Customer Requirements

Functional Structure
Product Design Specification

Objectives
Expand
requirements from
the needs
statement

Prioritize
requirements
according to
importance

Organize
requirements into
an objective tree

Discuss the
essentials of
function analysis

Create function
structures based
on need
statements

Discuss the
importance of
function analysis

Quantify
qualitative
objectives

Utilize techniques
to organize
specifications into
categories

Further clarify the
need statement

CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS

……… customers wish lists (the needs) .Identifying Customer Requirements an airplane’s lifetime Passengers Crew Pilot Airports Engineers and service crew Fueling companies Airlines Manufacturing and production departments Baggage handlers Cleaning and catering companies Sales and marketing Accounts and finance departments Military/Courier/Cargo/etc. Authorities and official bodies Companies involved with the items that will be outsourced.

•Translate needs into specifications by ensuring all the needs are addressed as specifications.Identifying Customer Requirements customers wish lists (the needs) •Interprets and prioritizes the needs into product requirements. how the product will function from a technical standpoint (the specification) .

*no solution yet!! . The designers detailed breakdown of what the product should do.Identifying Customer Requirements A vague set of wishes that customers would like a product to do for them.

and have a way in which to pour this water into a mug of cup safely without spilling or burning” .Identifying Customer Requirements “Something that will hold sufficient quantity of water. have the ability to heat the water efficiently.

.Identifying Customer Requirements •Hold varied quantities of water •Heat varied quantity of water •Boil water fast •Energy efficient •Easy to move around •Safe handling during pouring •Pour hot water without spilling •Aesthetically pleasing surface •Automatic switching off •Alert user when water is boiling •….

Prioritizing Customer Requirements “A portable travel kettle that can hold 10 liters of water at any one time.” .

… … 1. …. Able to hold 10 liters of water TOTAL D 61 100 • Importance level of each requirement is measured by weight. Requireme nt D or W Import ance 2. …. … … … 3. …. … . Able to hold 10 liters of water W 10 4.Prioritizing Customer Requirements Absolute measure Relative measure • Each requirement is rated from 1 to 10. Able to hold 10 liters of water W 5 4. …. … … … 1. … … 4. Portable 2. Portable D or Weight W age D 30 2. …. …. Portable 3. D 8 … Requirement Weightage D or W Importa nce W 33 3. Requireme nt 1. • A total of 100 is maintained and each requirement is given a value according to its importance.

Prioritizing Customer Requirements .

Reach patient in 1 min W 8 D 10 4.Prioritizing Customer Requirements Requirements D or W Importance (1 to 10) 1. Water resistant D 10 5. Small turning radius W 5 7. Dimension 30 x 30 x 30 ㎝3 D 10 2. Maneuver through obstacles efficiently 3. Stable D 10 . Operate by itself W 3 6.

Minimum amount of parts D 10 W 6 11.Prioritizing Customer Requirements Requirements D or W Importance (1 to 10) 8. Lightweight W 4 12. Easy to operate D 10 . Ability to provide transportation and seating 10. Low production cost W 7 14. Compact/foldable W 3 13. Ability to support patient weight D 10 9.

Stops quick W 7 19. Durable D 10 17. Safe D 10 18. Comfort W 6 20.Prioritizing Customer Requirements Requirements D or W Importance (1 to 10) 15. Easy to control W 7 21. Low maintenance D 10 16. Low power drain when not in operation W 5 .

….Organizing Customer Requirements (Objective Tree – Step 1: List the design requirements) Design objectives (Example of Water Purifier) Easy to repair when needed Cost effectiveness Low or no contamination Fewer repairs Can detect chemical Low imbalance maintenance Takes up least possible space Low damage Can correct problems in least Safe for time humans Cleans high volume of water Safe for environment Long lasting Affordable Efficient Safety …. .

Organizing Customer Requirements (Objective Tree – Step 2: Order the list into sets) Safety Cost effectiveness Few repairs Safe for humans Safe for Easy to repair environment Affordable Takes least possible space Low maintenance Efficiency Can detect chemicals Long lasting Low damage Corrects problems in minimal time .

Organizing Customer Requirements (Objective Tree – Step 3: Draw an objective tree) Water purifier Cost effectiveness Safety Safe for environment Safe for operators Affordable to produce Pollutants disposed off properly Inexpensive material Any chemicals are contained Affordable for customer Low maintenance Efficiency Easy to repair Short time to correct problem Does the job Detect chemical imbalance .

.Organizing Customer Requirements (Objective Tree – Step 3: Draw an objective tree) Automatic aluminum can crusher Performance Ease of operation Easy to use Safety Easy to maintain Appearance pleasing Appearance Inexpensive Internal parts totally enclosed Dimensions Easy to clean … … Easy to start Easy to clear jams … … Easy to stop ….

Petite Task •The followings are a list of objectives in designing an ‘automatic coffee maker’. Design objectives (Automatic Coffee Maker) Safety Efficiency Quality Convenience Easy to use Fast Makes good coffee Doesn't burn user Good mixture Right temperature Splash proof Cheap to customer Volume of coffee Temperature control Timer Energy saver Automatic Easy to clean . Draw an objective tree for the product.

Petite Task “Something that will 1. absolute measure/relative have a way in which to pour this measure. Organize the safely without spilling or requirements burning” (objective tree) . have the ability to heat the water 2. weightage) water into a mug of cup 3. and requirements (D/W. requirements. Make the list of hold sufficient quantity of water. Prioritize the efficiently.

Objective Tree for Automatic Coffee Maker Automatic coffee maker Safety Doesn’t burn Splash proof Efficiency and Convenience Quality Coffee tastes good Right temperature Temperature control Good mixture Volume of coffee Economical Fast Cheap to customer Easy to use Energy saving Easy to clean Automatic .

PRODUCT DESIGN SPECIFICATION .

Specifications
metric

value

•Size of the product should be less than ....
•Mass of the product should be less than ….
•Material density should be less than ….
80% to 90% of customers
provide vague statement of their
needs (only 10 to 20% are able
to provide clear specifications).

Specification
Metric

Dimensions

Cans crushed
Weight

Value

20 x 20 x 20 cm

1/5 original volume

< 10kg

Manufacturing cost

< RM 150

People able to use

5 yrs and above

Number of parts

Probability of injury
….

< 100

< 0.1%

….

Product Design Specification (PDS)
A statement of what a not-yet-designed
product is intended to do. Its aim is to ensure
that the subsequent design and development of
a product meets the needs of the user.

Once this is established.Product Design Specification (PDS) "From the statement of the need – often called the brief – a product design specification(PDS) must be formulated – the specification of the product to be designed. it acts as the mantle or cloak that envelopes all the subsequent stages in the design core. because it places the boundaries on the subsequent designs. The PDS thus acts as the control for the total design activity." – Stuart Pugh .

Stuart Pugh. Total Design (1990) .

• • • • . pneumatic • Tolerance of speed • Rate of working • …. hydraulic.Performance How fast How slow How often – continuously or discontinuously Loadings likely – electrical.PDS .

Environment Temperature range Pressure range (altitude) Humidity Shock loading (gravity forces) Dirty or dusty – how dirty? – how clean? Corrosion from fluids – type of fluid or chemical Noise levels Insects Vibration Type of labour or persons who will use the equipment – likely degree of abuse • Any unforeseen hazards to customer. user or the environment? • • • • • • • • • • .PDS .

• Storage – in the plant • Assembly – assembly forces.Environment All manufactured items experience a number of environmental changes before being called on to function for the user. at the following stages • Manufacture – exposure to cutting fluids. etc. fluxes. acids. contamination from sweating hands? • Packaging • Transportation • Display . solvents.PDS .

or what? . seven days a week.PDS – Life in service (performance) • Should service life be short or long and against which criteria should this be applied? • Against which part of the PDS should the product life be accessed? • One year on full performance. 24 hours a day.

Maintenance • Is regular maintenance available or desirable? • Will designing for maintenance-free operation prejudice the design to such an extent that the product will become too expensive to buy in the first place? • Does the company. have a definitive maintenance policy? • Is the market used to maintaining equipment once it is purchased? . or indeed the market into which the product will ultimately go.PDS .

.PDS – Target product cost • Target production costs should be established from the outset and checked against existing or like products. Invariably. all target costs are on the low side.

. and must be analyzed. If.PDS – Competition • A thorough analysis of competition must be carried out. the evolving specification shows serious mismatches or deficiencies when compared with what already exists. the reason for such departures must be fully understood. for example.

pallet container. sea. . what type and size of truck. or air – home or overseas. or type of aircraft.PDS – Shipping • By land. • A product may be competitive in the producing country but by the time it is shipped overseas it may have become too expensive.

QUALITY-FUNCTION-DEPLOYMENT (QFD) .

.

Specifications Allow each stage (of the design process) to be measured quantitatively on how well it is achieving the previous stage. and hence. how good the design is. Conceptual Design Embodiment Design Manufacturing .

④ Correlation matrix ② Specifications ⑤ Target ⑥ Absolute ratings ⑦ Relative ratings ⑧ Benchmarking ① Requirements ③ Relationship matrix .

④ Correlation matrix ② Specifications ⑧ Bench markin g ① Require ments ③ Relationship matrix QFD 1 ⑤ Target Safe for user Target values Absolute importance Relative importance 2 5 9 3 1 9 3 50 49 5 10 81 9 8 3 Force <15 Newton Few parts 7 1 - Noise <30 db (49/81)x9 Low maintenance 9 Steps to operate <5 Easy to operate Parts <15 (1x9)+(1x7)+(9x2)+(3x5) Profit 25% ⑦ Relative ratings 4 5 Importance rating ⑥ Absolute ratings - 9 3 3 5 20 12 45 5 27 3 3 21 2 .

ESTABLISHING FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE .

action or task that a system is able to perform.Establishing Functions Function • A specific process. • An abstract idea or a mental symbol. football . • A “unit of knowledge”. Concept ship • A cognitive unit of meaning.

Establishing Functions Why we need to establish function? To design a lawn mower May limit your creativity To determine method for shortening the grass You’ll have free reign for creativity .

g. .Functions •Consider ‘WHAT’ the product does (the problem). not ‘HOW’ the product does it (solution). align cans. load cans. •The function statement involves an action verb and a noun (e. crush cans).

Function Structure To facilitate the Why?? discovery of solutions .

that describe the problem statement Subfunction Subfunction Subfunction Inputs Subfunction Subfunction Function Subfunction Function Subfunction Outputs .Function decomposition and functional structure Overall function.

Objective Tree for an Automatic Coffee Machine Automatic coffee machine Safety Doesn’t burn Splash proof Efficiency and Convenience Quality Coffee tastes good Right temperature Temperature control Good mixture Volume of coffee Economical Fast Cheap to customer Easy to use Energy saving Easy to clean Automatic .

Overall function diagram for the Automatic Coffee Machine User Coffee beans Water Provide coffee beverage Coffee beverage .

energy.Function Tree for the Automatic Coffee Machine Provide coffee beverage Allow user reference input Contain coffee beans Grind coffee beans Contain water Heat water to desired temp. Filter Coffee Percolate coffee Mix remaining ingredients if user-selected •The flow (which associated with materials. and information) should be in a logical or temporal order. . •Functions not within the system should be eliminated. •Identify redundant functions and combine them.

solid to liquid) • Connecting matter with energy (e. data banks) . mixing or separation) • Storing materials (e.g. storing potential or kinetic energy) • Connecting energy with information (e... marking metals) • Storing signals (e.g. electrical to mechanical energy) • Varying energy (e.g.g.g. increasing speed or torque) • Storing energy (e. mechanical to electrical) • Connecting information with energy (e.Function Structure Conversion of energy Conversion of materials Conversion of information • Changing energy (e..g... storing material in a compartment) • Changing signals (e.g.g... moving parts) • Rearranging materials (e.... switch to start a motor) • Changing matter (e.. amplifying signals) • Connecting information with matter (e.g.g.g..g.

Water Power source Filter Coffee Percolate coffee Mix remaining ingredients if user-selected Milk Sugar .Function Structure for the Automatic Coffee Machine User Allow user reference input Coffee beans Contain coffee beans Grind coffee beans Contain water Heat water to desired temp.

Function Structure for a Grocery Cart Hold groceries Groceries Support weight Hold large items Hold child Child Support weight Restrain child Hold small items Hold soft of fragile items Move cart Propel cart Turn cart .

1. Remote control ceiling fan 2.Establish the function structure of the followings. Paper shredder 10. Scanner machine 7. Vehicle air pump 5. Shower head 9.Luggage conveyor . Ferris wheel 6. Fax machine 3. Lawn mower 8. Sewing machine 4.

Using the following functions and subfunctions suggested by the team. Release a paper 5. draw the function structure for the system. Accept payment ii. Dispense a paper . Load the papers 2. Trigger dispenser 4.Petite Task 8 You and your team were asked to develop a newspaper vending unit that is able to dispense three types of papers and not easily vandalized. Align/hold the papers 3. Payment i. 1. Count payment iii.

Function Structure for a Newspaper Vending Machine Paper in Load paper Align/hold paper Take money Count money Trigger dispenser Release paper Money Dispense paper Paper out .

TEAM ACTIVITY .

g. storing material in a compartment) Sugar Provide overflow safety Stop heating Coffee beverage Conversion of information • Changing signals (e... Conversion of energy • Changing energy (e. solid to liquid) • Connecting matter with energy (e. storing potential or kinetic energy) • Connecting energy with information (e..g.g. electrical to mechanical energy) • Varying energy (e. moving parts) • Rearranging materials (e...g.. amplifying signals) • Connecting information with matter (e...g...g.. mechanical to electrical) • Connecting information with energy (e.g. mixing or separation) • Storing materials (e. data banks) . User Allow user reference input Coffee beans Contain coffee beans Grind coffee beans Water Contain water Heat water to desired temp.g. increasing speed or torque) • Storing energy (e.•Develop your function structure.g. switch to start a motor) Power source Filter Coffee Percolat e coffee Mix remaining ingredients if user-selected Dispens e coffee Milk Cup/mug/ container Conversion of materials • Changing matter (e.g. marking metals) • Storing signals (e..g.g.

Customer Requirements Functional Structure Product Design Specification .

Objectives Expand requirements from the needs statement Prioritize requirements according to importance Organize requirements into an objective tree Discuss the essentials of function analysis Create function structures based on need statements Discuss the importance of function analysis Quantify qualitative objectives Utilize techniques to organize specifications into categories Further clarify the need statement .

CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS .

Identifying Customer Requirements an airplane’s lifetime Passengers Crew Pilot Airports Engineers and service crew Fueling companies Airlines Manufacturing and production departments Baggage handlers Cleaning and catering companies Sales and marketing Accounts and finance departments Military/Courier/Cargo/etc. Authorities and official bodies Companies involved with the items that will be outsourced. ……… customers wish lists (the needs) .

Identifying Customer Requirements customers wish lists (the needs) •Interprets and prioritizes the needs into product requirements. how the product will function from a technical standpoint (the specification) . •Translate needs into specifications by ensuring all the needs are addressed as specifications.

Identifying Customer Requirements A vague set of wishes that customers would like a product to do for them. The designers detailed breakdown of what the product should do. *no solution yet!! .

and have a way in which to pour this water into a mug of cup safely without spilling or burning” . have the ability to heat the water efficiently.Identifying Customer Requirements “Something that will hold sufficient quantity of water.

Identifying Customer Requirements •Hold varied quantities of water •Heat varied quantity of water •Boil water fast •Energy efficient •Easy to move around •Safe handling during pouring •Pour hot water without spilling •Aesthetically pleasing surface •Automatic switching off •Alert user when water is boiling •…. .

” .Prioritizing Customer Requirements “A portable travel kettle that can hold 10 liters of water at any one time.

… … 1. … . …. …. ….Prioritizing Customer Requirements Absolute measure Relative measure • Each requirement is rated from 1 to 10. Able to hold 10 liters of water W 5 4. …. Requireme nt D or W Import ance 2. Able to hold 10 liters of water TOTAL D 61 100 • Importance level of each requirement is measured by weight. … … … 3. Requireme nt 1. Portable 2. …. • A total of 100 is maintained and each requirement is given a value according to its importance. Portable D or Weight W age D 30 2. …. … … 4. Portable 3. … … … 1. D 8 … Requirement Weightage D or W Importa nce W 33 3. Able to hold 10 liters of water W 10 4.

Prioritizing Customer Requirements .

Reach patient in 1 min W 8 D 10 4. Operate by itself W 3 6. Dimension 30 x 30 x 30 ㎝3 D 10 2. Maneuver through obstacles efficiently 3. Small turning radius W 5 7. Stable D 10 .Prioritizing Customer Requirements Requirements D or W Importance (1 to 10) 1. Water resistant D 10 5.

Low production cost W 7 14. Minimum amount of parts D 10 W 6 11. Compact/foldable W 3 13. Ability to provide transportation and seating 10.Prioritizing Customer Requirements Requirements D or W Importance (1 to 10) 8. Lightweight W 4 12. Easy to operate D 10 . Ability to support patient weight D 10 9.

Durable D 10 17. Easy to control W 7 21. Low power drain when not in operation W 5 . Stops quick W 7 19. Comfort W 6 20.Prioritizing Customer Requirements Requirements D or W Importance (1 to 10) 15. Low maintenance D 10 16. Safe D 10 18.

Organizing Customer Requirements (Objective Tree – Step 1: List the design requirements) Design objectives (Example of Water Purifier) Easy to repair when needed Cost effectiveness Low or no contamination Fewer repairs Can detect chemical Low imbalance maintenance Takes up least possible space Low damage Can correct problems in least Safe for time humans Cleans high volume of water Safe for environment Long lasting Affordable Efficient Safety …. …. .

Organizing Customer Requirements (Objective Tree – Step 2: Order the list into sets) Safety Cost effectiveness Few repairs Safe for humans Safe for Easy to repair environment Affordable Takes least possible space Low maintenance Efficiency Can detect chemicals Long lasting Low damage Corrects problems in minimal time .

Organizing Customer Requirements (Objective Tree – Step 3: Draw an objective tree) Water purifier Cost effectiveness Safety Safe for environment Safe for operators Affordable to produce Pollutants disposed off properly Inexpensive material Any chemicals are contained Affordable for customer Low maintenance Efficiency Easy to repair Short time to correct problem Does the job Detect chemical imbalance .

Organizing Customer Requirements (Objective Tree – Step 3: Draw an objective tree) Automatic aluminum can crusher Performance Ease of operation Easy to use Safety Easy to maintain Appearance pleasing Appearance Inexpensive Internal parts totally enclosed Dimensions Easy to clean … … Easy to start Easy to clear jams … … Easy to stop …. .

Design objectives (Automatic Coffee Maker) Safety Efficiency Quality Convenience Easy to use Fast Makes good coffee Doesn't burn user Good mixture Right temperature Splash proof Cheap to customer Volume of coffee Temperature control Timer Energy saver Automatic Easy to clean .Petite Task •The followings are a list of objectives in designing an ‘automatic coffee maker’. Draw an objective tree for the product.

and requirements (D/W.Petite Task “Something that will 1. requirements. weightage) water into a mug of cup 3. absolute measure/relative have a way in which to pour this measure. have the ability to heat the water 2. Make the list of hold sufficient quantity of water. Organize the safely without spilling or requirements burning” (objective tree) . Prioritize the efficiently.

Objective Tree for
Automatic Coffee Maker
Automatic
coffee maker

Safety
Doesn’t burn
Splash proof

Efficiency and
Convenience

Quality
Coffee tastes
good
Right
temperature
Temperature
control

Good mixture
Volume of
coffee

Economical

Fast

Cheap to
customer

Easy to use

Energy saving

Easy to clean
Automatic

PRODUCT DESIGN SPECIFICATION

Specifications
metric

value

•Size of the product should be less than ....
•Mass of the product should be less than ….
•Material density should be less than ….
80% to 90% of customers
provide vague statement of their
needs (only 10 to 20% are able
to provide clear specifications).

.Specification Metric Dimensions Cans crushed Weight Value 20 x 20 x 20 cm 1/5 original volume < 10kg Manufacturing cost < RM 150 People able to use 5 yrs and above Number of parts Probability of injury …. < 100 < 0.1% ….

Product Design Specification (PDS) A statement of what a not-yet-designed product is intended to do. Its aim is to ensure that the subsequent design and development of a product meets the needs of the user. .

because it places the boundaries on the subsequent designs." – Stuart Pugh .Product Design Specification (PDS) "From the statement of the need – often called the brief – a product design specification(PDS) must be formulated – the specification of the product to be designed. it acts as the mantle or cloak that envelopes all the subsequent stages in the design core. The PDS thus acts as the control for the total design activity. Once this is established.

Stuart Pugh. Total Design (1990) .

pneumatic • Tolerance of speed • Rate of working • …. hydraulic.Performance How fast How slow How often – continuously or discontinuously Loadings likely – electrical.PDS . • • • • .

user or the environment? • • • • • • • • • • .Environment Temperature range Pressure range (altitude) Humidity Shock loading (gravity forces) Dirty or dusty – how dirty? – how clean? Corrosion from fluids – type of fluid or chemical Noise levels Insects Vibration Type of labour or persons who will use the equipment – likely degree of abuse • Any unforeseen hazards to customer.PDS .

• Storage – in the plant • Assembly – assembly forces. solvents. at the following stages • Manufacture – exposure to cutting fluids. fluxes.Environment All manufactured items experience a number of environmental changes before being called on to function for the user. etc. contamination from sweating hands? • Packaging • Transportation • Display . acids.PDS .

24 hours a day. or what? . seven days a week.PDS – Life in service (performance) • Should service life be short or long and against which criteria should this be applied? • Against which part of the PDS should the product life be accessed? • One year on full performance.

PDS .Maintenance • Is regular maintenance available or desirable? • Will designing for maintenance-free operation prejudice the design to such an extent that the product will become too expensive to buy in the first place? • Does the company. have a definitive maintenance policy? • Is the market used to maintaining equipment once it is purchased? . or indeed the market into which the product will ultimately go.

.PDS – Target product cost • Target production costs should be established from the outset and checked against existing or like products. all target costs are on the low side. Invariably.

and must be analyzed. . for example. the reason for such departures must be fully understood. the evolving specification shows serious mismatches or deficiencies when compared with what already exists. If.PDS – Competition • A thorough analysis of competition must be carried out.

. pallet container. what type and size of truck. or air – home or overseas.PDS – Shipping • By land. • A product may be competitive in the producing country but by the time it is shipped overseas it may have become too expensive. or type of aircraft. sea.

QUALITY-FUNCTION-DEPLOYMENT (QFD) .

.

and hence. how good the design is. Conceptual Design Embodiment Design Manufacturing .Specifications Allow each stage (of the design process) to be measured quantitatively on how well it is achieving the previous stage.

④ Correlation matrix ② Specifications ⑤ Target ⑥ Absolute ratings ⑦ Relative ratings ⑧ Benchmarking ① Requirements ③ Relationship matrix .

④ Correlation matrix ② Specifications ⑧ Bench markin g ① Require ments ③ Relationship matrix QFD 1 ⑤ Target Safe for user Target values Absolute importance Relative importance 2 5 9 3 1 9 3 50 49 5 10 81 9 8 3 Force <15 Newton Few parts 7 1 - Noise <30 db (49/81)x9 Low maintenance 9 Steps to operate <5 Easy to operate Parts <15 (1x9)+(1x7)+(9x2)+(3x5) Profit 25% ⑦ Relative ratings 4 5 Importance rating ⑥ Absolute ratings - 9 3 3 5 20 12 45 5 27 3 3 21 2 .

ESTABLISHING FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE .

• A “unit of knowledge”. Concept ship • A cognitive unit of meaning. action or task that a system is able to perform. football .Establishing Functions Function • A specific process. • An abstract idea or a mental symbol.

Establishing Functions Why we need to establish function? To design a lawn mower May limit your creativity To determine method for shortening the grass You’ll have free reign for creativity .

Functions •Consider ‘WHAT’ the product does (the problem). •The function statement involves an action verb and a noun (e. load cans. not ‘HOW’ the product does it (solution). align cans. crush cans).g. .

Function Structure To facilitate the Why?? discovery of solutions .

Function decomposition and functional structure Overall function. that describe the problem statement Subfunction Subfunction Subfunction Inputs Subfunction Subfunction Function Subfunction Function Subfunction Outputs .

Objective Tree for an Automatic Coffee Machine Automatic coffee machine Safety Doesn’t burn Splash proof Efficiency and Convenience Quality Coffee tastes good Right temperature Temperature control Good mixture Volume of coffee Economical Fast Cheap to customer Easy to use Energy saving Easy to clean Automatic .

Overall function diagram for the Automatic Coffee Machine User Coffee beans Water Provide coffee beverage Coffee beverage .

Filter Coffee Percolate coffee Mix remaining ingredients if user-selected •The flow (which associated with materials. energy. and information) should be in a logical or temporal order.Function Tree for the Automatic Coffee Machine Provide coffee beverage Allow user reference input Contain coffee beans Grind coffee beans Contain water Heat water to desired temp. . •Functions not within the system should be eliminated. •Identify redundant functions and combine them.

g. solid to liquid) • Connecting matter with energy (e..g.. electrical to mechanical energy) • Varying energy (e.Function Structure Conversion of energy Conversion of materials Conversion of information • Changing energy (e.g..g.. switch to start a motor) • Changing matter (e.g.g. mixing or separation) • Storing materials (e.. storing material in a compartment) • Changing signals (e...g.. amplifying signals) • Connecting information with matter (e.g. data banks) . storing potential or kinetic energy) • Connecting energy with information (e..g...g.. mechanical to electrical) • Connecting information with energy (e. moving parts) • Rearranging materials (e. increasing speed or torque) • Storing energy (e. marking metals) • Storing signals (e.g.g.

Water Power source Filter Coffee Percolate coffee Mix remaining ingredients if user-selected Milk Sugar .Function Structure for the Automatic Coffee Machine User Allow user reference input Coffee beans Contain coffee beans Grind coffee beans Contain water Heat water to desired temp.

Function Structure for a Grocery Cart Hold groceries Groceries Support weight Hold large items Hold child Child Support weight Restrain child Hold small items Hold soft of fragile items Move cart Propel cart Turn cart .

Lawn mower 8. Fax machine 3. Remote control ceiling fan 2. Ferris wheel 6. Vehicle air pump 5. Paper shredder 10.Establish the function structure of the followings. Sewing machine 4.Luggage conveyor . Scanner machine 7. 1. Shower head 9.

1. Dispense a paper . Count payment iii.Petite Task 8 You and your team were asked to develop a newspaper vending unit that is able to dispense three types of papers and not easily vandalized. draw the function structure for the system. Payment i. Accept payment ii. Load the papers 2. Align/hold the papers 3. Trigger dispenser 4. Using the following functions and subfunctions suggested by the team. Release a paper 5.

Function Structure for a Newspaper Vending Machine Paper in Load paper Align/hold paper Take money Count money Trigger dispenser Release paper Money Dispense paper Paper out .

TEAM ACTIVITY .

increasing speed or torque) • Storing energy (e. electrical to mechanical energy) • Varying energy (e.g. storing potential or kinetic energy) • Connecting energy with information (e.g.g. mixing or separation) • Storing materials (e. moving parts) • Rearranging materials (e.g..g. storing material in a compartment) Sugar Provide overflow safety Stop heating Coffee beverage Conversion of information • Changing signals (e... Conversion of energy • Changing energy (e.g.g.. User Allow user reference input Coffee beans Contain coffee beans Grind coffee beans Water Contain water Heat water to desired temp. mechanical to electrical) • Connecting information with energy (e.g.. solid to liquid) • Connecting matter with energy (e. switch to start a motor) Power source Filter Coffee Percolat e coffee Mix remaining ingredients if user-selected Dispens e coffee Milk Cup/mug/ container Conversion of materials • Changing matter (e...g..g. marking metals) • Storing signals (e.g.... amplifying signals) • Connecting information with matter (e.g.. data banks) .•Develop your function structure.