at the heaviest section of the casting? • Does the casting require two ingates or more to deliver sufficient metal? • Is the riser situated at the best spot on the casting IE. Come in on a tangent so that the metal will not splash against the core. you will need to analyse or review your methods…don’t run away in despair…learn from your mistakes…revise the set up. The gating system should allow the metal to enter the mould fast but without turbulence. Avoid all sharp corners in the gating system (use large fillets). When using a gate stick it should be smooth so that the downgate sand will be firmly rammed and smooth. if you carry out a pour and find it is not successful. or one single method that will provide perfect feeds to all castings. 12. give them the same attention that you give the mould cavity. use mounted gates or set gates. 4. 1. the requirements of the high production foundry shop will vary greatly to the backyard hobby worker pouring just a few sand moulds. 7. a short riser will not provide enough hydrostatic pressure on the casting? Gates & Risers reprint rights granted to myhomefoundry by C. but the point we are making is “Do Not Skimp” on the feed metal for your castings. 4 . 2. The general rules for gates & riser. at the heaviest section? • Is the runner bar or channel of sufficient area to allow the correct quantity of metal to fill the mould cavities quickly with a minimum amount of turbulence? (A runner bar is used to feed multiple ingates & castings) • Is the riser too short. 5. if possible. Copyright 1996. You must have directional solidification from the light sections to the heavy sections. Patch and clean out gates. 11. but when doing so choke between the riser and sprue. 14. Hard earned experience is a great teacher when it comes to metal casting. Use sufficient number of gates properly placed to prevent cold shuts and miss runs. There is no magic formula. The sprue should be small enough in diameter so that it can be kept choked during pouring. Design the gating system in a manner to prevent the metal form splashing through the gate. 3.Ammen.

and decide how you will feed and place risers for successful metal casting. Copyright 1996. just be aware of the total amount of metal you will use to pour the castings and runners etc. This end of the runner bar will also act as a dirt & dross catcher. if you only have a small capacity crucible. which is achieved by making the neck of the gate narrower. Keep the length of the ingate as short as possible within practicality of the set up you are using. and dozens more will present themselves every time that you carry out moulding and metal casting.Ammen. It is not unusual for the runner bar and gates to consume a considerable amount of metal.Gates & Risers For the hobby metal caster. The runner bar should be of a suitable size to carry enough metal for the quantity of castings to be fed. 5 . it is only through much experience where you will come to a point which will enable you to asses a pattern. • Is the riser neck too narrow.W. The following illustrations will help the hobby metal caster make an informed decision regarding the correct method to gate and riser your castings. Gates & Risers reprint rights granted to myhomefoundry by C. The mould parting line passes through the middle of the whole set up. This method of gating is normal accepted practice The illustrations here explain the relationship between the runner bar. ingates and the patterns. The reduction at this point also serves as a break off point when removing the castings when the castings have cooled. which will freeze too early and cut of the feed metal supply before the casting has solidified? These questions. In some instances it is possible to choke the gates down at the entry point of the pattern.

the metal runs down the runner bar past the gates and then backs up. A sprue the same size. will deliver 5 ¾ pounds per second and at 15 " tall X 2" dia. The molten metal in the runner bar should back up into the sprue. The smaller three areas of the gates will ensure that the hydrostatic pressure in the pouring system should remain even and constant until the mould cavities are full. The secret to your casting will depend on your ability to grasp the meaning of the accompanying illustration. which should be kept fully choked for the duration of the pour. the gates represent a total of 3 areas. only 15" tall will deliver 1-¾ pounds per second.Ammen. runners and gates. A 2 " sprue X 5" tall. the info contained in this manual should help to solve any problems you may encounter. Flow rate: The relationship of pouring rate. A round sprue of ¾" (20mm) diameter X 5" tall (125mm) will deliver 1 pound of molten metal per second. Gate ratio design. The metal fed down the sprue will quickly fill the runner bar. will render your casting useless The ingate design above shows how the metal travels down the sprue.W. then enters the runner bar channel. it will deliver 10 pounds per second. Notice that the runner bar will hold a total of 4 areas of metal. the casting is starved of feed metal. The sprue & runner bar will then take over their intended design purpose of feeding metal to the castings until the solidification stage.Gates & Risers For the hobby metal caster. which will then start feeding the metal into the ingates and castings. and a high degree of porosity. While the sprue represents just one area. Copyright 1996. Any of these defects. Eg. height of sprue. if during this stage. 6 . shrink cavities and cracking. Gates & Risers reprint rights granted to myhomefoundry by C. Experimentation is the key to finding the correct feeding relationship between the sprue. and finally runs through the angled ingates and into the castings. area and diameter of the sprue. the casting will show the effects of hot tears. The important information here is the relationship between the area in the runner bar and that of the gates feeding the casting.

W. which would allow a smooth operation. Spin casting is one of the most useful ways that many small high quality parts. A handy gadget fabricator could quite easily cobble some parts together and build a manually operated simple spincasting table.Gates & Risers For the hobby metal caster. The biggest problem for the home metal caster will be building a suitable spin-casting rig. Spin Casting. this helps to keep the sprue fully choked during the pour. This is a sectional view through the actual sand mould. as you would anyway with normal sand casting. and regulates the flow of metal into the small cavities. A cheap electric motor could also be used. A lot of spin casting is done with low melting point metals. to enable the placement of each mould on the spin table. enabling several pours to be done with the one potful of metal. but there is nothing to stop you using green sand moulds to do the same thing. notice that the molten metal has to climb up over some humps built into the gates.Ammen. toys or medallions can be cast at the same time. a solid table could be mounted on a sturdy shaft and bearing. it would have to be geared down to a very slow RPM to make it suitable. 7 . spin casting is well worth the time and effort and investigating what can be achieved with this method. An advantage would be achieved if several sand moulds were made up at the same time. Gates & Risers reprint rights granted to myhomefoundry by C. the only difference is that you will have to remake your sand moulds after every pour. the mould in this case is made from a high temperature resistant butyl rubber compound. Copyright 1996.

produced by ancient civilisations. then you will be rewarded with poor castings.Gates & Risers For the hobby metal caster. 8 . as tedious as this may sound…the quality of castings produced will only be as good as the total preparation put into the moulding/casting session from start to finish. The vent holes act as relief valves for the steam that builds up in the sand mould during the pouring of the hot molten metal. The technique of green sand casting is centuries old.W. Venting Green Sand Moulds. otherwise it wont hold together when the mould is rammed. the drier and less water you can use. the simple reason is that they don’t understand why they’re not achieving the success they desire. and then withdraw and repeat the process over & over until the whole sand mould has been vented. Unfortunately you have to use water to condition your sand. you must follow the guidelines and proper procedure at all times. and this is the reason why so may people who try metal casting give up on the hobby. Take care during the venting procedure. Gates & Risers reprint rights granted to myhomefoundry by C. Copyright 1996. There are no short cuts to achieve good quality metal castings. take a look at some of the brilliant castings displayed in museums.Ammen. do not press the vent wire into the sand so hard as to damage the soft timber pattern. don’t spare the vent holes! you need as many as you can get into the sand. Producing quality castings should not be a real problem today …not even for the dedicated hobby foundry worker. The only alternative to counteracting the moisture in the sand is to vent the mould thoroughly. just ease the vent wire down until you feel it touch the pattern. If you follow poor procedures. Venting of green sand moulds is one of the most important steps to carry out as you go through the moulding process. Green sand is tempered with about 6% of water when working with aluminium. the less steam will be generated during the pour.

The metal needs to be able to enter the mould cavity quickly but under a calm environment. Multiple Branch Gates. This side view of the multiple gate arrangement shows the sprue taper. if the metal is allowed to squirt into the mould cavity the metal will create sand wash around delicate parts of the mould. sand wash will leave the casting looking rough and with missing detail. you may need to refer back to the design ratio discussed in the previous pages.W. and the relatively large area of the runner bar. Copyright 1996. Think of the gates merely as the plumbing system for delivering the molten metal to the mould cavity or casting. Gates & Risers reprint rights granted to myhomefoundry by C. Multiple branch gates allow very efficient feeding of castings from a runner and single sprue. you can use a variety of different designs to arrive at the most suitable type of gating system for either single or multiple castings. Note also the taper applied to the ingate. it is called a choke.Ammen. 9 . the narrow section acts as the choke to control the rate of feed into the casting. The taper of the sprue allows the metal to back up during pouring and the neck controls the rate of flow.Gates & Risers For the hobby metal caster.

10 . or thin the strainer needs to be. A very simple. The wool needs to pulled apart a little so that is not a tight weave. when pouring and casting certain types of aluminium castings. The hobby caster may not be interested in using any of these types of gates. Types of top gates. The type that is used in the domestic kitchen is ideal for the purpose. experiment on a trial mould. to determine how dense. the metal has to be able pass through it without too much restriction.W. The wedge gate has been used by the writer.Gates & Risers For the hobby metal caster. Commercial foundries use ceramic strainers placed in the down sprue to trap dirt and other foreign matter. and effective metal strainer can be made by using coarse stainless steel wool. Copyright 1996. The decision to use one type of drop gate over another will mainly come from your own experience during your journey as a metal caster. especially the aluminium alloys.Ammen. Don’t try this idea on a mould. to work the way it should. which has taken you a long time to make up. it is also well known that this treatment of metal also improves the mechanical properties. We spoke a little earlier about straining metal while pouring. The illustrations here show the various types of drop gates that can be used for metal casting. Gates & Risers reprint rights granted to myhomefoundry by C.

you neither need them to be too high which means using too much sand nor too low in which case there will be insufficient hydrostatic pressure in the sprue to maintain enough pressure on the casting during the pour and solidification. Correct heights for cope & drag. Gates & Risers reprint rights granted to myhomefoundry by C. Insufficient pressure will result from such a low sprue height. This is the way to get around not having mould boxes of the correct height. by building what’s known as an upset (just like another smaller mould box built atop the cope) this will give the correct height for the cope without having to build another box.W. The casting will be poured with a sprue considered to be the right height and will develop the correct feed pressure. The cope height shown in this illustration is considered to be of the correct height. The casting is too close to the bottom mould board and the height of the cope is too low. The height of the cope and drag is very important.Gates & Risers For the hobby metal caster. the following illustrations will give you material to study so that you can implement the correct height for moulds being constructed. Copyright 1996. 11 . They need to be right for the type of casting being produced.Ammen. You could call this a cheater. The illustration here clearly shows that the height of the cope & drag are far too low.

Copyright 1996. using an angle grinder with abrasive cutting disc attached. the gates or risers will only require a good tap with a suitable mallet or hammer to remove it. but could also be utilised with aluminium castings when the need arises. Gates & Risers reprint rights granted to myhomefoundry by C. The neck core above is placed in this position which otherwise would be impossible to notch with normal procedure. they are really self-explanatory. the neck core could be a dry sand core ring. or baked sand core ring of a suitable size. say. and do not require further explanation. The size would need to be carefully calculated so as to not impede the flow of feed metal back into the casting. The abrasive disc cutting produce excessive amounts of cast iron dust.W. Removing gates by this method is quicker than. Study the illustrations above.Gates & Risers For the hobby metal caster. The following illustrations explain the way to apply notches in gates and risers to enable easy removal from the casting after solidification. Notched gates & risers for cast iron. This method is mainly used with cast iron. 12 . otherwise shrinkage or hot tears may result.Ammen. If the notches are designed correctly.

Apply the principles of good riser design shown in the image at the top left hand corner. Copyright 1996.W. Good riser design guide. Gates & Risers reprint rights granted to myhomefoundry by C. 13 . The riser design.Gates & Risers For the hobby metal caster. As a hobby caster the ideas shown on these pages should be an excellent guide to good gate & riser design. Experience is a good teacher when it comes to selecting a suitably designed riser for a given casting or castings. Be aware of the problems shown in the other images.Ammen. Good riser design is important to achieve sound castings. you can expect many faulty castings as a result of this. if castings are denied adequate feed metal during solidification. if correctly done will ensure that sound castings will be delivered.

Gates & Risers For the hobby metal caster. plain styrofoam packing can be used to good effect. the putrid smell of vaporised Styrofoam is not a pleasant smell. we wont be covering the use of foam patterns here. Make sure the vent to the atmosphere is clear. The Styrofoam riser method is an easy way to solve feeding problems that would otherwise be very difficult to achieve. The pattern is removed from the drag mould. 14 . To make a styrofoam riser. Note also the vent MUST exit through the top of the sand mould to the atmosphere. the cope mould box has been lifted of the drag. Copyright 1996. it is a good idea to pour near a doorway. The mould is closed again. the secret to the whole idea is to make sure the foam riser will stay captive in the sand and not break away while the moulds are parted to remove the pattern. in fact this is a good intro to actually using full styrene foam patterns instead of normal wood patterns etc…but this process is another story.W. The mould has been rammed. The shape can be fashioned to resemble a sphere but it is not totally important. Gates & Risers reprint rights granted to myhomefoundry by C. the process should not give many problems. as the cope is lifted the foam riser is held captive in the sand. the most important part of the process is to have a stout tapered support pin (attached to the pattern) which will allow the Styrofoam riser to lift away from the pattern and remain captive in the sand mould. the cavity is gently blown out to remove any debris. With some practice and careful work.Ammen. Styrofoam Blind Riser. as long as it is somewhere near the shape shown here the riser will work OK. Blind Styrofoam risers enable feeders to be placed in sand moulds when it is not possible to feed a casting by normal methods.

It is just not good enough to scratch a channel in the sand from the sprue to the casting cavity and hope for the best. quantity and areas needed for a particular single or multiple casting set up. Don’t tilt the mould box upwards too far. 15 . the shrink bob will remain liquid for longer than the sprue. eg size. The many examples shown in this ebook will be of great benefit to you. The more practice you have with this work the better you will become at judging what kind of gating. Copyright 1996.Ammen. Gates & Risers reprint rights granted to myhomefoundry by C. It is possible to make an effort and set out a carefully designed gating and riser system for your castings…no matter how simple they are.W. As we have mentioned previously. It prevents any air being drawn into the mould cavity. other wise the head of metal may be above the sprue head height.Gates & Risers For the hobby metal caster. to snag on the mould sand when the cope is lifted from the drag. it is only when you have had some trial and error experience with metal casting. The bob design is simply built into the pattern on the ingate. You should by now have a further understanding of the importance of gates & risers in your casting work. Make sure there are no dags or rough spots on or around the bob. Correct shrink bob design. it can be used when pouring brass. always place the shrink bob upwards in the cope as this promotes the feed metal towards the casting. The tilt mould choke is a quick and easy technique to apply when required. bronze and aluminium. hopefully you will give a little more thought to the gating and riser arrangements required for good casting practice. The shrink bob allows the placement of a sphere of molten metal right at the ingate. this will help to feed the casting along with the sprue. that you realize just how important this department of moulding is.

it is clear that it is tapered from one end to the other. such as during the casting of name plates & plaques with fine letters and details etc. By looking at the horn gate design shown here. it would most likely give as good a result as the traditional horn gate. to make one from wood will require a lot of patience and carving skill. Gates & Risers reprint rights granted to myhomefoundry by C. Copyright 1996. The horn gate allows infinite control over the speed at which the metal enters the mould cavity. therefore the horn can be reversed to allow a very calm non turbulent entry of molten metal to the mould cavity. 16 . an ideal way would be to turn a taper on some flexible material. This is the shape or design of the simple horn-gate.Ammen. A horn gate could also be made by making a core box designed to give a horn gate in the shape of a “U”. Horn gate can be placed into mould with small or large end to deliver metal to the cavity. the size will need to be chosen to suit the casting jobs you have at hand. Horn gate Design. Foundry workers of days gone by always used the horn gate to feed a large number of castings in green sand moulds. and the next illustration will show the mould has been turned right side up.Gates & Risers For the hobby metal caster. There is no reason why the hobby foundry worker of today cannot apply the same techniques. The following illustrations will detail the design features of the horn gate. finish it very smoothly and bend it and sand mould it. The illustration above shows the drag upside down. The wide end will deliver non-turbulent molten metal to sand mould. it has been rammed with the pattern and horn gate in place. then pour an aluminium casting from it.W. ready to carry out the rest of the operations. the U would be a wide shallow shape made up of two halves glued together to form the horn gate. There are no hard and fast rules as to how you apply the design. this is particularly useful when delicate parts of the sand mould are prone to metal wash. The casting would also require much hand finishing before you could use it.

There is still a reasonable amount of work to do to make this type of horn gate. To draw the horn from the sand mould. This horn gate design is an alternative to the traditional design used by all the old moulders off days gone by. even if at the moment you are not ready to start using the horn gate feed to castings. Gates & Risers reprint rights granted to myhomefoundry by C. So here we are. but you may not be happy. 17 . insert a pattern screw remover into the end of the horn.W. as you have learnt so far.Gates & Risers For the hobby metal caster. at the last illustration explaining about horn gates. All you need is some practice.Ammen. There are as many solutions to gating as there are different pattern designs. A core box is required to make the two halves. that will be good practice for you. it will definitely be well worth your while to start experimenting with this gate system. Many of these could be produced using the Co2 method of core making. it may require some light rapping first just to make it loose enough to draw. it has been said that horn gates are the “Most Useful Gate” a moulder can use. Gating of your castings is not just a matter of cutting a random channel or runner in the sand mould and trusting that will be adequate for the job. Copyright 1996. it is drawn out in a circular motion. just remember that whenever your’e planing out your gates and runners that you must always feed to the heaviest part of the casting. do not deviate from this motion otherwise you may damage the sand mould and have to repeat the moulding process all over again. there is much more to getting the metal into the moulds than meets the eye. that goes for ingates as well as sprues and risers.

this can be easily cut & sanded to prepare and make permanent gates on pattern boards.W. I know of one case where a small foundry was casting small aluminium clutch slave cylinders. 18 . Chills are also used to create dense metal in castings to be used as pressure castings. This chilling effect has the effect of tightening the molecular structure of the metal. this problem was not discovered until the cylinders were fully machined and tested.e. This technique is explained in the metal casting made easy foundry ebook. Chills can be used to control the rate of solidification towards a particular area of the casting. the first was insufficient feed metal (risers) the second was solved by using steel chills on the ends and along the Gates & Risers reprint rights granted to myhomefoundry by C. An excellent material for the hobby worker is craft wood. it depends entirely on what you want to achieve. eg hydraulic slave cylinders etc. to make the metal cool much quicker than the metal which is surrounded by the cool moulding sand. the first batch ever made were so porous that fluid sprayed out through the walls of the Al cylinder when under pressure.Ammen. Chill Designs. Chills are placed in certain positions in sand moulds to act as denseners i.Gates & Risers For the hobby metal caster. Many problems had to be solved. Copyright 1996. The small selection of chills shown here will give you some idea of the many different shapes & sizes that can be applied to metal casting there is no “one set” of chill design.

when the molten metal is poured into the sand mould. the casting could be that of a wheel. Horse shoe ingates. the chill effect starts immediately. make sure you document the results and how it was achieved. the chill remains captive in the sand. Remember to carry out the method of calculating the areas of the sprue and the gates to ensure proper feeding. you don’t have to go over board about it…just make simple notes about your various operations. the horseshoe gate is similar to a multiple branch gate system as detailed earlier in the book. If the hobby caster was to employ this chilling method. but at times that is the only way to figure out what will work best for you. Copyright 1996. a special ring would need to be made to fit around the pattern.Gates & Risers For the hobby metal caster. you will have no idea where you went wrong. chills made the metal as tight as a drum. trial and error may need to be undertaken to arrive at the best configuration. railroad wheel rolling stock is treated in this manner to create the hardwearing surface required for railroad work.W. on lifting the pattern from the mould. which needs to have very hard chilled outer surface. This illustration shows the application of a ring chill. and then when things go wrong you can sit down and Gates & Risers reprint rights granted to myhomefoundry by C. The gates can also be “necked down” to create the correct choke effect for the casting. but with out creating any turbulence. the chill ring is removed. if you don’t document your methods. This is how you get repeatable results to use over & over. The horseshoe gate is an effective method of feeding a casting that needs to be fed quickly. Chill application on wheel rim. When the casting is completely cooled. Once you discover the correct method. barrel of the cylinder. 19 . it’s job being complete. The home foundry worker may need to carry out more trial and error than you may want to. as it fills.Ammen. Many workers do not document their hobby foundry work. & that was the end of all the problems.

Gates & Risers For the hobby metal caster.W. There will be times when you may have to place the gate in the cope. This ebook is going to end with a discussion about placing the ingate in the cope or the drag.Ammen. analyse where you went wrong…if there are no notes how are you going to do this? Herring bone ingate design. both systems work OK. This system is the most commonly used gating arrangement of the two herringbone methods. the first method is known as “straight in”. the other is the “reverse herringbone” method. Herringbone ingates are an ideal method of feeding multiple small castings from a large runner bar. but the preferred method is to place them in the drag part of the mould. There are two ways to set up herringbone gates. there is nothing wrong with that. this is accepted foundry practice. 20 . Usually it is preferred that it is placed in the drag. This method forces the metal to “back up”. but there is no rule set in concrete that you must do this. which is also favoured by many foundry workers. less dirt will enter castings using this method. Gates & Risers reprint rights granted to myhomefoundry by C. This is the reverse herringbone method. it will come down to the personal choice of the metal caster. both work satisfactorily. Copyright 1996.

21 . which could be used. USA Custom Castings by Twaddell Gates & Risers reprint rights granted to myhomefoundry by The web site URL is: http://www. Read over the material as many times as you need.myhomefoundry.Ammen. The 3 . but the hobby caster would find them too complex to implement. hobby casting as all about experimenting and learning the simple processes that work well for you. Almost 100 pages of “How To” hobby metal casting The home foundry publications 4058 Usshers Drive Wangaratta Victoria Australia. Copyright 1996. This ebook is not the last word on setting up gates and risers. Other publications available. there are many other complex methods. to learn the methods which will give you good results with your foundry.W. sand and working methods.Gates & Risers For the hobby metal caster. Jerry Foundryman in Missouri. “I think you have an outstanding product for the beginner and intermediate caster. In the words of Jerry Twaddell.volume hobby metal casting ebook. If you need to contact us please use this email address col@myhomefoundry. We hope you have enjoyed reading and learning from this ebook.” Best. Carry out some trial and error casting work to see what works best for you.